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Sample records for antimony chlorides

  1. Antimony

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Antimony ; CASRN 7440 - 36 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Electrodeposition of SnSbCu Alloy on Copper from an Electrolyte with Varied Content of Antimony Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of electrodeposited alloys of the SnSbCu system with varied concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte have been investigated. It is shown that during electrodeposition mechanical-mixture alloys are not formed, but rather intermetallic compounds. It is found that increasing the concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte leads to a decrease in the tin content and cracking of the coating.

  3. Behavior of antimony(III) during copper electrowinning in chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.K.; Wu, X.

    1996-04-01

    Contamination of cathodic copper by Sb during electrowinning in chloride solutions is a surface phenomenon. A digitized scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph indicates that the Sb is concentrated on the surface /of the cathode. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis reveals that the Sb-containing layer is a complex salt of Cu, Sb, Cl, and O. Electrochemical measurements show that the adsorption of Sb or Cu species decreases with the increase of acidity of the solution when the solution contains antimony chloride or cuprous chloride. The adsorption increases with the increase of the acidity when the solution contains both Sb and Cu. The discharge of cuprous ions in the adsorbed complex salt releases antimonious ions and then forms a new layer of the complex salt with cuprous ions from the solution. This newly formed complex salt is readsorbed on the surface of the cathode. Thus, Sb concentrates on the surface of the cathode instead of being evenly distributed throughout the copper product. This suggested mechanism also explains the fact that the presence of Sb in the electrolyte enhances the electrodeposition of Cu.

  4. The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony and their aluminum alloys from acidic aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room-temperature molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John Anthony

    The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony, and their aluminum alloys was investigated in the room-temperature molten salt, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Solutions of Co(II), Fe(II), and Sb(III) were prepared by controlled-potential coulometric anodization of the respective metal in Lewis acidic melt. The plating and stripping of these metals was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and potential step chronoamperometry. Bulk deposits of the pure and aluminum-alloyed metals were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The underpotential co-deposition of aluminum was observed during the electrodeposition of cobalt and iron; however, this phenomenon did not occur during the electrodeposition of antimony. The results of this investigation suggest that both a positive work function difference between the transition metal and aluminum and the mutual solubility of these components determine whether or not the co-deposition of aluminum takes place. Two electroanalytical techniques were developed for the analysis of co-deposited aluminum alloys: the first was based on anodic linear sweep voltammetry at a rotating-ring-disk electrode. The second was derived from the transition metal ion concentration changes observed during bulk deposition experiments. In the first technique, an alloy deposit was stripped from the disk electrode while the ring potential was held at a value where only one of the ions oxidized from the alloy could be reduced. In the second technique, the concentration of transition metal ions was monitored in an undivided cell with an anode made from the depositing metal. The co-deposition of aluminum was signalled by an increase in the transition metal ion concentration. The alloy composition data resulting from

  5. A Flow Method for Chemiluminescence Determination of Antimony(III) and Antimony(V) Using a Rhodamine B-Cetyltrimethylammonium Chloride Reversed Micelle System Following On-Line Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hasanin, Tamer H A; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Ishizaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow method, based on the combination of on-line solvent extraction with reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence (CL) detection using rhodamine B (RB), was developed for the determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in aqueous samples. The on-line extraction procedure involved ion-pair formation of the antimony(V) chloro-complex anion with the protonated RBH(+) ion and its extraction from an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution into toluene, followed by phase separation using a microporous membrane. When in a flow cell of a detector, the ion-pair in the extract driven was mixed with the reversed micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride in 1-hexanol-cyclohexane/water (0.60 mol dm(-3) H2SO4) containing cerium(IV), its uptake by the reversed micelles and the subsequent CL oxidation of RB with Ce(IV) occurred easily, then the produced CL signal was measured. Using the proposed flow method under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (DL) of 0.35 μmol dm(-3) and a linear calibration graph with a dynamic range from DL to 16 μmol dm(-3) were obtained for Sb(V) with a precision of 1.4% relative standard deviation (n = 5) at the Sb(V) concentration of 8.2 μmol dm(-3). The present method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(V) in water samples and to the differential determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in copper electrolyte industrial samples, where total antimony Sb(III) + Sb(V) was determined after oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) with Ce(IV) and Sb(III) was calculated by difference, for which the DL was almost the same as that for Sb(V). PMID:26860574

  6. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  7. Antimony trioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Antimony trioxide ; CASRN 1309 - 64 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  8. The Membrane Electrowinning Separation of Antimony from a Stibnite Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Guang; Yang, Sheng-Hai; Tang, Chao-Bo

    2010-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to characterize and to extract antimony from a stibnite concentrate through electrowinning. This article reports an account of a study conducted on the optimization of the process parameters for antimony pentachloride circular leaching, purification, and electrowinning of antimony from antimony trichloride solution. The effect of electrowinning parameters, such as antimony and sodium chloride concentration in the catholyte, temperature, current density, polar distance, etc., on the voltage requirement and the current efficiency (CE) of antimony electrodeposition was explored. A maximum CE of more than 97 pct was attained with a catholyte composition of 70-g/L antimony, 25-g/L NaCl, 4.5-mol/L hydrogen ion concentration, with an anolyte composition of 40-g/L antimony trichloride at a temperature of 328 K (55 °C), a 4-cm polar distance, and a cathode current density of 200 A/m2. Under the optimized conditions, the CE was more than 97 pct, and a 99.98 pct antimony plate was obtained on the cathode. The chemical content analysis of the resulting anolyte was indicated to be 97 pct antimony pentachloride and 3 pct antimony trichloride, which could be recycled to leaching tank as the leaching agent.

  9. Antimony: a flame fighter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In the 11th century, the word antimonium was used by medieval scholar Constantinus Africanus, but antimony metal was not isolated until the 16th century by Vannoccio Biringuccio, an Italian metallurgist. In the early 18th century, chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  10. Epitaxial Silicon Doped With Antimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.; Halleck, Bradley L.

    1996-01-01

    High-purity epitaxial silicon doped with antimony made by chemical vapor deposition, using antimony pentachloride (SbCI5) as source of dopant and SiH4, SiCI2H2, or another conventional source of silicon. High purity achieved in layers of arbitrary thickness. Epitaxial silicon doped with antimony needed to fabricate impurity-band-conduction photodetectors operating at wavelengths from 2.5 to 40 micrometers.

  11. Occupational exposure to antimony compounds.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    2005-12-01

    The toxicology of antimony and its compounds is known from three sources: its medicinal use over centuries, studies of process workers in more recent times, and more recent still, studies of its presence in modern city environments and in domestic environments. Gross exposure to antimony compounds over long periods, usually the sulfide (SbS3) or the oxide (Sb2O3) has occurred in antimony miners and in antimony process workers. There have been relatively few of these, and few studies of possible symptoms have been made. Antimony sulfide imported from, at different times, China, South Africa, and South America was processed in the North-East of England from about 1870 to 2003. The process workers in North-East England have been studied at different times, notably by Sir Thomas Oliver in 1933, and by the Newcastle upon Tyne University Department of Occupational Medicine on later occasions. Studies which have been made of the working environment, and in particular of the risk of lung cancer in process workers, have underlined the high levels of exposure to antimony compounds and to other toxic materials. However, the working conditions in antimony processing have improved markedly over the last 30 years, and the workforce had been much reduced in numbers following automation of the process. Prior to the cessation of the industry in the UK it had become a 'white coat' operation with relatively few people exposed to high concentrations of antimony. Antimony, which is normally present in domestic environments, has also been studied as a possible cause of cot death syndrome (SIDS) but extensive investigations have not confirmed this. The full importance of environmental antimony has still to be determined, and evidence of specific effects has not yet been presented.

  12. One-step synthesis and flame retardancy of sheaf-like microcrystal antimony oxychloride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Hewei; Li, Lidong; Tian, Ming; Han, Jibing; Zhang, Liqun; Guo, Lin

    2011-10-01

    A mild and facile solution route has been developed for large-scale synthesis of sheaf-like antimony oxychloride Sb8O11CI2 (H2O)6 microcrystal at room temperature. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mechanism for the formation of the sheaf-like microstructure was tentatively proposed. The shape regulation was attributed to the capping mode of the PVP-directed antimony oxychloride crystal. The thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) were employed to investigate thermal decomposition mechanism and temperature-dependent phase transition of antimony oxychloride Sb8O11CI2 (H2O)6 in the air. The flammable property determined by the cone calorimeter showed excellent flame retardancy when applied this antimony oxychloride in poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) polymer. PMID:22400215

  13. [Antimony accumulation in agricultural food crops].

    PubMed

    Rafel', Iu B; Popov, Iu P; Zakusilova, R M

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the antimony content in some farm products of plant and animal origin in the zones of wastes of antimony factories and those having nothing to do with antimony processing. The content of antimony was discovered to be elevated in all foods obtained in the zone where antimony factories are located, especially in vegetables with ground fruit. A high antimony content was detected in milk. The content of antimony in a "standard" diet calculated on the basis of maximally allowable concentrations of the metal in foods and in analogous diets containing products of plant and animal origin grown in the Fergana and Chuisk valleys was 0.405, 8.585 and 1.702, respectively. The high proportion of vegetables and fruit in the local diets makes them, apart from milk and dairy products, the main sources of antimony supply to the human body.

  14. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  15. Captain James Cook's antimony cup.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    2001-12-01

    Medicinal cups made of pure antimony metal were once common but are now rare and only about ten have been described. An unusual cup which belonged to Captain James Cook, the explorer, which has not previously been reported in the medical literature is described here. PMID:11958223

  16. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities....

  17. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities....

  18. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities....

  19. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities....

  20. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140 Applicability: Description of the primary antimony... antimony at primary antimony facilities....

  1. Process for treating spent catalyst including antimony halides from chlorofluorocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Kalcevic, V.; McGahan, J.F.

    1988-06-14

    A process for treating spent catalyst from chlorofluorocarbon production is described wherein the catalyst includes antimony halides and undergoes hydrolysis in an aqueous medium to produce insoluble antimony compounds and fluoride ions. The process comprises hydrolyzing the catalyst in an aqueous solution of ferric chloride having a sufficient concentration of ferric ions to complex substantially all of the fluoride ions produced upon hydrolysis of the catalyst, neutralizing the reaction mass present following hydrolysis of the catalyst and complexing of the fluoride ions by contacting the reaction mass with an aqueous suspension of a compound selected from the class consisting of calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, and separating the insoluble antimony compounds from the neutralized reaction mass.

  2. Removal of antimony(V) and antimony(III) from drinking water by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun; He, Mengchang

    2009-09-01

    Antimony occurs widely in the environment as a result of natural processes and human activity. Although antimony is similar to arsenic in chemical properties and toxicity, and a pollutant of priority interest to the USEPA and the EU, its environmental behaviors, control techniques, and even solution chemistry, are yet barely touched. In this study, antimony removal from drinking water with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS) is comprehensively investigated with respect to the dependence of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) removal on the initial contaminant-loading level, coagulant type and dosage, pH and interfering ions. The optimum pH for Sb(V) removal with ferric chloride (FC) was observed at pH 4.5-5.5, and continuously reduced with further pH increase. Over a broad pH range from 4.0 to 10.0, effective Sb(III) removal with FC was obtained. Contrary to the effective Sb removal with FC, the degree of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) removal with aluminum sulfate (AS) was very low, indicating the impracticability of AS application for antimony removal. The presence of phosphate and humic acid (HA) markedly impeded Sb(V) removal, while exhibited insignificant effect on Sb(III) removal. The effects of coagulant type, Sb species and pH are more pronounced than the effects of coagulant dose and initial pollutant concentration. After preliminarily excluding the possibility of precipitation and the predominance of coprecipitation, the adsorption mechanism is used to rationalize and simulate Sb/FC coagulation with good result by incorporating diffuse-layer model (DLM).

  3. Stibine filter for antimonial lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.H.; Le, A.H.; Dacres, C.M.

    1986-07-03

    This patent application relates to storage cells and more particulary to stibine filters for antimonial lead-acid storage cells. The addition of small amounts of antimony to lead produces lead electrodes having greatly improved mechanical properties. This substantially increases the life of lead-acid batteries. Stibine is removed from gases generated in antimonial lead-acid batteries by using a filter having carbon powder (especially activated charcoal) as the active agent.

  4. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    PubMed Central

    Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria; Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena; Bezerra, Débora Cristina de Oliveira; de Barcelos, Renata Oliveira; de Melo-Ferreira, Vanessa; Torraca, Tânia Salgado de Sousa; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; Moreira, João Soares; Vargas, Mirian Catherine Melgares; Braga, Frederico Pereira Bom; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Schubach, Armando Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate. PMID:25229226

  5. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2013-07-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  6. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  7. Heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauser, James E.

    1982-09-01

    Volatilization of secondary metals such as arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, during the smelting of copper ores, is important because of environmental and resource considerations. The Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, has been studying copper concentrate roasting in conjunction with the volatility of these minor constituents. Some unusual vaporization behavior initiated this supplemental paper which shows that when the mixed sulfides of arsenic and antimony are heated, the volatilization of arsenic is retarded and the volatilization of antimony increased. Mixed oxides of arsenic and antimony also exhibit exceptional volatilization behavior. These anomalous vaporization behaviors are attributed to the formation of heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony, but the colligative properties of solutions may also be a factor.

  8. Rapid degradation of cyclic peroxides by titanium and antimony chlorides.

    PubMed

    Bali, Mark S; Armitt, David; Wallace, Lynne; Day, Anthony I

    2015-04-21

    First responders face extraordinary risks when dealing with organic peroxides such as TATP due to the extreme sensitivity of this class of explosives, and to a lack of a robust chemical means of safe and rapid neutralisation. The Lewis acids TiCl4 and SbCl3 have been found to demonstrate a novel degradation mechanism, with TiCl4 degrading a model cyclic peroxide in minutes when used in a two-fold excess, or ∼3 hours at half equivalence. The products cannot re-form peroxide compounds as is the case with acid degradation, suggesting the two mechanisms are fundamentally different. The Lewis acids mediate a rearrangement reaction in the cyclic peroxide backbone leading to relatively innocuous products through deactivation of oxidising O. Sub-stoichiometric TiCl4 reactions highlight a secondary reaction pathway that also leads to some oxidative chlorination products, possibly mediated by an unconfirmed titanium-oxychloride species. SbCl3 was found to exhibit similar reactivity to TiCl4, although at a slower rate. A mechanism is proposed, consistent with the observations for both stoichiometric and sub-stoichiometric quantities of TiCl4. PMID:25739804

  9. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110....3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. An antimony test system is a device intended to measure antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110....3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. An antimony test system is a device intended to measure antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110....3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. An antimony test system is a device intended to measure antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110....3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. An antimony test system is a device intended to measure antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by...

  13. Antimony and silicon environments in antimony silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, M.; Davies, B.C.; Orman, R.G.; Thomas, M.F.; Holland, D.

    2010-09-15

    Antimony silicate glasses, of general formula xSb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1-x)SiO{sub 2} (0.1{<=}x{<=}0.78), have been prepared by melt-quenching and their structures studied using {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Oxidation during melting gives rise to Sb{sup 5+} in concentrations, which increase linearly with x to give a value of {approx}10% when x=0.78. {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show Moessbauer shifts and quadrupole splittings consistent with Sb{sup 3+} in a [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid, similar to that in crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A broad band in the Raman spectrum at {approx}410 cm{sup -1} is due to the vibrations of such a unit. The dependence of the silicon Q{sup n} speciation on x can be interpreted by the formation of Sb-O-Sb links possibly to form rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite. - Graphical abstract: Antimony silicate glasses have been shown to contain Sb{sup 3+} in [:SbO{sub 3}] trigonal pyramid units using {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. {sup 29}Si magic-angle-spinning NMR has shown silicon Q{sup n} speciation which can be interpreted as formation of rings of 4 [:SbO{sub 3}] units such as are found in valentinite.

  14. Antimony poisoning in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, W.; Radel, C.; Scholten, F.

    Linear potential sweep measurements were conducted using rotating lead-disc electrodes in sulfuric acid electrolyte containing antimony. Within the range investigated hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode is shown to be a monotonic function of the quantity of antimony deposited on the electrode surface. In the potential range -950 mV to -1150 mV versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4 the antimony deposition on lead electrodes is time dependent only; at more negative potentials the deposition rate decreases with over-voltage. At potentials <-1320 mV antimony purging occurs. Various additives to the electrolyte were investigated to determine their ability to suppress the hydrogen evolution; aromatic aldehydes and wood flour were found to be effective. A possible mechanism is discussed.

  15. Antimony-doped graphene nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Guntae; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-05-01

    Heteroatom doping into the graphitic frameworks have been intensively studied for the development of metal-free electrocatalysts. However, the choice of heteroatoms is limited to non-metallic elements and heteroatom-doped graphitic materials do not satisfy commercial demands in terms of cost and stability. Here we realize doping semimetal antimony (Sb) at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) via a simple mechanochemical reaction between pristine graphite and solid Sb. The covalent bonding of the metalloid Sb with the graphitic carbon is visualized using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Sb-doped GnPs display zero loss of electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction even after 100,000 cycles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the multiple oxidation states (Sb3+ and Sb5+) of Sb are responsible for the unusual electrochemical stability. Sb-doped GnPs may provide new insights and practical methods for designing stable carbon-based electrocatalysts.

  16. Antimony-doped graphene nanoplatelets

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Min; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung; Seo, Jeong-Min; Bae, Seo-Yoon; Yoo, Seonyoung; Kim, Guntae; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom doping into the graphitic frameworks have been intensively studied for the development of metal-free electrocatalysts. However, the choice of heteroatoms is limited to non-metallic elements and heteroatom-doped graphitic materials do not satisfy commercial demands in terms of cost and stability. Here we realize doping semimetal antimony (Sb) at the edges of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) via a simple mechanochemical reaction between pristine graphite and solid Sb. The covalent bonding of the metalloid Sb with the graphitic carbon is visualized using atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Sb-doped GnPs display zero loss of electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction even after 100,000 cycles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the multiple oxidation states (Sb3+ and Sb5+) of Sb are responsible for the unusual electrochemical stability. Sb-doped GnPs may provide new insights and practical methods for designing stable carbon-based electrocatalysts. PMID:25997811

  17. Surface complexation of antimony on kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical fate of antimony (Sb) - a similar oxyanion as arsenic (As) - in a variety of environment is largely unexplored. Kaolinite is an important, naturally occurring clay mineral in soils and aquifers and is known to control the fate of several contaminants via a multitude of geochemical processes, primarily adsorption. Here we report adsorption of antimony on kaolinite as a function of solution chemistry: initial antimony concentration, pH, ionic strength, and a competing anion. A surface complexation modeling (SCM) approach was undertaken to understand the potential mechanistic implications of sorption envelope data. In the SCM, a multicomponent additive approach, in which kaolinite is assumed to be a (1:1) mixture of quartz (≡SiOH) and gibbsite (≡AlOH), was tested. Results indicated that ionic strength has a minimal effect on antimony adsorption. For the lower initial antimony concentration (4.11 μM), the additive model with binuclear surface complexes on quartz and gibbsite showed a better fit at pH<6, but somewhat under predicted the experimental data above pH 6. At the higher initial antimony concentration (41.1 μM), the sorption envelope was of different shape than the lower load. The additive model, which considered binuclear surface complexes for quartz and gibbsite, resulted in over prediction of the adsorption data at pH>3.5. However, the additive model with binuclear surface complex on quartz and mononuclear surface complex on gibbsite showed an excellent fit of the data. Phosphate greatly influenced antimony adsorption on kaolinite at both low and high antimony loadings, indicating competition for available surface sites.

  18. Surface complexation of antimony on kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical fate of antimony (Sb) - a similar oxyanion as arsenic (As) - in a variety of environment is largely unexplored. Kaolinite is an important, naturally occurring clay mineral in soils and aquifers and is known to control the fate of several contaminants via a multitude of geochemical processes, primarily adsorption. Here we report adsorption of antimony on kaolinite as a function of solution chemistry: initial antimony concentration, pH, ionic strength, and a competing anion. A surface complexation modeling (SCM) approach was undertaken to understand the potential mechanistic implications of sorption envelope data. In the SCM, a multicomponent additive approach, in which kaolinite is assumed to be a (1:1) mixture of quartz (≡SiOH) and gibbsite (≡AlOH), was tested. Results indicated that ionic strength has a minimal effect on antimony adsorption. For the lower initial antimony concentration (4.11 μM), the additive model with binuclear surface complexes on quartz and gibbsite showed a better fit at pH<6, but somewhat under predicted the experimental data above pH 6. At the higher initial antimony concentration (41.1 μM), the sorption envelope was of different shape than the lower load. The additive model, which considered binuclear surface complexes for quartz and gibbsite, resulted in over prediction of the adsorption data at pH>3.5. However, the additive model with binuclear surface complex on quartz and mononuclear surface complex on gibbsite showed an excellent fit of the data. Phosphate greatly influenced antimony adsorption on kaolinite at both low and high antimony loadings, indicating competition for available surface sites. PMID:25046527

  19. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2009-12-18

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  20. On-site spectrophotometric determination of antimony in water, soil and dust samples of Central India.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Kavita; Harmukh, Neetu

    2008-06-30

    A new, selective and sensitive on-site spectrophotometric method for the determination of antimony at trace level in water, soil and dust samples of Central India has been demonstrated. It is based on the color reaction of Sb(III) with I(-) ions in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in acidic media, and subsequent extraction of the complex with N-phenylbenzimidoylthiourea (PBITU) into chloroform to give a yellow colored complex. The value of apparent molar absorptivity of the complex in the terms of Sb is (7.84) x 10(4)l mol(-1)cm(-1) at 440 nm. The detection limit of the method is 5 ng ml(-1). In addition, the present method is free from interferences of all metal ions that are associated during the determination of antimony in environmental samples.

  1. On-site spectrophotometric determination of antimony in water, soil and dust samples of Central India.

    PubMed

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Agrawal, Kavita; Harmukh, Neetu

    2008-06-30

    A new, selective and sensitive on-site spectrophotometric method for the determination of antimony at trace level in water, soil and dust samples of Central India has been demonstrated. It is based on the color reaction of Sb(III) with I(-) ions in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in acidic media, and subsequent extraction of the complex with N-phenylbenzimidoylthiourea (PBITU) into chloroform to give a yellow colored complex. The value of apparent molar absorptivity of the complex in the terms of Sb is (7.84) x 10(4)l mol(-1)cm(-1) at 440 nm. The detection limit of the method is 5 ng ml(-1). In addition, the present method is free from interferences of all metal ions that are associated during the determination of antimony in environmental samples. PMID:18155833

  2. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of antimony poisoning. (b) Classification. Class I....

  3. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R

    2012-01-30

    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  4. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547... Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as antimony double oxide (PMNs P-95-677 and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10713 - Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10713 Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic). (a) Chemical... as antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (PMN P-13-259) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10712 - Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10712 Antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic). (a) Chemical... as antimony tris(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (PMN P-13-217) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547... Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as antimony double oxide (PMNs P-95-677 and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547... Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as antimony double oxide (PMNs P-95-677 and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547... Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as antimony double oxide (PMNs P-95-677 and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  15. Microbial Antimony Biogeochemistry: Enzymes, Regulation, and Related Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Wang, Qian; Oremland, Ronald S; Kulp, Thomas R; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-09-15

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of "antimonotrophs."

  16. Microbial Antimony Biogeochemistry: Enzymes, Regulation, and Related Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Wang, Qian; Oremland, Ronald S; Kulp, Thomas R; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-09-15

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of "antimonotrophs." PMID:27342551

  17. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  18. Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

    2012-11-01

    A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

  19. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addison disease, or increased salt intake. If both chloride and sodium levels are high in a person on a ... anything else I should know? Drugs that affect sodium blood levels will also cause changes in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda ...

  20. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  1. Thank God for Babel: Analysis, Articulation, Antimony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, David

    1981-01-01

    Three approaches to philosophical inquiry (analysis, articulation, antimony) are explored in a commentary on "Philosophy and Education: Eightieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education." A discussion of the sometimes-contradictory school role in providing both educational excellence and socialization illustrates how these…

  2. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters. PMID:22489166

  3. Pseudo-outbreak of antimony toxicity in firefighters - Florida, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Antimony oxides, in combination with halogens, have been used as flame retardants in textiles since the 1960s. Uniforms made from fabric containing antimony are common among the estimated 1.1 million firefighters in the United States. In October 2008, CDC received a report from the fire chief of a fire department in Florida (fire department A) regarding an outbreak of antimony toxicity among 30 firefighters who had elevated antimony levels detected in hair samples. This report summarizes the ensuing health hazard evaluation conducted by CDC to determine the source of antimony exposure. In February 2009, CDC administered questionnaires to and collected urine samples from two groups of firefighters: 20 firefighters from fire department A who did not wear pants made from antimony-containing fabric, and 42 firefighters from fire department B (also located in Florida) who did. All 20 firefighters from fire department A and 41 (98%) from fire department B had urine antimony concentrations below or within the laboratory reference range. CDC concluded that wearing pants made from antimony-containing fabric was not associated with elevated levels of urinary antimony. Only validated methods (e.g., urine testing) should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Accurate and timely risk communication during suspected workplace exposures should underscore the importance of using validated tests, thereby refuting an unproven hypothesis, allaying unsubstantiated concerns, and enhancing public trust.

  4. Pseudo-outbreak of antimony toxicity in firefighters - Florida, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Antimony oxides, in combination with halogens, have been used as flame retardants in textiles since the 1960s. Uniforms made from fabric containing antimony are common among the estimated 1.1 million firefighters in the United States. In October 2008, CDC received a report from the fire chief of a fire department in Florida (fire department A) regarding an outbreak of antimony toxicity among 30 firefighters who had elevated antimony levels detected in hair samples. This report summarizes the ensuing health hazard evaluation conducted by CDC to determine the source of antimony exposure. In February 2009, CDC administered questionnaires to and collected urine samples from two groups of firefighters: 20 firefighters from fire department A who did not wear pants made from antimony-containing fabric, and 42 firefighters from fire department B (also located in Florida) who did. All 20 firefighters from fire department A and 41 (98%) from fire department B had urine antimony concentrations below or within the laboratory reference range. CDC concluded that wearing pants made from antimony-containing fabric was not associated with elevated levels of urinary antimony. Only validated methods (e.g., urine testing) should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Accurate and timely risk communication during suspected workplace exposures should underscore the importance of using validated tests, thereby refuting an unproven hypothesis, allaying unsubstantiated concerns, and enhancing public trust. PMID:19940836

  5. Vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R

    1999-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is an important plastic resin for construction, pipe and tubing, siding, and other uses. Exposures to vinyl chloride monomer during the early years of production resulted in an important sentinel health event: the recognition of an excess of a rare liver cancer, hepatic angiosarcoma, at facilities throughout the world. Several other syndromes, including acro-osteolysis, also have been associated with PVC, but less clearly with vinyl chloride. Extensive research ranging from large-scale epidemiologic studies to biomarker research into molecular mechanisms continues to provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of occupational cancer.

  6. Synthetic, spectral, thermal and powder X-ray diffraction studies of bis(O-alkyldithiocarbonato-S,S‧) antimony(III) dialkyldithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, H. P. S.; Joshi, Sapana; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2015-02-01

    Compounds of antimony(III) with mixed sulfur donor ligands of the type [(ROCS2)2SbS2CNR‧2] (where, R = C2H5, and iC3H7; R‧ = CH3, C2H5, and CH2CH2) have been synthesized using anhydrous acetone as a solvent by the one pot reaction of antimony(III) tris(O-alkyldithiocarbonato-S,S‧), antimony(III) chloride and sodium/ammonium salt of dialkyldithiocarbamate in 2:1:3 molar ratios. These compounds have been characterized by physicochemical [melting points, molecular weight determinations, elemental analyses (C, H, N, S, and Sb)], spectral [UV, IR, Far-IR and NMR (1H and 13C)] studies. In IR spectra strong band was observed at 1028-1051 cm-1 which indicates anisobidentate mode of bonding of both the ligands with antimony metal. NMR spectral data of these compounds show expected proton resonance due to corresponding moieties. The powder XRD, ESI-Mass and thermal (TG and DTA) studies have also been performed to get the information about geometrical parameters, fragmentation pattern and last thermal decomposition product, respectively. The powder XRD studies lead to the structural properties of the synthesized compounds and show the nanorange crystallite size and monoclinic crystal system. Thermal data of these compounds indicate the formation of antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) as a final thermal degradation product which is used in a number of ways like switching devices television cameras and microwave devices.

  7. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  8. Antimony promoted bismuth cerium molybdate catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brazdil, J.F.; Glaeser, L.C.; Grasselli, R.K.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in antimony-promoted bismuth cerium molybdate whereby the tendency of the catalyst to lose efectiveness over time is significantly reduced. This patent describes new catalysts which are also useful in other oxidation-type reactions such as the oxidation of acrolein and methacrolein to produce the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes and acids and the oxydehydrogenation of various olefins such as isoamylenes to produce the corresponding diolefins such as isoprene.

  9. [Removal of Antimony in Wastewater by Electrochemical Hydride Generation and the Recovery of Antimony].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-jing; Zhang, Guo-ping; Li, Hai-xia; Fu, Zhi-ping; Ouyang, Xiao-xue; Wu, Qiong

    2015-04-01

    An electrochemical hydride generation method was developed for the removal of antimony in wastewater. Hydrogen was generated in the electrolysis of water. Hydrogen reacted with Sb and formed stibine, which volatilized from the solution. Then, stibine was heated and decomposed to elemental Sb. Based on these, Sb in wastewater could be removed and recovered. The highest removal of Sb (76.1%) was achieved in acidic solution (pH = 4). The formation of stibine was proven to contribute most significantly (66.2%) to the removal of antimony in the solution, while the electro-deposition and adsorption also made a small contribution. In the treatment, Sb(V) must be pre-reduced to Sb(III) prior to the formation of stibine. Lead, graphite and tungsten were employed as the materials for cathode, and lead electrode was found most suitable for the removal of antimony.

  10. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  11. Environmental geochemistry of antimony in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cuicui; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Zheng, Liugen

    2008-01-25

    Environmental geochemistry of antimony (Sb) has gained much attention recently because of its potential toxicity. We have reviewed the distribution, modes of occurrence, geological processes and environmental effects of Sb in Chinese coals. Data of Sb in 1058 coal samples from China were compiled and the average Sb content in Chinese coals is estimated to be 2.27 microg/g. Average Sb content in coals from provinces, cities and autonomous regions may be divided into three groups. Group 1 has a low average Sb content of lower than 1 microg/g, Group 2 has a medium average Sb content of 1-3 microg/g, and Group 3 has a high average Sb content of >3 microg/g. Coals from Guizhou and Inner Mongolia are extremely enriched in Sb. The abundance of Sb in coals differs among coal-forming periods and coal ranks. Antimony occurs in several modes in coals. It may substitute for iron or sulfur in discrete pyrite grains or occurs as tiny dispersed sulfide particles in organic matter. During coal combustion Sb is partly released to the atmosphere and partly partitioned into solid residues. Antimony in the environment brings about definite harm to human health.

  12. Solution Grown Antimony Doped Zinc Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Conor T.

    Zinc oxide is an extensively studied semiconducting material due to its versatile properties applicable to many technologies such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing and renewable energy. Although zinc oxide films have been created for device fabrication, the methods used to synthesize them are expensive and unrealistic for affordable commercial devices. In addition, zinc oxide is intrinsically n-type making the realization of stable p-type materials a great challenge for light emitting diodes, solar cells and UV lasing. In this thesis zinc oxide films are created using low cost solution methods. To accomplish this, a previously unreported surfactant, tert-butanol, is used. Several controlled experiments vary the concentration of tert-butanol, zinc and oxygen sources to demonstrate the ability of tert-butanol to create low cost films. Further, small amounts of antimony glycolate are added to the reaction solution, to create antimony doped zinc oxide films on sapphire and silicon substrates. Although hall measurements indicate that the films are n-type, a discussion of antimony activation provides a feasible path for the realization of low cost, p-type zinc oxide films.

  13. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  15. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. PMID:20165605

  2. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart I are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce antimony ore and...

  3. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart I are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce antimony ore and...

  4. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart I are applicable to discharges from (a) mines that produce antimony ore and...

  5. Undercooling and crystallization behaviour of antimony droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. A.; Perepezko, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The droplet emulsion technique is presently used to examine the undercooling and crystallization behavior of pure antimony. Control of droplet size and applied cooling rate allowed maximum undercooling to be extended from 0.08 to 0.23 T(m). A droplet coating was produced by means of emulsification which appears to furnish a favorable crystallographic matching for effective nucleation catalysis of a metastable simple cubic structure. Thermal analysis shows the melting temperature of the single cubic phase to be about 625 C.

  6. Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B.

    1951-01-01

    Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect

  7. Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone by atomic-absorption spectrometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Kamada, T; Yamamoto, Y

    1977-05-01

    The extraction behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of frameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of antimony(III) and differential determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) have been developed. With ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and methyl isobutyl ketone, when the aqueous phase/solvent volume ratio is 50 ml/10 ml and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 mul, the sensitivity for antimony is 0.2 ng/ml for 1% absorption. The relative standard deviations are ca. 2%. Interferences by many metal ions can be prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods have been applied satisfactorily to determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in various types of water. PMID:18962096

  8. Disposition of antimony in rhesus monkeys infected with Leishmania braziliensis and treated with meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Vieira, Flávia A; Porrozzi, Renato; Marchevsky, Renato S; Miekeley, Norbert; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2012-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) disposition and toxicity was evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis-infected monkeys (Macaca mulatta) treated with a 21-d course of low (LOW) or standard (STD) meglumine antimoniate (MA) dosage regimens (5 or 20 mg Sb(V)/kg body weight/d im). Antimony levels in biological matrices were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), while on-line ion chromatography coupled to ICPMS was used to separate and quantify Sb species in plasma. Nadir Sb levels rose steadily from 19.6 ± 4 and 65.1 ± 17.4 ng/g, 24 h after the first injection, up to 27.4 ± 5.8 and 95.7 ± 6.6 ng/g, 24 h after the 21st dose in LOW and SDT groups, respectively. Subsequently, Sb plasma levels gradually declined with a terminal elimination phase half-life of 35.8 d. Antimony speciation in plasma on posttreatment days 1-9 indicated that as total Sb levels declined, proportion of Sb(V) remained nearly constant (11-20%), while proportion of Sb(III) rose from 5% (d 1) to 50% (d 9). Plasma [Sb]/erythrocyte [Sb] ratio was >1 until 12 h after dosing and reversed thereafter. Tissue Sb concentrations (posttreatment days 55 and 95) were as follows: >1000 ng/g in thyroid, nails, liver, gall bladder and spleen; >200 and <1000 ng/g in lymph nodes, kidneys, adrenals, bones, skeletal muscles, heart and skin; and <200 ng/g in various brain structures, thymus, stomach, colon, pancreas. and teeth. Results from this study are therefore consistent with view that Sb(V) is reduced to Sb(III), the active form, within cells from where it is slowly eliminated. Localization of Sb active forms in the thyroid gland and liver and the pathophysiological consequences of marked Sb accumulation in these tissues warrant further studies.

  9. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-07-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 > 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen > bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  10. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-07-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 > 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen > bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies. PMID:25075781

  11. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-01-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies. PMID:25075781

  12. Growth and characterization of antimony doped tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, S.; Subramanian, C.; Ramasamy, P.

    1999-03-01

    Pure and antimony doped tin oxide thin films were deposited on glass and quartz plates by spray pyrolysis method. Structural, electrical and optical properties of these films were studied by varying the substrate temperature and antimony concentration. The best electro-optic properties obtained were, resistivity as low as 9×10 -4 Ω cm and average transmission of 80% in the visible region, at the substrate temperature of 400°C with the antimony concentration of 9 at%. While doping, change in preferred orientation was observed from [1 1 0] to [2 0 0]. The optical investigation showed that, depending upon the doping concentration, the antimony doped films had direct allowed transitions in the range 4.13-4.22 eV and indirect allowed transitions in the range 2.54-2.65 eV.

  13. Comparative trials of antimonial drugs in urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.

    1968-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic trials in urinary schistosomiasis are described and discussed. Their design and conduct were based on recommended statistical techniques, now generally accepted as the most appropriate approach to the assessment of antischistosomal drugs. Randomization produced comparable host groups in whom multiple parasitic infection and radiological urinary tract damage were common. Treatment was with one of three antimonial compounds given at equivalent metallic dosage daily. Antimony sodium tartrate (AST) and antimony dimercaptosuccinate (TWSb) were equally efficient curatively but both produced many side-effects. Sodium antimonylgluconate (TSAG) was four-fifths as effective but tolerance was superior. Estimations of urinary antimony excretion showed that tissue retention of the metal was related to cure-rates and side-effects. It was concluded that none of the drugs were suitable for mass chemotherapy. More new non-toxic schistosomicides are urgently needed and for their assessment, the setting-up of multicentre trials, following international agreement on technical methods, is suggested. PMID:5302298

  14. Antimony sorption at gibbsite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali

    2011-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is extensively used in flame retardants, lead-acid batteries, solder, cable coverings, ammunition, fireworks, ceramic and porcelain glazes and semiconductors. However, the geochemical fate of antimony (Sb) remained largely unexplored. Among the different Sb species, Sb (V) is the dominant form in the soil environment in a very wide redox range. Although earlier studies have examined the fate of Sb in the presence of iron oxides such as goethite and hematite, few studies till date reported the interaction of Sb (V) with gibbsite, a common soil Al-oxide mineral. The objective of this study was to understand the sorption behavior of Sb (V) on gibbsite as a function of various solution properties such as pH, ionic strength (I), and initial Sb concentrations, and to interpret the sorption-edge data using a surface complexation model. A batch sorption study with 20 g L(-1) gibbsite was conducted using initial Sb concentrations range of 2.03-16.43 μM, pH values between 2 and 10, and ionic strengths (I) between 0.001 and 0.1M. The results suggest that Sb (V) sorbs strongly to the gibbsite surface, possibly via inner-sphere type mechanism with the formation of a binuclear monodentate surface complex. Weak I effect was noticed in sorption-edge data or in the isotherm data at a low surface coverage. Sorption of Sb (V) on gibbsite was highest in the pH range of 2-4, and negligible at pH 10. Our results suggest that gibbsite will likely play an important role in immobilizing Sb (V) in the soil environment.

  15. Antimony sorption at gibbsite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sudipta; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali

    2011-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is extensively used in flame retardants, lead-acid batteries, solder, cable coverings, ammunition, fireworks, ceramic and porcelain glazes and semiconductors. However, the geochemical fate of antimony (Sb) remained largely unexplored. Among the different Sb species, Sb (V) is the dominant form in the soil environment in a very wide redox range. Although earlier studies have examined the fate of Sb in the presence of iron oxides such as goethite and hematite, few studies till date reported the interaction of Sb (V) with gibbsite, a common soil Al-oxide mineral. The objective of this study was to understand the sorption behavior of Sb (V) on gibbsite as a function of various solution properties such as pH, ionic strength (I), and initial Sb concentrations, and to interpret the sorption-edge data using a surface complexation model. A batch sorption study with 20 g L(-1) gibbsite was conducted using initial Sb concentrations range of 2.03-16.43 μM, pH values between 2 and 10, and ionic strengths (I) between 0.001 and 0.1M. The results suggest that Sb (V) sorbs strongly to the gibbsite surface, possibly via inner-sphere type mechanism with the formation of a binuclear monodentate surface complex. Weak I effect was noticed in sorption-edge data or in the isotherm data at a low surface coverage. Sorption of Sb (V) on gibbsite was highest in the pH range of 2-4, and negligible at pH 10. Our results suggest that gibbsite will likely play an important role in immobilizing Sb (V) in the soil environment. PMID:21481912

  16. Reduced antimony accumulation in ARM58-overexpressing Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Carola; Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Zander, Dorothea; Clos, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Antimony-based drugs are still the mainstay of chemotherapy against Leishmania infections in many countries where the parasites are endemic. The efficacy of antimonials has been compromised by increasing numbers of resistant infections, the basis of which is not fully understood and likely involves multiple factors. By using a functional cloning strategy, we recently identified a novel antimony resistance marker, ARM58, from the parasite Leishmania braziliensis that protects the parasites against antimony-based antileishmanial compounds. Here we show that the Leishmania infantum homologue also confers resistance against antimony but not against other antileishmanial drugs and that its function depends critically on one of four conserved domains of unknown function. This critical domain requires at least two hydrophobic amino acids and is predicted to form a transmembrane structure. Overexpression of ARM58 in antimony-exposed parasites reduces the intracellular Sb accumulation by over 70%, indicating a role for ARM58 in Sb extrusion pathways, but without involvement of energy-dependent transporter proteins.

  17. Synthetic, spectral, thermal and powder X-ray diffraction studies of bis(O-alkyldithiocarbonato-S,S') antimony(III) dialkyldithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H P S; Joshi, Sapana; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2015-02-01

    Compounds of antimony(III) with mixed sulfur donor ligands of the type [(ROCS2)2SbS2CNR'2] (where, R=C2H5, and (i)C3H7; R'=CH3, C2H5, and CH2CH2) have been synthesized using anhydrous acetone as a solvent by the one pot reaction of antimony(III) tris(O-alkyldithiocarbonato-S,S'), antimony(III) chloride and sodium/ammonium salt of dialkyldithiocarbamate in 2:1:3molar ratios. These compounds have been characterized by physicochemical [melting points, molecular weight determinations, elemental analyses (C, H, N, S, and Sb)], spectral [UV, IR, Far-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C)] studies. In IR spectra strong band was observed at 1028-1051cm(-1) which indicates anisobidentate mode of bonding of both the ligands with antimony metal. NMR spectral data of these compounds show expected proton resonance due to corresponding moieties. The powder XRD, ESI-Mass and thermal (TG and DTA) studies have also been performed to get the information about geometrical parameters, fragmentation pattern and last thermal decomposition product, respectively. The powder XRD studies lead to the structural properties of the synthesized compounds and show the nanorange crystallite size and monoclinic crystal system. Thermal data of these compounds indicate the formation of antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) as a final thermal degradation product which is used in a number of ways like switching devices television cameras and microwave devices.

  18. Proteomic and Genomic Analyses of Antimony Resistant Leishmania infantum Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Leprohon, Philippe; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G.; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimonials remain the primary antileishmanial drugs in most developing countries. However, drug resistance to these compounds is increasing and our understanding of resistance mechanisms is partial. Methods/Principal Findings In the present study, quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and genome next generation sequencing were used in order to better characterize in vitro generated Leishmania infantum antimony resistant mutant (Sb2000.1). Using the proteomic method, 58 proteins were found to be differentially regulated in Sb2000.1. The ABC transporter MRPA (ABCC3), a known marker of antimony resistance, was observed for the first time in a proteomic screen. Furthermore, transfection of its gene conferred antimony resistance in wild-type cells. Next generation sequencing revealed aneuploidy for 8 chromosomes in Sb2000.1. Moreover, specific amplified regions derived from chromosomes 17 and 23 were observed in Sb2000.1 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected in a protein kinase (LinJ.33.1810-E629K). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that differentially expressed proteins, chromosome number variations (CNVs), specific gene amplification and SNPs are important features of antimony resistance in Leishmania. PMID:24312377

  19. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. pH-dependent release characteristics of antimony and arsenic from typical antimony-bearing ores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingyun; Guo, Xuejun; He, Mengchang; Li, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The pH-dependent leaching of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) from three typical Sb-bearing ores (Banxi, Muli and Tongkeng Antimony Mine) in China was assessed using a pH-static leaching experiment. The pH changes of the leached solutions and pH-dependent leaching of Sb and As occurred in different ways. For the Banxi and Muli Sb ores, alkaline conditions were more favorable for the release of Sb compared to neutral and acidic conditions, but the reverse was true for the pH-dependent release of As. For the Tongkeng Sb ore, unlike the previous two Sb-bearing ores, acidic conditions were more favorable for Sb release than neutral and alkaline conditions. The ores with lower Sb and As contents released higher percentages of their Sb and As after 16day leaching, suggesting that they are the largest potential sources of pollution. This work may provide key information on the geochemistry of Sb and As in the weathering zone. PMID:27266313

  2. The behaviour of antimony released from surface geothermal features in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nathaniel; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Brown, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Antimony-rich geothermal features in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) of New Zealand's North Island drain directly into surface aquatic environments. The discharge from Champagne Pool, a mixed alkali-chloride/sulfate hot spring at Wai-O-Tapu Geothermal Field, contains up to 194 μg/L Sb. The discharge from Frying Pan Lake, a chloride-sulfate hot spring at Waimangu Geothermal Field, contains up to 21.5 μg/L Sb. At Champagne Pool, downstream concentrations of Sb show distinct diurnal variations, particularly in winter, when concentrations in the early morning were less than half those measured mid-afternoon. Changes in sulfide-sulfate equilibria and direct stibnite oxidation may explain this phenomenon. In the discharge from Frying Pan Lake, Sb exhibits little diurnal variation. Most (> 80%) of the dissolved Sb released from Champagne Pool is removed from solution at Alum Lake, an acid-sulfate hot pool containing elevated levels of dissolved sulfide. Therefore relatively little Sb is discharged into the freshwater drainage in the area. However, in the absence of a sulfide-rich feature at Waimangu, most of the Sb discharged from Frying Pan Lake remains dissolved, and is transported into the freshwater drainage system of Lake Rotomahana. The contrast in Sb behaviour between these two sites confirms the importance of dissolved sulfide and low (< 3) pH conditions in the precipitation and removal of dissolved Sb downstream of geothermal features. Otherwise, largely conservative behaviour can be expected.

  3. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  4. SBML and CellML translation in Antimony and JSim

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucian P.; Butterworth, Erik; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The creation and exchange of biologically relevant models is of great interest to many researchers. When multiple standards are in use, models are more readily used and re-used if there exist robust translators between the various accepted formats. Summary: Antimony 2.4 and JSim 2.10 provide translation capabilities from their own formats to SBML and CellML. All provided unique challenges, stemming from differences in each format’s inherent design, in addition to differences in functionality. Availability and implementation: Both programs are available under BSD licenses; Antimony from http://antimony.sourceforge.net/and JSim from http://physiome.org/jsim/. Contact: lpsmith@u.washington.edu PMID:24215024

  5. Possible Links between Sickle Cell Crisis and Pentavalent Antimony

    PubMed Central

    Garcerant, Daniel; Rubiano, Luisa; Blanco, Victor; Martinez, Javier; Baker, Nancy C.; Craft, Noah

    2012-01-01

    For over 60 years, pentavalent antimony (Sbv) has been the first-line treatment of leishmaniasis. Sickle cell anemia is a disease caused by a defect in red blood cells, which among other things can cause vasooclusive crisis. We report the case of a 6-year-old child with leishmaniasis who during treatment with meglumine antimoniate developed a sickle cell crisis (SCC). No previous reports describing the relationship between antimonial drugs and sickle cell disease were found. Reviews of both the pathophysiology of SCC and the mechanism of action of Sbv revealed that a common pathway (glutathione) may have resulted in the SCC. ChemoText, a novel database created to predict chemical-protein-disease interactions, was used to perform a more expansive and systematic review that was able to support the association between glutathione, Sbv, and SCC. Although suggestive evidence to support the hypothesis, additional research at the bench would be needed to prove Sbv caused the SCC. PMID:22665619

  6. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  7. Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud Hanafy; Bugayev, Aleksey; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. The electron-phonon energy-exchange rate and the electronic Grüneisen parameter were obtained.

  8. Reductive precipitation of metals photosensitized by tin and antimony porphyrins

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Gong, Weiliang; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lutze, Werner

    2003-09-30

    A method for reducing metals using a tin or antimony porphyrin by forming an aqueous solution of a tin or antimony porphyrin, an electron donor, such as ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid, triethylamine, triethanolamine, and sodium nitrite, and at least one metal compound selected from a uranium-containing compound, a mercury-containing compound, a copper-containing compound, a lead-containing compound, a gold-containing compound, a silver-containing compound, and a platinum-containing compound through irradiating the aqueous solution with light.

  9. Barium and antimony distributions on the hands of nonshooters.

    PubMed

    Havakost, D G; Peters, C A; Koons, R D

    1990-09-01

    Barium and antimony levels from selected areas of the left and right hands of 269 nonshooters provide a database for interpretation of gunshot residue swab analysis results. The database represents a variety of activities of individuals sampled by collectors throughout the United States. Nonshooting exposure to barium and antimony can generally be distinguished from firearms-associated exposure by considering the relative levels of the elements, location on the hands, and condition of the swabs. Consistent definition of sampling procedures and accurate analytical results make this database applicable for interpretation of data generated by most gunshot residue swab examiners. PMID:2230685

  10. Antimony Based III-V Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-06-09

    Antimony-based III-V thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells are attractive converters for systems with low radiator temperature around 1100 to 1700 K, since these cells potentially can be spectrally matched to the thermal source. Cells under development include GaSb and the lattice-matched GaInAsSb/GaSb and InPAsSb/InAs quaternary systems. GaSb cell technology is the most mature, owing in part to the relative ease in preparation of the binary alloy compared to quaternary GaInAsSb and InPAsSb alloys. Device performance of 0.7-eV GaSb cells exceeds 90% of the practical limit. GaInAsSb TPV cells have been the primary focus of recent research, and cells with energy gap E{sub g} ranging from {approx}0.6 to 0.49 eV have been demonstrated. Quantum efficiency and fill factor approach theoretical limits. Open-circuit voltage factor is as high as 87% of the practical limit for the higher-E{sub g} cells, but degrades to below 80% with decreasing E{sub g} of the alloy, which might be due to Auger recombination. InPAsSb cells are the least studied, and a cell with E{sub g} = 0.45-eV has extended spectral response out to 4.3 {micro}m. This paper briefly reviews the main contributions that have been made for antimonide-based TPV cells, and suggests additional studies for further performance enhancements.

  11. Antimony Passivation of InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobusawa, Hajime; Ikoma, Hideaki

    1993-09-01

    Antimony passivation of InP was investigated. Sb was evaporated on a HCl-etched InP substrate and annealed at 300°C for 10 min. I--V characteristics of the Au/Sb/InP diode are substantially improved and the Schottky barrier height becomes higher as compared with the conventional Au/InP diode. The reverse current decreases by about two orders of magnitude upon Sb passivation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements show that the Sb oxide, Sb2O3, is formed near both the surface and the interface, i.e., the Sb2O3/Sb/Sb2O3 layered structure exists on the InP substrate. On the other hand, In2O3, the dominant component species of the native oxide of InP, is not observed in the Sb-passivated sample, which indicates that Sb passivation effectively removes that native oxide (In2O3) and suppresses reoxidation of the InP surface. Sb is considered to reduce In2O3 and is oxidized itself to become Sb2O3. This is a probable mechanism of Sb passivation. After the Sb-passivated substrate is washed in deionized water, the amount of Sb decreases and In2O3 is again observed. This is explained by the balance in the chemical reaction between In2O3 and Sb2O3 (the mass-action law). The low Schottky barrier height and the poor electrical characteristics are thus well correlated with the existence of the native oxide of InP, dominantly, In2O3.

  12. Evaluation of a method for arsenic(III) and antimony(III) determination by vapour phase molecular absorption spectrometry using graphite furnace volati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galban, J.; Marcos, E.; Lamana, J.; Castillo, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for determining As(III) and Sb(III) by vapour phase molecular absorption spectrometry (VPMAS). The chlorides of these elements are volatilized from aqueous solutions in a L'vov platform inside the graphite furnace of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Molecular absorption is measured at 205 nm for arsenic chloride and 220 nm for antimony chloride. Both species are formed in the sample drying stage. A study of the temperature program led to different results in each case. In the case of arsenic, a two-step program (one mixed drying and volatilization step, and another cleaning step) is found to be best, whereas in the case of antimony, three separate steps can be used (drying, volatilization and cleaning). In both cases, optimum volatilization was obtained with low HCl concentrations, and volatilization fell off sharply as HCl concentration increased. Under optimum generation and determination conditions, the linear response range is from 0.06 to 3.75 μg for As(III), and from 0.30 to 5.0 μg for Sb(III) with relative standard deviations of 2.1% for As(III) and 2.5% for Sb(III). The effect of other anions and cations on the arsenic analytical signal was studied, and other halides were found to interfere. The method was applied to arsenic determination in an arsenic ore.

  13. Antimony mobility in Japanese agricultural soils and the factors affecting antimony sorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Yasuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2006-05-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in Japanese agricultural soils was studied by radiotracer experiments using 124Sb tracer. The soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kd) of Sb were measured for 110 soil samples. These Kds ranged from 1 to 2065 L kg(-1); the geometric mean was 62 L kg(-1) excluding one extremely high value, 2065 L kg(-1). Experimental measurement of Kd showed a decrease with both increasing pH and increasing phosphate concentration. The latter suggested that one aspect of the Sb sorption phenomena in Japanese soil was influenced by specific adsorption of anions such as phosphate. However, other aspects could not be explained by this specific adsorption mechanism, because only 20-40% of soil-sorbed Sb could be extracted by phosphate solution.

  14. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. ...

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  17. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  19. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, You-Xu; Liu, Su-Mei; Huang, Daji; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of the metalloid elements arsenic and antimony in the East China Sea (ECS), one of the most important marginal seas for western Pacific, were examined in May 2011. Dissolved inorganic arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) and antimony (Sb(V) and Sb(III)) species were determined by selective hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Results show that total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs; [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) were moderately depleted in the surface water and enriched in the deep water. Arsenite (As(III)) showed different vertical profiles with that of TDIAs, with significant surface enrichment in the middle shelf region where the concentrations of phosphate were extremely low. Speciation of dissolved arsenic was subtly controlled by the stoichiometric molar ratio of arsenate (As(V)) to phosphate. The average As(V)/P ratio for the ECS in spring 2011 was 10.8×10-3, which is higher than previous results and indicates the arsenate stress. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic antimony (TDISb; [TDISb]=[Sb(V)]+[Sb(III)]) were high near the Changjiang Estuary and the coastal area of Hangzhou Bay and decreased moderately off the coast. TDISb displayed moderate conservative behavior in the ECS that confirms by the correlations with salinity and dissolved aluminum. Different with that of As(III), antimonite (Sb(III)) concentrations were extremely lower in the ECS, with relative higher concentration appeared at the bottom layer which indicates the contribution from sediment-water interface. A preliminary box model was established to estimate the water-mass balance and antimony budgets for the ECS. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic and antimony in the ECS remain at natural levels.

  20. Transformation/dissolution examination of antimony and antimony compounds with speciation of the transformation/dissolution solutions.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James M; Beaudoin, Robert; Wang, Ruiping; Joyce, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Speciation is held to be a key factor in controlling the ecotoxicity of metals in solution. Using the United Nations transformation/dissolution protocol (T/DP) for metals and sparingly soluble metal compounds, we have examined the transformation/dissolution (T/D) characteristics in terms of the concentrations of total dissolved Sb at pH 6 and 8.5 in 1, 10, and 100 mg/L loadings over 7 d as well as the concentrations of Sb(III) and Sb(V) at the 1 mg/L loadings over 28 d, of sodium hexahydroxoantimonate (NaSb(OH)(6)), antimony metal (Sb), antimony trioxide (Sb(2) O(3)), antimony sulfide (Sb(2) S(3)), sodium antimonate (NaSbO(3)), antimony tris(ethylene glycolate) (Sb(2) (C(2) H(4) O(2) )(3)), antimony trichloride (SbCl(3)), antimony triacetate (Sb(CH(3) COO)(3)), and antimony pentoxide (Sb(2) O(5) ). We also measured the concentrations of the dissolved Sb(III) and Sb(V) species at the 1 mg/L loadings. Because of complexing, the trivalent organic Sb compounds exhibited little or no oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V). However, oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) was evident for the trivalent inorganic Sb compounds. Conversely, with pentavalent Sb compounds, there was no reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). Based on the percentage of Sb in the compound dissolved or metal reacted at 28 d and 1 mg/L loadings, the solubility rankings at pH 6 are NaSb(OH)(6)  > Sb(CH(3) COO)(3)  > Sb metal > Sb(2) (C(2) H(4) O(2))(3)  > Sb(2) S(3)  > Sb(2) O(3)  > NaSbO(3)  ≈ SbCl(3)  > Sb(2) O(5). For pH 8.5 the order is NaSb(OH)(6)  > Sb(CH(3) COO)(3)  > Sb metal > Sb(2) (C(2) H(4) O(2) )(3)  > SbCl(3)  > Sb(2) O(3)  > Sb(2) S(3)  > NaSbO(3)  > Sb(2) O(5) . We provide worked examples of how the T/D data have been used to derive hazard classification proposals for Sb metal and these selected compounds for submission to the European Chemicals Agency under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals (REACH

  1. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  2. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  3. Determination of fluorine in antimony catalysts for the liquid-phase production of freons

    SciTech Connect

    Shchavelev, V.B.

    1986-08-01

    In order to reduce the solubility of lanthanum fluoride and to improve the precision of fluorine determination, (ILLEGIBLE) recommend (ILLEGIBLE) organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, etc.) to the titrated solution. It is shown that fluoride can be determined in the presence of antimony without preparation only when all antimony is present in the tervalent state. The results obtained in the determination of fluoride ion in synthetic mixtures at a fluorine:antimony molar ratio of 2, which approximates the composition of the antimony catalyst, are shown in tables. It can be seen that hydrobromic acid is the only suitable of the agents tested, whereby its concentration in the analyzed sample must not be less than 7.6. The relatively high reproducibility of the proposed procedure allows the authors to recommend it for the determination of fluorine in antimony catalysts or other analogous compositions when fluorine and pentavalent antimony are present simultaneously.

  4. Antimony-assisted carbonization of Si(111) with solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hackley, Justin; Richardson, Christopher J. K.; Sarney, Wendy L.

    2013-11-15

    The carbonization of an antimony-terminated Si (111) surface in a solid source molecular beam epitaxy system is presented. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize samples grown with and without antimony termination. It is shown that the antimony-terminated surface promotes the formation of thin, smooth and continuous SiC films at a relatively low temperature of 800 °C.

  5. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bordovsky, G. A.; Nemov, S. A.; Marchenko, A. V.; Zaiceva, A. V.; Kozhokar, M. Yu.; Seregin, P. P.

    2011-04-15

    It is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy of the {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U{sup -} centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup -} centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of {sup 119}Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  6. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, M. A. Elmustafa, A. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  7. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, M. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Elmustafa, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of photopromoted oxidative dissolution of antimony trioxide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingyun; Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2014-12-16

    Light (sunlight, ultraviolet, simulated sunlight) irradiation was used to initiate the dissolution of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3). Dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was accelerated and dissolved trivalent antimony (Sb(III)) was oxidized in the irradiation of light. The photopromoted oxidative dissolution mechanism of Sb2O3 was studied through experiments investigating the effects of pH, free radicals scavengers, dissolved oxygen removal and Sb2O3 dosage on the release rate of antimony from Sb2O3 under simulated sunlight irradiation. The key oxidative components were hydroxyl free radicals, photogenerated holes and superoxide free radicals; their contribution ratios were roughly estimated. In addition, a conceptual model of the photocatalytic oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 was proposed. The overall pH-dependent dissolution rate of Sb2O3 and the oxidation of Sb(III) under light irradiation were expressed by r = 0.08 ·[OH(-)](0.63) and rox = 0.10 ·[OH(-)](0.79). The present study on the mechanism of the photo-oxidation dissolution of Sb2O3 could help clarify the geochemical cycle and fate of Sb in the environment.

  9. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  10. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  11. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  12. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. PMID:26092367

  13. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth(III) and antimony(V) porphyrins: high antileishmanial activity against antimony-resistant parasite.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcela Luísa; DeFreitas-Silva, Gilson; dos Reis, Priscila Gomes; Melo, Maria Norma; Frézard, Frédéric; Demicheli, Cynthia; Idemori, Ynara Marina

    2015-07-01

    Two bismuth(III) porphyrins-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(phenyl)porphyrinatobismuth(III) nitrate, [Bi(III)(TPP)]NO3, and the unprecedent 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrinatobismuth(III) nitrate, [Bi(III)(T4CMPP)]NO3, and two unprecedented antimony(V) porphyrins dichlorido(5,10,15,20-tetrakis(phenyl)porphyrinato)antimony(V) bromide, [Sb(V)(TPP)Cl2]Br, and dibromido(5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrinato)antimony(V) bromide, [Sb(V)(T4CMPP)Br2]Br,-were synthesized by reacting the corresponding porphyrin ligand with Bi(NO3)3·5H2O or SbCl3. All compounds were characterized by UV-vis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The new compounds were also characterized by elemental analysis. Because antimony and bismuth compounds have been widely applied in medicine, the activity of these complexes was tested against Sb-sensitive and -resistant Leishmania amazonensis parasites. [Sb(V)(T4CMPP)Br2]Br was more active against the promastigote form of Sb-resistant mutant strain as compared to the sensitive parental strain, with IC50 in the micromolar range. These data contrasted with those obtained using the Sb(III) drug potassium antimony tartrate, which displayed IC50 of 110 μmol L(-1) against the Sb-sensitive parasite and was almost inactive against the Sb-resistant strain. The H2T4CMPP ligand also showed antileishmanial activity against Sb-resistant and -sensitive strains, but with IC50 at least tenfold greater than that of the complex. The Sb(V)-porphyrin complex was also active against intracellular amastigotes and showed a higher selectivity index than the conventional Sb(V) drug glucantime, in both Sb-sensitive and -resistant strains. The greater antileishmanial activity of this complex could be attributed to an increased cellular uptake of Sb. Thus, [Sb(V)(T4CMPP)Br2]Br constitutes a new antileishmanial drug candidate.

  15. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. PMID:27558337

  16. Antimony speciation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction cartridges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhai; Cai, Qiantao; Guo, Zhong-Xian; Yang, Zhaoguang; Khoo, Soo Beng

    2002-10-01

    A novel and simple method for inorganic antimony speciation is described based on selective solid phase extraction (SPE) separation of antimony(III) and highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection of total antimony and antimony(V) in the aqueous phase of the sample. Non-polar SPE cartridges, such as the Isolute silica-based octyl (C8) sorbent-containing cartridge, selectively retained the Sb(III) complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), while the uncomplexed Sb(V) remained as a free species in the solution and passed through the cartridge. The Sb(III) concentration was calculated as the difference between total antimony and Sb(V) concentrations. The detection limit was 1 ng L(-1) antimony. Factors affecting the separation and detection of antimony species were investigated. Acidification of samples led to partial or complete retention of Sb(V) on C8 cartridge. Foreign ions tending to complex with Sb(III) or APDC did not interfere with the retention behavior of the Sb(III)-APDC complex. This method has been successfully applied to antimony speciation of various types of water samples.

  17. Corrosion of low-antimony lead-cadmium alloys in conditions of long-term polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzhny, Alex

    Nowadays, lead-acid battery grids are manufactured mostly from low-antimony and lead-calcium alloys. A variable corrosion resistance of battery grids is caused by either battery operation conditions, purity of used alloy components, an alloy makeup, and the castings quality. Such compositions as usual lead-antimony alloy, low-antimony lead-arsenious alloy and lead-calcium alloy with moderate content of tin today may be regarded as the most studied ones. A significant share of published works has been devoted to low-antimony lead-tin alloys. In the present article, results of corrosion tests of the samples made with application of cadmium as the second component of low-antimony alloy, has been represented. Several samples were extra-alloyed by selenium and silver. Samples of lead-calcium and usual antimony alloys as well as pure lead samples were being tested simultaneously. Upon termination of polarization, weight of anodic films referred to a unit of the sample surface has been determined. Thus, the film covering lead-antimony alloy sample has the maximal weight, whereas the oxidation products on the pure lead surface have the lowest one. Among low-antimony alloys, the highest corrosion resistance has been found out with the samples alloyed by a low amount of silver. The microstructure of the castings surface has been analysed. Process of corrosion has been considered in connection with size of grains.

  18. Oxidation and mobilization of metallic antimony in aqueous systems with simulated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Majs, F.; Barker, A. J.; Douglas, T. A.; Trainor, T. P.

    2014-05-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of concern that can be present in elevated concentrations in shooting range soils due to mobilization from spent lead/antimony bullets. Antimony in shooting range soils has been observed as either metallic Sb(0) or as Sb(V) immobilized by iron (hydr)oxides. The absence of Sb(III) in soils is indicative of rapid Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) under surface soil conditions. However, the major controls on antimony oxidation and mobility are poorly understood. To better understand these controls we performed multiple batch experiments under oxic conditions to quantify the oxidation and dissolution of antimony in systems where Sb(0) is oxidized to Sb(III) and further to Sb(V). We also tested how variations in the aqueous matrix composition and the presence of metallic lead (Pb) affect the dissolution, solid phase speciation, and oxidation of antimony. We monitored changes in the aqueous antimony speciation using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To test which solid phases form as a result of Sb(0) oxidation, and therefore potentially limit the mobility of antimony in our studied systems, we characterized the partially oxidized Sb(0) powders by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  19. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  1. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  2. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  3. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  4. Pressure Dependence of the EFG in Semimetallic Arsenic and Antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G. J.; Keartland, J. M.; Hoch, M. J. R.

    1998-07-01

    The pressure variation of the axial EFG at the ion sites in semimetallic arsenic and antimony, at am-bient temperature, has been investigated using pulsed NQR. A weakly nonlinear decrease of the EFG is observed in both systems. The data are analyzed in terms of the lattice contribution to the EFG, which involves a lattice of point monopoles immersed in a uniform, compensating, background charge. The pressure dependence of the EFG obtained from the present measurements is far weaker than the pres-sure dependence of the calculated lattice contribution. Our results support previous suggestions that va-lence effects are important in determining the EFG in these semimetals.

  5. Growth and Characterization of Bismuth and Antimony Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; Berrios, A. R.; Collazo, R.; Garcia, J. L.; Ducoudray, G. O.

    1996-03-01

    We have grown thin films of bismuth and antimony using hot wall epitaxy. The polycrystalline films were grown onto (111)-silicon substrates. The chemical integrity of the films was established using Auger electron spectroscopy. The crystallographical properties of the films were assessed using x-ray diffraction techniques. We will report on the results of these characterization efforts, as well as, on the growth apparatus and process. Work supported in part by NSWC-CRADA 93-01 and EPSCoR-NSF Grant EHR-9108775

  6. Parity violation in neutron resonances of antimony and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Crawford, B. E.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Knudsen, J. N.; Lowie, L. Y.; Masaike, A.; Masuda, Y.; Mitchell, G. E.

    2001-07-01

    Parity violation in p-wave neutron resonances of {sup 121}Sb, {sup 123}Sb, and {sup 127}I has been measured by transmission of a longitudinally polarized neutron beam through natural antimony and iodine targets. The measurements were performed at the pulsed spallation neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Five statistically significant parity violation effects were observed in {sup 121}Sb, one effect in {sup 123}Sb, and seven effects in {sup 127}I. The weak interaction rms matrix elements and the corresponding spreading widths were determined.

  7. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH.

  8. Experimental and human studies on antimony metabolism: their relevance for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic antimony.

    PubMed

    Bailly, R; Lauwerys, R; Buchet, J P; Mahieu, P; Konings, J

    1991-02-01

    Unlike inorganic arsenic, inorganic trivalent antimony (Sb) is not methylated in vivo. It is excreted in the bile after conjugation with glutathione and also in urine. A significant proportion of that excreted in bile undergoes an enterohepatic circulation. In workers exposed to pentavalent Sb, the urinary Sb excretion is related to the intensity of exposure. It has been estimated that after eight hours exposure to 500 micrograms Sb/m3, the increase of urinary Sb concentration at the end of the shift amounts on average to 35 micrograms/g creatinine.

  9. Extraction-photometric determination of bismuth in antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Presnyak, I.S.; Antonovich, V.P.; Nazarenko, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The heteroligand coordination-solvated complex Bi-tetramethylenethiourea (TMTU)-I/sup -/ (Bi:TMU:I/sup -/ = 1:2:3) is 96-98% extracted by chloroform from a medium of 0.5-1.5 M sulfuric acid at concentrations of (5-8). 10/sup -3/M TMU and (6-10) x 10/sup -3/ M potassium iodide and is characterized by a rather high molar extinction coefficient (epsilon = 1.13 x 10/sup 4/) at lambda = 480 nm. In this communication they demonstrate the possibility of using this complex as an analytical form for the extraction separation and photometric determination of bismuth in the presence of antimony. It was established that in the presence of tartaric acid, the following do not interfere with the extraction of 2-50 ..mu..g bismuth: up to 2 g Sb(III), 100 mg Ni, Zn, Fe, and Cr(III); 2 mg Mo(VI) and W(VI); 1 mg Cu(II). Beer's law is fulfilled in the range of contents 2-50 ..mu..g bismuth. With an antimony sample weighing 1 g, it is possible to determine 2 x 10/sup -4/% bismuth.

  10. Removing Arsenic and Antimony by Phragmites australis: Rhizofiltration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemzadeh, F.; Yousefzadeh, H.; Arbab-Zavar, M. H.

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) are toxic heavy metals that often associated in contaminated environment. High As concentration is reported in Chelpo, Khorasan province, northeast Iran. This study examined the possibility of As and Sb in rhizofiltration by common reed, Phragmites australis. Plants collected from five sampling sites of Chelpo. As and Sb concentrations in roots and shoots were determined by Atomic absorption spectrometry. About 80% of total As accumulated in roots than shoot system. Maximum As and Sb accumulation in root and rhizomes were 84.5-16.20 and 73-10.20 ppb, respectively. As/Sb ratio of root and rhizome ranged from 35 to 194 and 10.42 to 99.9, respectively. Arsenic contents in roots of contaminated plants were significantly higher than antimony accumulation (p<0.01). There was antagonistic interaction between As, Sb with P contents in the roots of contaminated plants. Common reed establishment may be locally enhanced by significantly decreased phosphorous (1.79 and 1.18 times less than control plant root and rhizome), increased Iron (1.42 and 5.83 times more than control plant root and rhizome) Enzymatic antioxidants (Catalase, Ascorbate peroxidase and Guaicol peroxidase) increased significantly with increment of As uptake in root system. Root As and Sb accumulation with enhanced changes in metabolic changes indicates that P. australis could be used as As, Sb rhizofiltration agent in this region and similar contaminated area.

  11. Electronic band structure calculations of bismuth-antimony nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Andrei; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Alloys of bismuth and antimony received initial interest due to their unmatched low-temperature thermoelectric performance, and have drawn more recent attention as the first 3D topological insulators. One-dimensional bismuth-antimony (BiSb) nanowires display interesting quantum confinement effects, and are expected to exhibit even better thermoelectric properties than bulk BiSb. Due to the small, anisotropic carrier effective masses, the electronic properties of BiSb nanowires show great sensitivity to nanowire diameter, crystalline orientation, and alloy composition. We develop a theoretical model for calculating the band structure of BiSb nanowires. For a given crystalline orientation, BiSb nanowires can be in the semimetallic, direct semiconducting, or indirect semiconducting phase, depending on nanowire diameter and alloy composition. These ``phase diagrams'' turn out to be remarkably similar among the different orientations, which is surprising in light of the anisotropy of the bulk BiSb Fermi surface. We predict a novel direct semiconducting phase for nanowires with diameter less than ˜15 nm, over a narrow composition range. We also find that, in contrast to the bulk and thin film BiSb cases, a gapless state with Dirac dispersion cannot be realized in BiSb nanowires.

  12. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  13. Elevated ergosterol protects Leishmania parasites against antimony-generated stress.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Radhika; Das, Rajeev Patrick; Ranjan, Archana; Shaha, Chandrima

    2015-10-01

    Parasite lipids can serve as signaling molecules, important membrane components, energy suppliers, and pathogenesis factors critical for survival. Functional roles of lipid changes in response to drug-generated stress in parasite survival remains unclear. To investigate this, Leishmania donovani parasites, the causative agents of kala-azar, were exposed to the antileishmanial agent potassium antimony tartrate (PAT) (half-maximal inhibitory concentration ∼ 284 µg/ml). Analysis of cell extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed significant increases in very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) prior to an increase in ergosterol in PAT-treated parasites as compared with vehicle-treated controls. Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibition during PAT treatment decreased cell viability. VLCFA inhibition with specific inhibitors completely abrogated ergosterol upsurge followed by a reduction in cell viability. Following PAT-induced VLCFA increase, an upsurge in reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred and inhibition of this ROS with antioxidants abrogated ergosterol increase. Genetically engineered parasites expressing low constitutive ergosterol levels showed more susceptibility to PAT as compared with wild-type control cells but ergosterol supplementation during PAT treatment increased cell viability. In conclusion, we propose that during antimony treatment, the susceptibility of parasites is determined by the levels of cellular ergosterol that are regulated by oxidative stress generated by VLCFAs.

  14. Antimony sulphide, an absorber layer for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, R.; Shamsuri, W. N. Wan; Shaari, A.; Ahmad, N.; Abbas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of the toxic, expensive and scarce materials with nontoxic, cheap and earth-abundant one, in solar cell absorber layer, is immensely needed to realize the vision of green and sustainable energy. Two-micrometre-thin antimony sulphide film is considered to be adequate as an absorbing layer in solar cell applications. In this paper, we synthesize antimony sulphide thin films on glass substrate by physical vapour deposition technique, and the obtained films were then annealed at different temperatures (150-250 °C). The as-deposited and annealed samples were investigated for structural and optoelectronic properties using different characterization techniques. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the annealed samples were polycrystalline with Sb2S3 phase, while the as-deposited sample was amorphous in nature. The optical properties are measured via optical ellipsometric techniques. The measured absorbance of the film is adequately high, and every photon is found to be absorbed in visible and NIR range. The conductivity type of the films measured by hot-point probe technique is determined to be p-type. The optical band gap of the resulted samples was in the range (2.4-1.3 eV) for the as-deposited and annealed films.

  15. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  16. Exploring antimony isotope ratio variations for provenancing purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, L.; Degryse, P.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Production sites and trade routes of Roman glass have received much attention over the past decade. It is assumed that raw glass was produced in primary workshops near the raw material sources used, to be transported to secondary glass houses. Colourless glass was a particularly prestigious material in this process, difficult to make. It has been looked at from the perspective of the provenance of its sand and flux, but rarely from the perspective of the origin of the decolourizing material. In effect, for the production of early Roman colourless glass, antimony was used, deliberately added under the form of Sb-bearing minerals. Isotopic analysis of Sb ores could help identify the origin of the decolorizing agent present in Roman glasses and, consequently, to reconstruct how such material was traded and transported, and how this can be integrated in the network of primary and secondary glass producers. In this work, variations in the isotopic composition of Sb in different ore sources (stibnites) are explored using multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry. A new method is proposed, where Sb is directly analysed for its isotopic composition using MC-ICP-MS after chromatographic isolation of the target element from a sample digest. The isotopic composition of the selected materials shows variations up to 6 ?-units relative to an antimony standard solution. Indium was used as internal standard for correction for instrumental mass discrimination and an external precision for the 123Sb/121Sb ratio of 0.01% RSD was obtained

  17. Antimony in lung, liver and kidney tissue from deceased smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Brune, D; Nordberg, G F; Wester, P O

    1982-09-01

    Tissue concentrations of antimony in lung, liver, and kidney tissue from a group of deceased smelter workers from northern Sweden have been compared with those of a group of persons without occupational exposure from a nearby area. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the antimony concentration of lung tissue from exposed workers; these concentrations were 12-fold higher than those of referents (p less than 0.001). For lung tissue there was no tendency towards decreased antimony concentrations with time (up to 20 a) after the cessation of exposure, and this result indicates a long biological half-time. The highest values were found for workers who had worked for many years at the roasters and in the arsenic and selenium departments. There was no significant difference between the antimony concentration of the lung tissue from workers who had died of lung cancer and those of persons who died of other malignancies, cardiovascular disease, or other causes. This finding does not however rule out the possibility of a role for antimony in the etiology of lung cancer among smelter workers since multiple factors may have been operating. The antimony concentration of the liver tissue and the kidney cortex did not differ from the corresponding values of the reference group; this finding indicates either a short biological half-time or insignificance for the systemic distribution of antimony.

  18. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang

    2010-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  19. Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2014-11-01

    During the processing of antimony ore by pyrometallurgical methods, a considerable amount of slag is formed. This antimony waste slag is listed by the European Union as absolutely hazardous waste with a European Waste Catalogue code of 10 08 08. Since the levels of antimony and arsenic in the leachate of the antimony waste slag are generally higher than the landfilling limits, it is necessary to treat the slag before landfilling. In this study, stabilization/solidification and geopolymerization technologies were both applied in order to limit the leaching potential of antimony and arsenic. Different combinations ofpastes by using Portland cement, fly ash, clay, gypsum, and blast furnace slag were prepared as stabilization/solidification or geopoljymer matrixes. Sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution and sodium hydroxide solution at 8 M were used as activators for geopolymer samples. Efficiencies of the combinations were evaluated in terms of leaching and unconfined compressive strength. None of the geopolymer samples prepared with the activators yielded arsenic and antimony leaching below the regulatory limit at the same time, although they yielded high unconfined compressive strength levels. On the other hand, the stabilization/solidification samples prepared by using water showed low leaching results meeting the landfilling criteria. Use of gypsum as an additive was found to be successful in immobilizing the arsenic and antimony.

  20. Antimony in the environment: A review focused on natural waters. III. Microbiota relevant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filella, Montserrat; Belzile, Nelson; Lett, Marie-Claire

    2007-02-01

    Antimony is ubiquitously present in the environment as a result of natural processes and human activities. Antimony is not considered to be an essential element for plants or animals. In this third review paper on the occurrence of antimony in natural waters, the interactions of antimony with microbiota are discussed in relation to its fate in natural waters. This paper covers the following aspects: occurrence in microbiota, uptake transport mechanisms, pathways of Sb(III) removal from cells involved in antimony tolerance, oxidation and reduction of antimony by living organisms, phytochelatin induction and biomethylation. This review is based on a careful and systematic examination of a comprehensive collection of papers on the above mentioned aspects of the subject. All data are quoted from the original sources. Relatively little existing information falls within the strict scope of this review and, when relevant, discussion on the interactions of antimony with reference microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and different protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, has been included.

  1. Removal of arsenic and antimony from anode slime by vacuum dynamic flash reduction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-04-15

    Anode slime is an important material of recycling precious metals. Up to now, treating the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime by conventional processes has the following problems: its economic and environmental effect is less than satisfactory, and the removal effect of arsenic and antimony from anode slime in present processes is not all that could be desired. Therefore, vacuum dynamic flash reduction, a new process for treating arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime, was investigated in this work. During vacuum dynamic flash reduction, silver from the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland as the silver alloy, and trivalent oxides of arsenic and antimony were evaporated in the distillate. The experimental results showed that the evaporation percent of the arsenic- and antimony-rich anode slime was 65.6%. Namely, 98.92% by weight of arsenic and 93.67% by weight of antimony can be removed under the following experimental conditions: temperature of 1083 K, vacuum evaporation time of 60 min, and air flow rate of 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 250 Pa. Moreover, vacuum treatment eliminates much of the air pollution and material losses associated with other conventional treatment methods.

  2. Alkaline oesophageal reflux--an artefact due to oxygen corrosion of antimony pH electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, F; Gustafsson, U; Tibbling, L

    1992-12-01

    Antimony electrodes are widely used for gastro-oesophageal pH monitoring. They are also sensitive to oxygen, however, especially at low PO2 levels, which are known to shift recorded values in the alkaline direction. This study, which compares antimony and glass electrodes for oesophageal pH monitoring in six adults, shows that values recorded by antimony electrodes are 2.1 +/- 0.8 pH units (mean +/- SD) higher than by glass electrodes (p < 0.001; n = 7642). A further 52 patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux were investigated by 24-h pH monitoring by means of antimony electrodes. In these patients the oesophageal pH was higher than 8.0 for 7% of the time (range, 0-60%). The alkaline periods recorded with antimony electrodes were all protracted in time, smoothly increasing from a neutral pH, and did not correspond to a sudden increase in pH, which would be expected if alkaline reflux had occurred. It is concluded that high pH values obtained by antimony electrodes are due to the oxygen sensitivity of the electrodes. The diagnosis of alkaline reflux seems to be valid only when pH monitoring is performed with glass electrodes or when values obtained with antimony electrodes are adjusted for the influence of the oxygen tension in the oesophagus. PMID:1475627

  3. Soy isoflavones have antimutagenic activity on DNA damage induced by the antileishmanial Glucantime (meglumine antimoniate).

    PubMed

    Cantanhêde, Ludymila Furtado; Almeida, Laís Pinheiro; Soares, Rossy-Eric Pereira; Castelo Branco, Patrícia Valéria Gomes; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens reported to be potent antioxidant agents. In contrast, the antileishmanial meglumine antimoniate has mutagenic activities. This study evaluated the ability of soy isoflavones to reduce DNA damage induced by meglumine antimoniate. Antimutagenic effects (by micronucleus test) were tested using Swiss mice divided into seven groups treated with meglumine antimoniate (425 mg/kg bw pentavalent antimony); cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg bw); water (negative control); single isoflavones dose (1.6 mg/kg bw), and three groups received one dose of isoflavones via gavage (0.4 mg/kg bw, 0.8 mg/kg bw or 1.6 mg/kg bw) plus meglumine antimoniate via intraperitoneal, simultaneously. To evaluate antigenotoxicity (by Comet assay), each group with 10 animals received the above-mentioned control doses; single dose of isoflavones 0.8 mg/kg bw, and three groups received isoflavones (0.8 mg/kg bw) by gavage along with intraperitoneal meglumine antimoniate, which were treated with isoflavones 24 h before or after receiving meglumine antimoniate (pre-treatment and post-treatment, respectively) or simultaneously. Cells were harvested 24 h after the treatment, and the data were evaluated by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The data from the simultaneous treatment by micronucleus test revealed that isoflavones (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) were able to reverse the mutagenic effect of Glucantime. Moreover, all regimes of the treatment with 0.8 mg/kg bw dose were able to reduce the genotoxicity caused by meglumine antimoniate. It is suggested that the protective effect of isoflavones against DNA damage is related to their ability to reduce oxidative stress caused by the trivalent Sb(III) metabolite of meglumine antimoniate. PMID:25268948

  4. Structural and optical characterization of thermally evaporated bismuth and antimony films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimathy, N.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this present study, the thin film of bismuth and antimony is coated by thermal evaporation system equipped with the inbuilt ultra high vacuum system. XRD analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of Bismuth and Antimony on the prepared film. The surface roughness and physical appearance is analyzed by Atomic force microscopy. The results of Raman Spectroscopy show the wave functions and the spectrum of electrons. The preparation technique and conditions strongly influence the crystalline structure and the phase composition of bismuth and antimony thin films. The electrical and optical properties for the prepared film are analyzed. The results show a great interest and promising applications in Photovoltaic devices.

  5. What is the weighing form in gravimetric determination of antimony(III) with oxine?

    PubMed

    Hioki, Akiharu

    2004-03-01

    The gravimetric analysis of antimony(III) with oxine (8-quinolinol, Hox) was studied. The amount of antimony left in filtrate and washing solutions was corrected with the results of atomic absorption spectrometry. The weighing form, which had not been conclusive before the present study, was determined to be SbO(ox)(Hox)2. The result (purity of antimony(II) oxide: 99.84 +/- 0.05% (m/m)) of the gravimetric analysis was in good agreement with that of coulometric titration with electrogenerated iodine.

  6. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds.

    PubMed

    Barros, Andrea Barbieri; Rodrigues, Alex Miranda; Batista, Mariane Pereira; Munhoz Junior, Sidney; Hueb, Marcia; Fontes, Cor Jesus

    2014-07-01

    Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year). The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  7. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  8. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam

    2014-02-15

    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.

  10. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  11. Biogeochemistry of Antimony(V) in Microcosms under Sulfidogenic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Johnson, C. R.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; Koval, J. C.; Kemner, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the mining and use of antimony continues to increase, environmental concerns involving the element have grown. Antimony(V) and (III) are the two most environmentally-relevant oxidation states, but little is known about the redox transitions between the two in natural systems. To better understand the behavior of antimony in anoxic environments, we examined the transformations of Sb(V) under Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions in aqueous suspensions that contained 2 mM KSb(OH)6, 50 mM Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite), 10 mM sulfate, and 10 mM lactate, and were inoculated with sediment from a wetland on the campus of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Samples were collected over time to track changes in the concentrations of Sb, Fe(II), sulfate, and lactate, as well as the composition of the microbial community as determined by 16S rRNA gene inventories. We also examined the interaction of Sb(V) with pure Fe(II) mineral phases in aqueous suspensions containing 2 mM KSb(OH)6 and 50 mM Fe(II) as either magnetite, sideritre, vivianite, green rust, or mackinawite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was used to determine the valence state of Sb and its chemical speciation. Lactate was rapidly fermented to acetate and propionate concomittant with a bloom of Veillonellaceae. Utilization of propionate for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) was accompanied by an increase in Desulfobulbaceae. Sb K-edge X-Ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 4 weeks, concurrent with DSR and the formation of FeS. We observed variable responses in the ability of specific Fe(II) minerals to reduce Sb(V). No reduction was observed with magnetite, siderite, vivianite, or green rust. In the presence of mackinawite (FeS), however, Sb(V) was reduced to Sb(III) sulfide. These results suggest that the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) is not likely under solely Fe(III)-reducing conditions, but is expected in sulfidogenic

  12. Concentrations of arsenic, antimony, and boron in steam and steam condensate at The Geysers, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.L.; Ficklin, W.H.; Thompson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California indicate that under some circumstances elements that are transported in the vapor phase can become enriched in the liquid phase. Waters from two condensate traps (steam traps) on steam lines at The Geysers are enriched with arsenic, antimony, and boron compared to the concentrations of these elements in coexisting steam. Concentrations of boron in condensate-trap waters were as high as 160 mg/L, arsenic as high as 35 mg/L, and antimony as high as 200 ??g/L. Enrichment of arsenic, antimony, and boron is at least partially controlled by the partitioning of these elements into the liquid phase, according to their vapor-liquid distribution coefficients, after they are transported in steam. Several of the elements that are most soluble in steam, including arsenic and antimony, are part of the trace-element suite that characterizes precious-metal epithermal ore deposits. ?? 1987.

  13. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  14. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaolong; Lin, Jianping; Qiao, Guanjun; Wang, Zhao

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  15. Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misochko, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    Coherent optical phonons of A 1 k and E k symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump-probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.

  16. Copper, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Copper localities that merit geological investigation are found in the western Chasai District, in North Waziristan Agency, and in the Salt Range in Mianwali and Sargodha Districts. No high-grade deposits have been .reported from these ,areas and if deposits are developed they will likely be low-grade, high-tonnage, disseminated deposits. Those localities reported from Chitral State are too remote and inaccessible to be of interest now. All lead localities found to date are of minor importance; there has been small production at one .locality in Chasai District and in the southern part of the Hazara District. Zinc, antimony, and arsenic are sparse in Pakistan and no important localities of these metals are reported.

  17. Antimony toxicity in the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Fiorini, E; Munzi, S; Sorbo, S; Basile, A; Loppi, S

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we tested if treating the lichen Xanthoria parietina with Sb-containing solutions causes Sb bioaccumulation as well as physiological and ultrastructural changes. Total and intracellular antimony content in Sb-treated samples increased progressively with increasing concentration in the treatment solutions. Incubation of X. parietina thalli with Sb at concentrations as low as 0.1mM caused a decrease in sample viability, measured as intensity of respiratory activity, and damage to cell membranes, expressed in terms of membrane lipid peroxidation, as well as ultrastructural changes such as plasmolysis, impairment of the thylakoid system of the alga and cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The photosynthetic system hardly responded, at least under the tested experimental conditions. PMID:24001672

  18. Diameter Dependence of the Transport Properties of Antimony Telluride Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Yuri; Lee, Jin Sook; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    2010-03-01

    We report measurements of electronic, thermoelectric, and galvanometric properties of individual semimetallic single crystal antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) nanowires. Microfabricated heater and thermometer electrodes were used to probe the transport properties of the nanowires with diameters in the range of 22 - 95nm and temperatures in the range of 2 - 300K. Temperature dependent resistivity varies depending on nanowire diameter. Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements indicate hole dominant diffusive thermoelectric generation, with an enhancement of the TEP for smaller diameter wires. The large surface-to-volume ratio of Sb2Te3 nanowires makes them an excellent platform to explore novel phenomena in this predicted topological insulator. We investigate mesoscopic magnetoresistance effects in magnetic fields both parallel and perpendicular to the nanowire axis.

  19. Magnesium-Antimony Liquid Metal Battery for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bradwell, DJ; Kim, H; Sirk, AHC; Sadoway, DR

    2012-02-01

    Batteries are an attractive option for grid: scale energy storage applications because of their small footprint and flexible siting. A high-temperature (700 degrees C) magnesium antimony (MgllSb) liquid metal battery comprising a negative electrode of Mg, a molten salt electrolyte (MgCL2-KCl-NaCl), and a positive electrode of Sb is proposed and characterized. Because of the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases, they stratify by density into three distinct layers. Cells were cycled at rates ranging from 50 to 200 mA/cm(2) and demonstrated up to 69% DC-DC energy efficiency. The self-segregating nature of the battery components and the use Of low-cost materials results in a promising technology for stationary energy storage applications.

  20. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  2. Survey of antimony workers: mortality 1961-1992.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R D

    1994-01-01

    The mortality of a census population and a prospective cohort of men employed on an antimony smelter in the north east of England was followed up from 1961-1992. The workers studied were exposed to a variety of agents including antimony and its oxides, arsenic and arsenic oxides, sulphur dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The regional mortality rates were used to calculate expected deaths and a group of zircon sand workers employed on the site were used as a comparison group. For the census population of men working on the smelter before 1961 a significant increase in deaths from lung cancer was found (32 observed v 14.7 expected, P < 0.001). A similar excess was seen among maintenance men (12 observed v 5.3 expected P = 0.016). No such excess was found in the cohort recruited after 1960 (5 observed v 9.2 expected, maintenance workers 3 observed v 2.8 expected). There was evidence of a minimum latency period of around 20 years between first exposure and death from lung cancer. No evidence was found for a correlation between length of time worked and mortality from lung cancer. The results show that an increased risk of lung cancer existed in the workers employed before 1961, but it was not possible to attribute this excess to any particular agent. Mortality analysed by five year calendar periods of first exposure show a lessening of effect after 1955. Although the power of the study is clearly less for more recent periods of exposure the absence of any excess in the population after 1960 is encouraging. PMID:7849856

  3. Urinary antimony and leukocyte telomere length: An analysis of NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C

    2016-10-01

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences (TTAGGG) at the end of chromosomes. Cells with critically short telomeres enter replicative senescence and apoptosis. Several in vitro studies report that antimony causes cell apoptosis in human leukocyte cell lines. The goal of this analysis was to investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) among US adults aged 20 and older based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. We used multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with LTL. LTL was log-natural transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary antimony had statistically significantly shorter LTL (-4.78%, 95% CI: -8.42,-0.90; and -6.11%, 95% CI: -11.04,-1.00, respectively) compared to the lowest referent quartile, with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-value for trend =0.03). Shorter LTL with antimony was driven by middle aged (40-59 years) and older (60-85 years) adult groups. The association may be biologically plausible because of reported oxidative stress and apoptosis effects of antimony on blood cells, effects known to shorten telomere length. PMID:27423705

  4. Urinary antimony and leukocyte telomere length: An analysis of NHANES 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C

    2016-10-01

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences (TTAGGG) at the end of chromosomes. Cells with critically short telomeres enter replicative senescence and apoptosis. Several in vitro studies report that antimony causes cell apoptosis in human leukocyte cell lines. The goal of this analysis was to investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) among US adults aged 20 and older based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. We used multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with LTL. LTL was log-natural transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of urinary antimony had statistically significantly shorter LTL (-4.78%, 95% CI: -8.42,-0.90; and -6.11%, 95% CI: -11.04,-1.00, respectively) compared to the lowest referent quartile, with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-value for trend =0.03). Shorter LTL with antimony was driven by middle aged (40-59 years) and older (60-85 years) adult groups. The association may be biologically plausible because of reported oxidative stress and apoptosis effects of antimony on blood cells, effects known to shorten telomere length.

  5. A comprehensive global inventory of atmospheric Antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Zhou, JunRui; Zhu, Chuanyong; Zhao, Dan; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; He, Mengchang; Liu, Kaiyun; Wang, Kun; Hua, Shenbing

    2014-09-01

    Antimony (Sb) and its compounds are considered as global pollutants due to their health risks and long-range transport characteristics. A comprehensive global inventory of atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities during the period of 1995-2010 has been developed with specific estimation methods based on the relevant data available for different continents and countries. Our results indicate that the global antimony emissions have increased to a peak at about 2232 t (t) in 2005 and then declined gradually. Global antimony emissions in 2010 are estimated at about 1904 t (uncertainty of a 95% confidence interval (CI): -30% ∼ 67%), with fuel combustion as the major source category. Asia and Europe account for about 57% and 24%, respectively, of the global total emissions, and China, the United States, and Japan rank as the top three emitting countries. Furthermore, global antimony emissions are distributed into gridded cells with a resolution of 1° × 1°. Regions with high Sb emissions are generally concentrated in the Southeastern Asia and Western Europe, while South Africa, economically developed regions in the eastern U.S., and Mexico are also responsible for the high antimony emission intensity.

  6. Nano-titania-crosslinked chitosan composite as a superior sorbent for antimony (III) and (V).

    PubMed

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-08-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony, especially at low levels, is a difficult problem faced by nuclear power plants all over the world. Further, antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by the United States and the European environmental protection agencies. Chitosan, a biopolymer well known for its sorption properties, can also serve as a stable matrix for inorganic sorbents such as titania on crosslinking. A robust high performing sorbent for antimony, in the form of stable beads, has been prepared using nano-TiO2 and chitosan. Raman spectra of the beads confirmed the incorporation of nano-TiO2 in the chitosan matrix. The sorbent exhibited complete sorption of antimony from aqueous solutions with antimony concentrations ranging from as low as 150 ppb to as high as 120 ppm. The sorption dependence on equilibrium pH has been investigated. The beads have been shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorption properties of the beads were attributed to the TiO2 component present in the beads, while the crosslinked chitosan provided strong matrix and influenced the formation of much needed stable spherical beads suitable for real life large scale applications. The beads exhibited high sorption efficiency in the column mode, and were found to be physically stable at a flow rate of one bed volume per minute.

  7. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  8. Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.

    PubMed

    Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

    2014-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations.

  9. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic. PMID:27434738

  10. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  11. Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Setareh; Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi; Mohseni, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors affecting the adsorption of antimony by applying simulation. The simulation was performed using an adsorption model of a diffuse layer model. The results of the simulation indicated that the nZVI concentration, initial concentrations of antimony and pH factor are effective on the adsorption of antimony. In the conducted stimulation, the optimum pH was 2-5 and the highest adsorption occurred in an acidic state. With increasing initial concentrations of antimony in the simulation, we concluded that nZVI had absorbed various concentrations above 90% and, by increasing the concentration of nZVI, antimony adsorption rate increased. The increased surface area of nZVI and the expansion of more interchangeable surfaces available for reaction with antimony ions causes more antimony ions to be adsorbed. In all cases, the coefficient of determination between the laboratory results and the model predictions that was obtained was more than 0.9.

  12. Effects of antimony on aquatic organisms (Larva and embryo of Oryzias latipes, Moina macrocopa, Simocephalus mixtus, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Yang, Chang-Yong; An, Youn-Joo

    2009-05-01

    Antimony is widespread in aquatic environment. Trivalent forms of antimony are known to be more toxic than other chemical species of antimony. In the present study, antimony potassium tartrate (APT), the trivalent inorganic forms of antimony, was selected as a test antimony compound due to its high water solubility. The effects of antimony on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), planktonic crustacea (Moina macrocopa and Simocephalus mixtus), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were evaluated. Larval survival and the embryonic development were measured for fish assay. APT was less toxic to larval medaka (24-h LC50, 261; 48-h LC50, 238 mg L(-1)). Simocephalus mixtus was killed by very low concentrations of APT (24-h LC50, 4.92 mg L(-1)), and antimony was also toxic to Moina macrocopa (24-h LC50, 12.83 mg L(-1)). Toxicities of APT to S. mixtus and Moina macrocopa were about 50 and 20 times more toxic to Oryzias latipes larvae, respectively, in terms of 24-h LC50 value. Growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was observed in the presence of APT (72-h EC50, 206 mg L(-1)). This study demonstrated that APT is more toxic to planktonic crustacea than fish and green algae, and planktonic crustacea appears a better indicator of antimony pollution in aquatic environment. PMID:19264343

  13. Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters.

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Setareh; Asadollahfardi, Gholamreza; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi; Mohseni, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors affecting the adsorption of antimony by applying simulation. The simulation was performed using an adsorption model of a diffuse layer model. The results of the simulation indicated that the nZVI concentration, initial concentrations of antimony and pH factor are effective on the adsorption of antimony. In the conducted stimulation, the optimum pH was 2-5 and the highest adsorption occurred in an acidic state. With increasing initial concentrations of antimony in the simulation, we concluded that nZVI had absorbed various concentrations above 90% and, by increasing the concentration of nZVI, antimony adsorption rate increased. The increased surface area of nZVI and the expansion of more interchangeable surfaces available for reaction with antimony ions causes more antimony ions to be adsorbed. In all cases, the coefficient of determination between the laboratory results and the model predictions that was obtained was more than 0.9. PMID:27191572

  14. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  15. MAPK1 of Leishmania donovani modulates antimony susceptibility by downregulating P-glycoprotein efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mansi; Goyal, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are well-known mediators of signal transduction of eukaryotes, regulating important processes, like proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. In Leishmania, MAPK1 has been shown to be consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. The present work investigates the molecular mechanism of MAPK1 in antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani. The L. donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) single-allele replacement mutants exhibited increased resistance to Sb(III) (5.57-fold) compared to wild-type promastigotes, while overexpressing parasites became much more susceptible to antimony. The LdMAPK1-mediated drug sensitivity was directly related to antimony-induced apoptotic death of the parasite, as was evidenced by a 4- to 5-fold decrease in cell death parameters in deletion mutants and a 2- to 3-fold increase in MAPK1-overexpressing cells. LdMAPK1-underexpressing parasites also exhibited increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux pump activity, while a significant decrease in pump activity was observed in overexpressing cells. This change in efflux pump activity was directly related to expression levels of P-gp in all cell lines. However, episomal complementation of the gene restored normal growth, drug sensitivity, P-gp expression, and efflux pump activity. The data indicate that LdMAPK1 negatively regulates the expression of P-glycoprotein-type efflux pumps in the parasite. The decrease in efflux pump activity with an increase in LdMAPK1 expression may result in increased antimony accumulation in the parasite, making it more vulnerable to the drug.

  16. New Antimony Lanthanide Disulfide Dibromides LnSbS

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, D.; Jobic, S.; Evain, M.; Brec, R.

    2001-05-01

    CeSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (I), Ce{sub 1/2}La{sub 1/2}SbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (II), and LaSbS{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (III) have been synthesized at 700 C from a mixture of LnBr{sub 3}, Ln{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Sb, and S and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The three phases are isostructural (space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z=4) and crystallize in a novel, dense, bidimensional structure with cell parameters a=8.709(3) {angstrom}, b=9.187(2) {angstrom}, c=17.397(5) {angstrom} {beta}=104.26(3) for I, a=8.739(7) {angstrom}, b=9.219(7) {angstrom}, c=17.41(2) {angstrom}, =104.3(1) for II, and a=8.785(1) {angstrom}, b=9.236(2) {angstrom}, c=17.372(3) {angstrom}, {beta}=104.09(2) for III. In these compounds, [Ln S{sub 5}Br{sub 4}] and [Ln S{sub 3}Br{sub 6}] (Ln=Ce, La) distorted tricapped trigonal prisms define infinite {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[LnS{sub 2}Br{sub 2}] layers counterbalanced and capped by antimony cations. In good accordance with the structural features, the charge balance in these materials is to be written Ln{sup III}Sb{sup III}S{sup -II}{sub 2}Br{sup -I}{sub 2}. These compounds exhibit a yellow hue with a measured absorption threshold of 2.42(1), 2.55(1), and 2.72(1) eV for I, II, and III, respectively. In the two cerium containing bromothioantimonates I and II, the origin of the color is assigned to a Ce-4f{yields}Ce-5d electronic transition, which shifts to higher energy from I to II due either to a matrix effect (increase of the mean Ln-S distances under the substitution of Ce for La) or to an atomic ordering between Ce and La cations on the Ln(1) and Ln(2) crystallographic sites. In contrast, the electronic transition at play in III involves a charge transfer from the bromine and sulfur ions to the antimony ions, the latter contributing substantially to the lowermost levels of the conduction band.

  17. Simultaneous lead and antimony immobilization in shooting range soil by a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shouhei; Katoh, Masahiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite could immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil in which the level of lead contamination is markedly higher than that of antimony. In addition, we evaluated the stability of lead and antimony immobilized by the combined application with varying soil pH. The levels of water-soluble lead and antimony for the combined application were lower than those of single applications of hydroxyapatite or ferrihydrite, indicating that the combined application could suppress the levels of water-soluble lead and antimony by 99.9% and 95.5%, respectively, as compared with the levels in shooting range soil without immobilization material. The amounts of residual lead and amorphous Fe/Al oxide-bound antimony fractions in sequential extraction increased with a decrease in the exchangeable and carbonate lead fractions as well as in non-specifically bound and specifically bound antimony fractions. The alteration of lead and antimony phases to chemically more stable ones as a result of the combined application would result in the suppression of their mobility. The stability of immobilized lead and antimony in the combined application was equal to that of lead with a single application of hydroxyapatite and that of antimony with a single application of ferrihydrite within neutral to alkaline pH conditions, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the combined application of hydroxyapatite and ferrihydrite can simultaneously immobilize lead and antimony in shooting range soil with neutral to alkaline pH. PMID:25894550

  18. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  19. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure. PMID:25501644

  20. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2015-12-15

    A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu2Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L(-1) HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol(-1), indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process.

  1. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    PubMed

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  2. Trypanothione overproduction and resistance to antimonials and arsenicals in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, R; Dey, S; Xu, N; Gage, D; Lightbody, J; Ouellette, M; Rosen, B P

    1996-09-17

    Leishmania resistant to arsenicals and antimonials extrude arsenite. Previous results of arsenite uptake into plasma membrane-enriched vesicles suggested that the transported species is a thiol adduct of arsenite. In this paper, we demonstrate that promastigotes of arsenite-resistant Leishmania tarentolae have increased levels of intracellular thiols. High-pressure liquid chromatography of the total thiols showed that a single peak of material was elevated almost 40-fold. The major species in this peak was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry as N1,N8-bis-(glutathionyl)spermidine (trypanothione). The trypanothione adduct of arsenite was effectively transported by the As-thiol pump. No difference in pump activity was observed in wild type and mutants. A model for drug resistance is proposed in which Sb(V)/As(V)-containing compounds, including the antileishmanial drug Pentostam, are reduced intracellularly to Sb(III)/As(III), conjugated to trypanothione, and extruded by the As-thiol pump. The rate-limiting step in resistance is proposed to be formation of the metalloid-thiol pump substrates, so that increased synthesis of trypanothione produces resistance. Increased synthesis of the substrate rather than an increase in the number of pump molecules is a novel mechanism for drug resistance.

  3. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    PubMed

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  4. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-layer crystalline phases of antimony: Antimonenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktürk, O. Üzengi; Ã-zçelik, V. Ongun; Ciraci, S.

    2015-06-01

    The pseudolayered character of 3D bulk crystals of antimony has led us to predict its 2D single-layer crystalline phase named antimonene in a buckled honeycomb structure like silicene. Sb atoms also form an asymmetric washboard structure like black phospherene. Based on an extensive analysis comprising ab initio phonon and finite-temperature molecular dynamics calculations, we show that these two single-layer phases are robust and can remain stable at high temperatures. They are nonmagnetic semiconductors with band gaps ranging from 0.3 eV to 1.5 eV, and are suitable for 2D electronic applications. The washboard antimonene displays strongly directional mechanical properties, which may give rise to a strong influence of strain on the electronic properties. Single-layer antimonene phases form bilayer and trilayer structures with wide interlayer spacings. In multilayers, this spacing is reduced and eventually the structure changes to 3D pseudolayered bulk crystals. The zigzag and armchair nanoribbons of the antimonene phases have fundamental band gaps derived from reconstructed edge states and display a diversity of magnetic and electronic properties depending on their width and edge geometry. Their band gaps are tunable with the widths of the nanoribbons. When grown on substrates, such as germanene or Ge(111), the buckled antimonene attains a significant influence of substrates.

  6. Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Jan

    The emission properties of Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber has been investigated. Luminescence at 2.1 μm corresponding to 5I7--> 5I8 transition in holmium was obtained by energy transfer between Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions. According to the Dexter-Miyakawa model, the parameters of energy migration CDD of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) <--> 2F5/2 (Yb3+) transition and direct energy transfer CDA of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) --> 5I6 (Ho3+) transition was calculated. The optimization of the activator content and the concentration ratio were conducted with the purpose of maximizing the efficiency of energy transfer. It made possible to select best-suited glass which was used to manufacture double-clad optical fiber. Strong and narrow bands of spontaneous emission which formed as a result of energy transfer between ytterbium and holmium ions were observed in the fiber under exciting with radiation at 978 nm wavelength.

  7. Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Dominik; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The emission properties of Yb3+/Ho3+-codoped antimony-silicate optical fiber has been investigated. Luminescence at 2.1 μm corresponding to 5I7--> 5I8 transition in holmium was obtained by energy transfer between Yb3+ and Ho3+ ions. According to the Dexter-Miyakawa model, the parameters of energy migration CDD of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) <--> 2F5/2 (Yb3+) transition and direct energy transfer CDA of the 2F5/2 (Yb3+) --> 5I6 (Ho3+) transition was calculated. The optimization of the activator content and the concentration ratio were conducted with the purpose of maximizing the efficiency of energy transfer. It made possible to select best-suited glass which was used to manufacture double-clad optical fiber. Strong and narrow bands of spontaneous emission which formed as a result of energy transfer between ytterbium and holmium ions were observed in the fiber under exciting with radiation at 978 nm wavelength.

  8. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R. St. J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  9. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-02-11

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  10. SESPE-FRAZIER, DIABLO, MATILIJA, DRY LAKES, SAWMILL-BADLANDS, CUYAMA, ANTIMONY, AND QUATAL ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The study area, consisting of the Sespe-Frazier, Diablo, Matilija, Dry Lakes, Sawmill-Badlands, Cuyama, Antimony, and Quatal Roadless Areas, occupies about 872 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Studies indicate that the Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area contains demonstrated resources of gold, gypsum, phosphate and bentonite; deposits in the Cuyama Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of gypsum; mines in the Antimony Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of antimony, gold, silver, and marble; and the Quatal Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of bentonite. The Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area has substantiated potential for geothermal resources suitable for direct-heat purposes, probable and substantiated potential for oil and gas resources, and probable potential for gold resources. Small areas of probable resource potential for antimony and gold were identified in Antimony Roadless Area.

  11. Spectrophotometric procedure using rhodamine B for determination of submicrogram quantities of antimony in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnepfe, M.M.

    1973-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure using Rhodamine B is given for the determination of antimony in mineralized rocks after its separation as stibine. A study of the Rhodamine B reaction points to the importance of the order of addition of reagents in enhancing sensitivity and increasing the stability of the system. The tolerance of some 26 elements is established for the overall procedure. Although the limit of determination is approximately 0??5 ppm Sb in a 0??2-g sample, the procedure is intended primarily for screening samples containing more than 1 ppm Sb. In pure solutions 0??1 ??g of antimony can be determined with a relative standard deviation of 25%. For >0??2 ??g of antimony a relative standard deviation of 15% or less can be expected. ?? 1973.

  12. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H.; Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y.; Wilson, J.; Allison, R.

    2013-07-22

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Concentration transient analysis of antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, L. C.; Greene, J. E.; Ni, W.-X.; Hansson, G. V.; Sundgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Antimony surface segregation during Si(100) molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated at temperatures T(sub s) = 515 - 800 C using concentration transient analysis (CTA). The dopant surface coverage Theta, bulk fraction gamma, and incorporation probability sigma during MBE were determined from secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of modulation-doped films. Programmed T(sub s) changes during growth were used to trap the surface-segregated dopant overlayer, producing concentration spikes whose integrated area corresponds to Theta. Thermal antimony doping by coevaporation was found to result in segregation strongly dependent on T(sub s) with Theta(sub Sb) values up to 0.9 monolayers (ML): in films doped with Sb(+) ions accelerated by 100 V, Theta(sub Sb) was less than or equal to 4 x 10(exp -3) ML. Surface segregation of coevaporated antimony was kinematically limited for the film growth conditions in these experiments.

  14. Use of Antimony in the Treatment of Leishmaniasis: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Arun Kumar; Sen, Pradip; Roy, Syamal

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past the standard treatment of kala-azar involved the use of pentavalent antimonials Sb(V). Because of progressive rise in treatment failure to Sb(V) was limited its use in the treatment program in the Indian subcontinent. Until now the mechanism of action of Sb(V) is not very clear. Recent studies indicated that both parasite and hosts contribute to the antimony efflux mechanism. Interestingly, antimonials show strong immunostimulatory abilities as evident from the upregulation of transplantation antigens and enhanced T cell stimulating ability of normal antigen presenting cells when treated with Sb(V) in vitro. Recently, it has been shown that some of the peroxovanadium compounds have Sb(V)-resistance modifying ability in experimental infection with Sb(V) resistant Leishmania donovani isolates in murine model. Thus, vanadium compounds may be used in combination with Sb(V) in the treatment of Sb(V) resistance cases of kala-azar. PMID:22091408

  15. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  16. Noninferiority of Miltefosine Versus Meglumine Antimoniate for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rubiano, Luisa Consuelo; Miranda, María Consuelo; Muvdi Arenas, Sandra; Montero, Luz Mery; Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Garcerant, Daniel; Prager, Martín; Osorio, Lyda; Rojas, Maria Ximena; Pérez, Mauricio; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background. Children have a lower response rate to antimonial drugs and higher elimination rate of antimony (Sb) than adults. Oral miltefosine has not been evaluated for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A randomized, noninferiority clinical trial with masked evaluation was conducted at 3 locations in Colombia where Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania guyanensis predominated. One hundred sixteen children aged 2–12 years with parasitologically confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomized to directly observed treatment with meglumine antimoniate (20 mg Sb/kg/d for 20 days; intramuscular) (n = 58) or miltefosine (1.8–2.5 mg/kg/d for 28 days; by mouth) (n = 58). Primary outcome was treatment failure at or before week 26 after initiation of treatment. Miltefosine was noninferior if the proportion of treatment failures was ≤15% higher than achieved with meglumine antimoniate (1-sided test, α = .05). Results. Ninety-five percent of children (111/116) completed follow-up evaluation. By intention-to-treat analysis, failure rate was 17.2% (98% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%–28.7%) for miltefosine and 31% (98% CI, 16.9%–45.2%) for meglumine antimoniate. The difference between treatment groups was 13.8%, (98% CI, −4.5% to 32%) (P = .04). Adverse events were mild for both treatments. Conclusions. Miltefosine is noninferior to meglumine antimoniate for treatment of pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) species. Advantages of oral administration and low toxicity favor use of miltefosine in children. Clinical Trial Registration. NCT00487253. PMID:22238470

  17. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    PubMed

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level. PMID:26653503

  18. Amphiphilic Antimony(V) Complexes for Oral Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Flaviana R.; Ferreira, Weverson A.; Campos, Mariana A.; Ramos, Guilherme S.; Kato, Kelly C.; Almeida, Gregório G.; Corrêa, José D.; Melo, Maria N.; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The need for daily parenteral administration is an important limitation in the clinical use of pentavalent antimonial drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes were prepared from alkylmethylglucamides (L8 and L10, with carbon chain lengths of 8 and 10, respectively), and their potential for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was evaluated. Complexes of Sb and ligand at 1:3 (SbL8 and SbL10) were obtained from the reaction of antimony(V) with L8 and L10, as evidenced by elemental and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses. Fluorescence probing of hydrophobic environment and negative-staining transmission electron microscopy showed that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water. Pharmacokinetic studies with mice in which the compound was administered by the oral route at 200 mg of Sb/kg of body weight indicated that the SbL8 complex promoted greater and more sustained Sb levels in serum and liver than the levels obtained for the conventional antimonial drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]). The efficacy of SbL8 and SbL10 administered by the oral route was evaluated in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum after a daily dose of 200 mg of Sb/kg for 20 days. Both complexes promoted significant reduction in the liver and spleen parasite burdens in relation to those in the saline-treated control group. The extent of parasite suppression (>99.96%) was similar to that achieved after Glu given intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day. As expected, there was no significant reduction in the parasitic load in the group treated orally with Glu at 200 mg of Sb/(kg day). In conclusion, amphiphilic antimony(V) complexes emerge as an innovative and promising strategy for the oral treatment of VL. PMID:23796930

  19. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    PubMed

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III)...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III)...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III)...

  4. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  5. Mercury, arsenic, antimony, and selenium contents of sediment from the Kuskokwim River, Bethel, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Sparck, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Kuskokwim River at Bethel, Alaska, drains a major mercury-antimony metallogenic province in its upper reaches and tributaries. Bethel (population 4000) is situated on the Kuskokwim floodplain and also draws its water supply from wells located in river-deposited sediment. A boring through overbank and floodplain sediment has provided material to establish a baseline datum for sediment-hosted heavy metals. Mercury (total), arsenic, antimony, and selenium contents were determined; aluminum was also determined and used as normalizing factor. The contents of the heavy metals were relatively constant with depth and do not reflect any potential enrichment from upstream contaminant sources. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Composite thin-foil bandpass filter for EUV astronomy Titanium-antimony-titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinsky, P.; Martin, C.; Kimble, R.; Bowyer, S.; Steele, G.

    1983-01-01

    Thin metallic foils of antimony and titanium have been investigated in an attempt to develop an EUV filter with a bandpass from 350 to 550 A. A composite filter has been developed composed of antimony sandwiched between two titanium foils. The transmissions of sample composite foils and of pure titanium foils from 130 to 1216 A are presented. The absorption coefficients of anatimony and titanium and the effect of titanium oxide on the transmission are derived. The composite filter has been found to be quite stable and mechanically rugged. Among other uses, the filter shows substantial promise for EUV astronomy.

  7. Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    A significant 19th century public health problem was that the inhabitants of many houses containing wallpaper decorated with green arsenical pigments experienced illness and death. The problem was caused by certain fungi that grew in the presence of inorganic arsenic to form a toxic, garlic-odored gas. The garlic odor was actually put to use in a very delicate microbiological test for arsenic. In 1933, the gas was shown to be trimethylarsine. It was not until 1971 that arsenic methylation by bacteria was demonstrated. Further research in biomethylation has been facilitated by the development of delicate techniques for the determination of arsenic species. As described in this review, many microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and yeasts) and animals are now known to biomethylate arsenic, forming both volatile (e.g., methylarsines) and nonvolatile (e.g., methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) compounds. The enzymatic mechanisms for this biomethylation are discussed. The microbial conversion of sodium arsenate to trimethylarsine proceeds by alternate reduction and methylation steps, with S-adenosylmethionine as the usual methyl donor. Thiols have important roles in the reductions. In anaerobic bacteria, methylcobalamin may be the donor. The other metalloid elements of the periodic table group 15, antimony and bismuth, also undergo biomethylation to some extent. Trimethylstibine formation by microorganisms is now well established, but this process apparently does not occur in animals. Formation of trimethylbismuth by microorganisms has been reported in a few cases. Microbial methylation plays important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of these metalloid elements and possibly in their detoxification. The wheel has come full circle, and public health considerations are again important. PMID:12040126

  8. Antimony uptake, efflux and speciation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    PubMed

    Tisarum, Rujira; Lessl, Jason T; Dong, Xiaoling; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-03-01

    Even though antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) are chemical analogs, differences exist on how they are taken up and translocated in plants. We investigated 1) Sb uptake, efflux and speciation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after 1 d exposure to 1.6 or 8 mg/L antimonite (SbIII) or antimonate (SbV), 2) Sb uptake by PV accessions from Florida, China, and Brazil after 7 d exposure to 8 mg/L SbIII, and 3) Sb uptake and oxidation by excised PV fronds after 1 d exposure to 8 mg/L SbIII or SbV. After 1 d exposure, P. vittata took 23-32 times more SbIII than SbV, with all Sb being accumulated in the roots with the highest at 4,192 mg/kg. When exposed to 8 mg/L SbV, 98% of Sb existed as SbV in the roots. In comparison, when exposed to 8 mg/L SbIII, 81% of the total Sb remained as SbIII and 26% of the total Sb was effluxed out into the media. The three PV accessions had a similar ability to accumulate Sb at 12,000 mg/kg in the roots, with >99% of total Sb in the roots. Excised PV fronds translocated SbV more efficiently from the petioles to pinnae than SbIII and were unable to oxidize SbIII. Overall, P. vittata displayed efficient root uptake and efflux of SbIII with limited ability to translocate and transform in the roots.

  9. Microbial methylation of metalloids: arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, Thomas G

    2002-06-01

    A significant 19th century public health problem was that the inhabitants of many houses containing wallpaper decorated with green arsenical pigments experienced illness and death. The problem was caused by certain fungi that grew in the presence of inorganic arsenic to form a toxic, garlic-odored gas. The garlic odor was actually put to use in a very delicate microbiological test for arsenic. In 1933, the gas was shown to be trimethylarsine. It was not until 1971 that arsenic methylation by bacteria was demonstrated. Further research in biomethylation has been facilitated by the development of delicate techniques for the determination of arsenic species. As described in this review, many microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and yeasts) and animals are now known to biomethylate arsenic, forming both volatile (e.g., methylarsines) and nonvolatile (e.g., methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) compounds. The enzymatic mechanisms for this biomethylation are discussed. The microbial conversion of sodium arsenate to trimethylarsine proceeds by alternate reduction and methylation steps, with S-adenosylmethionine as the usual methyl donor. Thiols have important roles in the reductions. In anaerobic bacteria, methylcobalamin may be the donor. The other metalloid elements of the periodic table group 15, antimony and bismuth, also undergo biomethylation to some extent. Trimethylstibine formation by microorganisms is now well established, but this process apparently does not occur in animals. Formation of trimethylbismuth by microorganisms has been reported in a few cases. Microbial methylation plays important roles in the biogeochemical cycling of these metalloid elements and possibly in their detoxification. The wheel has come full circle, and public health considerations are again important. PMID:12040126

  10. Reactor-chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1986-08-01

    The authors carry out a chromatographic study of the volatile products that evolve when various grades of domestic polyvinyl chloride are heated, to determine the concentration of residual monomer. To find vinyl chloride in complex mixtures of air pollutants the authors used sorptive reaction concentration of impurities. This new combination of methods is based on preliminary separation at the sampling stage of impurities that interfere in the analysis, followed by concentration of the desired components in a trap with an adsorbent, and chromatographic determination of the concentrated trace materials. The method obtains low vinyl chloride concentrations (down to 10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ wt. %) with +/-5 relative error.

  11. The effect of selenium on the subcellular distribution of antimony to regulate the toxicity of antimony in paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongzhen; Wang, Ruigang; Guo, Junkang; Wu, Fengchang; Xu, Yingming; Feng, Renwei

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) can alleviate the toxicity of antimony (Sb) in plants; however, the associated mechanisms have not been fully clarified. In this study, we hypothesize that Se can affect the subcellular distribution of Sb to regulate Sb toxicity. To test our hypothesis, two nested hydroponic experiments were performed by using paddy rice (Fengmeizhan). The results showed that Sb exerted toxic effects on the growth of paddy rice, and Se caused beneficial effects that were limited to the shoot growth. In general, Se and Sb mutually showed antagonistic effects on their uptake and concentrations in different subcellular fractions. However, in some cases, the stimulation effects of Sb on the Se concentration in chlorophyll (Chl) and cytosol (Cy) fractions or of Se on the Sb concentration in the cell wall fraction (Cw) were also observed in the shoots, which might suggest that Sb detoxification by Se is also related to the migration of both Se and Sb in cells. Selenium and Sb were primarily concentrated in the Cw and Cy, suggesting the important roles of these two fractions in detoxifying Se and Sb. When paddy rice was subjected to increasing Sb concentrations and a fixed Se concentration, most of the Se in the shoots was sequestered in the Cy (59.81-79.51% of total Se) and more Se was transferred into the inner cell from Cw; however, in the roots, Se was primarily concentrated in the Cw (53.28-72.10%). When paddy rice was exposed to increasing Se concentrations with a fixed Sb concentration, the Cw in both the shoots and roots might play an important role in binding Se, especially in the roots where up to 78.92% of the total Se was sequestered in the Cw.

  12. [Effect of Boron-antimony Interaction on the Uptake and Accumulation of Antimony and Boron by Rice Seedling].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Meng; Huang, Yi-zong; Cai, Li-qun; Bao, Qiong-li; Huang, Yong-chun; Wang, Xiao-ling; Qiao, Min; Hu, Ying; Jin, Shu-lan; Li, Ji; Wang, Fei

    2015-04-01

    Effect of interactions between boron (B) and antimony on the uptake and accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling was investigated in solution culture. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) could inhibit rice growth and Sb(III) was more toxic than Sb(V). Concentrations of B in rice roots and shoots were significantly affected by the addition of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The addition of 30 μmol x L(-1) Sb(III) could significantly decrease B of rice shoots and roots by 57.6% and 75.6%, and 30 μmol x L(-1) Sb(V) could decrease B of rice roots by 16.0%, compared with the control treatment, when the B concentration was 0.5 mg x L(-1). Equally, adding B also significantly affected the concentrations of Sb in rice roots and shoots. The addition of 2.0 mg x L(-1) B could decrease the concentrations of Sb in rice roots and shoots,by 39.1% and 9.2%, respectively, compared with 0.5 mg x L(-1) B, when the Sb(III) concentration was 10 μmol x L(-1). Adding 2.0 mg x L(-1) B could decreasd Sb concentrations in rice roots by 13.9%, compared with 0.5 mg x L(-1) B, when the Sb(V) concentration was 10 μmol x L(-1). Furthermore, adding B had significant effect on bioaccumulation factor and distribution ratio of Sb in rice roots and shoots. The results of the study demonstrated that Sb pollution in farmland could be alleviated by adding B fertilizer, thus protecting human health from Sb pollution.

  13. Speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted emulsification of solidified floating organic drop microextraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shengping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2013-10-15

    A simple, sensitive and efficient method of ultrasound-assisted emulsification of solidified floating organic drop microextraction (USE-SFODME) coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony at different oxidation state Sb(III)/Sb(V) in environmental samples was established. In this method, the hydrophobic complex of Sb(III) with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) is extracted by 1-undecanol at pH 9.0, while Sb(V) remains in aqueous phase. Sb(V) content can be calculated by subtracting Sb(III) from the total antimony after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) by l-cysteine. Various factors affecting USE-SFODME including pH, extraction solvent and its volume, concentration of DDTC, sonication time, and extraction temperature were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range from 0.05 to 10.0 ng mL(-1), with the limit of detection (3σ) 9.89 ng L(-1) for Sb(III). The relative standard deviation for Sb(III) was 4.5% (n=9, c=1.0 ng mL(-1)). This method was validated against the certified reference materials (GSB 07-1376-2001, GBW07441), and applied to the speciation of antimony in environmental samples (soil and water samples) with satisfactory results.

  14. Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Model-Based Analyses on the Spread of Antimony-Resistant L. donovani in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Stauch, Anette; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Vanaerschot, Manu; Sundar, Shyam; Eichner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for decades, but increasing failure rates under antimonial treatment have challenged further use of these drugs in the Indian subcontinent. Experimental evidence has suggested that parasites which are resistant against antimonials have superior survival skills than sensitive ones even in the absence of antimonial treatment. Methods and Findings We use simulation studies based on a mathematical L. donovani transmission model to identify parameters which can explain why treatment failure rates under antimonial treatment increased up to 65% in Bihar between 1980 and 1997. Model analyses suggest that resistance to treatment alone cannot explain the observed treatment failure rates. We explore two hypotheses referring to an increased fitness of antimony-resistant parasites: the additional fitness is (i) disease-related, by causing more clinical cases (higher pathogenicity) or more severe disease (higher virulence), or (ii) is transmission-related, by increasing the transmissibility from sand flies to humans or vice versa. Conclusions Both hypotheses can potentially explain the Bihar observations. However, increased transmissibility as an explanation appears more plausible because it can occur in the background of asymptomatically transmitted infection whereas disease-related factors would most probably be observable. Irrespective of the cause of fitness, parasites with a higher fitness will finally replace sensitive parasites, even if antimonials are replaced by another drug. PMID:23285309

  15. Hepatotoxicity of Pentavalent Antimonial Drug: Possible Role of Residual Sb(III) and Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kelly C.; Morais-Teixeira, Eliane; Reis, Priscila G.; Silva-Barcellos, Neila M.; Salaün, Pascal; Campos, Paula P.; Dias Corrêa-Junior, José; Rabello, Ana; Demicheli, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Pentavalent antimonial drugs such as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu; Sanofi-Aventis, São Paulo, Brazil]) produce severe side effects, including cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, during the treatment of leishmaniasis. We evaluated the role of residual Sb(III) in the hepatotoxicity of meglumine antimoniate, as well as the protective effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) during antimonial chemotherapy in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum were treated intraperitoneally at 80 mg of Sb/kg/day with commercial meglumine antimoniate (Glu) or a synthetic meglumine antimoniate with lower Sb(III) level (MA), in association or not with AA (15 mg/kg/day), for a 20-day period. Control groups received saline or saline plus AA. Livers were evaluated for hepatocytes histological alterations, peroxidase activity, and apoptosis. Increased proportions of swollen and apoptotic hepatocytes were observed in animals treated with Glu compared to animals treated with saline or MA. The peroxidase activity was also enhanced in the liver of animals that received Glu. Cotreatment with AA reduced the extent of histological changes, the apoptotic index, and the peroxidase activity to levels corresponding to the control group. Moreover, the association with AA did not affect the hepatic uptake of Sb and the ability of Glu to reduce the liver and spleen parasite loads in infected mice. In conclusion, our data supports the use of pentavalent antimonials with low residue of Sb(III) and the association of pentavalent antimonials with AA, as effective strategies to reduce side effects in antimonial therapy. PMID:24189251

  16. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  17. [Oxidation of gold-antimony ores by a thermoacidophilic microbial consortium].

    PubMed

    Tsaplina, I A; Sorokin, V V; Zhuravleva, A E; Melamud, V S; Bogdanova, T I; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2013-01-01

    Antimony leaching from sulfide ore samples by an experimental consortium of thermoacidophilic microorganisms, including Sulfobacillus, Leptospirillum, and Ferroplasma strains was studied. The ores differed significantly in the content of the major metal sulfides (%): Sb(S), 0.84 to 29.95; Fe(S), 0.47 to 2.5, and As(S), 0.01 to 0.4. Independent on the Sb(S) concentration in the experimental sample, after adaptation to a specific ore and pulp compaction the microorganisms grew actively and leached/oxidized all gold-antimony ores at 39 ± 1 degrees C. The lower was the content of iron and arsenic sulfides, the higher was antimony leaching. For the first time the investigations conducted with the use of X-ray microanalysis research made it possible to conclude that in a natural high-antimony ore Sb inhibits growth of only a part of the cell population and that Ca, Fe, and Sb may compete for the binding centers of the cell.

  18. Liposomal amphotericin B versus pentavalent antimony salts for visceral Leishmania in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, İlker; Bayram, Nuri; Deveci, Reyhan; Demir-Özek, Gülcihan; Cartı, Özgür Umaç

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a 21-day schedule of liposomal amphotericin B compared to pentavalent antimony salts in the treatment of patients during a first episode of visceral leishmaniasis. In this study, 17 cases of visceral leishmaniasis admitted to Behçet Uz Children's Hospital between January 2005 and April 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The study group was composed of 11 males (64.7%) and 6 females (35.3%). One group included 11 patients who were treated with pentavalent antimony salts, sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate, intramuscularly for 28 days. The second group was treated with amphotericin B intravenously at a dosage of 3 mg/kg on days 1-5, 10 and 21 (a cumulative dose of 21 mg/kg/day). While pentavalent antimony salts were found to increase biochemical and hematological findings, liposomal amphotericin B was responsible for rapid recovery in fever and shorter hospital stay. As a result, our study shows the advantages of both medications independent of their costs.

  19. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  20. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting; Computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubal, P.C. ); Nagamori, M. )

    1989-08-01

    In this paper thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/(g) have been newly assessed. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been solved for successive reaction microsteps whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As/sub 2/(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) remain negligibly low. The results of the simulation compare favorably with industrial operating data.

  1. Nanostructured Carbon/Antimony Composites as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Long Life.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Yi, Zheng; Wang, Chunli; Wang, Lidong; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-01

    A series of nanostructured carbon/antimony composites have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-gel, high-temperature carbon thermal reduction process. In the carbon/antimony composites, antimony nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the pyrolyzed nanoporous carbon matrix. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the C/Sb10 composite displays a high initial discharge capacity of 1214.6 mAh g(-1) and a reversible charge capacity of 595.5 mAh g(-1) with a corresponding coulombic efficiency of 49 % in the first cycle. In addition, it exhibits a high reversible discharge capacity of 466.2 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles and a high rate discharge capacity of 354.4 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1) . The excellent cycling stability and rate discharge performance of the C/Sb10 composite could be due to the uniform dispersion of antimony nanoparticles in the porous carbon matrix, which can buffer the volume expansion and maintain the integrity of the electrode during the charge-discharge cycles. PMID:27310879

  2. Antimony sulphide thin film as an absorber in chemically deposited solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Sarah; Nair, M. T. S.; Nair, P. K.

    2008-05-01

    Antimony sulfide thin films (thickness, 500 nm) were deposited on chemically deposited CdS thin films (100 nm) obtained on 3 mm glass substrates coated with a transparent conductive coating of SnO2:F (TEC-15 with 15 Ω sheet resistance). Two different chemical formulations were used for depositing antimony sulfide films. These contained (i) antimony trichloride dissolved in acetone and sodium thiosulfate, and (ii) potassium antimony tartrate, triethanolamine, ammonia, thioacetamide and small concentrations of silicotungstic acid. The films were heated at 250 °C in nitrogen. The cell structure was completed by depositing a 200 nm p-type PbS thin film. Graphite paint applied on the PbS thin film and a subsequent layer of silver paint served as the p-side contact. The cell structure: SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3 (i or ii)/PbS showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 640 mV and short circuit current density (Jsc) above 1 mA cm-2 under 1 kW m-2 tungsten-halogen radiation. Four cells, each of 1.7 cm2 area, were series-connected to give Voc of 1.6 V and a short circuit current of 4.1 mA under sunlight (1060 W m-2).

  3. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  4. Electrodeposition and device incorporation of bismuth antimony nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyani, Jennifer

    Thermoelectric materials have the unique property where the application of a potential difference across the material results in the formation of a temperature gradient, and vice versa. There is continued interest in bulk thermoelectric materials for power generation and refrigeration applications, however these materials are not currently in widespread use due to their low conversion efficiency. It has been predicted that nanostructured thermoelectric materials will show enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. In this study, bismuth antimony (Bi1-xSbx) nanowire arrays have been synthesized and assembled into devices in order to demonstrate an enhanced performance in nanostructured thermoelectric materials. Bi1-xSbx nanowire arrays were fabricated by potentiostatic electrodeposition into porous alumina templates from a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nanowire composition and texture were studied as a function of the electrodeposition conditions in order to maximize their thermoelectric performance. Energy dispersive spectrometry and electron microprobe analysis were used to study the nanowire composition as a function of the electroactive and non-electroactive species in solution. Texturing in the nanowire arrays was observed by X-ray diffraction and controlled by the applied voltage and presence of supporting electrolyte. The nanowire arrays were also optimized for device incorporation by maximizing the number of nanowires and minimizing their length distribution. The areal density of nanowire arrays was on the order of 1010 wires/cm2 due to the high density of pores in the alumina and the high degree to which those pores were filled with electrodeposited material. A narrow distribution of nanowire lengths was observed by scanning electron microscopy across millimeter-length portions of the arrays. A hybrid nanowire-bulk thermoelectric device was assembled after electrical contacts were electrodeposited over Bi1-xSbx nanowire arrays. Nickel was

  5. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  6. Histopathological and functional effects of antimony on the renal cortex of growing albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rashedy, Ahmed H; Solimany, Adnan A; Ismail, Ayman K; Wahdan, Mohamed H; Saban, Khalid A

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with antimony compounds may affect human health through the persistent exposure to small doses over a long period. Sixty growing male albino rats, weighing 43-57 grams, utilized in this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received 6 mg/kg body weight antimony trisulfide daily for 8 weeks with drinking water, and those of group III received the same dose by the same route for 12 weeks. The Malpighian renal corpuscles showed distortion, destruction and congestion of glomerular tuft, vacuoles in the glomeruli, peritubular haemorrhage, obliteration of Bowman's space, and thickening with irregularity of Bowman's membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules demonstrated patchy loss of their brush border, thickening of the basement membrane with loss of its basal infoldings, disarrangement of the mitochondria, pleomorphic vacuoles in the cytoplasm, apical destruction of the cells, apical migration of the nuclei, and absence of microvilli. On the other hand, peri-tubular hemorrhage, apical vacuolation, small atrophic nuclei, swelling of mitochondria, obliteration of the lumina, destruction of cells, and presence of tissue debris in the lumina, were observed in the distal convoluted tubules. The present work demonstrated the hazardous effect of antimony on the renal function as evidenced by the significant increase of the level of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. In conclusion, this study proposed that continuous oral administration of antimony for 8 and 12 weeks has hazardous toxic effect on the structure and function of the kidney in growing albino rat. Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended to avoid the use of any drinking water contaminated with antimony compounds and forbidden its use in infants and children foods.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and lithium electrochemical insertion into antimony-based graphite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailly, Anne; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Willmann, Patrick; Billaud, Denis

    There is a renewal of interest in the use of metals that are capable of alloying with lithium as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These metals can supply larger capacities than graphite but their main disadvantage consists in their very limited cycle life. Indeed, they present considerable volume variations during alloying, which lead to a mechanical degradation of the electrode. The concept of an active phase stabilizing matrix was introduced. We propose in this study to associate a metal able to alloy lithium to graphite by using new preparation methods involving graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) as precursors. In one case, antimony pentachloride SbCl 5 was reduced by the stage I KC 8 GIC. In another case, C 12SbCl 5 and C 24SbCl 5 GICs were reduced either by gaseous caesium or by activated sodium hydride NaH. Actually, these methods led to the attention of antimony-based graphite composites in which antimony particles are deposited on the surface and edges of graphite layers or embedded in an organic matrix. Both morphological and structural characteristics of such composites were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Examination of their electrochemical properties as regards lithium insertion showed that they present interesting performances because the reversible capacity is increased by comparison with that of pure graphite and the stability of the metal is preserved throughout the cycling. The combination of graphite and antimony prevents the metal against cracking and pulverization that occur generally during alloying/dealloying cycles. Antimony-graphite composites prepared via SbCl 5 reduction by KC 8, via C 12SbCl 5 reduction by gaseous caesium or via C 24SbCl 5 reduction by activated NaH display improved reversible capacities of 420, 490 and 440 mAh g -1, respectively.

  8. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is...

  18. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  20. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  1. Seebeck and figure of merit enhancement in nanostructured antimony telluride by antisite defect suppression through sulfur doping.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rutvik J; Zhang, Yanliang; Zhu, Hong; Parker, David S; Belley, Matthew; Singh, David J; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2012-09-12

    Antimony telluride has a low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT < ∼0.3) because of a low Seebeck coefficient α arising from high degenerate hole concentrations generated by antimony antisite defects. Here, we mitigate this key problem by suppressing antisite defect formation using subatomic percent sulfur doping. The resultant 10-25% higher α in bulk nanocrystalline antimony telluride leads to ZT ∼ 0.95 at 423 K, which is superior to the best non-nanostructured antimony telluride alloys. Density functional theory calculations indicate that sulfur increases the antisite formation activation energy and presage further improvements leading to ZT ∼ 2 through optimized doping. Our findings are promising for designing novel thermoelectric materials for refrigeration, waste heat recovery, and solar thermal applications.

  2. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 μg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  4. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  5. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration. PMID:27148704

  6. Fast sequential determination of antimony and lead in pewter alloys using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dessuy, Morgana B; de Jesus, Robson M; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A simple method has been developed to determine antimony and lead in pewter alloy cups produced in Brazil, using fast sequential determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were dissolved in HCl and H(2)O(2), employing a cold finger system in order to avoid analyte losses. The main resonance line of lead at 217.001 nm and a secondary line of antimony at 212.739 nm were used. The limits of detection for lead and antimony were 0.02 and 5.7 mg L(-1), respectively. The trueness of the method was established by recovery tests and comparing the results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results were compared using a student's t-test and there was no significant difference at a 95% confidence interval. With the developed methods, it was possible to determine accurately antimony and lead in pewter samples. The lead concentration found in the analysed samples was around 1 mg g(-1), which means that they are not lead free; however, the content was below the maximum allowed level of 5 mg g(-1). The antimony content, which was found to be between 40 and 46 mg g(-1), is actually of greater concern, as antimony is known to be potentially toxic already at very low concentrations, although there is no legislation yet for this element.

  7. Fast sequential determination of antimony and lead in pewter alloys using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dessuy, Morgana B; de Jesus, Robson M; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A simple method has been developed to determine antimony and lead in pewter alloy cups produced in Brazil, using fast sequential determination by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were dissolved in HCl and H(2)O(2), employing a cold finger system in order to avoid analyte losses. The main resonance line of lead at 217.001 nm and a secondary line of antimony at 212.739 nm were used. The limits of detection for lead and antimony were 0.02 and 5.7 mg L(-1), respectively. The trueness of the method was established by recovery tests and comparing the results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results were compared using a student's t-test and there was no significant difference at a 95% confidence interval. With the developed methods, it was possible to determine accurately antimony and lead in pewter samples. The lead concentration found in the analysed samples was around 1 mg g(-1), which means that they are not lead free; however, the content was below the maximum allowed level of 5 mg g(-1). The antimony content, which was found to be between 40 and 46 mg g(-1), is actually of greater concern, as antimony is known to be potentially toxic already at very low concentrations, although there is no legislation yet for this element. PMID:23046152

  8. Intrachromosomal Amplification, Locus Deletion and Point Mutation in the Aquaglyceroporin AQP1 Gene in Antimony Resistant Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

    PubMed Central

    Monte-Neto, Rubens; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Leprohon, Philippe; Reis, Priscila; Frézard, Frédéric; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimony resistance complicates the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings Using next generation sequencing, we sequenced the genome of four independent Leishmania guyanensis antimony-resistant (SbR) mutants and found different chromosomal alterations including aneuploidy, intrachromosomal gene amplification and gene deletion. A segment covering 30 genes on chromosome 19 was amplified intrachromosomally in three of the four mutants. The gene coding for the multidrug resistance associated protein A involved in antimony resistance was also amplified in the four mutants, most likely through chromosomal translocation. All mutants also displayed a reduced accumulation of antimony mainly due to genomic alterations at the level of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 31 harboring the gene coding for the aquaglyceroporin 1 (LgAQP1). Resistance involved the loss of LgAQP1 through subtelomeric deletions in three mutants. Interestingly, the fourth mutant harbored a single G133D point mutation in LgAQP1 whose role in resistance was functionality confirmed through drug sensitivity and antimony accumulation assays. In contrast to the Leishmania subspecies that resort to extrachromosomal amplification, the Viannia strains studied here used intrachromosomal amplification and locus deletion. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of a naturally occurred point mutation in AQP1 in antimony resistant parasites. PMID:25679388

  9. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. PMID:23561798

  10. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  11. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Jones, J H

    1981-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases.

  12. l-Nebiviololinium chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tuchalski, Gisbert; Hänsicke, Andre; Reck, Günther; Emmerling, Franziska

    2008-01-01

    The hydro­chloride salt of chiral l-nebivolol {systematic name: (+)−(R,S,S,S)-bis­[2-(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)-2-hydroxy­ethyl]ammonium chloride dihydrate}, C22H26F2NO4 +·Cl−·2H2O, was obtained by chiral liquid chromatography as a dihydrate. The pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. Hydrogen bonds between the cation, anions and water mol­ecules contribute to the formation of layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:21200930

  13. Antimony/Graphitic Carbon Composite Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Vail, Sean A; Lu, Yuhao; Song, Jie; Pan, Wei; Evans, David R; Lee, Jong-Jan

    2016-06-01

    Although the room-temperature rechargeable sodium-ion battery has emerged as an attractive alternative energy storage solution for large-scale deployment, major challenges toward practical sodium-ion battery technology remain including identification and engineering of anode materials that are both technologically feasible and economical. Herein, an antimony-based anode is developed by incorporating antimony into graphitic carbon matrices using low-cost materials and scalable processes. The composite anode exhibits excellent overall performance in terms of packing density, fast charge/discharge capability and cyclability, which is enabled by the conductive and compact graphitic network. A full cell design featuring this composite anode with a hexacyanometallate cathode achieves superior power output and low polarization, which offers the potential for realizing a high-performance, cost-effective sodium-ion battery. PMID:27172376

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Antimony and Arsenic Tricyanide and Their 2,2'-Bipyridine Adducts.

    PubMed

    Deokar, Piyush; Leitz, Dominik; Stein, Trent H; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A; Christe, Karl O; Haiges, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    The arsenic(III) and antimony(III) cyanides M(CN)3 (M=As, Sb) have been prepared in quantitative yields from the corresponding trifluorides through fluoride-cyanide exchange with Me3 SiCN in acetonitrile. When the reaction was carried out in the presence of one equivalent of 2,2'-bipyridine, the adducts [M(CN)3 ⋅(2,2'-bipy)] were obtained. The crystal structures of As(CN)3 , [As(CN)3 ⋅(2,2'-bipy)] and [Sb(CN)3 ⋅(2,2'-bipy)] were determined and are surprisingly different. As(CN)3 possesses a polymeric three-dimensional structure, [As(CN)3 ⋅(2,2'-bipy)] exhibits a two-dimensional sheet structure, and [Sb(CN)3 ⋅(2,2'-bipy)] has a chain structure, and none of the structures resembles those found for the corresponding arsenic and antimony triazides. PMID:27492940

  15. Effect of iron plaque on antimony uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Hockmann, Kerstin; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2015-09-01

    Although iron (Fe) plaque has been shown to significantly affect the uptake of toxic antimony (Sb) by rice, knowledge about the influence of iron plaque on antimony (Sb) (amount, mechanisms, etc) is, however, limited. Here, the effect of Fe plaque on Sb(III) and Sb(V) (nominal oxidation states) uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated using hydroponic experiments and synchrotron-based techniques. The results showed that iron plaque immobilized Sb on the surface of rice roots. Although the binding capacity of iron plaque for Sb(III) was markedly greater than that for Sb(V), significantly more Sb(III) was taken up by roots and transported to shoots. In the presence of Fe plaque, Sb uptake into rice roots was significantly reduced, especially for Sb(III). However, this did not translate into decreasing Sb concentrations in rice shoots and even increased shoot Sb concentrations during high Fe-Sb(III) treatment.

  16. Hot Wall Epitaxy And Characterization Of Bismuth And Antimony Thin Films On Barium Fluoride Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazo, Ramon; Dalmau, Rafael; Martinez, Antonio

    1998-03-01

    We have grown thin films of bismuth and antimony using hot wall epitaxy. The epitaxial films were grown on (111)-BaF2 substrates. The chemical integrity of the films was established using Auger electron spectroscopy and X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The thickness of the films was measured using an atomic force microscope to establish their growth rate. The crystallographic properties of the films were assessed using x-ray diffraction techniques. Both bismuth and antimony thin films were found to be oriented with the [003] direction perpendicular to the plane of the films. Pole figures of both types of films indicate the epitaxial nature of the films. Bi/Sb multilayer structures were grown using the same growth technique. We will report on the results of the characterization of these films as well as on the growth apparatus and process. Work supported in part by EPSCoR-NSF Grant EHR-9108775 and NCRADA-NSWCDD-92-01.

  17. Antimony segregation in stressed SiGe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdov, M. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Yurasov, D. V.

    2013-11-15

    The effects of the growth temperature, composition, and elastic strains in separate layers on the segregation of antimony are studied experimentally for stressed SiGe structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is established that the growth conditions and parameters of the structures exert an interrelated influence on the segregation of Sb: the degree of the influence of the composition and elastic stresses in the SiGe layers on Sb segregation depends on the growth temperature. It is shown that usage of a method previously proposed by us for the selective doping of silicon structures with consideration for the obtained dependences of Sb segregation on the growth conditions and parameters of the SiGe layers makes it possible to form SiGe structures selectively doped with antimony.

  18. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions].

    PubMed

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  19. Electric quadrupole interaction of 100Rh in antimony, hafnium and rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, W. J.; Abiona, A. A.; Kessler, P.; Timmers, H.

    2013-05-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy in beryllium, zinc, rhodium, antimony, hafnium and rhenium was performed with the 100Pd/100Rh probe using four-detector arrays with relative detector orientations of 90° and 180°. The probe was synthesized using the 92Zr(12C,4n)100Pd fusion evaporation reaction, with evaporation residues recoiling into specimens of the metals. The quadrupole coupling constant for 100Rh has been determined for the first time for antimony, hafnium and rhenium, while results for the other elements agree with known values. The coupling constants for the measured hexagonal lattices of the period VI transition metals, hafnium and rhenium, show the same trend with increasing atomic number as those of period V.

  20. Preparation and spectroscopic studies of antimony(III) and bismuth(III) halodithiocarbamate derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Aleardo; Preti, Carlo; Tosi, Giuseppe; Zannini, Paolo

    1983-04-01

    The complexes of antimony(III) and bismuth(III) with piperidine (Pipdtc), morpholine (Morphdtc) and thiomorpholinedithiocarbamate (Timdtc) of general formula Sb 2-(Rdtc) 3X 3 and M(Rdtc)X 2 (M is antimony or bismuth, X a halogen and Rdtc the dithiocarbamates) have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra suggest that the dithiocarbamate group coordinates as a bidentate ligand; the metal-sulphur and metal-halide stretching modes have also been assigned. The spectral data are discussed and compared with those of the corresponding trisdithiocarbamate and monohalobisdithiocarbamate derivatives. The molecular weight determinations indicate that all these dithiocarbamate complexes are dimeric. Tentative stereochemistries are proposed and discussed on the basis of the results obtained.

  1. Antimony/Graphitic Carbon Composite Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Vail, Sean A; Lu, Yuhao; Song, Jie; Pan, Wei; Evans, David R; Lee, Jong-Jan

    2016-06-01

    Although the room-temperature rechargeable sodium-ion battery has emerged as an attractive alternative energy storage solution for large-scale deployment, major challenges toward practical sodium-ion battery technology remain including identification and engineering of anode materials that are both technologically feasible and economical. Herein, an antimony-based anode is developed by incorporating antimony into graphitic carbon matrices using low-cost materials and scalable processes. The composite anode exhibits excellent overall performance in terms of packing density, fast charge/discharge capability and cyclability, which is enabled by the conductive and compact graphitic network. A full cell design featuring this composite anode with a hexacyanometallate cathode achieves superior power output and low polarization, which offers the potential for realizing a high-performance, cost-effective sodium-ion battery.

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric antimony emission inventories from coal combustion in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, H Z; Zhao, D; He, M C; Wang, Y; Cheng, K

    2011-06-01

    A multiple-year inventory of atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from coal combustion in China for the period of 1980-2007 has been calculated for the first time. Specifically, the emission inventories of Sb from 30 provinces and 4 economic sectors (thermal power, industry, residential use, and others) are evaluated and analyzed in detail. It shows that the total Sb emissions released from coal combustion in China have increased from 133.19 t in 1980 to 546.67 t in 2007, at an annually average growth rate of 5.4%. The antimony emissions are largely emitted by industrial sector and thermal power generation sector, contributing 53.6% and 26.9% of the totals, respectively. At provincial level, the distribution of Sb emissions shows significant variation. Between 2005 and 2007, provinces always rank at the top five largest Sb emissions are: Guizhou, Hunan, Hebei, Shandong, and Anhui.

  3. Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: adsorption behavior and surface structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun; He, Mengchang; Meng, Xiaoguang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing

    2014-07-15

    Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl3, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O2 in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb-Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0-1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ((2)E) between Sb and HFO.

  4. Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiao; Han, Zhangang; Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao; Zhai, Xueliang

    2012-10-15

    Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

  5. Chemically deposited thin films of sulfides and selenides of antimony and bismuth as solar energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. T.; Nair, Padmanabhan K.; Garcia, V. M.; Pena, Y.; Arenas, O. L.; Garcia, J. C.; Gomez-Daza, O.

    1997-10-01

    Chemical bath deposition techniques for bismuth sulfide, bismuth selenide, antimony sulfide, and antimony selenide thin films of about 0.20 - 0.25 micrometer thickness are reported. All these materials may be considered as solar absorber films: strong optical absorption edges, with absorption coefficient, (alpha) , greater than 104 cm-1, are located at 1.31 eV for Bi2Se3, 1.33 eV for Bi2S3, 1.8 eV for Sb2S3, and 1.35 eV for Sb2Se3. As deposited, all the films are nearly amorphous. However, well defined crystalline peaks matching bismuthinite (JCPDS 17- 0320), paraguanajuatite (JCPDS 33-0214), and stibnite (JCPDS 6-0474) and antimony selenide (JCPDS 15-0861) for Bi2S3, Bi2Se3, Sb2S3 and Sb2Se3 respectively, are observed when the films are annealed in nitrogen at 300 degrees Celsius. This is accompanied by a substantial modification of the electrical conductivity in the films: from 10-7 (Omega) -1 cm-1 (in as prepared films) to 10 (Omega) -1 cm-1 in the case of bismuth sulfide and selenide films, and enhancement of photosensitivity in the case of antimony sulfide films. The chemical deposition of a CuS/CuxSe film on these Vx- VIy films and subsequent annealing at 300 degrees Celsius for 1 h at 1 torr of nitrogen leads to the formation of p-type films (conductivity of 1 - 100 (Omega) -1 cm-1) of multinary composition. Among these, the formation of Cu3BiS3 (JCPDS 9-0488) and Cu3SbS4 (JCPDS 35- 0581), CuSbS2 (JCPDS 35-0413) have been clearly detected. Solar energy applications of these films are suggested.

  6. Structural, magnetic and dielectric investigations in antimony doped nano-phased nickel-zinc ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, Ch. S.; Sridhar, Ch. S. L. N.; Govindraj, G.; Bangarraju, S.; Potukuchi, D. M.

    2015-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Sb ferrites synthesized by hydrothermal method are reported. Influence of Sb5+ ions on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of ferrites is studied. Phase identification, lattice parameter and crystallite size studies are carried out using by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Addition of dopant resulted for decrease in lattice parameter. Crystallite size gets reduced from 62 nm to 38 nm with doping of Antimony. Crystallite size and porosity exhibit similar trends with doping. Morphological study is carried out by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Strong FTIR absorption bands at 400-600 cm-1 confirm the formation of ferrite structure. Increase of porosity is attributed to the grain size. Doping with Antimony results for decrease in saturation magnetization and increase in coercivity. An initial increase of saturation magnetization for x=0.1 is attributed to the unusually high density. Reversed trend of coercivity with crystallite size are observed. Higher value of dielectric constant ε‧(ω) is attributed to the formation of excess of Fe2+ ions caused by aliovalent doping of Sb5+ ions. Variation of dielectric constant infers hopping type of conductivity mechanism. The dielectric loss factor tanδ attains lower values of ~10-2. High ac resistivity ρ(ω) of 108 Ω cm is witnessed for antimony doped ferrites. Higher saturation magnetization and enhanced dielectric response directs for a possible utility as microwave oscillators and switches.

  7. Dissimilatory antimonate reduction and production of antimony trioxide microcrystals by a novel microorganism.

    PubMed

    Abin, Christopher A; Hollibaugh, James T

    2014-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid that has been exploited by humans since the beginning of modern civilization. The importance of Sb to such diverse industries as nanotechnology and health is underscored by the fact that it is currently the ninth-most mined metal worldwide. Although its toxicity mirrors that of its Group 15 neighbor arsenic, its environmental chemistry is very different, and, unlike arsenic, relatively little is known about the fate and transport of Sb, especially with regard to biologically mediated redox reactions. To further our understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and Sb, we have isolated a bacterium that is capable of using antimonate [Sb(V)] as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, resulting in the precipitation of antimonite [Sb(III)] as microcrystals of antimony trioxide. The bacterium, designated strain MLFW-2, is a sporulating member of a deeply branching lineage within the order Bacillales (phylum Firmicutes). This report provides the first unequivocal evidence that a bacterium is capable of conserving energy for growth and reproduction from the reduction of antimonate. Moreover, microbiological antimonate reduction may serve as a novel route for the production of antimony trioxide microcrystals of commercial significance to the nanotechnology industry.

  8. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and <40 μg L(-1) in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2-5 μg L(-1) Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.

  9. Geochemical Factors Affecting the Behavior of Antimony, Cobalt, Europium, Technetium, and Uranium in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2002-12-15

    In developing the Field Investigation Report (FIR) for the Waste Management Area (WMA) S-SX at the Hanford Site, cesium-137 was the only gamma emitting radionuclide of concern (Knepp 2002). However, in WMA B-BX-BY, the spectral gamma logging data identify seven gamma emitting radionuclides, cesium-137, antimony-125, europium-152 and -154, cobalt-60, uranium-235 and -238 (DOE-GJPO 1998). The geochemical behaviors of several of these radionuclides, antimony-125 and the two europium isotopes, have not been extensively investigated at the Hanford Site. This task was initiated to assure that our understanding of the geochemical properties affecting the environmental behavior of these radionuclides reflects the current state of knowledge. A literature review was conducted to assess the important oxidation/reduction, aqueous speciation, solubility, and adsorption processes affecting the environmental behavior of antimony, cobalt, europium, technetium, and uranium in vadose zone sediments with low-organic matter content in semi-arid environments such as those at the Hanford Site. Technetium-99 was included in this task because of its importance in the long-term risk calculations. This report presents the results of this literature review.

  10. H-point standard addition method applied to simultaneous kinetic determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) by adsorptive linear sweep voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Zarei, K; Atabati, M; Karami, M

    2010-07-15

    In this work, the applicability of H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) to the kinetic voltammetry data is verified. For this purpose, a procedure is described for the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) by adsorptive linear sweep voltammetry using pyrogallol as a complexing agent. The method is based on the differences between the rate of complexation of pyrogallol with Sb(V) and Sb(III) at pH 1.2. The results show that the H-point standard addition method is suitable for the speciation of antimony. Sb(III) and Sb(V) can be determined in the ranges of 0.003-0.120 and 0.010-0.240 microg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the solution is analyzed for any possible effects of foreign ions. The obtained results show that the HPSAM in combination to electroanalytical techniques is a powerful method with high sensitivity and selectivity. The procedure is successfully applied to the speciation of antimony in water samples.

  11. Phenoxyethanol absorption by polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, M G

    1984-12-01

    Phenoxyethanol was found to be absorbed by polyvinyl chloride administration sets during continuous irrigation therapy. Depending upon the conditions of administration up to 20% loss of potency could occur. Absorption of the drug by the rigid plastic luer-lock fitting of the set caused softening and decreased rigidity of the plastic.

  12. Accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements in plants around a former antimony mine located in the Ribes Valley (Eastern Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Corrales, Isabel; Duran, Paola; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Soil contamination by antimony is of increasing environmental concern due to the use of this amphoterous p-block element in many industrial applications such as flame retardant, electronics, alloys, rubber and textile industries. However, little is still known about the response of plants to antimony. Here we report on the accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements (mainly As, Pb and Cu) in plants growing around a former antimony mine in the ribes Valley located in the Eastern Pyrenees (424078E, 4686100N alt. 1145 m.a.s.l) that was operating approximately between the years 1870 to 1960. The ore mineral veins are included in quartz gangue. The main ores were: Sulphides: Stibnite (Sb2S3), Pyrite (FeS2), Sphalerite (ZnS), Arsenopyrite (FeAs), Galenite (PbS), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Tetrahydrite (Cu5Sb2S3). Sulphosals: Boulangerite (5PbS•2Sb2S3), Jamesonite (4PbS•FeS•3Sb2S3), Zinckenite (6PbS•7Sb2S3), Plagionite (5PbS•4Sb2S3), Bournonite PbCu (Sb,As)S3, Pyrargirite (Ag3SbS3). Soil and plant samples were taken at five locations with different levels of Sb, As, and polymetallic contamination. Both pseudototal (aqua regia soluble) and extractable (EDTA) concentrations of metals from sites with low (sites 1 and 2), moderate (site 3 and 4) and high (sites 5 and 6) pollutant burdens were studied. The range of agua regia and EDTA values in mgkg-1 is as follows: Sb 8-2904 and 0.88-44; As: 33-16186 and 3.2-167; Pb: 79-4794 and 49-397; Cu: 66-712 and 48-56 mg•kg-1, respectively). While sites 1 to 4 had alkaline soil pH (7.4-8.7), sites 5 and 6 were acidic with values of 6 and 4.6, respectively. Different herbaceous plant species (Poa annua, Echium vulgare, Sonchus asper, Barbera verna among others) at the low and moderately polluted sites were able to efficiently restrict Sb and As transport to shoots showing average concentration ranges between 5.5 and 23 mg/kg As and 1.21 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg Sb. However, at the highly polluted acidic sites (5 and

  13. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  14. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink... manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore in hydrochloric acid. The...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg.... It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg.... It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore...

  12. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  13. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M.; Muller, Jochen A.; Rosner, Bettina M.; Von Abendroth, Gregory; Meshulam-Simon, Galit; McCarty, Perry L

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  13. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  14. Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on controlled pyrolysis of high-impact polystyrene mixed with polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Mitan, Nona Merry M; Bhaskar, Thallada; Hall, William J; Muto, Akinori; Williams, Paul T; Sakata, Yusaku

    2008-07-01

    The controlled pyrolysis of polyethylene/polypropylene/polystyrene mixed with brominated high-impact polystyrene containing decabromodiphenyl ether as a brominated flame-retardant with antimony trioxide as a synergist was performed. The effect of decabromodiphenyl ether and antimony trioxide on the formation of its congeners and their effect on distribution of pyrolysis products were investigated. The controlled pyrolysis significantly affected the decomposition behavior and the formation of products. Analysis with gas chromatograph with electron capture detector confirmed that the bromine content was rich in step 1 (oil 1) liquid products leaving less bromine content in the step 2 (oil 2) liquid products. In the presence of antimony containing samples, the major portion of bromine was observed in the form of antimony bromide and no flame-retardant species were found in oil 1. In the presence of synergist, the step 1 and step 2 oils contain both light and heavy compounds. In the absence of synergist, the heavy compounds in step 1 oil and light compounds in step 2 oils were observed. The presence of antimony bromide was confirmed in the step 1 oils but not in step 2 oils. PMID:18499216

  15. Biodistribution of meglumine antimoniate in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Osso Jr, João Alberto; Andrade Jr, Heitor Franco de; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2013-08-01

    Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA) are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime®) was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, ¹²²Sb and ¹²⁴Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

  16. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  17. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  18. Determination of tellurium and antimony in nickel alloys by laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongwen; Lonardo, Robert F.; Michel, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Analytical laser excited atomic fluorescence of the metalloids tellurium and antimony in an electrothermal atomizer was studied. The detection limits were 20 fg and 10 fg for tellurium and antimony respectively, equivalent to about 0.01 ng g -1 in nickel based alloys by direct solid sample analysis, for a 1 mg solid sample, or 1 ng g -1 by the dissolution method, for a 100 mg solid sample in 100 ml solution. The detection limits were three orders of magnitude better than those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. They were also comparable to, or better than, those by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves were found to be six and seven orders of magnitude for antimony and tellurium respectively. By use of aqueous calibration, tellurium was accurately determined in NIST nickel alloy Standard Reference Materials by both a solid sample method, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 13%, and a dissolution method with an RSD of about 9%. Antimony in Pratt and Whitney "A" series nickel alloy standards was successfully determined by the dissolution method, with an RSD of about 7%, but by solid sampling the antimony method gave incomplete recovery. Molecular fluorescence backgrounds from nitric oxide and silicon monoxide were observed and discussed.

  19. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  20. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  1. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  2. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  3. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  4. Synthesis of antimony complexes of yeast mannan and mannan derivatives and their effect on Leishmania-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cantos, G; Barbieri, C L; Iacomini, M; Gorin, P A; Travassos, L R

    1993-01-01

    Antimony(Sb)-yeast mannan complexes were synthesized as a strategy to introduce Sb into macrophages infected with Leishmania amastigotes. The complexes were taken up by endocytosis after specific recognition by alpha-D-mannosyl receptors on the macrophage membrane. About 90% of the intracellular parasites were destroyed by Sb-mannan in vitro, whereas the corresponding Sb concentration used as the pentavalent antimonial drug glucantime destroyed about 60% of the amastigotes. None of the Sb complexes prepared with mannan acid or basic derivatives was as effective as the simple Sb-mannan complex in clearing macrophage infection by Leishmania (L) amazonensis. The leishmanicidal effect of Sb-mannan was also demonstrated in vivo with infected hamsters. The alternative use of Sb-mannan complex in the treatment of human leishmaniasis is envisaged on the basis of parasite-killing efficiency and the use of a low antimony dose.

  5. Sensitivity of Leishmania viannia panamensis to Pentavalent Antimony Is Correlated with the Formation of Cleavable DNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lucumi, Armando; Robledo, Sara; Gama, Vivian; Saravia, Nancy G.

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of Leishmania less sensitive to pentavalent antimonial agents (SbVs), the report of inhibition of purified topoisomerase I of Leishmania donovani by sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), and the uncertain mechanism of action of antimonial drugs prompted an evaluation of SbVs in the stabilization of cleavable complexes in promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia). The effect of camptothecin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase, and additive-free meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) on the stabilization of cleavable DNA-protein complexes associated with the inhibition of topoisomerase was assessed in the human promonocytic cell line U-937, promastigotes of L. (Viannia) panamensis selected for SbV resistance in vitro, and the corresponding wild-type strain. The stabilization of cleavable complexes and the 50% effective dose (ED50) of SbVs for parasites isolated from patients with relapses were also evaluated. The median ED50 for the wild-type strain was 16.7 μg of SbV/ml, while that of the line selected for resistance was 209.5 μg of SbV/ml. Treatment with both meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate (20 to 200 μg of SbV/ml) stabilized DNA-protein complexes in the wild-type strain but not the resistant line. The ED50s of the SbVs for Leishmania strains from patients with relapses was comparable to those for the line selected for in vitro resistance, and DNA-protein complexes were not stabilized by exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Cleavable complexes were observed in all Leishmania strains treated with camptothecin. Camptothecin stabilized cleavable complexes in U-937 cells; SbVs did not. The selective effect of the SbVs on the stabilization of DNA-protein complexes in Leishmania and the loss of this effect in naturally resistant or experimentally derived SbV-resistant Leishmania suggest that topoisomerase may be a target of antimonial drugs. PMID:9687395

  6. Self-assembled flower-like antimony trioxide microstructures with high infrared reflectance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Shengsong; Yang, Xiaokun; Shao, Qian; Liu, Qingyun; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-04-15

    A simple hydrothermal process was adopted to self-assembly prepare high infrared reflective antimony trioxide with three-dimensional flower-like microstructures. The morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. It is also found that experimental parameters, such as NaOH concentration, surfactant concentration and volume ratio of ethanol–water played crucial roles in controlling the morphologies of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures. A possible growth mechanism of flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructure was proposed based on the experimental data. UV–vis–NIR spectra verified that the near infrared reflectivity of the obtained flower-like microstructures could averagely achieve as 92% with maximum reflectivity of 98%, obviously higher than that of other different morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures. It is expected that the flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures have some applications in optical materials and heat insulation coatings. - Graphical abstract: Flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures that composed of nanosheets with thickness of ca. 100 nm exhibit high reflectivity under UV–vis–NIR spectra. Highlights: ► Uniform flower-like microstructures were synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. ► The flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures exhibited higher reflectivity than other morphologies under the UV–vis–NIR light. ► Influencing parameters on the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphologies have been discussed in detail. ► Possible mechanism leading to flower-like microstructures was proposed.

  7. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  8. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). PMID:27161624

  9. The LABCG2 Transporter from the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania Is Involved in Antimony Resistance.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ana; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Treatment for leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites, currently relies on a reduced arsenal of drugs. However, the significant increase in the incidence of drug therapeutic failure and the growing resistance to first-line drugs like antimonials in some areas of Northern India and Nepal limit the control of this parasitic disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance in Leishmania is now a matter of urgency to optimize drugs used and to identify novel drug targets to block or reverse resistant mechanisms. Some members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in Leishmania have been associated with drug resistance. In this study, we have focused our interest to characterize LABCG2's involvement in drug resistance in Leishmania. Leishmania major parasites overexpressing the ABC protein transporter LABCG2 were generated in order to assess how LABCG2 is involved in drug resistance. Assays of susceptibility to different leishmanicidal agents were carried out. Analysis of the drug resistance profile revealed that Leishmania parasites overexpressing LABCG2 were resistant to antimony, as they demonstrated a reduced accumulation of Sb(III) due to an increase in drug efflux. Additionally, LABCG2 was able to transport thiols in the presence of Sb(III) Biotinylation assays using parasites expressing LABCG2 fused with an N-terminal green fluorescent protein tag revealed that LABCG2 is partially localized in the plasma membrane; this supports data from previous studies which suggested that LABCG2 is localized in intracellular vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. In conclusion, Leishmania LABCG2 probably confers antimony resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates within vesicles and through further exocytosis by means of the parasite's flagellar pocket.

  10. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-01

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  11. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-01

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples. PMID:27065049

  12. Facile catalyst-free straightforward thermal evaporation of ultra-long antimony oxide microwires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2015-05-01

    Antimony oxide microwires (MWs) were grown on Si/SiO2 substrate by proficient non-catalytic economically promising method based on ambient heating of metallic source materials in crucible in a facile conventional muffle furnace. The produced antimony oxide microwires were 200-300 nm in diameter and tens micron in length. These ultra-long microwires were characterized by FESEM, TEM, XRD and Raman analysis. This approach is useful to develop grams quantities of microwires on Si/SiO2 substrate.

  13. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhimeng; Zhu, Mengfu; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Hong; Deng, Cheng; Li, Kui

    2016-05-01

    A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2)/carbon aerogel (CA) for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  14. The nuclear electric quadrupole moment of antimony from the molecular method.

    PubMed

    Haiduke, Roberto L A; da Silva, Albérico B F; Visscher, Lucas

    2006-08-14

    Relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) Hartree-Fock calculations are employed to obtain the analytic electric field gradient (EFG) on the antimony nucleus in the SbN, SbP, SbF, and SbCl molecules. The electronic correlation contribution to the EFGs is included with the DC-CCSD(T) and DC-CCSD-T approaches, also in the four-component framework, using a finite-difference method. The total EFG results, along with the experimental nuclear quadrupole coupling constants from microwave spectroscopy, allow to derive the nuclear quadrupole moments of (121)Sb and (123)Sb, respectively, as -543(11) and -692(14) mb.

  15. Determination of Structural and Electronic Parameters of Antimony Complex, from Theoretical Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catikkas, Berna; Kosar, Ismail

    2016-06-01

    In this study, ground states of antimony (Sbv) with organic ligands complexes were studied by using density functional theory hybrid methods in order to obtain structural, electronic and vibrational spectral parameters. The mapping molecular electrostatic potential surface of the molecules computed to information about the charge density distribution of the molecules and its chemical reactivity. Frontier molecule orbital properties, HOMO and LUMO energies, global descriptors, and the total density of state diagram analysis were performed by using the time-dependent density functional theory. For the learning nonlinear optical properties, polarizability and hyperpolarizability tensors of the molecule were calculated.

  16. Inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha activity by ammonium 21-tungsto-9-antimoniate (HPA23).

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Nakane, H; Matsumoto, T; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Chermann, J C

    1984-01-01

    Ammonium 21-tungsto-9-antimoniate (HPA23), an inorganic condensed ion, was shown to be a potent inhibitor for DNA polymerase alpha but not for beta. It inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase alpha in noncompetitive fashion with respect to either of deoxynucleotide substrate and template X primer, indicating the presence of a specific binding site for HPA23 on DNA polymerase alpha molecule. The Ki of the alpha polymerase for HPA23 was 24 nM. A possible interaction of HPA23 with DNA polymerase alpha is discussed.

  17. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of gallium and antimony in a liquid form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    Present paper deals with the effects of temperature variation on the electrical resistivity (Ω) of liquid Gallium (Ga), and Antimony (Sb). We have used a new parameter free pseudopotential with a Zeeman formula for finding it. To see the effects of screening Farid et al local field correction function is used with the Charged Hard Sphere (CHS) reference system. Analysis and comparison between the plotted graphs, based on present computed data and other experimental data defines and conclude that our newly constructed model potential is an effective one to produce the data for the temperature dependent electrical resistivity of some liquid semiconductors.

  18. Stable antimony compositions for the passivation of metal contaminated cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Tabler, D.C.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a stable aqueous metals passivating agent. It comprises: about 10 to about 97 weight percent water, about 1 to about 50 weight percent particulate antimony oxide, and a stabilizing amount of vinyl copolymer in the range of about 0.2 to about 3 weight percent. The weight percentages are based on the total weight of the aqueous metals passivating agent and the vinyl copolymer being the ammonium alt prepared by adding ammonium hydroxide to the hydrolyzed acid form of a poly(methylvinyl ether/maleic anhydride) consisting essentially of repeating units of the formula.

  19. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates α and β (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  20. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  1. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  2. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:26999998

  3. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  5. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  6. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  7. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes. PMID:26076768

  8. A Telomeric Cluster of Antimony Resistance Genes on Chromosome 34 of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Bifeld, Eugenia; Höhn, Katharina; Clos, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of Leishmania spp. are manifold and not completely identified. Apart from the highly conserved multidrug resistance gene family known from higher eukaryotes, Leishmania spp. also possess genus-specific resistance marker genes. One of them, ARM58, was first identified in Leishmania braziliensis using a functional cloning approach, and its domain structure was characterized in L. infantum Here we report that L. infantum ARM58 is part of a gene cluster at the telomeric end of chromosome 34 also comprising the neighboring genes ARM56 and HSP23. We show that overexpression of all three genes can confer antimony resistance to intracellular amastigotes. Upon overexpression in L. donovani, ARM58 and ARM56 are secreted via exosomes, suggesting a scavenger/secretion mechanism of action. Using a combination of functional cloning and next-generation sequencing, we found that the gene cluster was selected only under antimonyl tartrate challenge and weakly under Cu(2+) challenge but not under sodium arsenite, Cd(2+), or miltefosine challenge. The selective advantage is less pronounced in intracellular amastigotes treated with the sodium stibogluconate, possibly due to the known macrophage-stimulatory activity of this drug, against which these resistance markers may not be active. Our data point to the specificity of these three genes for antimony resistance. PMID:27324767

  9. Antimony oxofluorides - a synthesis concept that yields phase pure samples and single crystals.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sk Imran; Johnsson, Mats

    2016-07-26

    The single crystals of the new isostructural compounds Sb3O4F and Y0.5Sb2.5O4F and the two previously known compounds M-SbOF and α-Sb3O2F5 were successfully grown by a hydrothermal technique at 230 °C. The new compound Sb3O4F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c; a = 5.6107(5) Å, b = 4.6847(5) Å, c = 20.2256(18) Å, β = 94.145(8)°, z = 4. The replacing part of Sb with Y means a slight increase in the unit cell dimensions. The compounds M-SbOF and α-Sb3O2F5 have not been grown as single crystals before and it can be concluded that hydrothermal synthesis has proved to be a suitable technique for growing single crystals of antimony oxofluorides because of the relatively low solubility of such compounds compared to other antimony oxohalides that most often have been synthesised at high temperatures by solid state reactions or gas-solid reactions. PMID:27402498

  10. Antimony(III) complexes with 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidines: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Turgay; Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sarı, Musa; Karacan, Nurcan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Novel pyrimidine compound bearing disulfide bridge, 5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine) (3) was synthesized by reduction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-5-thiocyanatopyrimidine for the first time, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Novel binuclear antimony(III) compound of (3), {Sb[5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine)]Cl3}2 (4) and mononuclear antimony(III) compounds, SbL2Cl3, [L: 2-amino-5-thiol-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine (2) and 2-amino-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (6)] were synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analysis, molecular conductivity, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS techniques. The geometrical structures optimized by a DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method of the compounds, indicated that monomeric compounds have square pyramidal shape. Both antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigote and glutathione reductase inhibitory activity were determined in vitro. The results showed that (3) has the best biological activity. PMID:26427018

  11. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  12. Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust: characterization and leaching behaviors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Wang, Kunpeng; He, Mengchang; Liu, Ziwei; Yang, Hailin; Li, Sisi

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of solid waste has been produced by the antimony smelting process in the "World Capital of Antimony", Xikuangshan area in China. This study comprehensively investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of the various solid wastes, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid wastes, which included water-quenched slag, arsenic-alkali residue, desulfurized slag and blast furnace dust. These four types of waste were enriched in a variety of heavy metals and metalloids and more specifically with As and Sb levels up to 8.6 × 10⁴ and 3.16×10⁵ mg/kg, respectively, in arsenic-alkali residue. For desulfurized slag and water-quenched slag, the leaching concentration of Sb significantly exceeded the acceptable limits during the leaching tests using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. In addition, As leaching in arsenic-alkali residue was extraordinarily hazardous, being three orders of magnitude higher than the regulatory level of As. According to the results of the extraction tests, all the tested wastes were classified as hazardous waste.

  13. Influence of silicon on maize roots exposed to antimony - growth and antioxidative response.

    PubMed

    Vaculíková, Miroslava; Vaculík, Marek; Šimková, Lenka; Fialová, Ivana; Kochanová, Zuzana; Sedláková, Barbora; Luxová, Miroslava

    2014-10-01

    Pollution of antimony (Sb) raises a serious environmental problem. Although this non-essential element can be taken up by roots and accumulated in plant tissues in relatively high concentrations, there is still lack of knowledge about the effect of Sb on biochemical and metabolic processes in plants. It was shown that application of silicon (Si) can decrease the toxicity of other heavy metals and toxic elements in various plants. The aim of this study was to assess how Si influences the growth and antioxidative response of young Zea mays L. roots exposed to elevated concentrations of Sb. Antimony reduced the root growth and induced oxidative stress and activated antioxidant defense mechanisms in maize. Silicon addition to Sb treated roots decreased oxidative stress symptoms documented by lower lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, and decreased activity of antioxidative enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.11; catalase, EC 1.11.1.6; and guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7). Although neither positive nor negative effect of Si has been observed on root length and biomass, changes in the oxidative response of plants exposed to Sb indicate a possible mitigation role of Si on Sb toxicity in plants.

  14. Studies on optical properties of antimony doped SnO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürakar, Sibel; Serin, Tülay; Serin, Necmi

    2015-10-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on microscope glass substrates. The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The optical transmittances of thin films were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer in the 300-2000 nm wavelength range. A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model and the important oscillating parameters such as the dispersion energy Ed, the oscillation energy Eo, the high frequency dielectric constant ɛ∞ were determined. The analysis of the refractive index has been carried out to calculate the lattice dielectric constant ɛL and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/m*. The real and imaginary parts of the electronic dielectric constant and optical conductivity were analyzed. The optical band gap, Eg values of the films were obtained from the spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient, using the Tauc relation.

  15. Migration of antimony from PET containers into regulated EU food simulants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2013-11-15

    Antimony migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into aqueous (distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 10% and 20% ethanol) and fatty food simulants (vegetable oil), as well as into vinegar, was studied. Test conditions were according to the recent European Regulation 10/2011 (EU, 2011). Sb migration was assayed by ICP-MS and HG-AFS. The results showed that Sb migration values ranged from 0.5 to 1.2μg Sb/l, which are far below the maximum permissible migration value for Sb, 40μg Sb/kg, (EU, Regulation 10/2011). Parameters as temperature and bottle re-use influence were studied. To assess toxicity, antimony speciation was performed by HPLC-ICP-MS and HG-AFS. While Sb(V) was the only species detected in aqueous simulants, an additional species (Sb-acetate complex) was measured in wine vinegar. Unlike most of the studies reported in the literature, migration tests were based on the application of the EU directive, which enables comparison and harmonisation of results.

  16. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  17. Antimony(III) complexes with 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidines: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Turgay; Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sarı, Musa; Karacan, Nurcan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Novel pyrimidine compound bearing disulfide bridge, 5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine) (3) was synthesized by reduction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-5-thiocyanatopyrimidine for the first time, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Novel binuclear antimony(III) compound of (3), {Sb[5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine)]Cl3}2 (4) and mononuclear antimony(III) compounds, SbL2Cl3, [L: 2-amino-5-thiol-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine (2) and 2-amino-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (6)] were synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analysis, molecular conductivity, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS techniques. The geometrical structures optimized by a DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method of the compounds, indicated that monomeric compounds have square pyramidal shape. Both antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigote and glutathione reductase inhibitory activity were determined in vitro. The results showed that (3) has the best biological activity.

  18. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    PubMed

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance. PMID:26952405

  19. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  20. Antimony oxofluorides - a synthesis concept that yields phase pure samples and single crystals.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sk Imran; Johnsson, Mats

    2016-07-26

    The single crystals of the new isostructural compounds Sb3O4F and Y0.5Sb2.5O4F and the two previously known compounds M-SbOF and α-Sb3O2F5 were successfully grown by a hydrothermal technique at 230 °C. The new compound Sb3O4F crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c; a = 5.6107(5) Å, b = 4.6847(5) Å, c = 20.2256(18) Å, β = 94.145(8)°, z = 4. The replacing part of Sb with Y means a slight increase in the unit cell dimensions. The compounds M-SbOF and α-Sb3O2F5 have not been grown as single crystals before and it can be concluded that hydrothermal synthesis has proved to be a suitable technique for growing single crystals of antimony oxofluorides because of the relatively low solubility of such compounds compared to other antimony oxohalides that most often have been synthesised at high temperatures by solid state reactions or gas-solid reactions.

  1. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    PubMed

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-01

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm.

  2. New approaches to antimony film screen-printed electrodes using carbon-based nanomaterials substrates.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2016-04-15

    Three different commercial carbon nanomaterial-modified screen-printed electrodes based on graphene, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers were pioneeringly tested as electrode platforms for the plating with Sb film. They were microscopically and analytically compared to each other and to the most conventional unmodified carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE). The obtained detection and quantification limits suggest that the in-situ antimony film electrode prepared from carbon nanofibers modified screen-printed electrode (SbSPCE-CNF) produces a better analytical performance as compared to the classical SPCE modified with antimony for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination, approving its appropriateness for measuring low μg L(-1) levels of the considered metals. In-situ SbSPCE-CNF was successfully used for the simultaneous determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions, by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, in a certified reference estuarine water sample with a very high reproducibility and good trueness. PMID:27016434

  3. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chaki, Sunil H. Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  4. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    PubMed

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance.

  5. Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

    1999-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

  6. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  7. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  8. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  9. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  10. Simultaneous determination of antimony and boron in beverage and dairy products by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after separation and pre-concentration by cloud-point extraction.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration and simultaneous determination of Sb(III) and B(III) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method was based on complexation of Sb(III) and B(III) with azomethine-H in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a signal-enhancing agent, and then extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-114. Under optimised conditions, linear calibration was obtained for Sb(III) and B(III) in the concentration ranges of 0.5-180 and 2.5-600 μg l(-1) with LODs of 0.15 and 0.75 μg l(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) (25 and 100 μg l(-1) of Sb(III) and B(III), n = 6) were in a range of 2.1-3.8% and 1.9-2.3%, respectively. Recoveries of spiked samples of Sb(III) and B(III) were in the range of 98-103% and 99-102%, respectively. Measured values for Sb and B in three standard reference materials were within the 95% confidence limit of the certified values. Also, the method was used for the speciation of inorganic antimony. Sb(III), Sb(V) and total Sb were measured in the presence of excess boron before and after pre-reduction with an acidic mixture of KI-ascorbic acid. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of total Sb and B in selected beverage and dairy products.

  11. Speciation analysis of antimony in extracts of size-classified volcanic ash by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Miravet, R; López-Sánchez, J F; Rubio, R; Smichowski, P; Polla, G

    2007-03-01

    Although there is concern about the presence of toxic elements and their species in environmental matrices, for example water, sediment, and soil, speciation analysis of volcanic ash has received little attention. Antimony, in particular, an emerging element of environmental concern, has been less studied than other potentially toxic trace elements. In this context, a study was undertaken to assess the presence of inorganic Sb species in ash emitted from the Copahue volcano (Argentina). Antimony species were extracted from size-classified volcanic ash (<36 microm, 35-45 microm, 45-150 microm, and 150-300 microm) by use of 1 mol L(-1) citrate buffer at pH 5. Antimony(III) and (V) in the extracts were separated and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Antimony species concentrations (microg g(-1)) in the four fractions varied from 0.14 to 0.67 for Sb(III) and from 0.02 to 0.03 for Sb(V). The results reveal, for the first time, the occurrence of both inorganic Sb species in the extractable portion of volcanic ash. Sb(III) was always the predominant species.

  12. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    2011-02-27

    The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

  13. Electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes in coal gas containing antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    The interactions of antimony with the nickel-zirconia anode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800 °C in synthetic coal gas containing 100 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5% power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1600 h depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel resulting in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni 5Sb 2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer, while the late stage degradation was due the Ni-Sb phase formation. Assuming an average Sb concentration in coal gas of 0.07 ppmv, a 500 μm thick Ni/zirconia anode-supported cell is not expected to fail within 7 years when operated at a power output of 0.5 W cm -2 and fuel utilization above 50%.

  14. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  15. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed. PMID:21552747

  17. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  18. Speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in meglumine antimoniate pharmaceutical formulations by PSA using carbon nanotube electrode.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vivian Silva; Santos, Wilney de Jesus Rodrigues; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    A new and simple electroanalytical method for speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) using a multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode was developed. All instrumental and chemical parameters influencing the performance of the method were carefully assessed and optimized. Trivalent antimony was determined in acid medium (pH 3.6) under the optimized condition (deposition potential of -0.7 V, deposition time of 180 s, ionic strength of 0.3M and oxidant mercury concentration of 10 mg l(-1)). Total antimony was determined after quantitative reduction of Sb(V) with l-cysteine (1.5%, w/v) and its concentration was calculated from difference between the total antimony and Sb(III). The developed method provided two distinct linear calibration one ranging from 10 up to 50 microg l(-1) and other from 100 up to 800 microg l(-1) with respective correlation coefficient of 0.9978 and 0.9993, presenting a detection limit of 6.2 microg l(-1). Repeatability for the six independent samples expressed in terms of relative standard deviation was found to be 3.01 and 1.39% for 40.0 and 300.0 microg l(-1) antimony concentration, respectively. Results on the effect of foreign substances [Al(III), Mg(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II) and meglumine] on analytical signal of antimony showed no interference even using high content of foreign ions in the analyte:interferent ratio up to 1:100. The proposed method was successfully applied for the speciation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in pharmaceutical formulation and the accuracy was assessed from addition and recovery tests as well as comparing with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) technique used as reference analytical method.

  19. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  20. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  1. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  2. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS... dichloride. It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS... dichloride. It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore...

  5. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  6. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  7. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  8. Antimony and arsenic behaviours in soils from three abandoned gold mining areas in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paula; Neiva, Ana; Silva, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Valongo anticline located 18 km at East of Porto is characterized by the occurrence of several gold deposits, which were exploited until the end of the nineteenth century. This anticline comprises Cambrian to Carboniferous metasediments. The Cambrian schist-graywacke complex crops out in the western limb of the anticline and is intersected by several Sb-Au quartz veins, mainly Montalto and Tapada. At the eastern limb of the anticline, As-Au quartz veins cut Ordovician black slates and were exploited at the Banjas mine. The Sb-Au quartz veins contain mainly quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, chalcophyrite, galena, gold, tetrahedrite, jamesonite, plagionite, berthierite, stibnite, antimony and carbonates. The As-Au quartz veins consist of quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, cobaltite, glaucodote, sphalerite, boulangerite, tetrahedrite and siderite. Stibnite and arsenopyrite are the most abundant sulphides in Sb-Au and As-Au quartz veins, respectively. Therefore, antimony and arsenic are potential contaminants in the surrounding environments of these old mines. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity, clay size particle and reducible, oxidizable and aqua regia Fe, Mn, As and Sb concentrations obtained by the BCR method in 29 soil samples. The PCA shows a substantial distinction between Sb and As behaviours in soils from the old mining areas of Montalto, Tapada and Banjas. The arsenic concentration ranges between 16.98 mg/kg and 1116 mg/kg, whereas the Sb concentration ranges from 6.4 mg/kg to 21775 mg/kg. The antimony is statistically more correlated with Fe and Mn in the oxides fraction, whereas As in the reducible fraction dependents on pH values. Moreover, Fe and Mn concentrations in the oxidizable fraction are highly correlated with the organic matter, suggesting that pyrite, the main host mineral of Fe, was probably totally altered. However, the As concentration in

  9. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  10. Chloride transport in the cystic fibrosis enterocyte.

    PubMed

    Bijman, J; Veeze, H; Kansen, M; Tilly, B; Scholte, B; Hoogeveen, A; Halley, D; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, H

    1991-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of intestinal chloride channel regulation and potential abnormalities in electrogenic chloride secretion in intestinal epithelium from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were investigated by a combination of Ussing chamber, vesicle transport and off-cell patch-clamp analysis. Short circuit current (Isc) measurements in normal and CF rectal biopsies provided evidence for i) a defect in the cAMP-provoked activation of chloride secretion and a (hyper)expression of cAMP-dependent potassium secretion in all CF patients examined (n = 11); ii) a defect in the carbachol-provoked chloride secretion and a (hyper)expression of carbachol-induced potassium secretion in 6/11 patients; iii) a residual (but still impaired) carbachol-induced chloride secretion in 5/11 CF patients (including 2 sibs). The latter class of CF patients appeared to consist genetically of compound heterozygotes for the major delta-F508 deletion, suggesting a correlation between the nature of the mutation in the CF gene and the severity of the chloride secretory defect in CF intestine. In our search for a regulatory function of GTP-binding (G-) proteins detected previously in the luminal membrane of rat and human intestinal epithelial cells, evidence was found for the presence of a GTP[S]-activatable- and GDP[S]-inhibitable chloride conductance in the apical membrane of rat enterocytes and human colonocytes. In excised patches of human colonocyt membranes, this G-proteine-sensitive chloride conductance was identified further as a novel type of chloride channel (20pS; inwardly rectifying) that was different from the 33pS outwardly rectifying chloride channel activatable by cAMP-dependent proteinkinase (PK-A) and voltage depolarization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  12. Failure to remove true sentinel nodes can cause failure of the sentinel node biopsy technique: evidence from antimony concentrations in false-negative sentinel nodes from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Li, Ling-Xi L; Beavis, Alison; Dawson, Michael; Doble, Phillip; Ka, Vivian S K; McKinnon, J Gregory; Soper, Robyne; Uren, Roger F; Shaw, Helen M; Stretch, Jonathan R; McCarthy, Stanley W

    2004-03-01

    We have recently found that antimony (originating from the technetium 99m antimony trisulfide colloid, used for preoperative lymphoscintigraphy) can be measured in tissue sections from archival paraffin blocks of sentinel nodes (SNs) by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to confirm that removed nodes are true SNs. We performed a retrospective analysis of antimony concentrations in all our false-negative (FN) SNs to determine whether errors in lymphadenectomy (i.e., failure to remove true SNs) may be a cause of FN SN biopsies (SNBs). Among 27 patients with an FN SNB, metastases were found on histopathologic review of the original slides or additional sections in 7 of 23 patients for which they were available; however, antimony concentrations were low in 5 of 20 presumptive SNs. Our results suggest that an FN SNB can occur because of failure to remove the true SN as well as histopathologic misdiagnosis.

  13. Phytoavailability of antimony and heavy metals in arid regions: the case of the Wadley Sb district (San Luis, Potosí, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Levresse, G; Lopez, G; Tritlla, J; López, E Cardellach; Chavez, A Carrillo; Salvador, E Mascuñano; Soler, A; Corbella, M; Sandoval, L G Hernández; Corona-Esquivel, R

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents original results on the Sb and heavy metals contents in sediments and waste tailings, plants and water from the giant Wadley antimony mine district (San Luis Potosí State, Mexico). The dominant antimony phases in mining wastes are stibiconite, montroydite and minor hermimorphite. The waste tailings contain high concentrations of metals and metalloids (antimony, iron, zinc, arsenic, copper, and mercury). Manganese, copper, zinc, and antimony contents exceed the quality guidelines values for groundwater, plants and for waste tailings. Results indicate that peak accumulation is seasonal due to the concentration by high metabolism plants as Solanaceae Nicotiana. The metal phytoavailability in waste tailings is highly dependant on the metal speciation, its capability to be transported in water and, more particularly, the plant metabolism efficiency.

  14. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q.; Vassie, P.R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  15. The electrical characterizations of selenium (Se) doped gallium antimony (GaSb) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manisha; Maske, Dilip; Gadkari, Dattatray

    2016-05-01

    The growth of Se doped GaSb bulk crystal is carried out using Vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique. High purity Gallium and Antimony is taken as source material and selenium as doping material. From grown ingot substrate were obtained in wafer form using diamond cutter. The electrical characteristics such as Hall measurement is used to find the carrier concentration and mobility, while Van der pauw for measuring resistivity of the sample The GaSb:Se sample shows high resistivity and mobility. The grown crystal was detached from the ampoule wall with high crystal quality. The measured resistivity of GaSb:Se is 9.9×10-3ohm-cm, the mobility is 1464cm3/Vsec and carrier concentration is 5.08×1017 per cm3.

  16. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities. PMID:27188777

  18. Focused ion beam induced synthesis of antimony nanowires for gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoendorfer, Christoph; Hetzel, Martin; Pongratz, Peter; Lugstein, Alois; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the formation of antimony (Sb) nanowires (NWs) by a focused Ga ion beam approach and their gas sensing capability is reported. The NWs with uniform diameters of only 25 nm and lengths up to several microns are synthesized at predefined positions at room temperature in an ion beam induced self-assembling process. Then individual Sb-NWs are deposited on insulating substrates and provided with gold electrodes. Subsequently sensing characteristics of individual Sb-NWs are investigated at room temperature for H2O, CO, H2, He, O2 and ethanol over a wide concentration range. The Sb-NWs exhibit selective sensing properties for ethanol and H2O with exceptional sensitivities of more than 17 000 and 60 000, respectively.

  19. Stimulated Terahertz Stokes Emission of Silicon Crystals Doped with Antimony Donors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, S.G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Hovenier, J.N.; Klaassen, T.O.; Carder, D.A.; Phillips, P.J.; Redlich, B.; Riemann, H.; Zhukavin, R.Kh.; Shastin, V.N.

    2006-01-27

    Stimulated Stokes emission has been observed from silicon crystals doped by antimony donors when optically excited by radiation from a tunable infrared free electron laser. The photon energy of the emission is equal to the pump photon energy reduced by the energy of the intervalley transverse acoustic (TA) g phonon in silicon ({approx_equal}2.92 THz). The emission frequency covers the range of 4.6-5.8 THz. The laser process occurs due to a resonant coupling of the 1s(E) and 1s(A{sub 1}) donor states (separation {approx_equal}2.97 THz) via the g-TA phonon, which conserves momentum and energy within a single impurity center.

  20. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications. PMID:26624204

  1. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sadananda Kumar, N. Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  2. A novel composite material based on antimony(III) oxide and amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Zemnukhova, Ludmila A.; Panasenko, Alexander E.

    2013-05-01

    The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. It has been shown that the composition of the material is influenced by the ratio of the initial components and the acidity of the reaction medium. The morphology of the material particles and its specific surface area have been determined. The thermal and optic properties were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Novel composite material containing amorphous silica and crystal antimony(III) oxide has been synthesized by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. Highlights: • The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared in an aqueous medium. • The composition of the material is controllable by a synthesis conditions. • The morphology of the material and its optic properties have been determined.

  3. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Sun, Liguang; He, Xin; You, Kehua; Zhou, Xin; Long, Nanye

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas.

  4. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian . E-mail: Liangaoc@online.sh.cn

    2004-12-02

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m{sup 2}/g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6.

  5. Partial oxidation of {alpha}-olefins over iron antimony oxide - influence of carbon number

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, E. van; Schnobel, M.; O`Connor, C.T.

    1996-10-01

    Iron antimony oxide is a well known catalyst for the partial oxidation of propane and 1-butene. Kinetic studies of the partial oxidation of {alpha}-olefins (C{sub 2}-C{sub 9}) revealed that the activity showed a maximum at C{sub 4}. The main products of the partial oxidation of {alpha}-olefins (larger than C{sub 2}) are the conjugated alkenal (acrolein) and dienes. The selectivity to these desired products decreases with increasing chain length probably caused by both the decrease in number of allylic hydrogen atoms and the shielding of them. Ethene could only be oxidized at relatively high temperatures (over 450{degrees}C) and the only observed products were CO and CO{sub 2} indicating the need for the presence of allylic hydrogen for low temperature selective partial oxidation. Increasing the carbon number increases the yield of CO and CO{sub 2} due to shielding of the allylic hydrogen.

  6. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for monitoring of antimony in samples of vegetation from a mining area.

    PubMed

    Toro Gordillo, M C; Pinilla Gil, E; Rodríguez González, M A; Murciego Murciego, A; Ostapczuk, P

    2001-06-01

    A potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) method has been developed and checked for the fast and reliable determination of antimony in vegetation samples of Cistus ladanifer from a mining area in Badajoz, Southwest Spain. The method, modified from previous PSA methods for Sb in environmental samples, is based on dry ashing of the homogenized leaves, dissolution in hydrochloric acid, and PSA analysis on a mercury film plated on to a glassy carbon disk electrode. The influence of experimental variables such as the deposition potential, the deposition time, the signal stability and the calibration parameters, has been investigated. The method has been compared with an independent technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) by analysis of standards and reference materials and comparison of the results. As a result of automation of the PSA equipment, the proposed method enables unattended analysis of 20 digested samples in a total time of 2 h, thus providing a useful tool for Sb monitoring of a large number of samples.

  7. Thermoelectric transport in surface- and antimony-doped bismuth telluride nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Kim, Jaehyun; Wu, Wei; Bustillo, Karen C.; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    We report the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 nanoplates with x ranging from 0.07 to 0.95 and thicknesses ranging from 9 to 42 nm. The results presented here reveal a trend of increasing p-type behavior with increasing antimony concentration, and a maximum Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit at x ˜ 0.5. We additionally tuned extrinsic doping of the surface using a tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) coating. The lattice thermal conductivity is found to be below that for undoped ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates of comparable thickness and in the range of 0.2-0.7 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature.

  8. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  9. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.C.; Liu, G.J.; Kang, Y.; Chou, C.L.; Wang, R.W.

    2008-03-15

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 {mu} g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate-plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matter bound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism.

  10. Suppression of Grain Growth by Additive in Nanostructured P-type Bismuth Antimony Tellurides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Qinyong; Chen, S.; Liu, W S; Lukas, K; Yan, X; Wang, H; Wang, D.; Opeil, C; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    Grain growth is a major issue in the preparation of nanostructured bismuth-antimony-tellurides during hot pressing the nanopowders into dense bulk samples. To prevent grain agglomeration during ball milling and growth during hot pressing, organic agent (Oleic Acid, OA) as additive was added into the materials at the beginning of the ball milling process. With different concentrations of OA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt%), grains with different sizes are obtained. Structural analysis clearly shows that it is the particle size of the nanopowders that determines the final grain size in the densely compacted bulk samples. A combination of small grains ~200–500 nm and nanopores leads to effective phonon scattering, which results in the decrease of lattice thermal conductivity, and ZT of ~1.3 at 373 K for the sample with 2.0 wt% OA.

  11. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  12. Rashba effect in single-layer antimony telluroiodide SbTeI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Xu, Haixuan; Ganesh, P.; Hennig, Richard G.; Kent, P. R. C.

    2015-09-04

    Exploring spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in single-layer materials is important for potential spintronics applications. In this paper, using first-principles calculations, we show that single-layer antimony telluroiodide SbTeI behaves as a two-dimensional semiconductor exhibiting a G0W0 band gap of 1.82 eV. More importantly, we observe the Rashba spin splitting in the SOC band structure of single-layer SbTeI with a sizable Rashba coupling parameter of 1.39 eV Å, which is significantly larger than that of a number of two-dimensional systems including surfaces and interfaces. The low formation energy and real phonon modes of single-layer SbTeI imply that it is stable. Finally, our study suggests that single-layer SbTeI is a candidate single-layer material for applications in spintronics devices.

  13. On the segregation behavior of tin and antimony at grain boundaries of polycrystalline bcc iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejček, P.; Šandera, P.; Horníková, J.; Pokluda, J.; Godec, M.

    2016-02-01

    The study of the temperature dependence of tin and antimony segregation at grain boundaries of binary Fe-Sb and Fe-Sn polycrystalline alloys using Auger Electron Spectroscopy suggests that during the brittle intergranular fracture mainly the general grain boundaries are opened in the samples annealed at low temperatures which are more segregated than the special ones. On the contrary, the special grain boundaries are opened in the samples annealed at higher temperatures because - as a consequence of the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect - they are more enriched by the solute. The limiting temperature between these two states is the so-called compensation temperature. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the grain boundary segregation measured in polycrystals should be described by two sets of the thermodynamic parameters (i.e. segregation enthalpy and entropy): one of them correlating the segregation under the compensation temperature, the other one for the segregation at higher temperatures.

  14. Determination of antimony in ores and related materials by continuous hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry after separation by xanthate extraction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E M

    1990-10-01

    A continuous hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometric method for determining approximately 0.02 mug/g or more of antimony in ores, concentrates, rocks, soils and sediments is described. The method involves the reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) by heating with hypophosphorous acid in a 4.5M hydrochloric acid-tartaric acid medium and its separation by filtration, if necessary, from any elemental arsenic, selenium and tellurium produced during the reduction step. Antimony is subsequently separated from iron, lead, zinc, tin and various other elements by a single cyclohexane extraction of its xanthate complex from approximately 4.5M hydrochloric acid/0.2M sulphuric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reluctant for iron(III). After the extract is washed, if necessary, with 10% hydrochloric acid-2% thiourea solution to remove co-extracted copper, followed by 4.5M hydrochloric acid to remove residual iron and other elements, antimony(III) in the extract is oxidized to antimony(V) with bromine solution in carbon tetrachloride and stripped into dilute sulphuric acid containing tartaric acid. Following the removal of bromine by evaporation of the solution, antimony(V) is reduced to antimony(III) with potassium iodide in approximately 3M hydrochloric acid and finally determined by hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry at 217.8 nm with sodium borohydride as reluctant. Interference from platinum and palladium, which are partly co-extracted as xanthates under the proposed conditions, is eliminated by complexing them with thiosemicarbazide during the iodide reduction step. Interference from gold is avoided by using a 3M hydrochloric acid medium for the hydride-generation step. Under these conditions gold forms a stable iodide complex.

  15. Cross-resistance of Leishmania infantum isolates to nitric oxide from patients refractory to antimony treatment, and greater tolerance to antileishmanial responses by macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Tatiana R; Santos, Micheli Luize Barbosa; Braz, Juciene M; Santos, Luis Felipe V C; Aragão, Matheus T; de Oliveira, Fabricia A; Santos, Priscila L; da Silva, Ângela Maria; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; de Almeida, Roque P

    2016-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease characterized by intense parasitism of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Antimonials have served as front-line antileishmanial therapeutics for decades, but the increasing failure rates under antimonial treatment have challenged the continued use of these drugs. Pentavalent antimonials are known to reinforce the killing mechanisms of macrophages, although the associated mechanism remains unclear. Here, for the first time, we determined whether Leishmania infantum strains isolated from patients refractory to antimony treatment (relapse cases) were cross-resistant to antimonials, liposomal amphotericin B, and/or nitric oxide, and also whether these strains modulate macrophage infection. We selected four clinical isolates from relapse cases and two clinical isolates from antimony-responsive patients (control group) for the present study. The L. infantum promastigotes from all four relapse cases were resistant to trivalent antimonial treatment and nitric oxide, while only one isolate was resistant to liposomal amphotericin B. We evaluated whether the resistant strains from relapse cases showed enhanced infectivity and amastigote survival in macrophages, or macrophage-killing mechanisms in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon gamma. Infection indexes calculated using macrophages infected with isolates from relapse were higher than those observed with control strains that were stimulated independently. Macrophage infection was higher with L. infantum isolates from relapse cases and correlated with enhanced interleukin 1-β production but showed similar nitrite production. Our results demonstrate that L. infantum field isolates from relapse cases were resistant to antimonials and nitric oxide and that these parasites stimulated inflammatory cytokines and were resistant to macrophage-killing mechanisms, factors that may contribute to disease severity.

  16. Arsenic and antimony determination by on-line flow hydride generation glow discharge optical emission detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermo Orellana-Velado, Néstor; Fernández, Matilde; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathode (HC) and conventional flat cathode (FC) glow discharge (GD) optical emission spectrometry (OES) were used as detectors for the determination of arsenic and antimony by on-line hydride generation (HG) in a flow system. Both radiofrequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sources were investigated to produce the discharge. The design of the HC and FC and also the parameters governing the discharge (pressure, He flow rate, voltage, current and delivered power) and the HG (sodium borohydride concentration and reagent flow rates) were investigated using both cathodes. The analytical performance characteristics of HG-GD-OES with HC and FC were evaluated for some emission lines of arsenic (193.7, 200.3, 228.8 and 234.9 nm). The best detection limit (0.2 μg l -1) was obtained when the emission line of 228.8 nm was used with FC. Under the same arsenic optimized experimental conditions, the system was evaluated to determine antimony at 259.7, 252.7 and 231.1 nm, 252.7 nm being the emission line which produced the best detection limit (0.7 μg l -1). The rf-HC-GD-OES system was applied successfully to the determination of arsenic in freeze-dried urine in the standard reference material 2670 from NIST. Finally, a flow injection system was assayed to determine arsenic at 228.8 nm, using a dc-GD with both FC and HC. The results indicated that for low volumes of sample, the HC discharge allows better analytical signals than the FC.

  17. Speciation of inorganic antimony (III & V) employing polyurethane foam loaded with bromopyrogallol red.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Gonçalves, Aline D; Cruz, Graziela F B; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony (Sb(III) and Sb(V)) is proposed using polyurethane foam loaded with bromopyrogallol red (PUF-BPR) as a selective sorbent for Sb(III). The quantification of Sb in the solutions was performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), and several variables that could affect the performance of the method were carefully evaluated. The best conditions for the sorption of Sb(III) were achieved by shaking 50mg of PUF-BPR with the solutions containing Sb(III) at pH 4.0 for 90 min. In this condition, the retention of Sb(V) was not significant, whereas the removal of Sb(III) from the solution was higher than 95%. The desorption of Sb(III) from loaded PUF-BPR was possible by shaking the loaded foam with 7.5 mL of a 2.5 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution for 30 min. No interference of metal cations was observed on the solid-phase extraction of Sb(III) by PUF-BPR. The developed method was applied in the speciation analysis of antimony in river water samples fortified with different concentrations of Sb(III) and Sb(V). Also, we performed the determination of Sb(III) in a sample of a Sb-based drug utilized in the treatment of leishmaniasis. The results show that Sb(III) can be separated from high concentrations of Sb(V), since recoveries in the range of 81-110% were obtained in the analysis of the samples. The method presented limits of detection and quantification of 0.6 and 2 µg L(-1), respectively, for Sb(III) and 1 and 3 µg L(-1) for Sb(V), respectively. PMID:26838441

  18. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was <10 % total soil-borne As with concentrations less than the current Australian maximum residue concentration for cereals. The results indicate that risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was <7 % for total As and <3 % total Sb which is important to consider when estimating the real risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  19. The effect of phosphate application on the mobility of antimony in firing range soils.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Christopher S; Martin, W Andy; Larson, Steven L; O'Connnor, Greg; Fabian, Gene; Zynda, Greg; Mackie, David

    2011-05-15

    Chemical and biogenic sources of phosphate are commonly accepted in situ treatment methods for immobilization of lead (Pb) in soil. The metalloid antimony (Sb), commonly associated with Pb in the environment, exists as either a neutral species or a negatively charged oxyanion. Antimony is used in the manufacture of bullets as a hardening agent, constituting approximately 3% of the bullet mass. Technological solutions to reduce the migration of metals from small arms firing range (SAFR) soils for environmental compliance purposes must be robust with respect to multi-component systems containing both cationic and anionic contaminants. The effect of varying physico-chemical soil properties on Sb mobility post-firing was assessed in this study for six soil types using common analytical protocols and methods related to regulatory criteria. The sands (SM and SP) demonstrated the greatest Sb solubility in post-firing leachate samples and therefore were selected to evaluate the effects of five commercially available stabilization amendments on Sb mobility. Enhanced Sb leaching was experimentally confirmed in the phosphate-treated soils compared to both the untreated control soil and the sulfur-based amendment, and thus suggests competition for negative sorption sites between Sb and phosphate. However, the 5% Buffer Block® calcium phosphate amendment did not exhibit the same enhanced Sb release. This can be attributed to the inclusion of aluminum hydroxide in the amendment composition. Technologies are needed that will adequately immobilize Pb without mobilizing oxyanions such as Sb. Further research will be required to elucidate binding mechanisms and redox conditions that govern the mobility of Sb on SAFRs.

  20. The effect of phosphate application on the mobility of antimony in firing range soils.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Christopher S; Martin, W Andy; Larson, Steven L; O'Connnor, Greg; Fabian, Gene; Zynda, Greg; Mackie, David

    2011-05-15

    Chemical and biogenic sources of phosphate are commonly accepted in situ treatment methods for immobilization of lead (Pb) in soil. The metalloid antimony (Sb), commonly associated with Pb in the environment, exists as either a neutral species or a negatively charged oxyanion. Antimony is used in the manufacture of bullets as a hardening agent, constituting approximately 3% of the bullet mass. Technological solutions to reduce the migration of metals from small arms firing range (SAFR) soils for environmental compliance purposes must be robust with respect to multi-component systems containing both cationic and anionic contaminants. The effect of varying physico-chemical soil properties on Sb mobility post-firing was assessed in this study for six soil types using common analytical protocols and methods related to regulatory criteria. The sands (SM and SP) demonstrated the greatest Sb solubility in post-firing leachate samples and therefore were selected to evaluate the effects of five commercially available stabilization amendments on Sb mobility. Enhanced Sb leaching was experimentally confirmed in the phosphate-treated soils compared to both the untreated control soil and the sulfur-based amendment, and thus suggests competition for negative sorption sites between Sb and phosphate. However, the 5% Buffer Block® calcium phosphate amendment did not exhibit the same enhanced Sb release. This can be attributed to the inclusion of aluminum hydroxide in the amendment composition. Technologies are needed that will adequately immobilize Pb without mobilizing oxyanions such as Sb. Further research will be required to elucidate binding mechanisms and redox conditions that govern the mobility of Sb on SAFRs. PMID:21440928

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    PubMed

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (< 3 microM, P<0.01). This significant induced parasiticidal effect correlated with extensive elimination of amastigotes by macrophages derived from infected (11+/-5) and healthy dogs (6+/-2), when compared to infected/non-treated macrophages (530+/-105 and 472+/-86 amastigotes, respectively, P< 0.01). Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  2. The origin and behavior of lead, cadmium and antimony in MSW incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Sayuri; Takatsuki, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    The Amendment to the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law in Japan has introduced new regulation of waste requiring strict management. In this regulation, the fly ash generated in the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incinerator process was designated as specially controlled solid waste because of relatively high concentrations of lead and cadmium. Furthermore, antimony is a regulated constituent within the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal and was designated a monitor item of environmental standards on water pollution. Thus, in order to understand where the problems lie, the behaviors of these heavy metals in the MSW incinerator was investigated. Also investigated were the kinds of products causing the fly ash to be contaminated. As a result, the amount of lead, cadmium and antimony in household waste was about 120, 3.5 and 7.6 g/T, respectively. The major origins of Pb, Cd and Sb from household waste are small sealed lead batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries and flame-proofed products such as curtains and plastic covers. By incineration treatment, these metals shifted to the fly ash (EP ash); the transfer ratio of Pb, Cd and Sb was about 33, 92 and 45%, respectively. The observed results indicated that the partitioning of metals in the MSW incinerator showed the influence of the vapor pressure of the elements and their compounds. Clearly, to produce precise estimates of this behavior, it will be necessary to determine not only the concentration of the elements in the waste but also the compounds used and the changes these would undergo in the furnace. Finally, several measures which will be helpful in solving these problems are introduced to discuss the future direction of environmentally-friendly social systems.

  3. Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

    1996-04-01

    The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

  4. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  5. Decreased antimony uptake and overexpression of genes of thiol metabolism are associated with drug resistance in a canine isolate of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Gómez Pérez, Verónica; García-Hernandez, Raquel; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Tomás, Ana M; Martín-Sanchez, Joaquina; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting dogs and humans in the Mediterranean area. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of L. infantum is regarded as the most significant risk for potential human infection. We have studied the susceptibility profile to antimony and other anti-leishmania drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin) in Leishmania infantum isolates extracted from a dog before and after two therapeutic interventions with meglumine antimoniate (subcutaneous Glucantime(®), 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days). After the therapeutic intervention, these parasites were significantly less susceptible to antimony than pretreatment isolate, presenting a resistance index of 6-fold to Sb(III) for promastigotes and >3-fold to Sb(III) and 3-fold to Sb(V) for intracellular amastigotes. The susceptibility profile of this resistant L. infantum line is related to a decreased antimony uptake due to lower aquaglyceroporin-1 expression levels. Additionally, other mechanisms including an increase in thiols and overexpression of enzymes involved in thiol metabolism, such as ornithine decarboxylase, trypanothione reductase, mitochondrial tryparedoxin and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase, could contribute to the resistance as antimony detoxification mechanisms. A major contribution of this study in a canine L. infantum isolate is to find an antimony-resistant mechanism similar to that previously described in other human clinical isolates. PMID:27317865

  6. Decreased antimony uptake and overexpression of genes of thiol metabolism are associated with drug resistance in a canine isolate of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Gómez Pérez, Verónica; García-Hernandez, Raquel; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Tomás, Ana M; Martín-Sanchez, Joaquina; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting dogs and humans in the Mediterranean area. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of L. infantum is regarded as the most significant risk for potential human infection. We have studied the susceptibility profile to antimony and other anti-leishmania drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin) in Leishmania infantum isolates extracted from a dog before and after two therapeutic interventions with meglumine antimoniate (subcutaneous Glucantime(®), 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days). After the therapeutic intervention, these parasites were significantly less susceptible to antimony than pretreatment isolate, presenting a resistance index of 6-fold to Sb(III) for promastigotes and >3-fold to Sb(III) and 3-fold to Sb(V) for intracellular amastigotes. The susceptibility profile of this resistant L. infantum line is related to a decreased antimony uptake due to lower aquaglyceroporin-1 expression levels. Additionally, other mechanisms including an increase in thiols and overexpression of enzymes involved in thiol metabolism, such as ornithine decarboxylase, trypanothione reductase, mitochondrial tryparedoxin and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase, could contribute to the resistance as antimony detoxification mechanisms. A major contribution of this study in a canine L. infantum isolate is to find an antimony-resistant mechanism similar to that previously described in other human clinical isolates.

  7. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl−) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl− channels have shown that Cl− channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl− channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl− channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl− channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl− channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl− channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  8. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  9. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. PMID:27208755

  10. Vinyl chloride-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L

    1976-06-01

    Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.

  11. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  12. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  13. Crystal structure of 4-carbamoylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Simon M; Prior, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The hydro-chloride salt of isonicotinamide, C6H7N2O(+)·Cl(-), has been synthesized from a dilute solution of hydro-chloric acid in aceto-nitrile. The compound displays monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c) at 150 K, similar to the related hydro-chloride salt of nicotinamide. The asymmetric unit contains one protonated isonicotinamide mol-ecule and a chloride anion. An array of hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, including a peculiar bifurcated pyridinium-chloride inter-action, results in linear chains running almost perpendicularly in the [150] and [1-50] directions within the structure. A description of the hydrogen-bonding network and comparison with similar compounds are presented. PMID:27375858

  14. Crystal structure of 4-carbamoylpyridinium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Simon M.; Prior, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The hydro­chloride salt of isonicotinamide, C6H7N2O+·Cl−, has been synthesized from a dilute solution of hydro­chloric acid in aceto­nitrile. The compound displays monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c) at 150 K, similar to the related hydro­chloride salt of nicotinamide. The asymmetric unit contains one protonated isonicotinamide mol­ecule and a chloride anion. An array of hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, including a peculiar bifurcated pyridinium–chloride inter­action, results in linear chains running almost perpendicularly in the [150] and [1-50] directions within the structure. A description of the hydrogen-bonding network and comparison with similar compounds are presented. PMID:27375858

  15. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  16. Assessment of allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Soriano, V; Montilla, P; Alvar, J; González-Lahoz, J M

    1994-05-01

    We report on 11 patients with HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis and who were treated with meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol for 3 weeks (six patients) or 4 weeks (five patients). Clinical and parasitological cures were achieved in four of the five patients treated for 4 weeks and in one of the six patients treated for 3 weeks. Only one patient developed a severe maculopapular rash. Allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate was found to be a safe combination of drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV. The optimal length of this treatment is unknown but a course of at least 4 weeks' duration would appear to be necessary for obtaining parasitological cure in most cases.

  17. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  18. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  19. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  20. Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution

  1. Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargittai, M.

    1980-01-01

    The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

  2. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-11-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition

  3. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  4. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  5. Remobilization of pentavalent antimony and vanadium from a granular iron hydroxide material--a comparative study of different leaching systems.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Falko; Weiss, Holger; Wennrich, Rainer; Lorenz, Wilhelm Georg; Daus, Birgit

    2011-09-30

    The remobilization of antimony and vanadium from previously loaded commercial granular ferric-hydroxide GEH material (intended for water treatment) was examined by using a sequential extraction procedure and three different leaching systems to evaluate their physicochemical mobility and potential availability under different simulated environmental conditions. A classical batch extraction, an extraction cell (EC) and rotating-coiled columns (RCC) were used as extraction systems. For each system it could be shown that the content of ion-exchangeable antimony and vanadium in previously loaded material is negligible (<1.5%). The oxyanions were sorbed strongly and could be predominantly remobilized through reducing agents, which means through dissolution of the iron (hydr)oxide matrix. The major advantages of dynamic systems in comparison to batchwise fractionation technique are the drastically reduced extraction time and the possibility of generating information to the leaching kinetics. It is shown that the efficiency of the three leaching systems is quite different employing Wenzel's sequential fractionation protocol. Only by working with RCC, the iron (hydr)oxide matrix was completely dissolved within four steps resulting in the total mobilization of antimony and vanadium. EC seems to be less suitable for leaching studies of Sb and V sorbed on iron(hydr)oxide. The remobilizable proportion of the several fractions was lower in comparison to batch and RCC and seems to be a result of an agglomeration of the GEH in the EC device.

  6. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-69-1) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-0969-091) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-69-1) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Anhydrous stannous chloride (SnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7772-99-8) is the chloride salt of metallic tin. It is prepared by reacting molten tin with either chlorine or gaseous tin tetrachloride. Dihydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10025-0969-091) is the chloride salt of metallic tin that contains...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  12. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  13. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  15. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17... Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  16. Maturation of rat proximal tubule chloride permeability.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michel; Quigley, Raymond

    2005-12-01

    We have previously shown that neonate rabbit tubules have a lower chloride permeability but comparable mannitol permeability compared with adult proximal tubules. The surprising finding of lower chloride permeability in neonate proximals compared with adults impacts net chloride transport in this segment, which reabsorbs 60% of the filtered chloride in adults. However, this maturational difference in chloride permeability may not be applicable to other species. The present in vitro microperfusion study directly examined the chloride and mannitol permeability using in vitro perfused rat proximal tubules during postnatal maturation. Whereas there was no maturational change in mannitol permeability, chloride permeability was 6.3 +/- 1.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in neonate rat proximal convoluted tubule and 16.1 +/- 2.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in adult rat proximal convoluted tubule (P < 0.01). There was also a maturational increase in chloride permeability in the rat proximal straight tubule (5.1 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s vs. 9.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s, P < 0.01). There was no maturational change in bicarbonate-to-chloride permeabilities (P(HCO3)/P(Cl)) in the rat proximal straight tubules (PST) and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) or in the sodium-to-chloride permeability (P(Na)/P(Cl)) in the proximal straight tubule; however, there was a significant maturational decrease in proximal convoluted tubule P(Na)/P(Cl) with postnatal development (1.31 +/- 0.12 in neonates vs. 0.75 +/- 0.06 in adults, P < 0.001). There was no difference in the transepithelial resistance measured by current injection and cable analysis in the PCT, but there was a maturational decrease in the PST (7.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.6 +/- 0.1 ohms x cm2, P < 0.05). These studies demonstrate there are maturational changes in the rat paracellular pathway that impact net NaCl transport during development. PMID:16051720

  17. Development of a MSFIA system for sequential determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda A; Portugal, Lindomar A; Serra, Antonio M; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-08-15

    This paper proposed a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system for antimony, arsenic and selenium determination in peanut samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The optimization step of the hydride generation was performed using a two-level full factorial design involving the parameters: hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations. So, using the chemical conditions optimized, this method allows the determination of these elements employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for antimony, 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for arsenic and 0.14 and 0.37µgL(-1) for selenium, respectively. Additionally, the effect of vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, zinc, copper, iron and molybdenum on the generation of chemical vapour was also studied. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation varied from 1.2 to 3.6% for antimony, 1.8-3.9% for arsenic and 1.8-2% for selenium. The accuracy for arsenic and selenium was confirmed using the certified peach leaves reference material SRM 1547 produced by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The proposed method showed 45 injection throughput (h(-1)) using 1.6mL sample volume for each element, 0.8mL NaBH4 0.5% (w/v) containing NaOH 0.05% (w/v), 0.8mL HCl 5M and 0.4mL KI 14% (w/v) containing L-ascorbic acid 2.5% (w/v). The method was applied to the determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium in peanut samples, which were firstly lyophilized and afterward digested using microwave assisted radiation. Six samples were analyzed and the contents of the elements found were: 28.7-41.3µgkg(-1) for arsenic, 86.4-480.1µgkg(-1) for selenium and 32.6-52.4µgkg(-1) for antimony. Addition/recovery tests were also performed to confirm the method accuracy for the three elements.

  18. Development of a MSFIA system for sequential determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Fernanda A; Portugal, Lindomar A; Serra, Antonio M; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-08-15

    This paper proposed a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system for antimony, arsenic and selenium determination in peanut samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The optimization step of the hydride generation was performed using a two-level full factorial design involving the parameters: hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations. So, using the chemical conditions optimized, this method allows the determination of these elements employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for antimony, 0.04 and 0.14µgL(-1) for arsenic and 0.14 and 0.37µgL(-1) for selenium, respectively. Additionally, the effect of vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, zinc, copper, iron and molybdenum on the generation of chemical vapour was also studied. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation varied from 1.2 to 3.6% for antimony, 1.8-3.9% for arsenic and 1.8-2% for selenium. The accuracy for arsenic and selenium was confirmed using the certified peach leaves reference material SRM 1547 produced by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The proposed method showed 45 injection throughput (h(-1)) using 1.6mL sample volume for each element, 0.8mL NaBH4 0.5% (w/v) containing NaOH 0.05% (w/v), 0.8mL HCl 5M and 0.4mL KI 14% (w/v) containing L-ascorbic acid 2.5% (w/v). The method was applied to the determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium in peanut samples, which were firstly lyophilized and afterward digested using microwave assisted radiation. Six samples were analyzed and the contents of the elements found were: 28.7-41.3µgkg(-1) for arsenic, 86.4-480.1µgkg(-1) for selenium and 32.6-52.4µgkg(-1) for antimony. Addition/recovery tests were also performed to confirm the method accuracy for the three elements. PMID:27260431

  19. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P.; Scanlon, David O.; Watson, Graeme W.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb{sup III} cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have indirect band gaps, while Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The optical band gap for Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb{sup III} cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps.

  20. Functioning of antimony film electrode in acid media under cyclic and anodic stripping voltammetry conditions.

    PubMed

    Sebez, Bine; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Hocevar, Samo B; Veber, Marjan

    2013-06-27

    New insights into the functioning, i.e. electrochemical behaviour and analytical performance, of in situ prepared antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) under square-wave anodic stripping (SW-ASV) and cyclic (CV) voltammetry conditions are presented by studying several key operational parameters using Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) as model analyte ions. Five different carbon- and metal-based substrate transducer electrodes revealed a clear advantage of the former ones while the concentration of the precursor Sb(III) ion exhibited a distinct influence on the ASV functioning of the SbFE. Among six acids examined as potential supporting electrolytes the HNO3 was demonstrated to yield nearly identical results in conducting ASV experiments with SbFE as so far almost exclusively used HCl. This is extremely important as HNO3 is commonly employed acidifying agent in trace metal analysis, especially in elemental mass spectrometry measurements. By carrying out a systematic CV and ASV investigation using a medium exchange protocol, we confirmed the formation of poorly soluble oxidized Sb species at the substrate electrode surface at the end of each stripping step, i.e. at the potentials beyond the anodic dissolution of the antimony film. Hence, the significance of the cleaning and initializing the surface of a substrate electrode after accomplishing a stripping step was thoroughly studied in order to find conditions for a complete removal of the adhered Sb-oxides and thus to assure a memory-free functioning of the in situ prepared SbFE. Finally, the practical analytical application of the proposed ASV method was successfully tested and evaluated by measuring the three metal analytes in ground (tap) and surface (river) water samples acidified with HNO3. Our results approved the appropriateness of the SbFE and the proposed method for measuring low μg L(-1) levels of some toxic metals, particularly taking into account the possibility of on-field testing and the use of low cost