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Sample records for antioxidant dietary deficiency

  1. Induction of renal growth and injury in the intact rat kidney by dietary deficiency of antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Nath, K A; Salahudeen, A K

    1990-01-01

    We report induction of renal growth and injury in the intact rat kidney using a diet deficient in vitamin E and selenium. This diet was imposed in 3-wk-old male weanling rats, and after 9 wk, enhancement of growth, characterized by increased wet weight, dry weight, protein content, and DNA content appeared. Morphometric analyses revealed increased kidney volume, tubular epithelial volume, and mean glomerular volume. There were no differences in nephron number. The animals on the deficient diet displayed increased urinary protein excretion at 9 wk. Renal injury was also characterized by an interstitial cellular infiltrate and diminutions in glomerular filtration rate. Enhanced growth and injury were antedated by increased renal ammoniagenesis. The deficient diet did not induce metabolic acidosis, potassium depletion, glucose intolerance, or elevated plasma amino acid concentration. Enhancement of renal growth and ammoniagenesis by the deficient diet was not suppressible by chronic alkali therapy. Stimulation of renal growth could not be ascribed to increased intrarenal iron, induction of ornithine decarboxylase, or alterations in glomerular hemodynamics. Stimulation of renal ammoniagenesis by dietary deficiency of antioxidants is a novel finding, as is induction of growth and injury. We suggest that increased renal ammoniagenesis contributes to induction of renal growth and injury. Images PMID:2212007

  2. Dietary blueberries sttenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols and exhibit high antioxidant capacity. In this study, protective effects of BB against atherosclerosis and possible underlying mechanisms in reducing oxidative stress were examined in ApoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G die...

  3. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  4. Cardiac Electrophysiological Alterations in Heart/Muscle-Specific Manganese-Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Mice: Prevention by a Dietary Antioxidant Polyphenol

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Akio; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiological alterations induced by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species and protective effects of dietary antioxidant have not been thoroughly examined. We recorded surface electrocardiograms (ECG) and evaluated cellular electrophysiological abnormalities in enzymatically-dissociated left ventricular (LV) myocytes in heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase-deficient (H/M-Sod2−/−) mice, which exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy due to increased oxidative stress. We also investigated the influences of intake of apple polyphenols (AP) containing mainly procyanidins with potent antioxidant activity. The QRS and QT intervals of ECG recorded in H/M-Sod2−/− mice were prolonged. The effective refractory period in the LV myocardium of H/M-Sod2−/− mice was prolonged, and susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation induced by rapid ventricular pacing was increased. Action potential duration in H/M-Sod2−/− LV myocytes was prolonged, and automaticity was enhanced. The density of the inwardly rectifier K+ current (IK1) was decreased in the LV cells of H/M-Sod2−/− mice. The AP intake partially improved these electrophysiological alterations and extended the lifespan in H/M-Sod2−/− mice. Thus, chronic exposure of the heart to oxidative stress produces a variety of electrophysiological abnormalities, increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and action potential changes associated with the reduced density of IK1. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients may prevent oxidative stress-induced electrophysiological disturbances. PMID:24772433

  5. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    PubMed

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  6. Flesh Quality Loss in Response to Dietary Isoleucine Deficiency and Excess in Fish: A Link to Impaired Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Defense in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the impact of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on fish growth and flesh quality and revealed a possible role of muscle antioxidant defense in flesh quality in relation to dietary Ile. Grass carp (weighing 256.8±3.5 g) were fed diets containing six graded levels of Ile (3.8, 6.6, 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.5 g/kg) for eight weeks. The results indicated that compared with Ile deficiency (3.8 g/kg diets) and excess (18.5 g/kg diets) groups, 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations promoted fish growth and muscle fat deposition, whereas 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diets supplementation enhanced muscle nutrients (protein and total EAAs) deposition. Furthermore, muscle shear force, pH value, and hydroxyproline concentration were improved by 9.3–12.5, 9.3 and 9.3 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. However, muscle cooking loss, lactate content, and activities of cathepsin B and L were decreased by 6.6–15.2, 9.3–12.5, 9.3–12.5 and 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Additionally, 6.6–15.2 and 6.6–12.5 g Ile/kg diet supplementations attenuated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, respectively. The activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione content were enhanced by 6.6–9.3, 6.6–12.5 and 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Moreover, the relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes, including Cu/Zn-SOD (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets) and GPx (12.5 g/kg diets), as well as antioxidant-related signaling molecules, including NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), target of rapamycin (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (9.3–12.5 g/kg diets) and casein kinase 2 (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), were up-regulated when Ile diet supplementations were administered at these levels, respectively, whereas the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 was down-regulated with 9.3 g Ile/kg diet

  7. Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo. PMID:22312245

  8. Dietary riboflavin deficiency decreases immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary riboflavin on the growth, gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement component 3 content in the gills of fish (P < 0.05). Moreover, riboflavin deficiency caused oxidative damage, which might be partly due to decrease copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in the gills of fish (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-c and Claudin-3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and NF-E2-related factor 2) and antioxidant enzymes (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the gills of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b and myosin light chain kinase) and tight junction protein Claudin-12 were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the gills of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In addition, this study indicated for the first time that young fish fed a riboflavin-deficient diet exhibited anorexia and poor growth. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased growth and gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as

  9. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-04

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  10. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-15 and -3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in fish gills fed niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling

  11. Gill structural integrity changes in fish deficient or excessive in dietary isoleucine: Towards the modulation of tight junction protein, inflammation, apoptosis and antioxidant defense via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gan, Lu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-04-01

    This study firstly aimed to test the impact of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on tight junction protein, inflammation, apoptosis, antioxidant defense and related signaling molecule gene expression in the gill of fish. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (weighing 256.8 ± 3.5 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of Ile, namely, 3.8, 6.6, 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.5 g/kg diet for 8 weeks. The results firstly revealed that Ile deficiency down-regulated the mRNA expressions of claudin-3, claudin-b, claudin-c, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and up-regulated the mRNA expression of claudin-12, which led to the intercellular structure damage of fish gill. These effects were partially ascribed to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] mRNA expressions that referring to up-regulated nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) mRNA expression and down-regulated inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) mRNA expression, and the down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)] mRNA expressions that referring to the down-regulated TOR and S6K1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, no change in claudin 15 mRNA level was observed among every treatment. At the same time, the results firstly indicated that Ile deficiency also resulted in the cellular structure damage of fish gill: (1) DNA fragmentation partially due to the up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 mRNA expression; (2) increase in protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS contents, which may be partially attributed to the impaired antioxidant defense [indicated by decreased glutathione (GSH) level and depressed anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities] that referring to the down-regulation of corresponding antioxidant

  12. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Exaggerates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice: Involvement of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J.; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency. PMID:24155903

  13. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerates ethanol-induced liver injury in mice: involvement of intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency.

  14. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha-tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma-tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease. There is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, while lycopene appears to be negatively associated with risk of the disease. The effect of dietary antioxidants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive, with different antioxidants affecting prostate cancer risk differentially. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between antioxidants and prostate cancer risk and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23909722

  15. Contribution of Macromolecular Antioxidants to Dietary Antioxidant Capacity: A Study in the Spanish Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61% to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.

  16. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency.

  17. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  18. Selenium deficiency mainly influences the gene expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Zhang, Ziwei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-12-01

    Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency induces muscular dystrophy in chicken, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins. One-day-old broiler chickens were fed either an Se deficiency diet (0.033 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 55 days. Then, the mRNA levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken muscles were examined, and the principal component was further analyzed. The results showed that antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in chicken muscles. In 25 selenoproteins, Gpxs, Txnrd2, Txnrd 3, Dio1, Dio 3, Selk, Sels, Sepw1, Selh, Sep15, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1, Selo, Sepx1, and SPS2 were downregulated (P < 0.05), and other selenoproteins were not influenced (P > 0.05). Se deficiency decreased the expressions of 19 selenoproteins (P < 0.05), 11 of which were antioxidative selenoproteins. And, principal component analysis (PCA) further indicated that antioxidative selenoproteins, especially Gpx3, Gpx4, and Sepw1, may play crucial roles in chicken muscles. However, compared with these antioxidative selenoproteins, some other lower expressed selenoproteins (Dio1, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1) were excessively decreased (more than 60 %, P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Thus, it may save the limited Se levels and be beneficial to remain the level of some crucial selenoproteins. These results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles. And, antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 may play a crucial role in chicken muscles. Thus, it helps us focus on some specific selenoproteins when studying the role of Se in chicken muscles.

  19. Oxidative stress, circulating antioxidants, and dietary preferences in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of metabolism and increases during intensive exercise. This is especially problematic for migratory birds that metabolize fat to fuel long-distance flight. Birds can mitigate damage by increasing endogenous antioxidants (e.g. uric acid) or by consuming dietary antioxidants (e.g. tocopherol). During flight, birds may increase protein catabolism of lean tissue which may increase circulating uric acid and many birds also consume an antioxidant-rich frugivorous diet during autumn migration. We evaluated three related hypotheses in a migratory passerine: (1) protein consumption is positively related to circulating antioxidants, (2) a dietary oxidative stressor [i.e. polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)] influences antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage, and (3) oxidative stress influences dietary antioxidant preferences. White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) consuming a high protein diet increased circulating uric acid; however, uric acid, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress did not differ between birds consuming a high PUFA versus a low PUFA diet, despite increased oxidative damage in high PUFA birds. Birds did not prefer antioxidant-rich diets even when fed high PUFA, low protein. We conclude that White-throated Sparrows successfully mitigated oxidative damage associated with a high PUFA diet and mounted an endogenous antioxidant response independent of uric acid, other circulating antioxidants, and dietary antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  1. Improving Asthma during Pregnancy with Dietary Antioxidants: The Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; Wood, Lisa G.; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2013-01-01

    The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health. PMID:23948757

  2. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  3. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber stimulates Lactobacillus growth in rat cecum.

    PubMed

    Pozuelo, María José; Agis-Torres, Angel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Elvira López-Oliva, María; Muñoz-Martínez, Emilia; Rotger, Rafael; Goñi, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The digesta is a highly active biological system where epithelial cells, microbiota, nondigestible dietary components, and a large number of metabolic products interact. The gut microbiota can be modulated by both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Undigested dietary residues are substrates for colonic microbiota and may influence gut microbial ecology. The objective of this work was to study the capacity of grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF), which is rich in polyphenols, to modify the bacterial profile in the cecum of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed for 4 wk with diets containing either cellulose or GADF as dietary fiber. The effect of GADF on bacterial growth was evaluated in vitro and on the cecal microbiota of rats using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that GADF intake stimulates proliferation of Lactobacillus and slightly affects the composition of Bifidobacterium species. GADF was also found to have a stimulative effect on Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro. These findings suggest that the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with high dietary fiber and polyphenol content may enhance the gastrointestinal health of the host through microbiota modulation. Grape antioxidant fiber combines nutritional and physiological properties of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants from grapes. Grape antioxidant fiber could be used as an ingredient for functional foods and as a dietary supplement to increase the intake of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants.

  5. Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitive functioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitive function or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitive functioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern.

  6. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA.

  7. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with diet and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the cumulative antioxidant activities of all the antioxidants present in food, has been shown to be inversely associated with risks of chronic diseases. However, dietary TAC has not been validated for its relevance in a healthy young population or for reliability and predictability for antioxidant status. Our study aimed to validate TAC as a tool in assessing antioxidant intake and to investigate whether dietary TAC predicts plasma antioxidant status in a healthy young population. Sixty healthy, nonsmoking college students at the University of Connecticut ages 18 to 25 years were recruited. Thirty-day food records and two 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. After adjustment for total energy intake, TAC from diet and supplement was positively correlated with intakes of carotenoids (P<0.01), beta carotene (P<0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05), flavonoids (P<0.0001), isoflavones (P<0.01), flavan-3-ols (P<0.01), flavones (P<0.05), and flavonols (P<0.0001). Dietary TAC was an independent predictor of plasma TAC determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (P<0.01) and by ferric-reducing ability of plasma (P<0.0001), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), α-tocopherol (P<0.05), and lutein (P<0.05). Results were similar for TAC from diet sources only. The findings suggest that dietary TAC is a good predictor of dietary and plasma antioxidant status in this sample of young adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between Dietary Antioxidant Intake and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Zeng, Chao; Gong, Qian-yi; Li, Xiao-xiao; Lei, Guang-hua; Yang, Tu-bao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary antioxidant intake (carotenoid, vitamin C, E and selenium) intake and metabolic syndrome (MS). This cross-sectional study included 2069 subjects undergoing a regular health checkup. Biochemical test results and data on dietary intakes were collected for analysis. Adjustment for energy intake and multi-variable logistic regression were performed to determine adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the relationship between dietary antioxidants intake and MS. The lowest quartile of antioxidant intake was regarded as the reference category. Dietary vitamin C intake (P values for trend were 0.02 in energy adjusted analysis and 0.08 in multivariable adjusted analysis) had a negative association with MS, as did selenium intake in the second quartile (energy adjusted OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.43 to 0.85; multivariable adjusted OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.43 to 0.86). However, there was no significant relationship between dietary carotenoid and vitamin E intake and MS. Subjects with low intake of vitamin C might be predisposed to development of MS, while dietary selenium intake had a moderate negative association with MS. Dietary carotenoid and vitamin E intake was not associated with MS.

  9. Dietary intake of natural antioxidants: vitamins and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Landete, J M

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert their toxic effect because of an increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection; oxidative stress is rapidly gaining recognition as a key phenomenon in chronic diseases. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Endogenous defence mechanisms are inadequate for the complete prevention of oxidative damage, and different sources of dietary antioxidants may be especially important. This article calls attention to the dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols. Compelling evidence has led to the conclusion that diet is a key environmental factor and a potential tool for the control of chronic diseases. More specifically, fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert a protective effect. The high content of minerals and natural antioxidant as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables may be a main factor responsible for these effects.

  10. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  11. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model. PMID:24804252

  12. Biology of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model.

  13. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  14. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zujko, Małgorzata Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs) in comparison with young (20–40 yrs) and middle age (41–60 yrs) groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ) took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and flavonoid content (FC) were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake. PMID:26236427

  15. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  16. Dietary protein deficiency in pregnant mice and offspring.

    PubMed

    Millis, Richard M; Offiah, Godwin U

    2007-03-06

    Previous studies suggest an association between dermal contact hypersensitivity and preterm delivery. We hypothesized that dietary protein deficiency produces cell-mediated immune hypersensitivity in pregnant animals and their offspring akin to those known to produce tissue damage. We compared the effects of feeding a 20% protein diet (controls) to those of feeding a 10% protein (deficient) diet ad libitum to pregnant BALB/c mice. We measured dermal contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) by the increment in ear skin thickness (swelling) 72 h after immunization and parity by the number of viable pups delivered. Dams fed the protein-deficient diet ingested less food, gained less weight and delivered fewer viable pups than the dams fed the control diet. Greater DNFB-stimulated increment in ear skin thickness was found in the protein-deficient mothers and in their offspring than in the control mothers and their offspring. We conclude that dietary protein deficiency limits parity and induces immune hypersensitivity. These findings suggest the potential for dietary protein deficiency to activate a T-cell-mediated branch of the immune response that may put pregnant animals at risk for preterm delivery.

  17. Fisetin: A Dietary Antioxidant for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441

  18. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.

  19. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  20. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on the in vitro fertilizing ability of mice spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; García-Montalvo, E A; Izquierdo-Vega, J A; Del Razo, L M

    2008-08-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for mammals, being integral part of antioxidant system. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium deficiency on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa and on oxidative stress in these cells. Male C57BL/6N mice were maintained on selenium-deficient or selenium-sufficient diets (0.02 or 0.2 ppm of selenium as selenomethionine, respectively) for 4 months. Liver glutathione peroxidase activity measurements were used to confirm selenium deficiency. Sperm quality and IVF capability among both groups were evaluated. To assess oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde production was determined in spermatozoa as well as the testes. Ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa nuclei using transmission electron microscopy were also performed. The percentage of eggs fertilized with sperm from selenium-deficient mice was significantly decreased by approximately 67%. This reduced fertilization capacity was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in both the testes and sperm, indicating that selenium deficiency induced oxidative stress. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from selenium-deficient animals exhibited altered chromatin condensation. Deficiency in dietary selenium decreases the reproductive potential of male mice and is associated with oxidative damage in spermatozoa.

  1. Selenium deficiency in subtropical littoral pampas: environmental and dietary aspects.

    PubMed

    Mirlean, N; Seus-Arrache, E R; Vlasova, O

    2017-04-11

    Se deficiency has a critical effect on human health. The littoral near Patos Lagoon in the south of Brazil is composed of Quaternary sandy deposits and nutrient-deficient soils, which contribute to Se deficiency in the surrounding environment. The average concentration of Se in littoral soils is six times lower than the metalloid deficiency threshold of 0.5 mg kg(-1) and is close to that in countries where Keshan disease is registered. The sediments in the Patos Estuary are also notably lower in Se than near-shore marine sediments. Foodstuffs produced in the littoral pampas are characterised by extremely low Se concentrations compared with the same alimentary products reported worldwide. The total daily dietary intake of Se in the region is 24 μg day(-1), which is half the Estimated Average Requirement for adults. Black beans in the local diet provide over 40% of daily Se intake. Prescriptive addition of Se to prevalent products seems the most effective solution to the problem of metalloid dietary deficiency in the region. Similar environmental conditions and significant concentration of the population in the littoral zone suggest that the problem of Se deficiency probably affects a large proportion of the population along the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

  2. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  3. The interaction of type of dietary carbohydrates with copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fields, M; Ferretti, R J; Smith, J C; Reiser, S

    1984-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if the more severe copper deficiency in rats fed sucrose and fructose, as compared to starch, is due to a specific effect of the fructose or to a nonspecific effect of any simple carbohydrate. Seventy weanling male rats were fed, for 9 wk, copper-deficient diets or copper-supplemented diets containing either 62% starch, fructose, or glucose. Decreased hematocrit, serum copper, and ceruloplasmin concentrations but increased heart and liver weights, total liver lipid, and hepatic iron concentrations were found in all copper-deficient rats regardless of the dietary carbohydrate. Feeding rats the high glucose diet decreased plasma albumin and liver glycogen but increased blood urea nitrogen when compared to rats fed starch. However, rats fed fructose generally exhibited a more severe copper deficiency as compared to rats fed either starch or glucose. The severity was characterized by lower (p less than 0.05) body weight, liver glycogen, hematocrit, serum copper, and albumin. Conversely, liver and heart weights, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were higher (p less than 0.05). Plasma cholesterol was increased by copper deficiency only in rats fed fructose or glucose. During the study, 17 of the 40 rats fed copper-deficient diets died; 66% of those fed fructose, 26% fed glucose, and 30% fed starch. These results suggest that the fructose moiety of sucrose is responsible for the increased severity of copper deficiency in rats fed sucrose as compared to starch.

  4. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Mrigen Kr; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents.

  5. Dietary antioxidants prevent alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Simet, Samantha M.; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Sisson, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have shown that chronic alcohol intake causes alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD), leading to non-responsive airway cilia. AICD likely occurs through the downregulation of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, protein kinase G (PKG) and protein kinase A (PKA). Studies by others have shown that dietary supplementation with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and procysteine prevent other alcohol-induced lung complications. This led us to hypothesize that dietary supplementation with NAC or procysteine prevents AICD. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice drank an alcohol/water solution (20% w/v) ad libitum for 6 weeks and were concurrently fed dietary supplements of either NAC or procysteine. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured in mice tracheas, and PKG/PKA responsiveness to β-agonists and NOx levels were measured from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Long-term alcohol drinking reduced CBF, PKG and PKA responsiveness to β-agonists, and lung NOx levels in BAL fluid. In contrast, alcohol-drinking mice fed NAC or procysteine sustained ciliary function and PKG and PKA responsiveness to β-agonists. However, BAL NO levels remained low despite antioxidant supplementation. We also determined that removal of alcohol from the drinking water for as little as 1 week restored ciliary function, but not PKG and PKA responsiveness to β-agonists. We conclude that dietary supplementation with NAC or procysteine protects against AICD. In addition, alcohol removal for 1 week restores cilia function independent of PKG and PKA activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the use of antioxidants to prevent damage to airway mucociliary functions in chronic alcohol-drinking individuals. PMID:24169090

  6. Effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa - dietary supplements vs. local diet.

    PubMed

    Nkengfack, Germaine N; Torimiro, Judith N; Englert, Heike

    2012-02-01

    In sub-Sahara Africa, micronutrient deficiency, especially of antioxidant micronutrients including vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols is very common in HIV-positive patients. Amongst adults, women are the most vulnerable. Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the immune system, reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is induced by excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to the HIV infection. Such damage may be prevented or moderated through adequate oral intake of antioxidants, scavenging ROS, as well as protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can be provided to the body through locally available antioxidant rich-diets such as fruit-and-vegetable-based diets and/or dietary supplements. Provision of antioxidants through local diets or dietary supplements exercise beneficial effects on biological markers of the immune system (CD4 and viral load). However, while dietary supplements represent a costly and short-term strategy to limiting antioxidant deficiency, local diets, combined with adequate nutritional education, can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV disease progression. The former can be applicable in countries around the West, Central, and South coast of Africa, which are rich in natural food resources. In contrast with significant evidence that dietary supplements confer benefits in HIV patients, fewer data are available relating to the benefits of local diets. Thus the need to do more research in this area arises. This review compares available data on effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-positive women noneligible for antiretroviral therapy. Intake of antioxidants though dietary supplements and local diet, associated with nutritional education, is compared. Studies conducted in sub-Sahara Africa are considered.

  7. Methionine deficiency and hepatic injury in a dietary steatohepatitis model.

    PubMed

    Oz, Helieh S; Chen, Theresa S; Neuman, Manuela

    2008-03-01

    Methionine (Meth) is an essential amino acid involved in DNA methylation and glutathione biosynthesis. We examined the effect of Meth on the development of steatohepatitis. Rats were fed (five weeks) amino acid-based Meth-choline-sufficient (A-MCS) or total deficient (MCD) diets and gavaged daily (two weeks) with vehicle (B-vehicle/MCD), or Meth replacement (C-Meth/MCD). To assess the effect of short-term deficiency, after three weeks one MCS group was fed a deficient diet (D-MCS/MCD). Animals fed the deficient diet for two weeks lost (29%) weight and after five weeks weighed one third as much as those on the sufficient diet, and also developed anemia (P < 0.01). Hepatic transaminases progressively increased from two to five weeks (P < 0.01), leading to severe hepatic pathology. Meth administration normalized hematocrit, improved weight (P < 0.05), and suppressed abnormal enzymes activities (P < 0.01). Meth administration improved blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and hepatic lesions (P < 0.01). The deficient diet significantly upregulated proinflammatory and fibrotic genes, which was ameliorated by Meth administration. These data support a pivotal role for methionine in the pathogenesis of the dietary model of Meth-choline-deficient (MCD) steatohepatitis (NASH).

  8. Dietary antioxidants and cardioprotection--fact or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-03-01

    The emerging dogma that low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a contributing cause and not simply a consequence of atherosclerosis is based on three lines of experimental evidence: (i) lipid peroxidation products and oxidized LDLs are present in atherosclerotic lesions; (ii) oxidized LDL has an array of potentially proatherogenic properties in vitro, including uptake by macrophages via a number of distinct "scavenger" receptors; and (iii) treatment of hypercholesterolemic animals with potent antioxidant drugs can retard the development of atherosclerosis. Additional support for the role of lipoprotein oxidation in atherogenesis was provided by cross-cultural dietary comparisons, which suggested an inverse correlation between antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality. As well, several large case-control studies indicated that antioxidant vitamin intake, particularly vitamin E, was associated with reduced coronary risk. However, these studies do not indicate whether this association is causal, or if vitamin supplementation is merely a marker for some other protective factor. To test this properly, randomized controlled intervention studies are required. In several animal models, a number of different antioxidant drugs have been shown to retard atherosclerosis, but results with vitamin supplementation are unclear. Results of intervention trials in humans show no benefit to long-term beta-carotene supplementation, and the only published study of vitamin E found a reduction of nonfatal myocardial infarction but no reduction (actually an increase) in fatal myocardial infarction and total mortality. Several other large antioxidant intervention trials are underway. Until the results of these studies are available, there appears to be insufficient evidence on which to base recommendations regarding antioxidant supplements for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  9. Dietary Antioxidant Capacity and Its Association with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahdiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major disorders in pregnancy leading to many adverse maternal outcomes. Although the etiology of PE is not fully understood, resent studies suggest that an imbalance between free radicals production and the antioxidant defense system might have key role. Our aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum TAC and risk of PE in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. This case-control study conducted on 55 women with preeclampsia and 93 with normal pregnancy. Dietary intakes were obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 168 itmes. Dietary TAC was assessed according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Database for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Release 2. Serum TAC was measured by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). After adjusting for energy, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and history of PE, no relationship was found between intake of hydrophilic-ORAC (H-ORAC), lipophilic-ORAC (L-ORAC), total phenolics (TP), total-ORAC (T-ORAC), and PE risk. However, serum TAC had a significant positive relationship with the risk of PE after adjusting for energy (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16–0.35), BMI and history of PE (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01–0.32). Findings of this study indicate that serum TAC is positively associated with the risk of PE but no association was found between intake of antioxidant indices and PE risk. PMID:28168181

  10. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health. PMID:20716914

  11. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for assessing antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-10-31

    A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.

  12. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins.

  13. Testicular apoptosis after dietary zinc deficiency: ultrastructural and TUNEL studies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepa; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2011-10-01

    The present study was conducted in Wistar rats to determine whether prepubertal dietary zinc deficiency causes apoptotic changes in testes. Prepubertal male Wistar rats (40-50 gm) were divided into 3 groups: zinc control (ZC), pairfed (PF), and zinc deficient (ZD). Control and pairfed groups were given a 100 ppm zinc diet while the deficient groups received 1 ppm zinc diet for 2 and 4 weeks (w), respectively. Ultrastructural studies revealed several apoptotic features such as wavy basement membrane, displaced nuclei, chromatin condensation, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear membrane dissolution, loss of inter-Sertoli cell junctional complexes, and intercellular bridges and deformed mitochondria. A variable spectrum of sperm defects had also been visualized e.g., acrosomal deformities such as decapitation and a ring of condensed chromatin around the nuclear periphery, deformed sperm heads with a condensed nucleus, tail-elements with superfluous cytoplasm, and damage to the mitochondrial sheath and aggregation of spermatozoa within the membrane. This was further supported by TUNEL studies. Apoptotic index, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index also revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in zinc deficient groups (2 and 4 w) when compared with their respective control and pairfed groups. All the above findings are indicative that changes observed in the testes after dietary zinc deficiency are due to the onset of apoptosis. Increased apoptotic degeneration in testes may cause irreversible changes in the germ cells associated with decreased epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index which contributes to the low efficiency of spermatogenesis thereby indicating a possible role of zinc in fertility.

  14. The Association between Dietary Intake of Antioxidants and Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Braakhuis, Andrea; Raman, Ryan; Vaghefi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary antioxidant intake and the incidence of the three major oxidative stress-related eye diseases, cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration, 78 cases from the University of Auckland Optometry and Vision Science clinic and 149 controls were recruited. Participants completed an antioxidant food-frequency questionnaire, analysed through multiple logistic regression. Protective associations were identified with higher consumption of fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.00; p = 0.004), vitamin C (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.03; p = 0.022), and β-carotene (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.98; p = 0.007). Meanwhile, harmful associations were observed with greater consumption of meat/nuts (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; p = 0.006) and cholesterol (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.50, 2.46; p = 0.005). Diets rich in fruit and vegetables appear to be protective against cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration, while diets higher in meat and nuts may increase the risk of oxidative stress-related eye diseases. In addition, higher intakes of vitamin C and β-carotene from food, with reduction of dietary cholesterol intake, may be beneficial towards the outcome of oxidative stress-related eye diseases.

  15. Dietary selenium deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; He, Xuexiu; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that plays a critical role in anti-inflammatory processes and antioxidant defense system. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary selenium deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mouse models. Se content in the liver was assessed by fluorescent atomic absorption spectrometry. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis actor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β in the supernatant of the mammary tissue were determined according to the corresponding kits. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that the Se-deficient mouse model was successfully replicated, and selenium deficiency exacerbated mammary gland histopathology, increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and facilitated the activation of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that selenium deficiency resulted in more severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced mouse mastitis.

  16. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  17. Impact of Dietary Antioxidants on Sport Performance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-07-01

    Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0%, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9%). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2%, double dose -0.5 ± 3.3%). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance.

  18. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Elizabeth E.; Grodstein, Francine; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Hofman, Albert; Stampfer, Meir J.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Breteler, Monique M.B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study consumption of major dietary antioxidants in relation to long-term risk of dementia. DESIGN AND SETTING The Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS A total of 5,395 participants, aged 55+ years, who were free of dementia and provided dietary information at study baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), based on internationally accepted criteria, in relation to dietary intake of vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, and flavonoids. RESULTS During an average follow-up period of 9.6 years, dementia developed in 465 participants, of whom 365 were diagnosed with AD. In multivariate models adjusted for age, education, APOE ε4 genotype, total energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking habits, body-mass index (BMI), and supplement use, higher intake of vitamin E at baseline was associated with a lower long-term risk of dementia (p-trend=0.02). Compared to participants in the lowest tertile of vitamin E intake, those in the highest tertile were 25% less likely to develop dementia (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59–0.95 with adjustment for potential confounders). Dietary intakes of vitamin C, beta carotene, and flavonoids were not associated with dementia risk (after multivariate adjustment, p-trend=1.0 for both vitamin C and beta carotene and p-trend=0.6 for flavonoids). Results were similar when AD risk was specifically examined. CONCLUSION Higher intake of foods rich in vitamin E may modestly reduce long-term risk of dementia and AD. PMID:20625087

  19. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  20. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Embaby, Mohamed A.; Doleib, Nada M.; Taha, Mona M.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes. PMID:27536197

  1. Effects of dietary riboflavin levels on antioxidant defense of the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junwa; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Xiangyun; Yang, Huijun; Liu, Yongjian

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary riboflavin on antioxidant defense in the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. Graded levels of riboflavin (0.9, 1.6, 4.4, 6.7, 12.9 and 19.4 mg kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grouper juveniles (mean weight: 14.90 +/- 0.46 g) for 12 weeks. Higher levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were observed in grouper fed low doses (0.9 and 1.6 mg kg(-1) diet) of riboflavin. Both liver glutathione reductase (GR) activity and its activation coefficient (GR-AC) poorly responded to riboflavin deficiency. In addition, other indices of the glutathione-dependent defense system, including the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the content of glutathione (GSH), were also non-significantly affected by dietary riboflavin levels. However, the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly lower in fish fed 0.9 mg kg(-1) diet, with a positive correlation between the different groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the juvenile grouper fed the riboflavin-unsupplemented diet was susceptible to lipid peroxidation (LPO), with lower SOD and CAT activities in the liver. However, the glutathione-dependent defense system of grouper was not affected by dietary riboflavin levels.

  2. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Cathy Creger; O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Chavez, Mary; Shields, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    To review efficacy studies of antioxidant and antiinflammatory dietary supplements used to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and make conclusions about their place in therapy. Glucosamine, chondroitin, and methyl sulfonyl methane were excluded. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1996 through January 2009), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard, with bibliographic review of relevant articles. Cited studies from before our search range were included if they represented the only published human data available. Search words included "antioxidant," "antiinflammatory," "cat's claw," "ginger," "fish oil," "omega-3," "turmeric," "vitamin E," "vitamin C," "Baikal skullcap," "barberry," "Chinese goldthread," "green tea," "Indian holy basil," "hu zhang,"oregano," and"rosemary." Efficacy studies published in English were included provided they evaluated the dietary supplements in patients with OA or RA. Our search strategy yielded 16 clinical studies (11 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, three crossover trials, one case-controlled study, and one open-label study) in addition to one meta-analysis and one review article. Three studies support cat's claw alone or in combination for OA, and two studies support omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of RA. We cannot recommend use of vitamin E alone; vitamins A, C, and E in combination; ginger; turmeric; or Zyflamend (New Chapter, Brattleboro, Vermont) for the treatment of OA or RA or omega-3 fatty acids for OA. Whether any of these supplements can be effectively and safely recommended to reduce nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or steroid usage is unclear and requires more high-quality research.

  3. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    PubMed

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  4. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Dietary folate deficiency enhances arsenic-induced micronucleus formation in mice.

    Folate deficiency increases background levels ofDNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary...

  5. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Dietary folate deficiency enhances arsenic-induced micronucleus formation in mice.

    Folate deficiency increases background levels ofDNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary...

  6. Dietary protein deficiency induces osteoporosis in aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Bourrin, S; Toromanoff, A; Ammann, P; Bonjour, J P; Rizzoli, R

    2000-08-01

    Low dietary intake is common in elderly males with low femoral neck areal bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the selective influence of a low-protein diet in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in males and to uncover early and late adaptation of bone cells to protein deficiency, 8-month-old male rats were pair-fed a control (15% casein) or isocaloric low-protein (2.5% casein) diet for 1 or 7 months. BMD, bone ultimate strength, stiffness, and absorbed energy were measured in tibia proximal metaphysis and diaphysis. After double-labeling, histomorphometric analysis was performed at the same sites. Serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion were measured. In proximal tibia, isocaloric low-protein diet significantly decreases BMD (12%), cancellous bone mass (71%), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; 30%), resulting in a significant reduction in ultimate strength (27%). In cortical middiaphysis, a low-protein diet decreases BMD (9%) and enlarges the medullary cavity (36%), leading to cortical thinning and lower mechanical strength (20%). In cancellous bone, protein deficiency transiently depresses the bone formation rate (BFR; 60%), osteoid seam thickness (15%), and mineral apposition rate (MAR; 20%), indicating a decrease in osteoblast recruitment and activity. Cortical loss (15%) results from an imbalance between endosteal modeling drifts with impaired BFR (70%). From the first week of protein deficiency, osteocalcin and IGF-I levels drop significantly. Bone resorption activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline remain unchanged throughout the experiment. Protein deficiency in aged male rats induces cortical and trabecular thinning, and decreases bone strength, in association with a remodeling imbalance with a bone formation impairment and a decrease in IGF-I levels.

  7. Association between dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQs) and bone mineral density in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A; Romero, A; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Monteagudo, C; López, G; Lorenzo, Ma L; Ocaña-Peinado, F M; Olea-Serrano, F

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a tight association between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in humans. The intake of antioxidants may influence Bone Mineral Density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women. A total of 280 women were grouped into three major groups: women aged ≤ 35 years; women aged 36-45, and finally women aged >45 years. Calcaneous Bone Mineral Density (g/cm²) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data on the eating habits of each participant were collected with a structured 24-hour diet recall questionnaire. A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was used to calculate antioxidant-nutrient intake. A significant and positive association was observed among Bone Mineral Density and dietary intake of vitamin C and selenium. Zinc intake was significantly related to Bone Mineral Density in the youngest group. Low antioxidant consumers were considered individuals whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score was lower or equal than the median (3.5), and high antioxidant consumers were those whose Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score were higher than 3.5. Bone Mineral Density was higher in the participants defined as high antioxidant consumers in all aged groups. The study showed that there is an association between Bone Mineral Density and the Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score in all the women studied. Therefore, new therapies for osteoporosis based on higher dietary antioxidant intakes might be developed basing on the results obtained in this study.

  8. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Z; Bahadoran, Z; Abedini, S; Houshyar-Rad, A; Rashidkhani, B

    2015-09-28

    There is growing evidence that dietary antioxidants may have favourable effects in reducing cancer risk. In a case-control study we investigated the association of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and risk of breast cancer. Sociodemographic data, medical history and anthropometric measurements were collected from 275 women (100 breast cancer cases & 175 controls). Participants' usual dietary intake was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and their dietary TAC was estimated. An inverse, but non-significant, association was observed between dietary TAC and breast cancer risk. Multiple logistic regression models based on TAC of individual food groups showed that consumption of fruits and vegetables with higher TAC (μmolTE/100 g) was associated with a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer. Our study supports a protective effect of dietary antioxidants in relation to breast cancer risk. Food selection based on TAC of foods may be an effective strategy to modify the risk of cancer.

  9. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  10. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  11. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  12. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  13. [Dietary iron intake and deficiency in elite women volleyball players].

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, J; Urdampilleta, A; Martínez-Sanz, J M; Seco, J

    2012-01-01

    Volleyball practice requires repeated impacts on arms and feet caused by vertical jumps, falls, auctions, sudden and rapid changes of direction, which is why might raise us problems in the metabolism of iron (Fe) and the recommended intake of 18 mg/day (in the women in general), is not sufficient to meet the needs of the players of volleyball female (JVF). We analyzed the FS and IST of 10 JVF a team of Spanish SuperLeague (26.6 ± 5.9 years and height 178.05 ± 8.7 cm) in two moments of the season: Week 0 (pre-start of preseason) and week 11 (after 11 weeks of training and 6 games of the regular season). Also calculated Fe intake in this period with consumption frequency questionnaire developed and tested with food dietary records of 7 days. We observed that an intake of 25.8 mg/day of dietary Fe is not sufficient to prevent 30% of the JVF suffer pre-latent iron deficiency and 20% latent deficit (pre-anemia). It could be recommended conducting periodic blood analytical and a food education, teaching which foods containing a high content of Fe-type heme, and the factors that can interfere with absorption.

  14. Screening of dietary antioxidants against mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress by visualization of intracellular redox state.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sunita; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Hoseki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment and the resulting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with aging and its related pathological conditions. Recently, dietary antioxidants have gained significant attention as potential preventive and therapeutic agents against ROS-generated aging and pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that food-derived antioxidants prevented intracellular oxidative stress under proteasome inhibition conditions, which was attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation, followed by cell death. Here, we further screened dietary antioxidants for their activity as redox modulators by visualization of the redox state using Redoxfluor, a fluorescent protein redox probe. Direct alleviation of ROS by antioxidants, but not induction of antioxidative enzymes, prevented mitochondria-mediated intracellular oxidation. The effective antioxidants scavenged mitochondrial ROS and suppressed cell death. Our study indicates that redox visualization under mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress is useful for screening potential antioxidants to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of aging-related diseases.

  15. Dietary antioxidents and oxidative stress in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    L Gupta, Krishan; Sahni, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Context Dietary antioxidants are important in protecting against human diseases. Oxidative stress, a non- traditional risk factors of cardio-vascular disease is far more prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients than in normal subjects. Evidence Acquisitions Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Results Oxidative stress could be a consequence of an increase in reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in antioxidant defenses. Among the important factors that can be involved in triggering oxidative stress is insufficient dietary intake of antioxidants. Malnourished CKD patients are reported to have more oxidative stress than well nourished ones. Conclusions Moving beyond the importance of assessment of dietary protein and energy in pre dialysis CKD patients to the assessment of dietary antioxidants is of utmost importance to help combat enhanced oxidative stress levels in such patients. PMID:24475404

  16. Dietary antioxidents and oxidative stress in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    L Gupta, Krishan; Sahni, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Dietary antioxidants are important in protecting against human diseases. Oxidative stress, a non- traditional risk factors of cardio-vascular disease is far more prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients than in normal subjects. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Oxidative stress could be a consequence of an increase in reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in antioxidant defenses. Among the important factors that can be involved in triggering oxidative stress is insufficient dietary intake of antioxidants. Malnourished CKD patients are reported to have more oxidative stress than well nourished ones. Moving beyond the importance of assessment of dietary protein and energy in pre dialysis CKD patients to the assessment of dietary antioxidants is of utmost importance to help combat enhanced oxidative stress levels in such patients.

  17. Maternal dietary zinc supplementation enhances the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability of chick embryos from maternal normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongwen; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Liyang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2017-03-21

    The role of maternal dietary zinc supplementation in protecting the embryos from maternal hyperthermia-induced negative effects via epigenetic mechanisms was examined using an avian model (Gallus gallus). Broiler breeder hens were exposed to two maternal temperatures (21°C and 32°C) × three maternal dietary zinc treatments (zinc-unsupplemented control diet, the control diet + 110 mg zinc/kg inorganic or organic zinc) for 8 weeks. Maternal hyperthermia increased the embryonic mortality and induced oxidative damage evidenced by the elevated mRNA expressions of heat shock protein genes. Maternal dietary zinc deficiency damaged the embryonic development associated with the global DNA hypomethylation and histone 3 lysine 9 hyperacetylation in the embryonic liver. Supplementation of zinc in maternal diets effectively eliminated the embryonic mortality induced by maternal hyperthermia and enhanced antioxidant ability with the increased mRNA and protein expressions of metallothionein IV in the embryonic liver. The increased metallothionein IV mRNA expression was due to the reduced DNA methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation of the metallothionein IV promoter regardless of zinc source. These data demonstrate that maternal dietary zinc addition as an epigenetic modifier could protect the offspring embryonic development against maternal heat stress via enhancing the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability.

  18. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients.

  19. Dietary taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S; Pacioretty, L M; Kallfelz, F A; Stipanuk, M H; King, J M; Gilmour, R F

    1991-02-01

    Taurine deficiency has been implicated as a potential cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between taurine and myocardial function is presently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox is associated with dietary taurine deficiency. A total of 68 foxes from farms with a history of death caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and 14 foxes from a farm with no history of dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by echocardiography in 48% of the foxes from one farm with a positive history and in none of the foxes from the control farm. Foxes less than 9 months of age were more commonly affected than older foxes (p = 0.03). Plasma taurine concentrations were significantly less (p less than 0.01) in foxes that had dilated cardiomyopathy (26.8 +/- 16.4 nmol/ml) than in the control foxes (99.3 +/- 60.2 nmol/ml). A significantly higher (p less than 0.01) incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy was present in foxes with a history of a sibling or offspring that died of dilated cardiomyopathy than in foxes without a family history of cardiac death. In one fox with dilated cardiomyopathy that was tested, the myocardial taurine concentration was lower (1.7 mumol/gm wet weight) than that of control foxes (7.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/gm wet weight). Hepatic cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase activity was significantly less (p less than 0.001) in foxes with dilated cardiomyopathy (0.97 +/- 0.2 nmol/mm.mg protein) than in control foxes (2.11 +/- 0.07 nmol CO2/mm.mg protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Apple juice prevents oxidative stress and impaired cognitive performance caused by genetic and dietary deficiencies in mice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E J; Milhalik, S; Orthiz, D; Shea, T B

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress contributes to the decline in cognitive performance during normal aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer s disease. Dietary supplementation with fruits and vegetables that are high in antioxidant potential have in some cases compensated for dietary and/or genetic deficiencies that promote increased oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate that apple juice concentrate, administered ad libitum in drinking water, can compensate for the increased reactive oxygen species and decline in cognitive performance in maze trials observed when normal and transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E are deprived of folate and vitamin E. In addition, we demonstrate that this protective effect is not derived from the sugar content of the concentrate.

  1. Dietary education and iron deficiency anaemia in the inner city

    PubMed Central

    Childs, F; Aukett, A; Darbyshire, P; Ilett, S; Livera, L

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 26 October 1996
 OBJECTIVES—To assess if a dietary health education programme could be used within existing health resources to reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anaemia in an inner city population.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study.
SETTING—Inner city areas of west and south Birmingham.
SUBJECTS—A total of 1000 children recorded on the child health computer register.
INTERVENTION—Children were recruited at birth and randomised into control and intervention groups. Families in the intervention group received specific health education information at key ages by face to face contact using a range of materials. The control group received standard health education as delivered by the health visitors at the time.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Haemoglobin estimation and iron content of the diet at 18 months of age.
RESULTS—A total of 455 children completed the study. Sixty nine (27%) of the control group and 55 (28%) of the intervention group were anaemic as defined by haemoglobin less than 110 g/l. There was no difference in the iron content of the diets offered to the two groups of children.
CONCLUSION—In this deprived population we have shown no reduction in anaemia using a targeted nutritional programme and have highlighted the difficulties in conducting health education programmes within the scope of current health resources.

 PMID:9068306

  2. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  3. Rapid and repeatable redox cycling of an insoluble dietary antioxidant: electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan E; Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; March, John C; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-10-08

    There are many unresolved questions concerning the health benefits of dietary antioxidants due in part to the complexity of the materials and mechanisms of action. We applied a new electrochemical method and report new observations for one of the richest sources of dietary antioxidants. We observed that the insoluble fraction of clove is redox-active and can be rapidly and repeatedly switched between oxidized and reduced states. Also, the radical scavenging antioxidant properties of insoluble clove are largely independent of this reversible redox activity, which is similar to observations made with the natural phenolic melanin. In contrast to melanin, insoluble clove was observed to have little pro-oxidant activity (as measured by H2O2 generation) irrelevant to whether it was poised in an oxidized or reduced state. These results suggest that dietary antioxidants, even when insoluble and nonabsorbed, can undergo important redox interactions in the intestinal tract.

  4. Neuroprotection by Cocktails of Dietary Antioxidants under Conditions of Nerve Growth Factor Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Amara, Flavio; Berbenni, Miluscia; Fragni, Martina; Leoni, Giampaolo; Viggiani, Sandra; Ippolito, Vita Maria; Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Alberghina, Lilia; Riccio, Paolo; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may be useful in counteracting the chronic inflammatory status in neurodegenerative diseases by reducing oxidative stress due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we newly described the efficacy of a number of dietary antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, thiolic compounds, and oligoelements) on viability of neuronal PC12 cells following Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) deprivation, a model of age-related decrease of neurotrophic support that triggers neuronal loss. Neuroprotection by antioxidants during NGF deprivation for 24 h was largely dependent on their concentrations: all dietary antioxidants were able to efficiently support cell viability by reducing ROS levels and restoring mitochondrial function, while preserving the neuronal morphology. Moreover, ROS reduction and neuroprotection during NGF withdrawal were also achieved with defined cocktails of 3-6 different antioxidants at concentrations 5-60 times lower than those used in single treatments, suggesting that their antioxidant activity was preserved also at very low concentrations. Overall, these data indicate the beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by decreased NGF availability and suggest that defined cocktails of dietary factors at low concentrations might be a suitable strategy to reduce oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases, while limiting possible side effects.

  5. Neuroprotection by Cocktails of Dietary Antioxidants under Conditions of Nerve Growth Factor Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Flavio; Berbenni, Miluscia; Fragni, Martina; Leoni, Giampaolo; Viggiani, Sandra; Ippolito, Vita Maria; Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Alberghina, Lilia; Riccio, Paolo; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may be useful in counteracting the chronic inflammatory status in neurodegenerative diseases by reducing oxidative stress due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we newly described the efficacy of a number of dietary antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, thiolic compounds, and oligoelements) on viability of neuronal PC12 cells following Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) deprivation, a model of age-related decrease of neurotrophic support that triggers neuronal loss. Neuroprotection by antioxidants during NGF deprivation for 24 h was largely dependent on their concentrations: all dietary antioxidants were able to efficiently support cell viability by reducing ROS levels and restoring mitochondrial function, while preserving the neuronal morphology. Moreover, ROS reduction and neuroprotection during NGF withdrawal were also achieved with defined cocktails of 3–6 different antioxidants at concentrations 5–60 times lower than those used in single treatments, suggesting that their antioxidant activity was preserved also at very low concentrations. Overall, these data indicate the beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by decreased NGF availability and suggest that defined cocktails of dietary factors at low concentrations might be a suitable strategy to reduce oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases, while limiting possible side effects. PMID:26236423

  6. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  7. The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  9. Maternal dietary choline deficiency alters angiogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mehedint, Mihai G.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether maternal dietary choline modulates angiogenesis in fetal brain. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were fed either a choline-deficient (CD), control (CT), or choline-supplemented diet (CS) from days 12 to 17 (E12-17) of pregnancy and then fetal brains were studied. In CD fetal hippocampus, proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS) while differentiated EC clusters (expressing factor VIII related antigen (RA)) increased by 25% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS). These changes were associated with > 25% decrease in the number of blood vessels in CD fetal hippocampus (p < 0.01 vs. CT and CS), with no change in total cross-sectional area of these blood vessels. Expression of genes for the angiogenic signals derived from both endothelial and neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) was increased in CD fetal hippocampus VEGF C (Vegfc), 2.0-fold, p < 0.01 vs. CT and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), 2.1-fold, (p < 0.01 vs. CT)). Similar increased expression was observed in NPC isolated from E14 fetal mouse brains and exposed to low (5 μM), CT (70 μM), or high choline (280 μM) media for 72 h (low choline caused a 9.7-fold increase in relative gene expression of Vegfc (p < 0.001 vs. CT and high) and a 3.4-fold increase in expression of Angpt2, (p < 0.05 vs. CT and high). ANGPT2 protein was increased 42.2% (p < 0.01). Cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide islands in the proximity of the promoter areas of Vegfc and Angpt2 were hypomethylated in low choline NPC compared to CT NPC (p < 0.01). We conclude that maternal dietary choline intake alters angiogenesis in the developing fetal hippocampus. PMID:20624989

  10. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p < 0.05). The highest contribution in total DWA value had fruits (48.7%) opposite to vegetables (9.3%). Statistically significant positive correlations between DAI and FRAP in plasma was found in all: r = 0.42 and in female: r = 0.54 groups (not significant in men group: r = 0.20). Statistically significant negative correlation of DAI with MDA (malonylaldehyde) in female (-0.49) and male (-0.51) groups. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that the intake of antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  11. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  12. Dietary antioxidants and behavioral enrichment enhance neutrophil phagocytosis in geriatric Beagles.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Picton, Rebecca A; Finneran, Phyllis S; Bird, Karyn E; Skinner, Monica M; Jewell, Dennis E; Zicker, Steven

    2006-09-15

    The study objective was to determine the effects of feeding food enriched in antioxidants and a program of environmental/cognitive enrichment on selected ex vivo assays of inflammatory and immune cells in healthy geriatric Beagle dogs (n=21). Four groups of dogs were tested using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The 2-year longitudinal study included both nutritional (control food or antioxidant-fortified food) and behavioral (normal level or cognitive enrichment) interventions. Behavior enrichment included increased exercise, environmental enrichment, and a series of learning tasks. Phagocytosis of opsonized latex-coated beads by peripheral blood neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry and found to be significantly increased in dogs receiving both dietary antioxidants and cognitive enrichment. Simultaneous stimulation of cells with Con A and suppression with Dex resulted in decreased lymphocyte proliferation in dogs receiving both dietary antioxidants and cognitive enrichment, compared to dogs receiving dietary antioxidants or cognitive enrichment alone. There were no significant differences between the groups of dogs for percentages of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte subpopulations before or after lymphocyte stimulation with Con A. These results support our hypothesis that both dietary antioxidants and behavioral enrichment enhance host defense mechanisms.

  13. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEI BY ARSENIC IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the genotoxicity of chemical agents. Arsenic, a known human carcinogen present in drinking water supplies around the world, induces chromosomal and DNA damage. The effect of dietary folate deficiency on...

  14. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEI BY ARSENIC IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the genotoxicity of chemical agents. Arsenic, a known human carcinogen present in drinking water supplies around the world, induces chromosomal and DNA damage. The effect of dietary folate deficiency on...

  15. ROCK1 deficiency enhances protective effects of antioxidants against apoptosis and cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Surma, Michelle; Handy, Caitlin; Chang, Jiang; Kapur, Reuben; Wei, Lei; Shi, Jianjian

    2014-01-01

    We have recently reported that the homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, play different roles in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment, and the ROCK1 deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) has remarkable anti-apoptotic, anti-detachment and pro-survival effects against doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. This study investigated the roles of ROCK isoforms in doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which is believed to be the major mechanism underlying its cytotoxicity to normal cells, and especially to cardiomyocytes. Different antioxidants have been shown to provide a protective role reported in numerous experimental studies, but clinical trials of antioxidant therapy showed insufficient benefit against the cardiac side effect. We found that both ROCK1-/- and ROCK2-/- MEFs exhibited reduced ROS production in response to doxorubicin treatment. Interestingly, only ROCK1 deficiency, but not ROCK2 deficiency, significantly enhanced the protective effects of antioxidants against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. First, ROCK1 deficiency and N-acetylcysteine (an anti-oxidant) treatment synergistically reduced ROS levels, caspase activation and cell detachment. In addition, the reduction of ROS generation in ROCK1-/- MEFs in response to doxorubicin treatment was in part through inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, ROCK1 deficiency enhanced the inhibitory effects of diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) on ROS generation and caspase 3 activation induced by doxorubicin. Finally, ROCK1 deficiency had greater protective effects than antioxidant treatment, especially on reducing actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ROCK1 deficiency not only reduced actomyosin contraction but also preserved central stress fiber stability, whereas antioxidant treatment only reduced actomyosin contraction without preserving central stress fibers. These results reveal a novel strategy to enhance the protective

  16. Adverse effects of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficiency: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chong, David Weng Kwai

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic disorder, affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Whilst it is known that a number of drugs, foods and chemicals can trigger haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals, the association between herbal and dietary supplements and haemolysis is less clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between herbal or dietary supplements and adverse events in G6PD deficient individuals. We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively. Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and α-lipoic acid. The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  18. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  19. Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, A; Rincón, M; Pulido, R; Saura-Calixto, F

    2001-11-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit, widely consumed fresh and also processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, and jams). Pulp and peel fractions were tested, and both showed high content of dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). The antioxidant activity of polyphenol compounds was studied, using three complementary methods: (i) free radical DPPH* scavenging, (ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and (iii) inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. All fractions tested showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity, and this activity was correlated with the corresponding total phenolic content. A 1-g (dry matter) portion of peel contained DPPH* activity, FRAP activity, and inhibition of copper-induced in vitro LDL oxidation, equivalent to 43 mg, 116 mg, and 176 mg of Trolox, respectively. These results indicate that guava could be a suitable source of natural antioxidants. Peel and pulp could also be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF), a new item which combines in a single natural product the properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds.

  20. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  1. Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Elaine W-T; Kreis, Andreas J; Simpson, Julie A; Guymer, Robyn H

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of dietary antioxidants in the primary prevention of age related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Search of seven databases without limits on year or language of publication, and retrieval of references in pertinent reviews and articles. Methods Two reviewers independently searched the databases and selected the studies, using standardised criteria. Randomised clinical trials and prospective cohort studies were included. Of the 4192 abstracts initially identified, 12 studies (nine prospective cohort studies and three randomised clinical trials) met the selection criteria and were included. Data extraction and study quality evaluation were independently reviewed, using standardised criteria. Results were pooled quantitatively using meta-analytic methods. Results The nine prospective cohort studies included 149 203 people, with 1878 incident cases of early AMD. The antioxidants investigated differed across studies, and not all studies contributed to the meta-analysis of each antioxidant. Pooled results from prospective cohort studies indicated that vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, α carotene, β carotene, β cryptoxanthin, and lycopene have little or no effect in the primary prevention of early AMD. The three randomised clinical trials did not show that antioxidant supplements prevented early AMD. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support the role of dietary antioxidants, including the use of dietary antioxidant supplements, for the primary prevention of early AMD. PMID:17923720

  2. The severity of copper deficiency in rats is determined by the type of dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, M; Ferretti, R J; Reiser, S; Smith, J C

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interaction between copper and dietary carbohydrates on clinical and enzymatic indices associated with copper deficiency. Copper deficiency was produced in rats by feeding diets adequate in all nutrients including selenium and chromium, but marginal in copper (1.2 micrograms/g diet) containing 62% of either starch, fructose, or glucose. During the fifth week, the fructose of the copper-deficient diet (20 rats) was replaced by either starch (10 rats) or by glucose (10 rats). The experiment was terminated after 11 weeks. Copper deficiency in rats fed fructose significantly lowered body weight and hematocrit, but increased liver weight, blood urea nitrogen, ammonia, cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared to rats fed starch or glucose. The copper metalloenzyme, superoxide dismutase, the selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic ATP were decreased in the copper-deficient rats fed fructose as compared to copper-deficient rats fed starch or glucose. These results indicate that fructose may be the dietary component which has a deleterious effect on copper and selenium status. Changing the type of dietary carbohydrate in copper-deficient rats from fructose to either starch or glucose ameliorated the severity of the deficiency. The protective effects were more pronounced with starch than with glucose.

  3. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Abbas; Javadi, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.

  4. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of iron deficiency anemic patients supplemented with vitamins.

    PubMed

    Madhikarmi, Nirjala Laxmi; Murthy, Kora Rudraiah Siddalinga

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved.

  5. Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Laxmi Madhikarmi, Nirjala; Rudraiah Siddalinga Murthy, Kora

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved. PMID:24518548

  6. LC-QTOF-MS Analysis and Activity Profiles of Popular Antioxidant Dietary Supplements in Terms of Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Tomasz; Sawicki, Rafal; Wanat, Aleksandra; Wojtanowski, Krzysztof Kamil; Ginalska, Grazyna; Zgorka, Grazyna; Szymanska, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    The dietary supplements with claimed antioxidant activity constitute a substantial part of the dietary supplement market. In this study, we performed the LC-QTOF-MS analysis and investigated the activity profiles of popular antioxidant dietary supplements from different chemical groups in terms of quality control. The commonly used antioxidant tests and statistical analysis revealed that substantial part of the results was comparable if 1 g sample was considered, but while comparing single and daily doses, significant differences in antioxidant values were noticed in all assays. The best antioxidant activity was obtained in ORAC assay (from 142 to 13814 μM of Trolox equivalents per 1 g of sample), and the strongest correlation occurred between TPC and ORAC. The LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that catechins were present in samples having the best antioxidant activity and that dietary supplements showing the weakest activity contained very small amount of any chemical constituents. PMID:28642814

  7. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent.

    PubMed

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Young, Scott D; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-06-22

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  8. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita−1 d−1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  9. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  10. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  11. [The antioxidant effects of emoxipin in patients with iron-deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Shved, M I; Palamar, T O

    1995-01-01

    A total of 78 female patients of child-bearing age with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) of varying genesis and degree of severity were examined for effectiveness of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine in a combined treatment of IDA. IDA was found to be associated with activation of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO) and decrement in antioxidant defence of the body. Conventional antianemic therapy does not lead to normalization of parameters characterizing LPO. Incorporation into a complex therapy of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine reduces activity of free-radical oxidation of lipids, which fact prevents the pathological process from progressing and leads to more rapid and lasting clinical remission.

  12. Optimal dietary therapy of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gillingham, Melanie B.; Connor, William E.; Matern, Dietrich; Rinaldo, Piero; Burlingame, Terry; Meeuws, Kaatje; Harding, Cary O.

    2009-01-01

    Current dietary therapy for long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) or trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency consists of fasting avoidance, and limiting long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake. This study reports the relationship of dietary intake and metabolic control as measured by plasma acylcarnitine and organic acid profiles in 10 children with LCHAD or TFP deficiency followed for 1 year. Subjects consumed an average of 11% of caloric intake as dietary LCFA, 11% as MCT, 12% as protein, and 66% as carbohydrate. Plasma levels of hydroxypalmitoleic acid, hydroxyoleic, and hydroxylinoleic carnitine esters positively correlated with total LCFA intake and negatively correlated with MCT intake suggesting that as dietary intake of LCFA decreases and MCT intake increases, there is a corresponding decrease in plasma hydroxyacylcarnitines. There was no correlation between plasma acylcarnitines and level of carnitine supplementation. Dietary intake of fat-soluble vitamins E and K was deficient. Dietary intake and plasma levels of essential fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acid, were deficient. On this dietary regimen, the majority of subjects were healthy with no episodes of metabolic decompensation. Our data suggest that an LCHAD or TFP-deficient patient should adhere to a diet providing age-appropriate protein and limited LCFA intake (10% of total energy) while providing 10–20% of energy as MCT and a daily multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement that includes all of the fat-soluble vitamins. The diet should be supplemented with vegetable oils as part of the 10% total LCFA intake to provide essential fatty acids. PMID:12809642

  13. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-08

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  14. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Graiyna

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits arising from antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are well recognised and their recommended dietary intake for the general population have been established. However, there is still a need for assessing antioxidant vitamin intake in different population groups. To assess intake of antioxidant vitamins: A, C, E and beta-carotene, and to identify their major sources in the diets of healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 182 adults; both men and women from polish population. Antioxidant vitamin dietary intake was assessed by individual 3-day records. Data were analysed using updated "Polish Food Composition Tables" and 'Dieta 5' Software. The average daily intake of antioxidant vitamins was: 1076 mg for vitamin A (including 46% of retinol and 55% of beta-carotene), 107 mg for vitamin C and 9 mg for vitamin E. Higher dietary intake of these vitamins was observed in men compared to women. The average intake ofantioxidant vitamins was found to be in recommended range, however, significant differences were observed between the lowest and the highest intake. They were related to differences in the consumption of food products recognized as major sources of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene in study population.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    PubMed

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  17. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.

  18. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  19. Dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Partula, Valentin; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results suggested that iron-induced lipid peroxidation may explain the direct associations observed between red/processed meat intakes and colorectal and breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk, and its potential modulation by an antioxidant supplementation and lipid intake. This prospective study included 4646 women from the SU.VI.MAX trial (daily low-dose antioxidants vs. placebo). 188 incident breast cancers were diagnosed (median follow-up=12.6y). Dietary iron intake was assessed using repeated 24h dietary records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed. Dietary iron intake was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HRT3vs.T1=1.67 (1.02-2.71), P-trend=0.04). This association was observed in the placebo group (HRT3vs.T1=2.80 (1.42-5.54), P-trend=0.003), but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend=0.7, P-interaction=0.1). Besides, in the placebo group, the increased breast cancer risk associated with dietary iron intake was more specifically observed in women with higher lipid intake (P-trend=0.046). These findings suggest that dietary iron intake may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk, especially in women who did not received antioxidants during the trial and who consumed more lipids. This supports the experimental results suggesting that breast cancer risk may be increased by iron-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:27738321

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaolong; Wu, Shugeng; Zhang, Haijun; Yue, Hongyuan; Xu, Shaohui; Ji, Feng; Qi, Guanghai

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in laying hens, Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384, 52 weeks old) were randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments. Each treatment had six replicates of 16 hens each. All birds were assigned to a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing a mixture of CLA at 0%, 1%, 2% or 4% for six weeks. With increasing dietary CLA, egg weight and feed intake decreased, and yolk colour was darkened. Feed efficiency was improved at 1% and 2% dietary CLA. Serum triglyceride concentration was significantly reduced by CLA in a dose dependent manner. A linear decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed after CLA supplementation. With increasing dietary CLA, the deposition of two major isomers of CLA (c9, t11; t10, c12) in yolk lipids increased linearly, the proportion of saturated fatty acids increased and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was highest at 1% CLA. Compared to the control, CLA supplementation significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, inhibited hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion production, and decreased the malonaldehyde concentrations in both serum and liver. The results demonstrated that dietary CLA meliorated serum lipid profiles and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

  1. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  2. Dimethylthiourea inhibits heart weight and hematocrit changes caused by dietary copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, J.T. )

    1991-03-11

    Feeding antioxidants to rats in a copper (Cu)-deficient diet can partially inhibit the cardiac enlargement and anemia caused by Cu deficiency. This study was done to determine whether an antioxidant which bypassed the gastrointestinal tract was also protective and whether an agent more potent than previously used was more effective in this inhibition. Male, weanling rats were fed diets deficient or sufficient in Cu for 4 wks. Dimethylthiourea (DMTU) or saline was injected (ip) 4 times a week; minimum amount of DMTU retained during the experiment was estimated to be 250 mg/kg. Unlike other antioxidants, DMTU completely prevented the increase in heart wt/body wt ratio; like the other agents, it only partially inhibited the anemia of Cu deficiency. DMTU did not affect plasma or liver Cu content of CuD rats; however, heart copper of CuD rats was significantly increased by DMTU. The effects of DMTU on heart size and hematocrit (Hct) may be attributed to its antioxidant function, but the possibility of altered mineral status must also be considered.

  3. Phospholipid metabolism and protein kinase C mediated protein phosphorylation in dietary protein deficiency in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Surendra K; Kathayat, Rachna; Tyagi, Manoj; Taneja, Krishna K; Basir, Seemi F

    2005-07-01

    Nutritional deprivation of proteins decreases the protein kinase C (PKC) activity in rat lung. The activity of (PKC) is influenced by lipid metabolism. Changes in PKC activity may influence phosphorylation of its substrate proteins in the tissues. Therefore, alterations in phospholipid metabolism and PKC mediated protein phosphorylation in dietary protein deficiency in rat lung were envisaged. The study was conducted on rats fed on three different types of diet viz., casein (20% protein), deficient (4% protein, rice flour as source of protein) and supplemented (deficient diet supplemented with L-lysine and DL-threoning). Feeding of protein deficient diet caused reduction in incorporation of [3H] myo-inositol in the total phosphoinositides in lungs and an increase in total inositol phosphate pool. There was a significant reduction in the contents and turnover rate of phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl inositol monophosphate. Supplementation of diet with L-lysine and DL-threonine had a reversing effect on total pool of phosphoinositides and, the metabolism of phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate and phosphatidyl inositol. In phosphatidyl choline metabolism, the dietary protein deficiency led to a decrease in incorporation of [14C-methyl] choline-chloride in total phospholipids. In contrast, its incorporation increased in phosphatidyl choline pool. The contents of phosphatidyl choline and residue, incorporation of [14C-methyl] choline-chloride in them and their turnover rate also increased. Supplementation of diet had a reversal effect on most of these parameters. Phosphorylation of proteins of 84, 47, 35 and 16 kDa was identified to be mediated by PKC. In dietary protein deficiency, phosphorylation of all these proteins, except that of 47 kDa, increased. Supplementation of diet reversed the pattern except that of 84 kDa. The findings suggest that changes in phospholipid metabolism in dietary protein deficiency may effect the activity of PKC thereby influencing the

  4. Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Rodents: Effects on T-Cell Development, Maturation and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Heather J.; Taylor, Carla G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. PMID:22822446

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ON ARSENIC GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen found in drinking water supplies throughout the world, is clastogenic in human and rodent cells. An estimated ten percent of Americans are deficient in folate, a methyl donor necessary for normal nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis, and DNA methylatio...

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ON ARSENIC GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen found in drinking water supplies throughout the world, is clastogenic in human and rodent cells. An estimated ten percent of Americans are deficient in folate, a methyl donor necessary for normal nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis, and DNA methylatio...

  7. Response to Dietary Phosphate Deficiency is Affected by Genetic Background in Growing Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concern over the environmental impact of phosphate (P) excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were fed either a P adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P deficient diet ...

  8. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arun K.; Rajkumar, V.; Banerjee, Rituparna; Biswas, S.; Das, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods. PMID:25049864

  9. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects.

  10. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun K; Rajkumar, V; Banerjee, Rituparna; Biswas, S; Das, Arun K

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  11. Dietary intakes of fat and antioxidant vitamins are predictors of subclinical inflammation in overweight Swiss children.

    PubMed

    Aeberli, Isabelle; Molinari, Luciano; Spinas, Giatgen; Lehmann, Roger; l'Allemand, Dagmar; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2006-10-01

    In obese children, subclinical inflammation is often present and is correlated with the metabolic syndrome. Dietary factors, such as fatty acids and antioxidants, potentially modulate the association between adiposity and subclinical inflammation, but few data are available in children. The aim of the study was to determine whether dietary fat or antioxidant intakes influence circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leptin concentrations in overweight children. In a cross-sectional study of 6-14-y-old normal-weight (n = 33), overweight (n = 19), and obese (n = 27) Swiss children, nutritional intakes were assessed from two 24-h dietary recalls and a 1-d dietary record. Percentage body fat from skinfold thicknesses, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of insulin, glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and leptin concentrations. CRP, IL-6, and leptin increased significantly (P < 0.02) with increasing adiposity, independent of age; TNF-alpha did not increase. Total dietary fat and the percentage of energy from fat were significant predictors of CRP concentration, independent of body mass index (P < 0.05). Meat intake was a significant predictor of IL-6 and leptin, independent of body mass index (P < 0.05). Intakes of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins E and C and beta-carotene) were significant predictors of leptin (P < 0.05) but not of CRP, IL-6, or TNF-alpha. Overweight Swiss children as young as 6 y have elevated concentrations of inflammatory markers. Intakes of total fat and antioxidant vitamins are determinants of subclinical inflammation in this age group.

  12. Dietary Calcium and Framingham Risk Score in Vitamin D Deficient Male (KNHANES 2009-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between excess calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality has already been reported. In the present study, we investigated the relation between dietary calcium intake and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. Materials and Methods A total of 7809 subjects (3452 males and 4357 female) aged over 40 years were selected for this cross-sectional study from data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011). Daily dietary calcium intake was categorized into <300, 300-600, 600-900, 900-1200, and >1200 mg/day and serum 25(OH)D concentration classified into <50, 50-75, >75 mmol/L. The FRS was compared by the daily dietary calcium intake categories according to 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment with relevant variables in both genders. Results Higher FRS was observed in males with both <300 mg and >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and females with <300 mg of dietary calcium intake without adjustment. The significantly higher FRS remained in the <300 mg and >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake groups in both genders after adjustments for relevant variables. FRS was significantly higher in the group with >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, which was the male only vitamin D deficient group. Conclusion Very low (<300 mg/day) and excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake were related with higher FRS in both genders. In particular, higher FRS was observed in the excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake male group under vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). PMID:25837195

  13. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  14. Fibre type-dependent response of broiler muscles to dietary antioxidant supplementation for oxidative stability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Delles, R M; True, A D; Ao, T; Dawson, K A; Xiong, Y L

    2016-12-01

    The influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and physico-chemical properties of chicken broiler breast and thigh meat stored was studied in either an oxygen-enriched (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) or an air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) packaging system during retail display at 2-4°C for up to 14 and 7 d, respectively. Broilers were fed on a diet with either a low-oxidised (peroxide value (POV) 23 meq O2/kg) or a high-oxidised (POV 121 meq O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae/selenium-based antioxidant with organic minerals, for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation, myofibrillar protein profile and purge loss were analysed. In both packaging systems, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) was inhibited by up to 65% and 57% in chicken breast and thigh, respectively, with an antioxidant-supplemented diet compared to those without. In both breast and thigh samples, protein sulfhydryls and water-holding capacity (purge loss) were better protected by the antioxidant dietary treatment, regardless of oil quality. Thigh muscles had up to sevenfold greater TBARS formation and more myosin heavy chain losses compared to breast samples. Antioxidant supplementation was more protective against lipid oxidation and water-holding capacity in the group fed on high-oxidised oil compared to those fed on low-oxidised oil. The results suggest that dietary antioxidants can minimise the negative impact of oxidised oil on broiler meat quality, and this protection was more pronounced for thigh than breast muscle, indicating inherent variations between muscle fibre types.

  15. Antioxidative and proteolytic systems protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in S-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Rychter, Anna M; Juszczuk, Izabela M

    2015-08-15

    We examined the functioning of the antioxidative defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana under sulphur (S) deficiency with an emphasis on the role of mitochondria. In tissue extracts and in isolated mitochondria from S-deficient plants, the concentration of non-protein thiols declined but protein thiols did not change. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in leaf blades and the generation of superoxide anion by isolated mitochondria was higher. Lower abundance of reduced (GSH) plus oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the leaf and root tissues, and leaf mitochondria from S-deficient plants was accompanied by a decrease in the level of GSH and the changes in the GSH/GSSG ratios. In the chloroplasts, the total level of glutathione decreased. Lower levels of reduced (AsA) and oxidized (DHA) ascorbate were reflected in much higher ratios of AsA/DHA. Sulphur deficiency led to an increase in the activity of cytosolic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic antioxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases. The protein carbonyl level was higher in the leaves of S-deficient plants and in the chloroplasts, while in the roots, leaf and root mitochondria it remained unchanged. Protease activity in leaf extracts of S-deficient plants was higher, but in root extracts it did not differ. The proteolytic system reflected subcellular specificity. In leaf and root mitochondria the protease activity was higher, whereas in the chloroplasts it did not change. We propose that the preferential incorporation of S to protein thiols and activation of antioxidative and proteolytic systems are likely important for the survival of S-deficient plants and that the mitochondria maintain redox homeostasis.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases and gastrointestinal cancers: Impacts of dietary antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sugreev; Kesh, Kousik; Ganguly, Nilanjan; Jana, Sayantan; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK (reversion including cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2, -9 and -14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is

  17. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mankowski, Robert T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Buford, Thomas W.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiological homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), where excess of ROS can be scavenged by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants to protect against deleterious oxidative stress. Free radicals, however, have recently been recognized as crucial signaling agents that promote adaptive mechanisms to ET, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant (AO) enzyme activity defense system upregulation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Commonly used non-enzymatic AO supplements, such as vitamins C and E, a-lipoic acid, and polyphenols, in combination with ET, have been proposed as ways to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and hence improve adaptation responses to endurance training. Preclinical and clinical studies to date have shown inconsistent results indicating either positive or negative effects of endurance training combined with different blends of AO supplements (mostly vitamins C and E and a-lipoic acid) on redox status, mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, and insulin sensitivity. Preclinical reports on ET combined with resveratrol, however, have shown consistent positive effects on exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity, with clinical trials reporting mixed effects. Relevant clinical studies have been few and have used inconsistent results and methodology (types of compounds, combinations, and supplementation time). The future studies would investigate the effects of specific antioxidants and other popular supplements, such as a-lipoic acid and resveratrol, on training effects in humans. Of particular importance are older adults who may be at higher risk of age-related increased oxidative stress, an impaired AO enzyme defense system, and comorbidities such as hypertension, insulin resistance, and

  18. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Güney, Tekin; Alişik, Murat; Akinci, Sema; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Dilek, Imdat; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the theory that oxidative stress might have an important mediating effect on the deleterious results of vitamin B12 metabolism deficiency seen throughout the body. Forty patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all participants to evaluate serum vitamin B12, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels in the pre- and posttreatment periods. There were no significant differences in TAS, TOS, or oxidative stress index (OSI) levels between the pretreatment patient and control groups, and there were no significant differences in TAS or TOS levels between the posttreatment and control groups. In addition, there were no significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of the patients. These findings are remarkable in that cyanocobalamin treatment had no direct effect on oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. The fact that there were no differences in oxidant and antioxidant status between the patients and the controls might suggest that oxidative stress does not play a role in the systemic negative effects of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  19. Differential effect of dietary antioxidant classes (carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E) on lutein absorption.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Thap, Sinay; Tourniaire, Franck; André, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Morange, Sophie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Borel, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    Lutein is assumed to protect the human retina from blue light and oxidative stress and diminish the incidence of age-related macular degeneration. This antioxidant is commonly ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidants, i.e. carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamins C and E, affect lutein absorption. We measured the effect of adding a mixture of antioxidants (500 mg vitamin C, 67 mg (100 IU) vitamin E and 1 g polyphenols) to a lutein-containing meal (18 mg) on the postprandial lutein response in the chylomicron-rich fraction in eight healthy men. Lutein response was weakest (-23 %; P=0 x 07) after ingestion of the meal containing antioxidants (21 x 9 (sem 4 x 6) v. 28 x 4 (sem 7 x 2) nmol x h/l). To assess the effect of each class of antioxidants and potential interactions, we subsequently evaluated the effect of various combinations of antioxidants on lutein uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 TC-7 cells. A full factorial design showed that both a mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and naringenin) and a mixture of carotenoids (lycopene plus beta-carotene) significantly (P<0 x 05) impaired lutein uptake by (-10 to-30 %), while vitamins C and E had no significant effect. Subsequent experiments showed that the aglycone flavanone naringenin was the only polyphenol responsible for the effect of the polyphenol mixture, and that the carotenoid effect was not carotenoid species-dependent. Taken together, the present results suggest that lutein absorption is not markedly affected by physiological concentrations of vitamins C and E but can be impaired by carotenoids and naringenin

  20. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and close dietetic supervision increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma antioxidant capacity in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Kolomvotsou, Anastasia I; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Lekakis, John; Koutelidakis, Antonis; Efstathiou, Stamatis; Nana-Anastasiou, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of Mediterranean-type diet and close dietetic supervision on dietary antioxidant intake and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with abdominal obesity. Ninety subjects with abdominal obesity, 46 in intervention group, 44 in control group, participated in a 2-month, randomized, parallel dietary intervention. All participants were counseled on Greek Mediterranean diet. The intervention group was under close dietetic supervision, followed a specific relevant daily and weekly food plan consuming antioxidant-rich foods and food products. Total dietary antioxidant intake was calculated from the volunteers' food diaries, and plasma TAC using plasma ORAC assay and plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, both at baseline and at 2 months. Following the 2-month period, total dietary antioxidant intake was increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.000). In addition, increased intake of total fat, due to higher consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as increased intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin C and alcohol was also observed in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Plasma TAC was increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.039) using the ORAC assay, while there was a trend toward a TAC increase (P = 0.077) using the FRAP assay. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet, with emphasis on an increase in foods rich in antioxidants and close dietetic supervision, can increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma TAC in patients with abdominal obesity.

  1. Total antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress after a 10-week dietary intervention program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Rendo-Urteaga, T; Puchau, B; Chueca, M; Oyarzabal, M; Azcona-Sanjulián, M C; Martínez, J A; Marti, A

    2014-05-01

    Dietary and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) are considered appropriate tools for investigating the potential health effects of dietary antioxidants consumed in mixed diets. The aim was to analyze the impact of a dietary intervention on macronutrient intakes and to evaluate the improvement on oxidative status after weight loss (WL) by measuring dietary and serum TAC, and urinary F2-isoprostane levels as markers of oxidative stress. Forty-four overweight/obese children (mean age 11.5 years) were enrolled to undergo a 10-week WL program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after intervention. Subjects were prescribed with a fixed full-day meal diet, calculated according to their basal metabolic rate and physical activity levels. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to retrospectively calculate TAC and daily nutrient intake. The HR subjects were able to reduce anthropometric indices and to improve lipid and glucose profile. They also significantly diminished fat intake (p = 0.013). Moreover, baseline serum TAC values did significantly predict the reduction in urinary F2 isoprostane (B = -0.236 (-0.393 to -0.078); p = 0.014) in the HR group after the WL program. Notably, changes in dietary TAC after the treatment were associated with a decrease in body weight after the 10-week intervention (B = -2.815 (-5.313 to -0.318), p = 0.029) in the HR group. The -ΔSerumTAC/ΔDietaryTAC and the -ΔF2Isoprostane/ΔDietaryTAC ratios revealed that the relationships between oxidative markers and antioxidants dietary intake were more favorable in the HR than in the LR group. Our study showed that a 10-week WL program was able to reduce adiposity indices in obese children. Moreover, after the intervention changes in dietary TAC and WL were significantly associated. Our result suggests that specific food with a high TAC content (such as fruits

  2. Global transcriptional response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in mouse liver and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alejandra; Luukkaala, Tiina; Fleming, Robert E; Britton, Robert S; Bacon, Bruce R; Parkkila, Seppo

    2009-09-29

    Iron is an essential trace element whose absorption is usually tightly regulated in the duodenum. HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is characterized by abnormally low expression of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, which results in increased iron absorption. The liver is crucial for iron homeostasis as it is the main production site of hepcidin. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the genome-wide transcriptome response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in murine liver and duodenum. Illumina arrays containing over 47,000 probes were used to study global transcriptional changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) was used to validate the microarray results. In the liver, the expression of 151 genes was altered in Hfe(-/-) mice while dietary iron overload changed the expression of 218 genes. There were 173 and 108 differentially expressed genes in the duodenum of Hfe(-/-) mice and mice with dietary iron overload, respectively. There was 93.5% concordance between the results obtained by microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR. Overexpression of genes for acute phase reactants in the liver and a strong induction of digestive enzyme genes in the duodenum were characteristic of the Hfe-deficient genotype. In contrast, dietary iron overload caused a more pronounced change of gene expression responsive to oxidative stress. In conclusion, Hfe deficiency caused a previously unrecognized increase in gene expression of hepatic acute phase proteins and duodenal digestive enzymes.

  3. Effect of magnesium deficiency on antioxidant status and cadmium toxicity in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Shao; Chao, Yun-Yang; Huang, Wen-Dar; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

    2011-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and inhibits physiological processes of plants. Magnesium (Mg) is known as one of the essential nutrients for plants. Mg deficiency in plants affects metabolic processes. Plants grown in the field may encounter several abiotic stresses, rather than a single stress. Thus, the relationship between Mg nutrition and Cd toxicity is of ecological importance. In this study, effects of Mg deficiency on antioxidant systems and Cd toxicity in rice seedlings were investigated. Mg deficiency significantly decreased Mg concentrations in shoot and roots of rice seedlings. However, fresh weight and dry weight of rice seedlings were not affected by Mg deficiency. The contents of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), the ratio of GSH/oxidized glutathione, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase in Mg-deficient leaves were higher than respective control leaves. Cd toxicity was judged by the decrease in biomass production, decrease in chlorophyll, and induction of oxidative stress. Based on these criteria, we demonstrated that Mg deficiency protected rice seedlings from Cd stress. Moreover, chlorophyll destruction by paraquat was higher in detached leaves from Mg-sufficient than Mg-deficient seedlings. Cd concentration was higher in Mg-deficient shoot and roots than their respective control shoot and roots, suggesting that the protective effect of Mg deficiency against Cd toxicity is not due to reduction of Cd uptake. Moreover, we observed that Cd-decreased Fe and Zn contents in Mg-deficient seedlings were more pronounced than that in Mg-sufficient seedlings. Of particular interest is the finding that the increase in OsIRT1, OsZIP1, and OsZIP3 transcripts caused by Cd in Mg-deficient roots was greater than that in control roots. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  5. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  6. Dietary Phytochemicals Promote Health by Enhancing Antioxidant Defence in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Selby-Pham, Sophie N. B.; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Ng, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemical-rich diets are protective against chronic diseases and mediate their protective effect by regulation of oxidative stress (OS). However, it is proposed that under some circumstances, phytochemicals can promote production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, which might drive OS-mediated signalling. Here, we investigated the effects of administering single doses of extracts of red cabbage and grape skin to pigs. Blood samples taken at baseline and 30 min intervals for 4 hours following intake were analyzed by measures of antioxidant status in plasma, including Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. In addition, dose-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the same extracts was measured in untreated commercial pig plasma in vitro. Plasma from treated pigs showed extract dose-dependent increases in non-enzymatic (plasma TEAC) and enzymatic (GPx) antioxidant capacities. Similarly, extract dose-dependent increases in H2O2 were observed in commercial pig plasma in vitro. The antioxidant responses to extracts by treated pigs were highly correlated with their respective yields of H2O2 production in vitro. These results support that dietary phytochemicals regulate OS via direct and indirect antioxidant mechanisms. The latter may be attributed to the ability to produce H2O2 and to thereby stimulate cellular antioxidant defence systems. PMID:28708113

  7. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  9. Lack of an effect of dietary fructose on severity of zinc deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Failla, M L; Fields, M; Rose, A; Seidel, K

    1987-08-01

    Because feeding rats diets containing fructose as the carbohydrate source reduces copper and selenium status, we investigated whether the type of dietary carbohydrate also affected indices of zinc status. The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial study with the source of dietary carbohydrate (cornstarch or fructose) and the level of dietary zinc (0.7 or 31 micrograms Zn/g) as the variables. The experiment utilized 76 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups. Animals fed a zinc-deficient fructose diet were allowed to consume the diet ad libitum; all other groups were pair-fed to that group to ensure equivalent nutrient and energy intake. The results of the 29-d study showed that the most sensitive indices of zinc status measured, including growth, survival and the zinc concentrations of plasma, femur and testes, were not affected by the type of dietary carbohydrate. This lack of an effect of fructose on the zinc status of the experimental animals indicates that the ability of fructose to exacerbate copper and selenium deficiencies is specific, rather than representing a generalized effect of this simple sugar on the requirements and/or metabolism of all essential trace elements.

  10. Effect of apple cell walls and their extracts on the activity of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Melton, Laurence D; O'Connor, Charmian J; Kilmartin, Paul A; Smith, Bronwen G

    2008-01-09

    The effect of dietary fiber in the form of apple cell walls and pectin extracts on natural antioxidants was examined. Cell walls (CW), isolated from apples ( Malus domestica Borkh. cv. "Pacific Rose"), were incubated with ascorbic acid (AA) or quercetin in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine- N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer (pH 6.5) at 37 degrees C for 2 h. The resulting supernatants were characterized by a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experiments were repeated with pectin isolated from the apple cell walls and commercial pectins and showed that polysaccharide preparations stabilized AA effectively but offered little protection against quercetin oxidation. The water-soluble components from cell walls appeared to be responsible for the observed effects of cell-wall polysaccharide preparations on antioxidant activity.

  11. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, antioxidant enzyme genes significantly down-regulated in the treated group compared with control (P < 0.05). Also, HSP70 gene expression was higher in the liver of fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  12. Dietary Antioxidants and FEV1 Decline: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Amy R; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B; Holvoet, Paul; Jensen, Robert L; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Jung Sun; Yende, Sachin; Bauer, Doug; Cassano, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Increased antioxidant defenses are hypothesized to decrease age- and smoking-related decline in lung function. The relation of dietary antioxidants, smoking, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second of effort (FEV1) was investigated in community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. 1,443 participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, self-reported smoking history, and had measurements of FEV1 at both baseline and after 4 years of follow-up. The association of dietary intake of nutrients and foods with antioxidant properties and rate of FEV1 decline was investigated using hierarchical linear regression models. In continuing smokers (current smokers at both time points), higher vitamin C and higher intake of fruits and vegetables were associated with an 18 and 24 ml/year slower rate of FEV1 decline compared to lower intake (P<0.0001 and 0.003, respectively). In quitters (current smoker at study baseline, quit during follow-up), higher intake was associated with an attenuated rate of decline for each nutrient studied (p<0.003, all models). In non-smoking participants, there was little or no association of diet and rate of decline in FEV1. The intake of nutrients with antioxidant properties may modulate lung function decline in older adults exposed to cigarette smoke. PMID:22005919

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. Plum pomaces as a potential source of dietary fibre: composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Sójka, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Zbrzeźniak, Monika; Markowski, Jarosław

    2013-10-01

    Plums because of their composition, especially of dietary fibre, sorbitol and polyphenols content, have positive influence on human health. Generally growing interest in cloudy juices production due to their prevalence compared to clear ones resulted in the appearance of plum cloudy juices on the market. Cloudy plum juice may be the attractive plum product, however during juice production some pomace appears, which is discarded or used for feeding animals most of all. This by product might be a source of valuable health-promoting compounds. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and properties of pomaces of three cultivars obtained in pilot plant scale. The influence of drying parameters and cultivar on bioactive components and antioxidant activity were measured. Plum pomaces were characterized by 38-49% of total dietary fibre in d. m., with the share of soluble fraction from 7 to 13%. Energy value was from 202 to 240 kcal 100 g(-1) d.m. Antioxidant activity was from 10 to 17.4 mikroM TEAC g(-1) d.m. Cultivar and technology of drying had significant influence on polyphenols content of investigated plum pomaces. Considering their health-beneficial components: dietary fiber and polyphenols, plum pomaces can be used for production of dietary fiber preparations.

  15. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  16. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  17. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Stephen D; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  18. Cell death caused by selenium deficiency and protective effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Akazawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Niki, Etsuo

    2003-10-10

    Selenium is an essential trace element and it is well known that selenium is necessary for cell culture. However, the mechanism underlying the role of selenium in cellular proliferation and survival is still unknown. The present study using Jurkat cells showed that selenium deficiency in a serum-free medium decreased the selenium-dependent enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase) within cells and cell viability. To understand the mechanism of this effect of selenium, we examined the effect of other antioxidants, which act by different mechanisms. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble radical-scavenging antioxidant, completely blocked selenium deficiency-induced cell death, although alpha-tocopherol (biologically the most active form of vitamin E) could not preserve selenium-dependent enzyme activity. Other antioxidants, such as different isoforms and derivatives of vitamin E, BO-653 and deferoxamine mesylate, also exerted an inhibitory effect. However, the water-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, and glutathione, displayed no such effect. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) assay revealed that cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased before cell death, and sodium selenite and alpha-tocopherol inhibited ROS increase in a dose-dependent manner. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides was observed by fluorescence probe diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) and HPLC chemiluminescence only in selenium-deficient cells. These results suggest that the ROS, especially lipid hydroperoxides, are involved in the cell death caused by selenium deficiency and that selenium and vitamin E cooperate in the defense against oxidative stress upon cells by detoxifying and inhibiting the formation of lipid hydroperoxides.

  19. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  20. DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS (SELENIUM & N-ACETYLCYSTEINE) MODULATE PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) IN PCB126-EXPOSED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K.; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and glutathione (GSH), but also increases levels of the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups, but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (TBARS), an indicator for lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity, but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in the controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting antioxidant activity by NAC primarily in serum. These

  1. Alperujo extract, hydroxytyrosol, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol are bioavailable and have antioxidant properties in vitamin E-deficient rats--a proteomics and network analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Duthie, Garry G; Wood, Sharon; Morrice, Phil; Nicol, Fergus; Reid, Martin; Cantlay, Louise L; Kelder, Thomas; Horgan, Graham W; Fernández-Bolaños Guzmán, Juan; de Roos, Baukje

    2012-07-01

    Olive products are rich in phenolic compounds, which are natural antioxidants in vitro. We tested the in vivo effects of alperujo, an olive production by-product, as well as hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) isolated from alperujo, on indices and pathways of oxidative and metabolic stress in a vitamin E-deficient rat model. Rats were fed a vitamin E-deficient diet for 10 weeks, followed by this diet supplemented with either 100 mg/kg diet dα-tocopherol, alperujo extract, hydroxytyrosol, or 10 mg/kg diet DHPG, for a further 2 weeks. We detected alperujo phenolics in tissues and blood, indicating they are bioavailable. Alperujo extract partially ameliorated elevated plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and also lowered plasma cholesterol levels, whereas hydroxytyrosol increased plasma triglyceride levels. Proteomics and subsequent network analysis revealed that hepatic mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), of which protein and activity levels were regulated by dα-tocopherol and olive phenolics, represents a novel central regulatory protein hub affected by the dietary interventions. The in vivo free radical scavenging properties of olive phenolics appear relatively modest in our model. But alternative mechanisms, including regulation of ALDH2, may represent relevant antioxidant mechanisms by which dietary olive phenolics could have beneficial impact on cardiovascular health. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Robert T; Anton, Stephen D; Buford, Thomas W; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-09-01

    Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiologic homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in the mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species, where excess of reactive oxygen species can be scavenged by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (AO) to protect against deleterious oxidative stress. Free radicals, however, have recently been recognized as crucial signaling agents that promote adaptive mechanisms to ET, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, AO enzyme activity defense system upregulation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle. Commonly used nonenzymatic AO supplements, such as vitamins C and E, α-lipoic acid, and polyphenols, in combination with ET, have been proposed as ways to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and hence improve adaptation responses to endurance training. During the PubMed search, we selected studies that examined and compared ET effects with and without administration of commonly used AO supplements. Preclinical and clinical studies to date have shown inconsistent results indicating either positive or negative effects of endurance training combined with different blends of AO supplements (mostly vitamins C and E and α-lipoic acid) on redox status, mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, and insulin sensitivity. Preclinical reports on ET combined with resveratrol, however, have shown consistent positive effects on exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity, with clinical trials reporting mixed effects. Relevant clinical studies have been few and have used inconsistent results and methodology (types of compounds, combinations, and supplementation time). The future studies should investigate the effects of specific AO and other popular supplements, such as α-lipoic acid and resveratrol, on training effects in humans. Of particular importance are older adults who may be at higher risk of

  3. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  4. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of liver antioxidant mechanisms in Megalobrama amblycephala stimulated with dietary emodin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Changyou; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Zhao, Zhenxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Mingchun; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Xu, Pao; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a toxicological endpoint that correlates with the nutrition status of fish through cellular damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. In order to understand the antioxidant mechanism induced by dietary emodin in Megalobrama amblycephala liver, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome alteration under emodin administration. 27 altered protein spots were separated under 30 mg kg−1 emodin stimulation based on 2-DE, and were all successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF, representing 17 unique proteins. These proteins were functionally classified into antioxidant, metabolism, cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction and cofactor groups. Network interaction and Gene Ontology annotation indicated 10 unique proteins were closely related to antioxidation and directly regulated by each other. Compared with the control group, administration of 30 mg kg−1 emodin significantly increased the antioxidant-related mRNA expressions of GPx1, GSTm and HSP70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of GAPDH and Sord, which was consistent with the protein expression. Nevertheless, Pgk1 and Aldh8a1 were up- and down-regulated, and ALDOB was down- and up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. These results revealed that the altered proteins enhanced antioxidation via complex regulatory mechanisms, and 30 mg kg−1 emodin was a suitable immunostimulant for M. amblycephala. PMID:28084435

  6. Effect of dietary supplements containing antioxidants on attenuation of muscle damage in exercising sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Piercy, R J; Hinchcliff, K W; DiSilvestro, R A; Reinhart, G A; Baskin, C R; Hayek, M G; Burr, J R; Swenson, R A

    2000-11-01

    To determine whether dietary antioxidants would attenuate exercise-induced increases in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity in sled dogs. 41 trained adult sled dogs. Dogs, randomly assigned to 2 groups, received the same base diet throughout the study. After 8 weeks on that diet, 1 group (21 dogs) received a daily supplement containing vitamins E (457 U) and C (706 mg) and beta-carotene (5.1 mg), and a control group (20 dogs) received a supplement containing minimal amounts of antioxidants. After 3 weeks, both groups performed identical endurance exercise on each of 3 days. Blood samples were collected before and 3 weeks after addition of supplements and after each day of exercise. Plasma was analyzed for vitamins E and C, retinol, uric acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol concentrations, total antioxidant status (TAS), and CK activity. Feeding supplements containing antioxidants caused a significant increase in vitamin E concentration but did not change retinol or vitamin C concentrations orTAS. Exercise caused significantly higher CK activity, but did not cause a significant difference in CK activity between groups. Exercise was associated with significantly lower vitamin E, retinol, and cholesterol concentrations and TAS but significantly higher vitamin C, triglyceride, and uric acid concentrations in both groups. Use of supplements containing the doses of antioxidants used here failed to attenuate exercise-induced increases in CK activity. Muscle damage in sled dogs, as measured by plasma CK activity, may be caused by a mechanism other than oxidant stress.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of liver antioxidant mechanisms in Megalobrama amblycephala stimulated with dietary emodin.

    PubMed

    Song, Changyou; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Zhao, Zhenxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Mingchun; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Xu, Pao; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-13

    Oxidative stress is a toxicological endpoint that correlates with the nutrition status of fish through cellular damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. In order to understand the antioxidant mechanism induced by dietary emodin in Megalobrama amblycephala liver, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome alteration under emodin administration. 27 altered protein spots were separated under 30 mg kg(-1) emodin stimulation based on 2-DE, and were all successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF, representing 17 unique proteins. These proteins were functionally classified into antioxidant, metabolism, cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction and cofactor groups. Network interaction and Gene Ontology annotation indicated 10 unique proteins were closely related to antioxidation and directly regulated by each other. Compared with the control group, administration of 30 mg kg(-1) emodin significantly increased the antioxidant-related mRNA expressions of GPx1, GSTm and HSP70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of GAPDH and Sord, which was consistent with the protein expression. Nevertheless, Pgk1 and Aldh8a1 were up- and down-regulated, and ALDOB was down- and up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. These results revealed that the altered proteins enhanced antioxidation via complex regulatory mechanisms, and 30 mg kg(-1) emodin was a suitable immunostimulant for M. amblycephala.

  8. Effects of dietary polyamine deficiency on Trypanosoma gambiense infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Araki, N; Ohnishi, Y; Kozaki, S

    2001-02-01

    Nishimura, K., Araki, N., Ohnishi, Y., and Kozaki, S. 2001. Effects of dietary polyamine deficiency on Trypanosoma gambiense infection in rats. Experimental Parasitology 97, 95-101. A diet deficient in polyamines decreases the availability of dietary polyamines. We used rats infected with the Wellcome strain of Trypanosoma gambiense to examine the effects of polyamine-deficient chow (PDC) on trypanosome proliferation and symptoms of infection. Rats fed PDC showed limited increase of trypanosome and symptoms of infection and limited loss of body weight and anemia. Survival in these rats was prolonged. Before infection, the heparinized plasma concentration of spermidine in the PDC-fed rats was lower than that in control rats fed with standard chow. After infection, the content of spermidine in red blood cells increased in the control rats, but was only slightly increased in PDC-fed rats. The content of spermidine in the trypanosomes after infection was low in the PDC-fed rats. Decreases in the polyamine content of trypanosomes limited their increase. These observations suggest that a reduction in dietary polyamines may help in the regulation of trypanosome infection. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during the depletion period, accompanied by reduced tibia quality. The mRNA expression of both secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) in the uterus was decreased after feeding calcium-deficient diets (1.8% or 0.38% calcium). mRNA transcripts of calbindin 1 (CALB1), an important protein responsible for calcium transport, and the matrix protein genes ovocalyxin-32 (OCX-32) and ovocleidin-116 (OC-116) were reduced in ducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (P<0.05). The impaired shell quality and suppressed functional proteins involved in shell formation could be reversed by repletion of dietary calcium. The results of the present study suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  11. Effect of general dietary deficiency and protein malnutrition on the fibrogenesis caused by silica dust in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, S. H.; Kaw, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Zaidi, S. H., and Kaw, J. L. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 250-259. Effect of general dietary deficiency and protein malnutrition on the fibrogenesis caused by silica dust in rats. In order to determine whether the dietary deficiency, which may occur in miners in India, is likely to influence their response to silica dust, two experiments were carried out on rats. In both experiments rats were exposed to silica dust by intratracheal inoculation of saline suspension, the dose being sufficient to cause marked fibrosis in normal rats. In the first experiment rats were fed on a multiple deficient diet and in the second on a diet grossly deficient in protein but otherwise adequate. Although these diets caused other evidence of dietary deficiency, in neither group was there any difference in the extent of silicotic fibrosis as assessed by histological or biochemical methods. Images PMID:4317610

  12. Effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Erlong; Qin, Zhenyang; Zhou, Zhen; Geng, Yi; Chen, Defang

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish. A total of 320 healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were randomized into four groups; the control group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 IUkg-1 of vitamin E, while the three experimental groups were fed the same basal diet with reduced vitamin E content (0, 25, or 50 IUkg-1). Findings showed that fish in the experimental groups mainly presented with sekoke disease, exophthalmia, leprnorthsis, and ascites. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes comprised nutritional myopathy with muscle fiber denaturation and necrosis, and multi-tissue organ swelling, degeneration, and necrosis. Compared with the control group, RBC count, hemoglobin content, vitamin E concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower in all three experimental groups. However, malondialdehyde content was considerably higher in experimental groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in glutathione peroxidase activity among groups. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E deficiency (<100 IUkg-1) can cause severe injury and, in particular, oxidative damage in common carp. The oxidative damage might be a main influence caused by vitamin E deficiency in fish. These findings reveal the complete systematic pathological effect of vitamin E deficiency in common carp, which may be applicable to other fish and animals.

  13. The effect of dietary modulation of sulfur amino acids on cystathionine β synthase–deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Warren D.; Gupta, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    Cystathionine β synthase (CBS) is a key enzyme in the methionine and cysteine metabolic pathway, acting as a metabolic gatekeeper to regulate the flow of fixed sulfur from methionine to cysteine. Mutations in the CBS gene cause clinical CBS deficiency, a disease characterized by elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methionine and decreased plasma cysteine. The treatment goal for CBS-deficient patients is to normalize the metabolic values of these three metabolites using a combination of vitamin therapy and dietary manipulation. To better understand the effectiveness of nutritional treatment strategies, we have performed a series of long-term dietary manipulation studies using our previously developed Tg-I278T Cbs−/− mouse model of CBS deficiency and sibling Tg-I278T Cbs+/− controls. Tg-I278T Cbs−/− mice have undetectable levels of CBS activity, extremely elevated plasma tHcy, modestly elevated plasma methionine, and low plasma cysteine. They exhibit several easily assayable phenotypes, including osteoporosis, loss of fat mass, reduced life span, and facial alopecia. The diets used in these studies differed in the amounts of sulfur amino acids or sulfur amino acid precursors. In this review, we will discuss our findings and their relevance to CBS deficiency and the concept of gene–diet interaction. PMID:26599618

  14. Effect of dietary manganese on tissue antioxidants in STZ diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.H.; Lee, M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Mn deficiency on tissue antioxidant levels under conditions of STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetes. Weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 groups: (1) Mn+ (manganese-sufficient), nondiabetic; (2) Mn{minus} (manganese-deficient), nondiabetic; (3) Mn+, diabetic for 4 weeks; (4) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 4 weeks; (5) Mn+, diabetic for 8 weeks; and (6) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 8 weeks. Decreased Mn levels in all tissues of Mn{minus} rats were accompanied by decreased MnSOD activity in kidney and heart, but not in liver or pancreas. Hepatic vitamin E was progressively increased in 4 and 8-week diabetic rats. Overall, diabetogenic effects of STZ were not amplified by manganese deficiency.

  15. Quality assessment of commercial dietary antioxidant products from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Garrido, Ignacio; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic preparations from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds are products commonly used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. In this article, we used a methodology (the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of commercial dietary grape seed products and studied the relationship of the antioxidant capacity with the phenolic composition of these products. The ORAC value of the different brands of commercial products studied (n = 16) varied from 2.71 to 26.4 micromol Trolox equivalents/mg (approximately equal to 10-fold difference). For four of these products, the batch-to-batch ORAC variation, expressed as a coefficient of variation of the mean, was 10.5% (n = 6), 13.1% (n = 3), 19.4% (n = 4), and 7.8% (n = 4). Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD)/electrospray-mass spectrometry and procyanidins by thiolysis-LC-DAD also revealed large differences among the commercial grape seed products. Moreover, the ORAC value could be fitted to a regression model using variables from contents of individual phenolic compounds and procyanidins. The product-to-product and batch-to-batch variation in ORAC values and flavan-3-ol composition found among the commercial products studied demonstrated that they are poorly standardized, resulting in inconsistent composition and biological activity.

  16. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Sean M; Lam, Byron L

    2014-01-01

    Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI) of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30). The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases. PMID:24899800

  17. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    PubMed

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training.

  18. Systematic Review: Generating Evidence-Based Guidelines on the Concurrent Use of Dietary Antioxidants and Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Akiko; Alladin, Karen P.; Igbokwe, Obianuju; White, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The risk–benefit ratio for concurrent use of dietary antioxidants with chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a controversial topic. In this review, the medical literature on concurrent antioxidant use with chemotherapy or radiotherapy was assessed and further steps for generating evidence-based guidelines are suggested. The clinical cancer research community should cooperate and focus new studies on the use of a specific combination of antioxidant and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and determine optimal doses for a specific cancer setting. Mechanistic studies on the interaction between antioxidants and conventional cancer therapy could lead to novel biomarkers for assessing dose adequacy. PMID:22085269

  19. A crucial role for thiol antioxidants in estrogen-deficiency bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Jenny M.; Davies, Julie T.; Fuller, Karen; Jagger, Christopher J.; Kirstein, Barrie; Partington, Geoffrey A.; Urry, Zoë L.; Chambers, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms through which estrogen prevents bone loss are uncertain. Elsewhere, estrogen exerts beneficial actions by suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS stimulate osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone. Thus, estrogen might prevent bone loss by enhancing oxidant defenses in bone. We found that glutathione and thioredoxin, the major thiol antioxidants, and glutathione and thioredoxin reductases, the enzymes responsible for maintaining them in a reduced state, fell substantially in rodent bone marrow after ovariectomy and were rapidly normalized by exogenous 17-β estradiol. Moreover, administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or ascorbate, antioxidants that increase tissue glutathione levels, abolished ovariectomy-induced bone loss, while L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, caused substantial bone loss. The 17-β estradiol increased glutathione and glutathione and thioredoxin reductases in osteoclast-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, in vitro NAC prevented osteoclast formation and NF-κB activation. BSO and hydrogen peroxide did the opposite. Expression of TNF-α, a target for NF-κB and a cytokine strongly implicated in estrogen-deficiency bone loss, was suppressed in osteoclasts by 17-β estradiol and NAC. These observations strongly suggest that estrogen deficiency causes bone loss by lowering thiol antioxidants in osteoclasts. This directly sensitizes osteoclasts to osteoclastogenic signals and entrains ROS-enhanced expression of cytokines that promote osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:12975476

  20. The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance of juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Ye, Jinyun; Gao, Jun'e; Chen, Lian; Lu, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    The present study was focused on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance in juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with graded levels of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (0.6, 106.5, 194.3, 288.4, 379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that highest weight gain and special growth ratio was obtained at 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO. And adequate dietary CHO content (288.4 g kg(-1)) could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), promote reduced glutathione (GSH) content and then increase the total antioxidant capacities (TAOC) in the liver of M. piceus. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the fish liver could be significantly aggravated by excessive dietary CHO. Serum cortisol (COL) levels could be significantly increased in juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 379.1 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets. Activities of alanine transaminase (GPT) and aspartate transaminase (GOT) were both decreased in the serum of juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 194.3 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)) or CHO-excess diets (379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)). In addition, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of hepcidin (HEPC), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN), lysozyme (LYZ) and complement component 3 (C3) in the blood and liver samples of juvenile Black carp M. piceus compared with the CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)). Moreover, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could also enhance the contents of C3 and plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), and increase the activities of LYZ and total nitric oxide synthase (t-NOS) in the serum compared with the CHO-deficient or CHO-excess diets. Furthermore, the survival rates were also increased by

  1. Augmentation of water-holding and textural properties of breast meat from oxidatively stressed broilers by dietary antioxidant regimens.

    PubMed

    Delles, R M; Xiong, Y L; True, A D; Ao, T; Dawson, K A

    2015-01-01

    1. The impact of dietary antioxidants and degree of oil oxidation on textural attributes of chicken broiler breast meat stored in oxygen-enriched, air-permeable polyvinylchloride and skin packaging systems during retail display at 2-4°C for up to 21 d was assessed. 2. Broilers were fed on diets either with a low-oxidised oil (peroxide 23 mEq O2/kg) or with a high-oxidised oil (peroxide 121 mEq O2/kg), with or without an algae-based antioxidant and organic mineral antioxidant supplement for 42 d. 3. Fatty acids and radical scavenging activities of the diets were estimated. Meat colour, pH, myofibrillar protein profile and textural traits were measured. 4. Diets with high-oxidised oil reduced stearic, linoleic and linolenic acid content compared to low-oxidised oil samples, regardless of antioxidant supplementation. Meat colour and pH varied among dietary treatments throughout storage. Meat samples from the antioxidant dietary group, irrespective of oil oxidation level, had lower amounts of purge and cooking losses compared to the unsupplemented diets. For all packaging systems, meat shear force was significantly higher for broilers fed on high-oxidised diets. 5. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidant supplementation can minimise the negative impact of oxidised oil on the quality of broiler meat packaged in different atmospheric environments.

  2. Dietary intakes and antioxidant status in mind-body exercising pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, A; Margaritis, I; Soogarun, S; Rousseau, A-S

    2011-08-01

    The decline in antioxidant defenses due to both estrogen loss and frequent adoption of poor dietary choices exposes postmenopausal women to cardiovascular diseases. Adequate nutrition and physical exercise are two factors of health promotion. This study investigated whether regular practice of mind-body exercise (yoga and/or tai chi) alters dietary intake and antioxidant status and balances the menopause-related increases in lipid peroxidation and cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in an urban community in Bangkok (Thailand) between May and August 2007. Premenopausal (Pre M; 39±8 yrs; n=56) and postmenopausal (Post M; 54±5 yrs; n=39) women who had been practicing yoga (Y) and/or tai chi (TC) more than 3 hours/week for a year, or who had no regular physical activity practice (sedentary, S). All participants completed food frequency questionnaires and 4-day food and activity records. Blood was collected on day 5. Factorial ANOVA tests were performed according to menopause status, exercise, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. Post M had higher (p = 0.01) dietary fiber intake compared with Pre M. Yoga practitioners had lower BMI (p = 0.004) and lower fat intake (p = 0.02) compared with their S and TC counterparts. Plasma total antioxidant status was significantly and independently lower and higher in Y and Post M groups, respectively. However, no difference was shown after adjusting for BMI. Regardless of menopause status and HRT, the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase - an aerobic training-responsive enzyme - was higher (p < 0.001) in TC practitioners compared with other groups. No effects were shown on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS) or total homocysteine concentrations. Yoga and tai chi exercises can be used as components of a strategy to promote healthy lifestyles (balanced diet and moderate intensity exercise) in vulnerable populations, such as menopausal women

  3. Influence of dietary iron level and form on biochemical, hematological, and immunological changes in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, H.; Gallaher, D.D.; Kramer, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of Cu, and adequate (50 ..mu..g/g) or high (300 ..mu..g/g) levels of Fe/sup +2/ or Fe/sup +3/. Cu-deficient rats, regardless of Fe level or form, exhibited depressed (p < 0.05) serum Cu, Fe and ceruloplasmin activity, and hemoglobin levels; and elevated (p < 0.05) unsaturated serum Fe binding capacity. Except for high Fe/sup +3/ fed rats, Cu-deficient rats showed decreased hematocrits. Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated spleen lymphoid cells (SLC) of Cu-deficient rats fed adequate dietary Fe, but not by SLC of Cu-deficient rats fed high dietary Fe. High Fe fed rats exhibited reduced proliferation and increased variability in proliferation by Con-A stimulated SLC, which apparently caused a lack of difference in proliferation by SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats fed high Fe. Thus, high dietary Fe did not correct biochemical and hematological parameters in Cu-deficient rats, but because of lowered proliferation and increased variability of SLC proliferation, high dietary Fe did alleviate suppressed Con-A stimulated SLC proliferation in Cu-deficiency.

  4. Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 is associated with low serum cobalamin levels in non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M N; Dawson, D W; Lewis, M J

    1991-08-01

    A prospective study of 106 patients with low serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels showed that, in 37, it was unexplained. The dietary intake of the vitamin was assessed in these patients by questionnaire and was found to be low in 10 (37%). None of these patients was vegetarian and they were of varying age and social circumstance. Dietary deficiency may be the sole cause of a low serum cobalamin in a significant proportion of non-vegetarians. An assessment of dietary intake should be part of the investigation of cobalamin deficiency.

  5. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  6. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency.

  7. Effects of dietary boron in rats fed a vitamin D-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Dupre, J N; Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Brudevold, A M

    1994-01-01

    Although boron has long been known to be a required nutrient for plants, it was not until recently that there was any suggestion of a nutritional requirement for animals and humans. Addition of boron to the diet of vitamin D-deficient chicks indicated that boron may play a role in animal nutrition. Studies with rats have demonstrated that supplemental dietary boron has most marked effects when the diet is deficient in known nutrients. We observed higher apparent-balance values of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus for rats fed a vitamin D-deprived diet with dietary supplemental boron (2.72 ppm), than for rats fed the same diet without added boron (0.16 ppm). The treatment group with dietary supplemental boron demonstrated a high degree of variability in response to boron. We hypothesize that relatively large and variable vitamin D stores in weanling rats from a colony supplemented with 3000 IU vitamin D/kg diet accounted for the observed variable response. A recent, unpublished study using weanling rats from a low-vitamin D colony appears to support this hypothesis. PMID:7889882

  8. What is the effect of physical activity level on food consumption, energy deficiency, and dietary diversity?

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Astrid; Hollema, Siemon

    2014-09-01

    Energy deficiency is observed to be at odds with other food security indicators. In wealthier urban areas, the prevalence of energy deficiency is often higher than in poorer rural areas, whereas other food security indicators, such as food diversity, perform much better in urban than in rural areas. To investigate to what extent differences in physical activity levels influence dietary quantity and quality. Central to this analysis is the construction of a household activity index, a single measure that aims to capture the collective workload of the household. This paper uses data from Nepal and Uganda expenditure surveys that contain information on food consumption, as well as detailed information on how individual household members spend their time. Energy deficiency numbers are adjusted by the activity index, and the results are compared with the standard approach for calculating energy deficiency assuming light activity levels. Regressions are estimated to discuss demand for calories and diversity given the activity level. Accounting for differences in activity level has a large effect on energy deficiency figures, particularly in rural areas. The analysis shows that a higher household activity level significantly increases the calories consumed but lessens food diversity, suggesting that households with high activity levels sacrifice diversity for quantity in order to meet their energy requirements. Physical activity levels should be taken into account when interpreting empirical differences in food consumption levels for determining the prevalence of food insecurity and making allocation decisions for food security assistance.

  9. Effects on liver hydrogen peroxide metabolism induced by dietary selenium deficiency or excess in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Xiu; Cao, Chang-Yu; Sun, Yan-Chun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Nan; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Jin-Long

    2014-06-01

    To determine the relationship between dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess and liver hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in chickens, 1-day-old chickens received insufficient Se (0.028 mg Se per kg of diet) or excess Se (3.0 or 5.0 mg Se per kg of diet) in their diets for 8 weeks. Body and liver weight changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, H2O2 content, and activities and mRNA levels of enzymes associated with H2O2 metabolism (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1-3) were determined in the liver. This study showed that Se deficiency or excess Se intake elicited relative severe changes. Se deficiency decreased growth, while Se excess promoted growth in chickens. Both diets vastly altered the liver function, but no obvious histopathological changes were observed in the liver. Se deficiency significantly lowered SOD and CAT activities, and the H2O2 content in the liver and serum increased. Se excess (3.0 mg/kg) decreased SOD and CAT activities with changes in their mRNA levels, and the H2O2 content increased. The larger Se excess (5.0 mg/kg) showed more serious effects but was not fatal. These results indicated that the H2O2 metabolism played a destructive role in the changes in bird liver function induced by Se deficiency or excess.

  10. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 trimethylation and global DNA methylation in zinc deficient oocytes. Moreover, there was a 3–20 fold increase in transcript abundance of repetitive elements (Iap, Line1, Sineb1, Sineb2), but a decrease in Gdf9, Zp3 and Figla mRNA. Only 53% and 8% of mature eggs reached the 2-cell stage after IVF in animals receiving a 3 and 5 day ZDD, respectively, while a 5 day ZDD in vivo reduced the proportion of 2-cells to 49%. In vivo fertilized 2-cell embryos cultured in vitro formed fewer (38%) blastocysts compared to control embryos (74%). Likewise, fewer blastocyst and expanded blastocyst were collected from the reproductive tract of zinc deficient animals on day 3.5 of pregnancy. This could be due to a decrease in Igf2 and H19 mRNA in ZDD blastocyst. Supplementation with a methyl donor (SAM) during IVM restored histone H3K4me3 and doubled the IVF success rate from 17% to 43% in oocytes from zinc deficient animals. Thus, the terminal period of oocyte development is extremely sensitive to perturbation in dietary zinc availability. PMID:23348678

  11. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  12. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  13. Dietary inorganic nitrate reverses features of metabolic syndrome in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carlström, Mattias; Larsen, Filip J; Nyström, Thomas; Hezel, Michael; Borniquel, Sara; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2010-10-12

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

  14. Dietary inorganic nitrate reverses features of metabolic syndrome in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Larsen, Filip J.; Nyström, Thomas; Hezel, Michael; Borniquel, Sara; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:20876122

  15. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses

    PubMed Central

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8 J/cm2) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  16. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway.

  17. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  18. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Aspuru, Kattalin; Villa, Carlos; Bermejo, Fernando; Herrero, Pilar; López, Santiago García

    2011-01-01

    Iron is necessary for the normal development of multiple vital processes. Iron deficiency (ID) may be caused by several diseases, even by physiological situations that increase requirements for this mineral. One of its possible causes is a poor dietary iron intake, which is infrequent in developed countries, but quite common in developing areas. In these countries, dietary ID is highly prevalent and comprises a real public health problem and a challenge for health authorities. ID, with or without anemia, can cause important symptoms that are not only physical, but can also include a decreased intellectual performance. All this, together with a high prevalence, can even have negative implications for a community’s economic and social development. Treatment consists of iron supplements. Prevention of ID obviously lies in increasing the dietary intake of iron, which can be difficult in developing countries. In these regions, foods with greater iron content are scarce, and attempts are made to compensate this by fortifying staple foods with iron. The effectiveness of this strategy is endorsed by multiple studies. On the other hand, in developed countries, ID with or without anemia is nearly always associated with diseases that trigger a negative balance between iron absorption and loss. Its management will be based on the treatment of underlying diseases, as well as on oral iron supplements, although these latter are limited by their tolerance and low potency, which on occasions may compel a change to intravenous administration. Iron deficiency has a series of peculiarities in pediatric patients, in the elderly, in pregnant women, and in patients with dietary restrictions, such as celiac disease. PMID:22114518

  19. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  20. Potassium deficiency alters growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa grown under moderate salinity.

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Chokri; Falleh, Hanen; Saada, Mariem; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2017-09-01

    Salinity and K(+) deficiency are two environmental constraints that generally occur simultaneously under field conditions, resulting in severe limitation of plant growth and productivity. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of salinity, either separately applied or in combination with K(+) deficiency, on growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa. Seedlings were grown hydroponically under sufficient (6000 μM) or low (60 μM) K(+) supply with 100 mM NaCl (C + S and D + S treatments, respectively). Either alone or combined with K(+) deficiency, salinity significantly restricted the plant growth. K(+) deficiency further increased salt impact on the photosynthetic activity of S. carnosa, but this species displayed mechanisms that play a role in protecting photosynthetic machinery (including non photochemical quenching and antioxidant activity). In contrast to plants subjected to salt stress alone, higher accumulation of phenolic compounds was likely related to antioxidative defence mechanism in plants grown under combined effects of two stresses. As a whole, these data suggest that K(+) deficiency increases the deleterious effects of salt stress. The quantitative and qualitative alteration of phenolic composition and the enhancement of related antioxidant capacity may be of crucial significance for S. carnosa plants growing under salinity and K(+) deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of excess dietary fluoride on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Miao, L P; Zhou, M Y; Zhang, X Y; Yuan, C; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens. A total of 576 laying hens, 51 wk old, was randomly divided into 6 groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 16 hens. Graded amounts of sodium fluoride (NaF) were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 16 (control), 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg F, respectively. Dietary F at 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased ADFI, laying rate, and average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level or catalase (CAT) concentration among all the treatments, while hens fed F at 800 and 1,000 mg/kg had higher activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Compared with the control group, dietary F at 400 mg/kg increased liver MDA concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased CAT concentration of liver (P < 0.001); 600 mg/kg F decreased liver T-AOC levels (P < 0.001); and 800 mg/kg of F decreased liver total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, feeding F at 600 mg/kg decreased kidney T-AOC levels and T-SOD activity (P < 0.001), and increased MDA concentration of kidney (P < 0.001), while dietary 1,000 mg/kg of F decreased kidney GSH-PX activity (P < 0.05) and CAT concentration (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that excessive F ingestion had an adverse effect on laying performance by inducing oxidative stress and impairing the antioxidant system of laying hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in relative growth rate (RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  3. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g).

  4. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  5. Postoperative atrial fibrillation and total dietary antioxidant capacity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: The Polyphemus Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Simona; De Curtis, Amalia; di Niro, Veronica; Olivieri, Marco; Morena, Mariarosaria; De Filippo, Carlo Maria; Caradonna, Eugenio; Krogh, Vittorio; Serafini, Mauro; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2015-04-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for stroke after cardiac surgery. Both systemic inflammation and oxidative stress play a role in the initiation of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. The possible association between long-term intake of antioxidant-rich foods and postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence was examined in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 217 consecutive patients (74% were men; median age, 68.4 years) undergoing cardiac surgery, mainly coronary artery bypass grafting and valve replacement or repair, were recruited from January 2010 to September 2012. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in foods by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary total antioxidant capacity assessment. The association among tertiles of dietary total antioxidant capacity and postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence was assessed using multivariable logistic analysis. The overall incidence of total arrhythmias and postoperative atrial fibrillation was 42.4% and 38.2%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjustment for age, gender, use of hypoglycemic drugs, physical activity, education, previous diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, and total energy intake, patients in the highest tertile of dietary total antioxidant capacity had a lower risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation than patients in the 2 lowest tertiles (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.95; P = .048). A restricted cubic spline transformation confirmed the nonlinear relationship between total antioxidant capacity (in continuous scale) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (P = .023). When considering only coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement/repair, and combined surgeries, the protective effect on postoperative atrial fibrillation of a diet rich in antioxidants was

  6. Dietary Determinants of and Possible Solutions to Iron Deficiency for Young Women Living in Industrialized Countries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kathryn L.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne; Coad, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized) countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry) enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration). In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively) been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations. The enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and meat on iron absorption may be negated by the simultaneous consumption of foods and nutrients which are inhibitory. Recent cross-sectional studies have considered the combination and timing of foods consumed; with mixed results. Dietary interventions using a range of focused dietary measures to improve iron status appear to be more effective than dietary approaches that focus on single nutrients or foods. Further research is needed to determine optimal dietary recommendations for both the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency. PMID:25244367

  7. Selenoprotein Gene Expression in Thyroid and Pituitary of Young Pigs Is Not Affected by Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess1–3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Gang; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Xin Gen

    2009-01-01

    Expression and function of selenoproteins in endocrine tissues remain unclear, largely due to limited sample availability. Pigs have a greater metabolic similarity and tissue size than rodents as a model of humans for that purpose. We conducted 2 experiments: 1) we cloned 5 novel porcine selenoprotein genes; and 2) we compared the effects of dietary selenium (Se) on mRNA levels of 12 selenoproteins, activities of 4 antioxidant enzymes, and Se concentrations in testis, thyroid, and pituitary with those in liver of pigs. In Experiment 1, porcine Gpx2, Sephs2, Sep15, Sepn1, and Sepp1 were cloned and demonstrated 84–94% of coding sequence homology to human genes. In Experiment 2, weanling male pigs (n = 30) were fed a Se-deficient (0.02 mg Se/kg) diet added with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast for 8 wk. Although dietary Se resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.05) in Se concentrations and GPX activities in all 4 tissues, it did not affect the mRNA levels of any selenoprotein gene in thyroid or pituitary. Testis mRNA levels of Txnrd1 and Sep15 were decreased (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Se from 0.3 to 3.0 mg/kg. Comparatively, expressions of Gpx2, Gpx4, Dio3, and Sep15 were high in pituitary and Dio1, Sepp1, Sephs2, and Gpx1 were high in liver. In conclusion, the mRNA abundances of the 12 selenoprotein genes in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs were resistant to dietary Se deficiency or excess. PMID:19357213

  8. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E in the treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Orhon, Filiz; Öztürk, Gülyüz; Erbaş, Deniz; Hasanoğlu, Alev

    2006-03-05

    Oxidant status and antioxidants play important roles in anemias. The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in IDA treatment. Ten patients with IDA aged nine months were given only iron treatment, whereas another 10 patients were administered both iron and vitamin E. The complete blood count, plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase level, and the serum vitamin E level, both before and within the treatment phases were examined. The reticulocyte count at the first week of treatment was found lower in the vitamin E-treated group. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was found higher in the vitamin E-treated group at the end of therapy. The malonyldialdehyde levels of the group treated with vitamin E were found lower during treatment. These results suggest that iron administration in IDA treatment may stimulate lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E supplied with iron may reduce the MDA production. The hematological indications of the findings of our study are that the reticulocyte response develops earlier and the microcytosis recovery occurs more rapidly in the vitamin E-administered group in comparison with the group treated with iron only.

  9. G6pd Deficiency Does Not Affect the Cytosolic Glutathione or Thioredoxin Antioxidant Defense in Mouse Cochlea.

    PubMed

    White, Karessa; Kim, Mi-Jung; Ding, Dalian; Han, Chul; Park, Hyo-Jin; Meneses, Zaimary; Tanokura, Masaru; Linser, Paul; Salvi, Richard; Someya, Shinichi

    2017-06-07

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP(+) to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. We investigated the roles of G6PD in the cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea of G6pd hypomorphic mice that were backcrossed onto normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice. Young G6pd-deficient mice displayed a significant decrease in cytosolic G6PD protein levels and activities in the inner ears. However, G6pd deficiency did not affect the cytosolic NADPH redox state, or glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in the inner ears. No histological abnormalities or oxidative damage was observed in the cochlea of G6pd hemizygous males or homozygous females. Furthermore, G6pd deficiency did not affect auditory brainstem response hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young males or females. In contrast, G6pd deficiency resulted in increased activities and protein levels of cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP(+) to NADPH, in the inner ear. In a mouse inner ear cell line, knockdown of Idh1, but not G6pd, decreased cell growth rates, cytosolic NADPH levels, and thioredoxin reductase activities. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, G6pd deficiency does not affect the cytosolic glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in mouse cochlea. Under G6pd deficiency conditions, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 likely functions as the principal source of NADPH for cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP(+) to NADPH and

  10. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark JS; Angeles, Fausto M; Reuter, Brian K; Bobrowski, Paul; Sandoval, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Background The potential of ascorbic acid and two botanical decoctions, green tea and cat's claw, to limit cell death in response to oxidants were evaluated in vitro. Methods Cultured human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) or murine small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were exposed to oxidants – DPPH (3 μM), H2O2 (50 μM), peroxynitrite (300 μM) – followed by incubation for 24 hours, with antioxidants (10 μg/ml) administered as a 1 hour pretreatment. Cell number (MTT assay) and death via apoptosis or necrosis (ELISA, LDH release) was determined. The direct interactions between antioxidants and DPPH (100 μM) or H2O2 (50 μM) were evaluated by spectroscopy. Results The decoctions did not interact with H2O2, but quenched DPPH although less effectively than vitamin C. In contrast, vitamin C was significantly less effective in protecting human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) from apoptosis induced by DPPH, peroxynitrite and H2O2 (P < 0.001). Green tea and cat's claw were equally protective against peroxynitrite and H2O2, but green tea was more effective than cat's claw in reducing DPPH-induced apoptosis (P < 0.01). Necrotic cell death was marginally evident at these low concentrations of peroxynitrite and H2O2, and was attenuated both by cat's claw and green tea (P < 0.01). In IEC-18 cells, all antioxidants were equally effective as anti-apoptotic agents. Conclusions These results indicate that dietary antioxidants can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress. In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death. PMID:11749672

  11. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Angeles, F M; Reuter, B K; Bobrowski, P; Sandoval, M

    2001-01-01

    The potential of ascorbic acid and two botanical decoctions, green tea and cat's claw, to limit cell death in response to oxidants were evaluated in vitro. Cultured human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) or murine small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were exposed to oxidants - DPPH (3 microM), H2O2 (50 microM), peroxynitrite (300 microM) - followed by incubation for 24 hours, with antioxidants (10 microg/ml) administered as a 1 hour pretreatment. Cell number (MTT assay) and death via apoptosis or necrosis (ELISA, LDH release) was determined. The direct interactions between antioxidants and DPPH (100 microM) or H2O2 (50 microM) were evaluated by spectroscopy. The decoctions did not interact with H2O2, but quenched DPPH although less effectively than vitamin C. In contrast, vitamin C was significantly less effective in protecting human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) from apoptosis induced by DPPH, peroxynitrite and H2O2 (P < 0.001). Green tea and cat's claw were equally protective against peroxynitrite and H2O2, but green tea was more effective than cat's claw in reducing DPPH-induced apoptosis (P < 0.01). Necrotic cell death was marginally evident at these low concentrations of peroxynitrite and H2O2, and was attenuated both by cat's claw and green tea (P < 0.01). In IEC-18 cells, all antioxidants were equally effective as anti-apoptotic agents. These results indicate that dietary antioxidants can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress. In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death.

  12. Pancreatic triglyceride lipase deficiency minimally affects dietary fat absorption but dramatically decreases dietary cholesterol absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Kevin W; Camarota, Lisa M; Howles, Philip N; Hui, David Y

    2003-10-31

    This study generated pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL)-null mice to test the hypothesis that PTL-mediated hydrolysis of dietary triglyceride is necessary for efficient dietary cholesterol absorption. The PTL-/- mice grew normally and displayed similar body weight as their PTL+/+ littermates. Plasma lipid levels between animals of various PTL genotypes were similar when they were maintained on either a basal low fat diet or a western-type high fat/high cholesterol diet. Although the lack of a functional PTL delayed fat absorption during the initial hour of feeding a bolus load of olive oil containing [3H]triolein and [14C]cholesterol, the rate of [3H]triolein absorption was similar between PTL+/+ and PTL-/- mice after the initial 1-h period. Importantly, comparison of fecal fat content revealed similar overall fat absorption efficiency between PTL+/+ and PTL-/- mice. In contrast, the PTL-/- mice displayed significant decrease in both the rate and the amount of cholesterol absorbed after a single meal. The plasma appearance of [14C]cholesterol was found to be 75% lower (p < 0.0005) in PTL-/- mice compared with PTL+/+ mice after 4 h. The total amount of [14C]cholesterol excreted in the feces was 45% higher (p < 0.0004) in PTL-/- mice compared with PTL+/+ mice over a 24-h period. These results indicate that the delayed fat digestion due to PTL deficiency results in a significant reduction in cholesterol absorption, although other enzymes in the digestive tract may compensate for the lack of PTL in PTL-/- mice in fat digestion and absorption.

  13. Effect of antioxidants on the proliferative response of canine lymphocytes in serum from dogs with vitamin E deficiency.

    PubMed

    Langweiler, M; Sheffy, B E; Schultz, R D

    1983-01-01

    The in vitro effect of vitamin E and 3 other antioxidants--ethoxyquin, 2-mercaptoethanol, and ascorbic acid--on proliferation of canine lymphocytes was examined. Lymphocytes from 2 groups of dogs given a vitamin E-deficient diet or whelped from a bitch fed such a diet were cultured with pooled samples of serum from dogs fed a vitamin E-deficient diet or whelped from a bitch fed such a diet, or normal canine serum, and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Added vitamin E enhanced the responsiveness in serum from the dogs with vitamin E deficiency, but not in normal canine serum. A similar effect was noted with added ethoxyquin and 2-mercaptoethanol. Ascorbic acid had no effect on proliferation in either serum pool. These results indicated that depressed lymphocyte responsiveness seen with serum from vitamin E-deficient dogs may, at least in part, be due to a loss of antioxidant activity in this serum.

  14. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  15. Dietary Nitrite Restores NO Homeostasis and is Cardioprotective in eNOS Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Nathan S.; Calvert, John W.; Gundewar, Susheel; Lefer, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) is critical for vascular homeostasis. Nitrite and nitrate are formed endogenously by the step wise oxidation of NO and have for years been regarded as inactive degradation products. As a result both anions are routinely used as surrogate markers of NO production with nitrite as a more sensitive marker. However, both nitrite and nitrate are derived from dietary sources. We sought to determine how exogenous nitrite affects steady state concentrations of NO metabolites thought to originate from NOS derived NO as well as blood pressure and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) demonstrated decreased blood and tissue nitrite, nitrate and nitroso which were further reduced by low nitrite (NOx) diet for 1 week. Nitrite supplementation (50mg/L) in the drinking water for 1 week restored NO homeostasis in eNOS−/− mice and protected against I/R injury. Nitrite failed to alter heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure at the protective dose. These data demonstrate the significant influence of dietary nitrite intake on the maintenance of steady-state NO levels. Dietary nitrite and nitrate may serve as essentials nutrient for optimal cardiovascular health and may provide a novel prevention/treatment modality for disease associated with NO insufficiency. PMID:18501719

  16. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  17. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  18. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  19. MicroRNA dysregulation and esophageal cancer development depend on the extent of zinc dietary deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fong, Louise Y; Taccioli, Cristian; Jing, Ruiyan; Smalley, Karl J; Alder, Hansjuerg; Jiang, Yubao; Fadda, Paolo; Farber, John L; Croce, Carlo M

    2016-03-08

    Zinc deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and marginal ZD is prevalent in humans. In rats, marked-ZD (3 mg Zn/kg diet) induces a proliferative esophagus with a 5-microRNA signature (miR-31, -223, -21, -146b, -146a) and promotes ESCC. Here we report that moderate and mild-ZD (6 and 12 mg Zn/kg diet) also induced esophageal hyperplasia, albeit less pronounced than induced by marked-ZD, with a 2-microRNA signature (miR-31, -146a). On exposure to an environmental carcinogen, ~16% of moderate/mild-ZD rats developed ESCC, a cancer incidence significantly greater than for Zn-sufficient rats (0%) (P ≤ 0.05), but lower than marked-ZD rats (68%) (P < 0.001). Importantly, the high ESCC, marked-ZD esophagus had a 15-microRNA signature, resembling the human ESCC miRNAome, with miR-223, miR-21, and miR-31 as the top-up-regulated species. This signature discriminated it from the low ESCC, moderate/mild-ZD esophagus, with a 2-microRNA signature (miR-31, miR-223). Additionally, Fbxw7, Pdcd4, and Stk40 (tumor-suppressor targets of miR-223, -21, and -31) were downregulated in marked-ZD cohort. Bioinformatics analysis predicted functional relationships of the 3 tumor-suppressors with other cancer-related genes. Thus, microRNA dysregulation and ESCC progression depend on the extent of dietary Zn deficiency. Our findings suggest that even moderate ZD may promote esophageal cancer and dietary Zn has preventive properties against ESCC. Additionally, the deficiency-associated miR-223, miR-21, and miR-31 may be useful therapeutic targets in ESCC.

  20. Total dietary antioxidant capacity and lung function in an Italian population: a favorable role in premenopausal/never smoker women.

    PubMed

    di Giuseppe, R; Arcari, A; Serafini, M; Di Castelnuovo, A; Zito, F; De Curtis, A; Sieri, S; Krogh, V; Pellegrini, N; Schünemann, H J; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods may favorably influence lung function. We examined possible associations between the total dietary antioxidant capacity (TAC) and pulmonary function in a healthy Italian population. Until May 2009, 22,300 persons were randomly recruited from the general population in the Moli-sani project. A sample only including healthy women (5824) and men (5848) was analyzed. TAC was measured in foods by three different assays and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was selected as the better indicator of dietary TAC. The European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. The association between quintiles of dietary FRAP and pulmonary indexes was assessed using analysis of variance separately for men and women. After adjustment for confounders, women in the highest quintile of FRAP intake had +39 ml forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and +54 ml forced vital capacity, compared with those in the lowest quintile (P for trend ≤0.006). Stratified analysis showed that this relationship only occurred in women who were premenopausal/never smokers. In this subgroup, the observed effect of higher FRAP intake on FEV(1) was equivalent to an improvement in pulmonary age of 3.3 years. In men, all significant associations between pulmonary function and TAC were lost after adjustment for confounding. Dietary TAC may have a favorable role in respiratory health, particularly in premenopausal/never smoker women.

  1. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  2. Critical Thresholds of Antioxidant and Immune Function Parameters for Se deficiency Prediction in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Zhang, Hongyou; Xu, Chuang; Xia, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the plasma selenium (Se) levels of lactating cows and to evaluate its association with antioxidant ability and immune function. In a descriptive study, 20 healthy Holstein cows with normal Se level (C) and 30 Holstein cows with subclinical Se deficiency (T) were randomly selected between 14 and 21 days postpartum from a dairy farm, according to a cutoff point of 70 mg/L Se in plasma. Analysis of biochemical parameters of antioxidant and immune function were performed on all the cows, and the risk prediction thresholds for subclinical Se deficiency were determined by area under receiver operating characteristic curve. Cows in the T group had significantly lower plasma Se concentrations compared with cows in the C group (52.16 ± 8.81 vs. 80.37 ± 8.46 μg/L, P = 0.02). There was a marked decrease in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the T group that correlated positively with the plasma Se level (R = 0.65, P = 0.00), and a significant increase of plasma methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), total nitric oxide synthase, and lipid peroxidation that correlated negatively with plasma Se levels (R = -0.47, P = 0.01; R = -0.33, P = 0.04; R = -0.40, P = 0.03). Furthermore, there were significantly lower plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoglobulin G levels in the T group that correlated positively with plasma Se levels (R = 0.41, P = 0.01 and R = 0.45, P = 0.01), and a markedly lower plasma interleukin-6 level that correlated negatively with plasma Se levels (R = -0.38, P = 0.02). In addition, if plasma GSH-Px activity was less than 42.37 U/ml, the risk of Se deficiency was significantly increased in lactating cows. These results suggest that low plasma Se levels may reduce the antioxidant ability and immune function, and the risk of low plasma Se level may be predicted effectively by plasma GSH-Px activity in lactating cows.

  3. Tissue mineral distributions are differentially modified by dietary protein deficiency and a murine nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, T; Scott, M E; Sabally, K; Koski, K G

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether mineral concentrations in the spleen, serum, and liver were modified by challenge infection with a gastrointestinal nematode, by infection dose, or by protein deficiency despite adequate dietary intakes of minerals. BALB/c mice fed protein-sufficient (PS, 24%) or protein-deficient (PD, 3%) diets were infected with 100 L3 of Heligmosomoides bakeri, drug-treated, and then re-infected with either 0, 100, or 200 L3. Protein deficiency and infection, but not dose, independently modified tissue mineral distributions. H. bakeri infection lowered serum iron concentrations in both diet groups. Despite this, PD mice had elevated iron and calcium concentrations and Ca/Zn ratio in the spleen as well as Fe/Zn ratio in liver, but they had reduced calcium, zinc, copper, and sulfur concentrations, and Cu/Zn ratio in the liver. Infection reduced calcium and iron concentrations and the Ca/Zn ratio in the spleen. We suggest that tissue mineral distribution is a consequence of Th2 immune and inflammatory responses induced by infection in PS mice and the switch to predominant Th1 inflammation in PD, nematode-infected mice.

  4. Type 2 diabetes diminishes the benefits of dietary antioxidants: Evidence from the different free radical scavenging potential.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xie, Yixi; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes. Herein, taking advantage of several radical scavenging, the impact of plasma proteins in diabetes on the benefits of dietary polyphenols was investigated. It illustrated that plasma proteins masked the dietary polyphenols, thus reducing their radical scavenging potential. The plasma proteins from type 2 diabetics bind and protect (i.e., mask) the polyphenol antioxidants less effectively than the non-glycosylated ones in healthy blood do. In the blood of diabetics the less-protected (non-masked) antioxidants react with free radicals before being delivered to the tissues that need them. We should pay more attention to in vivo benefits of dietary polyphenols for type 2 diabetics.

  5. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet), and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet). After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. PMID:22088091

  6. Sodium nitroprusside-mediated alleviation of iron deficiency and modulation of antioxidant responses in maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to alleviate Fe-deficiency effects, possibly by enhancing the functional Fe status of plants. This study examines changes in tissue Fe status and oxidative metabolism in Fe-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) plants enriched with NO using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source. Methodology Measurements included changes in concentrations of H2O2, non-protein thiols, levels of lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and of the Fe-requiring antioxidant haem enzymes catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Internal NO in Fe-deficient maize plants was manipulated with SNP and the NO scavenger, methylene blue (MB). A key control was treatment with sodium ferrocyanide (SF), a non-NO-supplying analogue of SNP. Principal results SNP but not SF caused re-greening of leaves in Fe-deficient maize plants over 10–20 days, increased in vivo NO content, raised chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, promoted growth in dry weight, increased the activities of H2O2-scavenging haem enzymes and enhanced lipid peroxidation, while decreasing SOD activity and H2O2 concentrations. The NO scavenger, MB, blocked the effects of the SNP. Although SNP and SF each donated Fe and increased active Fe, only SNP increased leaf chlorophyll. Conclusions NO plays a role in Fe nutrition, independently of its effect on total or active Fe status. The most probable mechanism of NO involvement is to increase the intracellular availability of Fe by means of modulating redox. This is likely to be achieved by enhancing the chemical reduction of foliar Fe(III) to Fe(II). PMID:22476060

  7. Dietary and supplemental antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrient intakes and pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng

    2014-09-01

    A limited but growing body of evidence supports a significant role of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory micronutrients in pulmonary health. We investigated the associations of dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamins A, C, E and D, Se and n-3 PUFA with pulmonary function in a population-based study. Population-based, cross-sectional study and data analysis of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish, vitamins A, C, E and D, Se and n-3 PUFA supplemental intakes, pulmonary risk factors and spirometry. Chinese older adults (n 2478) aged 55 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. In multiple regression models that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, smoking, occupational exposure and history of asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI, physical activity, and in the presence of other nutrient variables, daily supplementary vitamins A/C/E (b = 0·044, SE = 0·022, P = 0·04), dietary fish intake at least thrice weekly (b = 0·058, SE = 0·016, P < 0·0001) and daily supplementary n-3 PUFA (b = 0·068, SE = 0·032, P = 0·034) were individually associated with forced expiratory volume in the first second. Supplemental n-3 PUFA was also positively associated with forced vital capacity (b = 0·091, SE = 0·045, P = 0·045). No significant association with daily dairy product intake, vitamin D or Se supplements was observed. The findings support the roles of antioxidant vitamins and n-3 PUFA in the pulmonary health of older persons.

  8. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and <20-540 mg/kg fresh wet weight respectively, for FRAP and AA, which comprised < 1-73 % and < 1-59 % total antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables respectively. We estimate that 100 mg AA is contained in one orange, a few strawberries, one kiwi fruit, 1-2 slices of pineapple, several florets of raw cauliflower or a handful of uncooked spinach leaves. Apples, bananas, pears and plums, the most commonly consumed fruits in the UK, contain very little AA. Results indicate also that the antioxidant capacity of vegetables decreases rapidly and significantly after fragmentation. Results of this, and future studies, using FRASC as a biomonitoring tool will be useful in food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  9. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  10. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-06-08

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing dietary AKG supplemental levels produced linear positive responses in ATP content and AEC, and negative responses in AMP concentration, the ratio of AMP to ATP and total adenine nucleotide in the ileal mucosa (P < 0.05). All levels of dietary AKG reduced the production of jejunal hydrogen peroxide and hepatic malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Hepatic and ileal messenger RNA expression of AMP kinase α-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were linearly up-regulated as dietary AKG supplemental levels increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary AKG supplementation linearly or quadratically enhanced hepatic and intestinal energy storage and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Dietary Available Phosphorus Affected Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Hepatic Antioxidant Property of Juvenile Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system. PMID:22924032

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  13. Orange juice as dietary source of antioxidants for patients with hepatitis C under antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Danielle; Lima, Claudia; Ferreira, Paula; Costa, Paulo; Costa, Angela; Figueiredo, Walter; Cesar, Thais

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: HCV causes alterations in liver metabolism, resulting in biochemical and nutritional disorders. Supplementation with antioxidants has been suggested to minimize the diseases effects. Objective: This study assessed whether orange juice, a source of citrus flavonoids and vitamin C, may contribute to the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Design: Anthropometric, hemodynamic, dietary, and biochemical parameters, CRP and liver enzymes were measured in 43 adult patients of both genders who were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C and were under antiviral therapy. Twenty-three patients were supplemented with orange juice for eight consecutive weeks, while 20 were enrolled as control group. Results: Following regular use of orange juice, no alterations were found in body mass, fat, and waist circumference. The serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, CRP and parameters of oxidative stress decreased in the orange juice group. Furthermore, the levels of the liver enzyme AST decreased in those who had high levels before the intervention. Conclusion: The orange juice was a convenient food in the diet of patients due to the increase in antioxidant capacity and decreased inflammation and cholesterol in blood serum, in addition to maintaining body mass, which protect against the harmful effects caused by the chronic hepatitis C virus.​​​ PMID:28469541

  14. Effects of dietary heavy metals on the immune and antioxidant systems of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongqing; Yi, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on immune and antioxidant systems of Galleria mellonella. In particular, after exposure to diets containing environmentally relevant concentrations (5, 50 and 100 μg/g) of Cr or Pb for 7 d, alterations in innate immune parameters and the activity of endogenous enzymes were measured in larvae. The results showed that 1) compared with the control, the lowest doses (5 μg/g) of Cr and Pb significantly increased the levels of innate immune parameters (total hemocyte count, THC; phagocytic activity; extent of encapsulation) of the larvae and hemolymph immune enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, ACP; alkaline phosphatase, AKP; phenoloxidase, PO), whereas the highest doses (100 μg/g) of Cr and Pb inhibited them; 2) the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT) showed significant increases with increasing concentrations of dietary Cr and Pb, and were significantly higher than those of the control; and 3) feeding the larvae with experimental concentrations of either Cr or Pb resulted similar patterns of changes of all the parameters examined. The current study suggested that moderate amounts of Cr and Pb enhance the innate immunity of G. mellonella, but that large amounts led to the inhibition of larval immune function, and also indicated that the experimental concentrations of Cr and Pb used caused strong oxidative stresses in the larvae.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  16. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity.

  17. Three successful pregnancies through dietary management of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, V; Eschrich, K; Boney, A; Sullivan, J; McDonald, M; Kishnani, P S; Koeberl, D D

    2007-10-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency (OMIM 229700) has been characterized as the cause of life-threatening hypoglycaemia and lactic acidaemia following prolonged fasting. The patient, an adult African-American woman, presented during the second trimester of her first pregnancy with recurrent episodes of lactic acidaemia and hypoglycaemia. She had recently been admitted to a nearby intensive care unit after presentation with profound hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis, and was found to be pregnant. The history was remarkable for approximately 30 hospitalizations for hypoglycaemia and acidosis. She had previously undergone liver biopsy at another centre and was diagnosed with a 'glycogen storage disease', although no enzyme testing had been done for confirmation. Based on clinical symptoms, a diagnosis of FBPase deficiency was accomplished through gene sequencing, which revealed homozygosity for a panethnic, common mutation, 960/961insG in exon 7. The availability of mutation testing facilitated the confirmation of FBPase deficiency in this patient, obviating liver biopsy for enzyme activity confirmation. The patient underwent three successful pregnancies by strict compliance with dietary management, including nocturnal uncooked cornstarch to manage hypoglycaemia. The pregnancies were complicated by mild gestational diabetes, increased cornstarch requirements, and hypoglycaemia at the time of discharge from the hospital. The three infants had normal birth weights and experienced no complications during the neonatal period. The patient subsequently developed sensorineural hearing loss and early-onset cognitive impairment, despite compliance with the monitoring and treatment of hypoglycaemia. The experience with multiple pregnancies in this FBPase-deficient patient provides insight into the management of hypoglycaemia in inherited disorders of gluconeogenesis.

  18. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kathryn L.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children. PMID:25006582

  19. Blood donation, being Asian, and a history of iron deficiency are stronger predictors of iron deficiency than dietary patterns in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Matthys, Christophe; Coad, Jane; Jones, Beatrix; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  20. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  1. Cross-sectional dietary deficiencies among a prison population in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the dietary adequacy of prisoners of Beon Prison, Madang, Papua New Guinea in response to a report of possible nutritional deficiency. Methods We undertook an observational, cross-sectional study. All 254 male inmates (May 2010) were eligible to answer a validated interview-based questionnaire; to have a comprehensive dietary assessment; and to provide blood for biochemical analysis (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, homocysteine, zinc, ferritin, and vitamins A, B12 and C). Prison guards were invited to participate as a comparison group. Results 148 male prisoners (58.3%) and 13 male prison guards participated. Prison rations consisted of white rice fortified with thiamin, niacin, and iron, tinned tuna, tinned corned beef, water crackers, and black tea, with occasional intakes of fruit and vegetables. Some prisoners received supplementary food from weekend visitors. From assessment of the prisoners dietary data, median intakes of calcium (137 mg), potassium (677 mg), magnesium (182 mg), riboflavin (0.308 mg), vitamin A (54.1 μg), vitamin E (1.68 mg), vitamin C (5.7 mg) and folate (76.4 μg) were found to be below estimated average requirements (EAR). Following are the prisoners median (P25, P75) concentration of circulating nutrients and the percentage of prisoners with levels below normal reference ranges or recognized cut-off values: serum retinol 0.73 (0.40, 1.21) μmol/L, 46% below 0.7 μmol/L; plasma folate 2.0 (1.4, 2.6) nmol/L, 98% below 6.8 nmol/L; plasma vitamin C 6.3 (1.0, 19.3) μmol/L, 64% below 11.4 μmol/L; serum zinc 9.9 (8.8, 11.1) μmol/L, 66% below 10.7 μmol/L. Guards had diets with a higher dietary diversity that were associated with greater intakes of nutrients and biomarker concentrations. Conclusions The prisoners diets are likely lacking in several micronutrients and recommendations for dietary change have been made to the prison authorities. Ongoing vigilance is

  2. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Th1/ Th2 paradigm has become an important issue in the pathogenesis of asthma, characterized by normal Th-1 and elevated Th-2 cytokine expression, resulting in a Th2 predominance. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) produces a significant Th1 bias, while high-level dietary vitamin A supplementation promo...

  3. Sugarcane Molasses - A Potential Dietary Supplement in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2017-09-03

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a serious public health problem that debilitates ∼1.6 billion people globally every year, the majority being pregnant women and children from developing countries. In India, for example, in spite of several operational programs at the national level using iron-folic acid and other allopathic interventions, IDA is still prevalent. Traditional medicines, such as Ayurveda, prescribe herbal formulations containing sugarcane derivatives for the management of pandu, a condition similar to IDA. This article reviews molasses, a sugar industry by-product, as a potential raw material to develop nutraceutical products for IDA. Molasses contains iron and its absorption enhancers, such as sulfur, fructose, and copper, which make it a potential dietary supplement for IDA. More research, product development, and evidence of safety and efficacy of molasses in IDA management can provide a tasty and cost-effective dietary supplement, particularly for children. However, there are challenges, such as competition for raw material from refined sugar manufacturers, quality control, etc., that need to be overcome.

  4. Dietary Curcumin Increases Antioxidant Defenses in Lung, Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Improves Survival in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C.; Kinniry, Paul A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Serota, Matthew; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Javvadi, Prashanthi; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of lung radiotherapy is limited by radiation tolerance of normal tissues and by the intrinsic radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. The chemopreventive agent curcumin has known antioxidant and tumor cell radiosensitizing properties. Its usefulness in preventing radiation-induced pneumonopathy has not been tested previously. We evaluated dietary curcumin in radiation-induced pneumonopathy and lung tumor regression in a murine model. Mice were given 1%or 5%(w/w) dietary curcumin or control diet prior to irradiation and for the duration of the experiment. Lungs were evaluated at 3 weeks after irradiation for acute lung injury and inflammation by evaluating bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid content for proteins, neutrophils and at 4 months for pulmonary fibrosis. In a separate series of experiments, an orthotopic model of lung cancer using intravenously injected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was used to exclude possible tumor radioprotection by dietary curcumin. In vitro, curcumin boosted antioxidant defenses by increasing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels in primary lung endothelial and fibroblast cells and blocked radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary curcumin significantly increased HO-1 in lungs as early as after 1 week of feeding, coinciding with a steady-state level of curcumin in plasma. Although both 1% and 5% w/w dietary curcumin exerted physiological changes in lung tissues by significantly decreasing LPS-induced TNF-α production in lungs, only 5%dietary curcumin significantly improved survival of mice after irradiation and decreased radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Importantly, dietary curcumin did not protect LLC pulmonary metastases from radiation killing. Thus dietary curcumin ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and increases mouse survival while not impairing tumor cell killing by radiation. PMID:20426658

  5. ω-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants: immunomodulators or inert dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Expanded abstract Citation Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock, P. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury. JAMA. 2011; 306(14):1574-1581. PubMed PMID: 21976613. Background The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Methods Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design: The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. All participants had complete follow-up. Setting: This trial occurred at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Subjects: Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition. Intervention: Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, γ -linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Outcomes: Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, −3.2 [95% CI, −5.8 to −0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n 3 group vs 16

  6. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  7. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  8. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) on meat quality (pH, Drip loss, Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  9. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  10. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics are associated with antioxidant intake and the consumption of their dietary sources during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Uusitalo, Ulla; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Niinistö, Sari; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Marjamäki, Liisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Kenward, Mike G; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2008-12-01

    To analyse the associations of selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with the intake of antioxidant nutrients and consumption of their main dietary sources among pregnant women. A population-based cohort study. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed by a self-administered FFQ one to three months after the delivery. Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Project. Subjects comprised 3730 women (70.1 % of those invited) who entered the DIPP Nutrition Study after delivering a child at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes at the university hospitals in Oulu and Tampere, Finland, 1997-2002. All sociodemographic and lifestyle factors studied showed significant associations with antioxidant intake in multiple regression models adjusting for all other factors. Older and more educated women tended to have higher intake of most antioxidants. Parity was positively associated with retinol intake and inversely with vitamin C intake. Smokers had lower intakes of most antioxidants. Only the partner's education was positively associated with high intake of fruits, whereas own education was positively associated with berry consumption. Vegetable consumption was positively associated with partner's education except for women with academic education, who tended to have high vegetable consumption irrespective of partner's education. Young women, smokers and those with a low education are at risk for low antioxidant intake and non-optimal food choices during pregnancy.

  11. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  12. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  13. Protective effect of dietary potassium against cardiovascular damage in salt-sensitive hypertension: possible role of its antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Megumi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high salt intake induces hypertension and cardiovascular damage, while dietary potassium supplementation counteracts these harmful effects. Actually, the protective effect of potassium is strengthened with excess salt as compared with salt depletion. Although the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in our previous reports, the antihypertensive effect of dietary potassium was accompanied by sympathetic nerve inhibition in salt-sensitive hypertension. Also, potassium supplement suppressed salt-induced insulin resistance. These effects of dietary potassium can explain its cardio- and vasculo-protective action in addition to the potassium supplementation induced decreased salt-induced rise in blood pressure. On the other hand, salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Moreover, sympathoexcitation can be induced by central ROS upregulation and insulin resistance can be caused by ROS excess in the target organs of insulin, such as skeletal muscle. Conversely, the seemingly different actions of potassium can be explained by the antioxidant effect of dietary potassium; in our recent studies, potassium supplementation inhibits salt-induced progress of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and vascular neointima formation by cuff placement around arteries, associated with the inhibition of regional ROS overproduction, in salt-sensitive hypertension. Thus, it is possible that dietary potassium protects against salt-induced cardiovascular damage by the reduction of ROS generation and by central sympatholytic action and amelioration of insulin resistance induced through its antioxidant effect.

  14. Impact of Dietary Intake on Bone Turnover in Patients with Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Kathryn E; Felner, Eric I; Tangpricha, Vin; Wilson, Peter W F; Singh, Rani H

    2017-01-28

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the PAH enzyme. Patients follow a phenylalanine-restricted diet low in intact protein, and must consume synthetic medical food (MF) to supply phenylalanine-free protein. We assessed relationships between dietary intake and nutrient source (food or MF) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in PAH deficiency. Blood from 44 fasted females 11-52 years of age was analyzed for plasma phenylalanine, serum BTM [CTx (resorption), P1NP (formation)], vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). BTM ratios were calculated to assess resorption relative to formation (CTx/P1NP). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total BMD and age-matched Z-scores. Three-day food records were analyzed for total nutrient intake, nutrients by source (food, MF), and compliance with MF prescription. Spearman's partial coefficients (adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, blood phenylalanine) assessed correlations. All had normal BMD for age (Z-score >-2). Sixty-four percent had high resorption and normal formation indicating uncoupled bone turnover. CTx/P1NP was positively associated with food phenylalanine (r (2) = 0.39; p-value = 0.017), energy (r (2) = 0.41; p-value = 0.011) and zinc (r (2) = 0.41; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP was negatively associated with MF fat (r (2) = -0.44; p-value = 0.008), MF compliance (r (2) = -0.34; p-value = 0.056), and positively with food sodium (r (2) = 0.43; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP decreased significantly with age (p-value = 0.002) and higher PTH (p-value = 0.0002). Phenylalanine was not correlated with any bone indicator. Females with PAH deficiency had normal BMD but elevated BTM, particularly resorption. More favorable ratios were associated with nutrients from MF and compliance. Younger females had less favorable BTM ratios. Promoting micronutrient intake through compliance with MF may impact bone metabolism in

  15. Vitamin D deficiency, oxidative stress and antioxidant status: only weak association seen in the absence of advanced age, obesity or pre-existing disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erica W; Siu, Parco M; Pang, Marco Y; Woo, Jean; Collins, Andrew R; Benzie, Iris F F

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)70 % of participants were vitamin D deficient. No significant correlations and no biomarker differences across 25(OH)D quartiles or groups were seen except for total antioxidant status. A weak direct association (r 0·252, P<0·05) was observed between 25(OH)D and FRAP, and those in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile and group had significantly lower FRAP values. Results did not reveal a clear link between vitamin D status and oxidative stress biomarkers in the absence of advanced age, obesity and disease, though some evidence of depleted antioxidant status in those with vitamin D deficiency was seen. Poor antioxidant status may pre-date increased oxidative stress. Study of effects of correction of deficiency on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in vitamin D-deficient but otherwise healthy subjects is needed.

  16. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) on the antioxidant capacity, small intestine development, and jejunal gene expression in weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had eight replicates with four piglets per replicate. The piglets were fed either control diet (control) or control diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or pharmacological doses of ZnO (3000 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at days 14 and 28, while intestinal samples were harvested at day 28 of the experiment. Dietary high doses of ZnO supplementation significantly increased the body weight (BW) at day 14 and average daily gain (ADG) of days 1 to 14 in weaned piglets, when compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea of piglets fed ZnO-supplemented diets, at either days 1 to 14, days 14 to 28, or the overall experimental period, was significantly decreased in comparison with those in other groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation with ZnO increased the villus height of the duodenum and ileum in weaned piglets and decreased the crypt depth of the duodenum, when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO supplementation decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at either day 14 or day 28, but increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) at day 14, when compared to that in the control (P < 0.05). ZnO supplementation upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in the jejunum mucosa of weaned piglets, compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the jejunum mucosa was downregulated in the ZnO-supplemented group, compared with the control (P < 0.05). Both in-feed antibiotics and ZnO supplementation decreased the m

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-09-04

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  18. Targeting signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) in human cancer by dietary polyphenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Amani, Hamed; Ajami, Marjan; Maleki, Solmaz Nasseri; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Daglia, Maria; Tsetegho Sokeng, Arold Jorel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-08-11

    Over the course of the last three decades, a large body of evidence has shown that polyphenols, the secondary metabolites occurring in plant foods and beverages, exert protective effects due to their antioxidant activity mediated through different mechanisms ranging from direct radical scavenging and metal chelating activities, to the capacity to inhibit pro-oxidant enzymes and to target specific cell-signalling pathways. In the last decade, dietary components, and polyphenols in particular have gained considerable attention as chemopreventive agents against different types of cancer. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family is a group of cytoplasmic transcription factors which interact with specific sequences of DNA, inducing the expression of specific genes which in turn give rise to adaptive and highly specific biological responses. Growing evidence suggests that, of the seven STAT members identified, STAT3 is over-expressed in many human tumors (i.e. solid tumors and hematological malignancies) promoting the onset and development of cancer in humans by inhibiting apoptosis or by inducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This review article aims to assess the most recent studies on the role of STATs, with focus on STAT3, in oncogenesis, and the promising effects of some polyphenols on STAT expression. Moreover, the mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of polyphenols which have an influence on STAT expression are discussed, with a focus on their ability to target specific cell-signalling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Societe Francaise de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of dietary protein on serum metabolites and antioxidant status: A study in Chrysolophus amherstiae.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Das, A; Saini, M; Kullu, S S; Sharma, A K

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding graded levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on serum biochemical profile of Lady Amherst's pheasants (LAP). Eighteen male LAP were randomly distributed into three groups of six each in an experiment based on completely randomized design. The CP content of the diets was 13.4%, 16.5%, and 19.1%, in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Serum concentrations of uric acid was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Relationship between serum concentration of uric acid and nitrogen intake was linear (R(2)  = 0.39, P < 0.01). Concentrations of other serum metabolites and enzymes were similar among the groups. Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3 ) was highest (P < 0.05) in group I, followed by groups II and III. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum was lower (P < 0.007), whereas serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher (P < 0.001) in group I as compared to groups II and III. Regression of serum concentration of TAC (R(2)  = 0.74, P < 0.01) and MDA (R(2)  = 0.39, P < 0.05) was polynomial. Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher (P < 0.007) in group I as compared to groups II and III. Relationship between H/L ratio and nitrogen intake was polynomial (R(2)  = 0.69, P < 0.05). Cell mediated immune response measured as foot web index was similar among the groups. Based upon the results, it was concluded that a diet containing 16.5% crude protein would be optimum for improving antioxidant defense and the ability of Lady Amherst's pheasant to combat stress. Zoo Biol. 35:346-354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots1234

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Design: Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P < 0.05). Translocation frequency was not associated with the intake of vitamin E, α-carotene, or lycopene from food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for ≥median compared with

  1. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  2. The effect of dietary antioxidant on the COPD risk: the community-based KoGES (Ansan–Anseong) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pankaj; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants have been suggested to have protective role against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but few prospective studies examined this relationship. The prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antioxidants on COPD risk and lung function in the Korean population. Methods The data were collected from the community-based Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) cohort. To diagnose COPD, forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by spirometry. The dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins was estimated from validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire. For the analysis, 325 COPD patients and 6,781 at risk subjects were selected from the cohort of 10,038 subjects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratio (OR) after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, income, history of asthma, history of tuberculosis, and smoking. Results The risk of COPD was positively associated with aging, low education, low household income, lower body mass index, and cigarette smoking. The risk of COPD decreased with increase in the dietary vitamin C (ORQ1 vs Q5=0.66, Ptrend=0.03) and vitamin E (ORQ1 vs Q5=0.56, Ptrend=0.05) intake, predominantly, in men (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.05 for vitamins C and E, respectively). In addition, the lung function was significantly improved with increase in vitamins C (FEV1, P=0.04; FVC, P=0.03) and E (FEV1, P=0.03; FVC, P=0.04) intake. No statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and vitamin C or E intake in relation to COPD risk among men. Conclusion Our results suggest the independent beneficial effect of antioxidants, particularly vitamins C and E, on COPD risk and lung function in men. PMID:26504380

  3. Regional, Socioeconomic, and Dietary Risk Factors for Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Differ from Those for Folate Deficiency in Cameroonian Women and Children.

    PubMed

    Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Engle-Stone, Reina; Hampel, Daniela; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Nankap, Martin; Brown, Kenneth H; Allen, Lindsay H

    2015-11-01

    Representative data on folate and vitamin B-12 dietary intake and status in low-income countries are rare, despite the widespread adoption of folic acid fortification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate folate and vitamin B-12 intake, status, and risk factors for deficiency before implementation of a national fortification program in Cameroon. A nationally representative cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted in 3 ecologic zones of Cameroon (South, North, and the 2 largest cities, Yaoundé/Douala), and information on dietary intake was collected from 10 households in each of 30 randomly selected clusters per zone. In a subset of women and their 12- to 59-mo-old children (n = 396 pairs), plasma folate and vitamin B-12, as well as breast milk vitamin B-12, were analyzed. Vitamin B-12 and folate dietary intake patterns and plasma concentrations were similar for women and children. In the subsample, 18% and 29% of women and 8% and 30% of children were vitamin B-12 (≤ 221 pmol/L) and folate (< 10 nmol/L) deficient, respectively. Mean dietary folate ranged from 351 μg dietary folate equivalents/d in the North to 246 μg dietary folate equivalents/d in Yaoundé/Douala; plasma folate was negatively associated with socioeconomic status (P = 0.001). Plasma vitamin B-12 deficiency was similar in the South and North, 29% and 40%, respectively, but was only 11% in Yaoundé/Douala, and was positively associated with socioeconomic status. Mean breast milk vitamin B-12 was statistically significantly lower in the North (101 pmol/L) than in the South (296 pmol/L) or Yaoundé/Douala (349 pmol/L). Folate intake and status are inadequate among women and young children in Yaoundé/Douala, whereas low vitamin B-12 intake and status are more common in poor and rural areas, especially in the North. Different strategies may be needed to control deficiency of these nutrients in different regions of Cameroon. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. METABOLIC CONVERSION OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS ALTERS THEIR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES

    PubMed Central

    Lotito, Silvina B.; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S.; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz

    2011-01-01

    The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in formation of glucuronide, methyl and sulphate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1–30 μM quercetin, 3′- or 4′-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3′-sulphate; or 20–100 μM EGCG, 4″-O-methyl-EGCG and 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to co-incubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3′-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4′-O-methyl-quercetin and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC50 values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0 and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20–100 μM), quercetin-3′-O-sulphate (10–30 μM) and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20–100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC50 value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20–60 μM) and 4″-O-methyl-EGCG (20–100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3′-O-methyl-quercetin and 4′,4

  5. Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz

    2011-07-15

    The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in the formation of glucuronide, methyl, and sulfate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1-30 μM quercetin, 3'- or 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3'-O-sulfate or 20-100 μM EGCG, 4''-O-methyl-EGCG, and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to coincubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3'-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC(50) values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0, and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20-100 μM), quercetin-3'-O-sulfate (10-30 μM), and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20-100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4',4''-Di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC(50) value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20-60 μM) and 4''-O-methyl-EGCG (20-100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3'-O-methyl-quercetin and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG on

  6. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the 500mg Cd/kg treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of

  7. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  8. Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Su; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Sang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a fundamental cause of frailty, functional decline and disability. In the year 2000, $18.5 billion in health care costs were directly attributable to sarcopenia. This economic burden will increase dramatically as the elderly population grows over the next decade. The primary causes of sarcopenia include a sedentary lifestyle and malnutrition. While resistance training appears to be a promising intervention, older individuals exhibit a blunted hypertrophic response to exercise stimuli. It has been posited that this decrement in regenerative capacity may be due to the loss of postprandial anabolism as well as an increase in reactive oxygen species. As such, a combination of resistance training and nutritional interventions may be a promising candidate in combating sarcopenia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the manipulation of dietary variables may improve the sarcopenic condition are not well understood. To address this gap in extant knowledge, this review will examine the effects of protein, amino acid and/or antioxidant intake on sarcopenia both at rest and following resistance training exercise.

  9. Epigenetic and antioxidant effects of dietary isothiocyanates and selenium: potential implications for cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Lawrence N; Cassidy, Aedin; Johnson, Ian T; Bao, Yongping; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence from epidemiological studies suggesting that increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables may protect against specific cancers more effectively than total fruit and vegetable intake. These beneficial effects are attributed to the glucosinolate breakdown products, isothiocyanates (ITC). Similarly, selenium (Se) consumption has also been inversely associated with cancer risk and as an integral part of many selenoproteins may influence multiple pathways in the development of cancer. This paper will briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of Se and ITC in cancer development with a particular emphasis on its antioxidant properties, and will also address whether alterations in DNA methylation may be a potential mechanism whereby these dietary constituents protect against the carcinogenic process. Furthermore, we will discuss the advantages of combining ITC and Se to benefit from their complementary mechanisms of action to potentially protect against the alterations leading to neoplasia. Based on this review it may be concluded that an understanding of the impact of ITC and Se on aberrant DNA methylation in relation to factors modulating gene-specific and global methylation patterns, in addition to the effect of these food constituents as modulators of key selenoenzymes, such as gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx2) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1), may provide insights into the potential synergy among various components of a plant-based diet that may counteract the genetic and epigenetic alterations that initiate and sustain neoplasia.

  10. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  11. The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic browning reactions proceed with the starting reactants of sugar and/or protein during thermal processing and storage of food. In addition to food color formation, the process also contributes to the loss of essential nutrients, generation of beneficial antioxidants, and production of toxicants, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and heterocyclic amines (HAs). Recent research has demonstrated that dietary polyphenols can actively participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions, contributing to the generation of new colorants and antioxidants. More importantly, polyphenol addition has been found to be an effective approach to mitigate heat-induced formation of toxicants, mainly through inhibiting oxidative pathways and trapping reactive intermediates. In the matrix of polyphenol-fortified foods, a complex array of chemical interactions happen among polyphenols, traditional nutritional components, and neo-formed compounds they are thermally converted to. These reactions play a significant role in the colorants, antioxidants as well as toxicants production. Our findings support the potential of dietary polyphenols for increasing the antioxidant content and for reducing the level of toxicants when they participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions in fortified food products.

  12. The stomach as a bioreactor: dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric fluid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kanner, J; Lapidot, T

    2001-12-01

    Atherosclerosis may result partly from processes that occur following food consumption and that involve oxidized lipids in chylomicrons. We investigated reactions that could occur in the acidic pH of the stomach and accelerate the generation of lipid hydroperoxides and co-oxidation of dietary constituents. The ability of dietary polyphenols to invert catalysis from pro-oxidation to antioxidation was examined. The acidic pH of gastric fluid amplified lipid peroxidation catalyzed by metmyoglobin or iron ions. Metmyoglobin catalyzed peroxidation of edible oil, resulting in 8-fold increase of hydroperoxide concentration. The incubation of heated muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid for 2 h enhanced hydroperoxides accumulation by 6-fold to 1200 microM. In the presence of catechin or red wine polyphenols, metmyoglobin catalyzed the breakdown of hydroperoxides to zero, totally preventing lipid peroxidation and beta-carotene cooxidation. We suggest that human gastric fluid may be an excellent medium for enhancing the oxidation of lipids and other dietary constituents. The results indicate the potentially harmful effects of oxidized fats intake in the presence of endogenous catalysts found in foods, and the major benefit of including in the meal plant dietary antioxidants.

  13. Cataract formation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolt relative to dietary pro- and antioxidants and lipid level.

    PubMed

    Waagbø, R; Hamre, K; Bjerkås, E; Berge, R; Wathne, E; Lie, O; Torstensen, B

    2003-04-01

    The development of cataracts in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was studied in 16 groups of smolts fed diets differing in prooxidant (iron, copper, manganese) and antioxidant (vitamin E, vitamin C, astaxanthin) composition and lipid level for 23 weeks in sea water, using a 2(7-3) reduced factorial design. The seven dietary variables were systematically varied at low (requirement level and 150 g lipid kg(-1)) and high levels (below known toxic levels and 320 g lipid kg(-1)). A mean endpoint cataract incidence of approximately 36% was observed. High dietary levels of vitamin C and astaxanthin reduced cataract frequency, whereas high dietary lipid level, iron and manganese were associated with increased cataract frequencies. Considering the nutritional status of selected organs of the fish, only the status of ascorbic acid correlated negatively to cataract development (P < 0.05). The lens glutathione (GSH) status was not correlated to cataract frequency, nor statistically explained by the dietary variables. However, the study shows that balancing the diet with respect to pro- and antioxidant nutrients may significantly protect Atlantic salmon against development of cataracts. An incidence of reversible osmotic cataract observed at week 14 was positively correlated to plasma glucose concentration.

  14. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  15. Polyols accumulated in ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency increase mitochondrial superoxide production and improve antioxidant defenses in rats' prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Stone, V; Kudo, K Y; August, P M; Marcelino, T B; Matté, C

    2014-10-01

    The ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency is an inherited condition, which results in cerebral d-arabitol and ribitol accumulation. Patients present leukoencephalopathy, mental retardation, and psychomotor impairment. Considering that the pathophysiology of this disorder is still unclear, and literature are sparse and contradictory, reporting pro and antioxidant activities of polyols, the main objective of this study was to investigate some parameters of oxidative homeostasis of prefrontal cortex of rats incubated with d-arabitol and ribitol. We found evidences that ribitol promoted an increase in antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), probably secondary to enhanced production of superoxide radical, measured by flow cytometry. Oxidation of proteins and lipids was not induced by polyols. Our data allow us to conclude that, at least in our methodological conditions, arabitol and ribitol probably have a secondary effect on the pathophysiology of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Intake of Vitamins in Different Options of Treatment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Deficiency?

    PubMed

    Jankowska, M; Szupryczyńska, N; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Borek, P; Kaczkan, M; Rutkowski, B; Małgorzewicz, S

    2016-06-01

    The importance of diet in the management of kidney transplantation (KT), as well as other treatment options of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is generally acknowledged. However, data regarding vitamin intake are very limited. Vitamins are essential in maintaining good nutritional status and preventing many chronic complications. It is still not clear which treatment modality imposes the highest risk of dietary vitamin deficiency and whether successful KT reverses such a threat. We performed this observational study to assess dietary intake of vitamins in CKD patients: after successful KT, not yet dialyzed (ND), treated with hemodialysis (HD), and with peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 202 patients were recruited (45 KT, 50 ND, 45 HD, and 62 PD). Vitamin intakes were evaluated through the use of a 24-hour dietary recall and processed with the use of a computerized database. Each record was evaluated by a skilled dietitian. In general, vitamin intakes in all study groups were comparable, with KT and ND groups manifesting lower risk of deficiency than HD and PD groups. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in diet was insufficient, with remarkably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins were close to recommended, with the exception of folic acid, which was profoundly deficient in all groups. CKD patients are at risk of inadequate vitamin intake. Vitamin D and folic acid are universally deficient in diet. KT patients have the most satisfactory content of vitamins in their diet, whereas HD individuals are at highest risk of deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    PubMed

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Dietary antioxidants (selenium and N-acetylcysteine) modulate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in PCB 126-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, not only decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione (GSH) but also increases levels of the antiatherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB 126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity, and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), an indicator of lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed not only between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting

  19. Effects of Zn deficiency, antioxidants, and low-dose radiation on diabetic oxidative damage and cell death in the testis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuguang; Zhao, Hongguang; Zhai, Xujie; Dai, Junying; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Guanjun; Li, Wei; Cai, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is one of the common complications in diabetic men and mainly due to the loss of germ cells by apoptotic cell death. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the induction of testicular cell death by diabetes, diabetic induction of testicular oxidative stress and damage may be the predominant mechanism responsible for the testicular cell death in diabetes. To explore whether factors that either increase or decrease the testicular oxidative stress and damage will enhance or prevent diabetes-induced testicular cell death, the effect of zinc (Zn) deficiency on diabetes-induced cell death has been examined since Zn was found to play an important role in the protection of testis from oxidative stress and damage. Zn deficiency, induced by its chelator N,N,N,N-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-ethylenediamine, was found to exacerbate diabetes-induced testicular oxidative damage and cell death. In contrast, treatment of diabetic rats with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or low-dose radiation that can up-regulate endogenous antioxidants significantly attenuated diabetes-induced testicular cell death. These results suggest that diabetes-induced testicular cell death that may eventually cause men's infertility is predominantly mediated by the oxidative stress and damage. To prevent or delay diabetes-caused infertility, diabetic patients should avoid Zn deficiency, and might consider antioxidant supplementation.

  20. Dietary Omega-3 Deficiency from Gestation Increases Spinal Cord Vulnerability to Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Zhe; Feng, Cameron; Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with gait deficits, the effects of TBI on spinal cord centers are poorly understood. We seek to determine the influence of TBI on the spinal cord and the potential of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids to counteract these effects. Male rodents exposed to diets containing adequate or deficient levels of n-3 since gestation received a moderate fluid percussion injury when becoming 14 weeks old. TBI reduced levels of molecular systems important for synaptic plasticity (BDNF, TrkB, and CREB) and plasma membrane homeostasis (4-HNE, iPLA2, syntaxin-3) in the lumbar spinal cord. These effects of TBI were more dramatic in the animals exposed to the n-3 deficient diet. Results emphasize the comprehensive action of TBI across the neuroaxis, and the critical role of dietary n-3 as a means to build resistance against the effects of TBI. PMID:23300842

  1. Dietary methyl donor deficiency during pregnancy in rats shapes learning and anxiety in offspring.

    PubMed

    Konycheva, Galina; Dziadek, Marie A; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Krägeloh, Christian U; Coolen, Marcel W; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2011-10-01

    Two important lines of research have enhanced our understanding of the molecular role of nutrition in influencing behavior. First, exposure to an adverse environment during early life can influence the long-term behavior of the offspring. Second, regulation of the nervous system development and functioning appears to involve epigenetic mechanisms that require a continuous supply of methyl group donors in food. We hypothesized that a maternal diet during pregnancy deficient in methyl donors (MDD) may lead to altered behavior in offspring through permanent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation. We used a rat model of prenatal dietary MDD to test this hypothesis in female offspring as they aged. Prenatal MDD reduced birth weight, litter size, and newborn viability. Aged female offspring of MDD mothers showed increased anxiety and increased learning ability in comparison with control diet group offspring. To explore the role of MDD on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain of adult offspring, we studied expression and methylation of 4 selected genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11 type 2, neuronatin, and reelin proteins in the hippocampus. No major group differences in methylation or expression of the studied genes were detected, except for a significant down-regulation of the reelin gene in the MDD female offspring. The prenatal MDD diet caused intrauterine growth restriction, associated with long-term effects on the behavior of the offspring. However, the observed behavioral differences between the MDD and control diet offspring cannot be explained by epigenetic regulation of the specific genes investigated in this study.

  2. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  3. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  4. Deficient and excess dietary selenium levels affect growth performance, blood cells apoptosis and liver HSP70 expression in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-Ru; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Ying-Xia; Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Cao, Jun-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of deficient and excess dietary selenium (Se) on growth, blood cells apoptosis and liver heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). After 8 weeks, yellow catfish (initial weight: 2.12 ± 0.01 g) fed isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing <0.05 (deficient dietary Se) or 6.5 (excess dietary Se) mg Se/kg displayed a significantly lower weight gain ratio (WGR) than those fed a diet containing 0.23 (normal dietary Se) mg Se/kg. As dietary Se levels increased, liver Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase activity and the hepatosomatic index increased significantly. Plasma glucose concentration was highest in the normal treatment compared with the excess dietary Se treatment. Both deficient and excess dietary Se lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in blood cells, whereas only excess dietary Se increased their cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (CF-Ca(2+)) concentration. Excess dietary Se also resulted in the highest level of HSP70 expression, thereby possibly providing a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These results indicate that both deficient and excess dietary Se restrained the growth of juvenile yellow catfish and caused oxidative stress. The overproduction of ROS may act as a signal molecule mediate apoptosis when dietary Se deficiency. Both ROS and CF-Ca(2+) were recorded when dietary Se excess, suggesting that Ca(2+) may be activated by Se and play a major role during Se-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

  5. Improvement of Chia Seeds with Antioxidant Activity, GABA, Essential Amino Acids, and Dietary Fiber by Controlled Germination Bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Favela, Mario Armando; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Canizalez-Román, Vicente Adrián; Del Rosario León-Sicairos, Claudia; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2017-09-12

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds. The effect of germination temperature and time (GT = 20-35 °C, Gt = 10-300 h) on protein, lipid, and total phenolic contents (PC, LC, TPC, respectively), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) was analyzed by response surface methodology as optimization tool. Chia seeds were germinated inside plastic trays with absorbent paper moisturized with 50 mL of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite dissolution. The sprouts were dried (50 °C/8 h) and ground to obtain germinated chia flours (GCF). The prediction models developed for PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. The highest values of PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA were obtained at two different optimal conditions (GT = 21 °C/Gt = 157 h; GT = 33 °C/Gt = 126 h). Optimized germinated chia flours (OGCF) had higher PC, TPC, AoxA, GABA, essential amino acids, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER), and total dietary fiber (TDF) than un-germinated chia seed flour. The OGCF could be utilized as a natural source of proteins, dietary fiber, GABA, and antioxidants in the development of new functional beverages and foods.

  6. Antioxidant capacity responsible for a hypocholesterolemia is independent of dietary cholesterol in adult rats fed rice protein.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jixiang; Yang, Lin; He, Hong-Juan; Xu, Tong; Liu, Hong-Bo; Wu, Qiong; Ma, Ying; Liu, Qiao-Hong; Nie, Ming-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and aging are major risk factors to accelerate oxidation process for developing hypercholesterolemia. The major aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of rice protein on cholesterol level and oxidative stress in adult rats fed with and without cholesterol. After 2 weeks of feeding, hepatic and plasma contents of cholesterol, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) were measured. In liver, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), activities of antioxidant enzymes (total superoxide dismutase, T-SOD; catalase, CAT), glutathione metabolizing enzyme activities and gene expression levels (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, γ-GCS; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione peroxidase, GPx) were determined. Under cholesterol-free/enriched dietary condition, T-AOC, activities of T-SOD and CAT, glutathione metabolism related enzymes' activities and mRNA levels (γ-GCS, GR and GPx) were effectively stimulated by rice proteins as compared to caseins. Compared with caseins, rice proteins significantly increased hepatic and plasma GSH contents, whereas hepatic and plasma accumulations of MDA, PCO and GSSG were significantly reduced by rice protein-feedings. As a result, the marked reductions of cholesterol in the plasma and in the liver were observed in adult rats fed rice proteins with and without cholesterol. The present study demonstrates that the hypocholesterolemic effect of rice protein is attributable to inducing antioxidative response and depressing oxidative damage in adult rats fed cholesterol-free/enriched diets. Results suggest that the antioxidant capability involved in the hypocholesterolemic action exerted by rice protein is independent of dietary cholesterol during adult period. © 2013.

  7. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  8. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  9. Osteocyte-derived RANKL is a critical mediator of the increased bone resorption caused by dietary calcium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinhu; Piemontese, Marilina; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) excess stimulates bone resorption. This effect is associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor кB ligand (RANKL) in bone. However, several different cell types, including bone marrow stromal cells, osteocytes, and T lymphocytes, express both RANKL and the PTH receptor and it is unclear whether RANKL expression by any of these cell types is required for PTH-induced bone loss. Here we have used mice lacking the RANKL gene in osteocytes to determine whether RANKL produced by this cell type is required for the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary calcium deficiency in adult mice. Thirty days of dietary calcium deficiency caused bone loss in control mice, but this effect was blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. The increase in RANKL expression in bone and the increase in osteoclast number caused by dietary calcium deficiency were also blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that RANKL produced by osteocytes contributes to the increased bone resorption and the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, strengthening the evidence that osteocytes are an important target cell for hormonal control of bone remodeling. PMID:24933342

  10. Effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and beta-carotene dietary supplementation on the antioxidant enzymes, TBARS and sensory attributes of turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Sárraga, C; Carreras, I; García Regueiro, J A; Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L

    2006-12-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (15 mg/kg) dietary supplementation on the oxidative status of raw turkey breast and leg muscles assessed by thiobarbituric acid test values, the vitamin E levels and the antioxidant enzyme activities. In parallel, a quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was carried out on cooked, stored and reheated samples. 2. Vitamin E was present in sufficient quantity to reduce oxidation, since iron-induced reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly lower in antioxidant-supplemented treatments. The results suggested that the presence of beta-carotene in the diet limits the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol in turkey muscles. 3. In the present study, there was no conclusive relationship between dietary antioxidant supplementation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. 4. Sensory evaluation showed that a longer supplementation time and dose may be necessary in turkeys to prevent meat from rancidity and warmed-over flavour (WOF). Leg pastiness and stringiness were modified by dietary antioxidant supplementation, indicating the possible synergism between antioxidants and cysteine proteinases in the perception of meat quality. 5. Given the modern trends that lead consumers to increase their consumption of poultry meat, it would be interesting to evaluate the commercial potential and cost effectiveness of routine dietary antioxidant supplementation.

  11. Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Manger, Mari; Skeie, Eli; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Chandyo, Ram; Shrestha, Prakash S; Locks, Lindsey; Ulvik, Rune J; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Strand, Tor A

    2014-07-14

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70% of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90% of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20% (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5% (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95% CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy.

  12. Antioxidant potential of dietary chia seed and oil (Salvia hispanica L.) in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Maróstica, Mário Roberto

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary chia seed and oil on plasma and liver oxidative status in diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided in six groups (6 animals each): control group was fed the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93M diet; HFF group was fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFF) diet; chia seed short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia seed; chia oil short (6-weeks) and long (12-weeks) treatments received an HFF diet with chia oil. Plasma and hepatic biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems and antioxidant capacity were determined. HFF diet induced weight gain, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of animals. Compared to HFF group chia seed and chia oil (12 and 6weeks) intake increased plasma reduced thiol (GSH) levels, plasma catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. In the liver glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was enhanced, while CAT and GPx activities did not change. There were no differences in plasma and liver superoxide dismutase activity among chia diets and HFF group. Chia (seed and oil) intake did not modify liver lipid peroxidation, but was able to reduce plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostane levels increased by HFF group. Plasma and hepatic antioxidant capacity values were increased in chia seed and oil groups about 35% and 47%, respectively, compared to HFF group. Chia groups presented similar antioxidant potential, regardless of treatment time. Dietary chia seed and oil reduced oxidative stress in vivo, since it improved antioxidant status and reduced lipid peroxidation in diet-induced obese rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and the risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Praud, D; Monzio Compagnoni, M; Bellocco, R; Serafini, M; Parpinel, M; La Vecchia, C; Tavani, A

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative processes have been related to atherosclerosis, but there is scanty information on the role of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The relationship between non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and the risk of nonfatal AMI was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Milan, Italy, between 1995 and 2003. Cases were 760 patients below 75 years with a first episode of AMI and controls were 682 patients admitted to hospitals for acute conditions, who completed an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire, tested for validity and reproducibility. NEAC (excluding coffee) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). The odds ratios (OR) of AMI, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), were obtained by multiple logistic regression models including terms for main risk factors of AMI and total energy intake. NEAC was inversely related with the risk of AMI. The ORs for the highest quintile compared with the lowest one were 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27-0.63) for FRAP, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.27-0.65) for TEAC and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.27-0.62) for TRAP, with significant trends in risk. The inverse relationship was apparently stronger in women and in subjects aged ≥ 60 years. Our results support a favorable role of dietary NEAC in the prevention of AMI, and encourage a high consumption of fruit and vegetables and a moderate consumption of wine and whole cereals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Excess of dietary montmorillonite impairs growth performance, liver function, and antioxidant capacity in starter pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Mao, X B; Yu, B; He, J; Zheng, P; Yu, J; Luo, J Q; Wang, Q Y; Chen, D W

    2017-07-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) is widely used as a mycotoxin adsorbent in animal feeds, but its safety remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of MMT supplementation in diets fed to starter pigs. A total of 120 32-d-old piglets (initial weight, 8.0 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted into dietary treatments with graded MMT levels (0 [FS 0], 0.5% [FS 0.5], 1.0% [FS 1.0], 2.5% [FS 2.5], and 5.0% [FS 5.0]) with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. All diets were fed for 28 d. As the MMT level increased, ADG and G:F changed in a linear and quadratic manner, while ADFI was linearly decreased ( > 0.05). Compared with FS 0, ADG, ADFI, and G:F of pigs in FS 1.0 increased ( < 0.05). However, the ADFI in pigs of FS 5.0 was lower than that in pigs of FS 0 ( < 0.05). The relative liver weight activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) changed in a linear and quadratic manner ( < 0.05). Compared with FS 0, pigs in FS 2.5 and FS 5.0 had a greater serum ALT ( < 0.05), while AST activity significantly increased in pigs of FS 5.0 ( < 0.05). Dietary MMT supplementation decreased serum Mg content in a linear and quadratic manner ( < 0.05), while Zn and Cu contents were linearly decreased ( < 0.05). Serum Zn and Cu contents of pigs in FS 0.5, FS 2.5, and FS 5.0 groups were lower than those in the control. Pigs fed with 2.5% and 5% MMT showed hepatic histopathological changes, including swelling, granular and vesicular degeneration, and apparent vacuolar degeneration. In addition, the content of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) decreased in a linear and quadratic manner ( < 0.05). Compared to the control, 5.0% MMT significantly increased piglets' serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased GSH-PX activity ( < 0.05). T-AOC concentration in the pigs fed 2.5% and 5.0% MMT was lower than that in the control group ( < 0.05). Serum superoxide dismutase

  15. Dietary intake, neutrophil fatty acid profile, serum antioxidant vitamins and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yasuko; Kawakami, Takayo; Ueda, Yukiko; Kunii, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Yachiyo; Shiratori, Yasushi; Okita, Misako

    2007-04-01

    Nutrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitis. Several studies suggest an association between dietary factors and the onset of ulcerative colitis; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between dietary intake and relapse of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake and antioxidative capacity of ulcerative colitis patients and to elucidate the efficacy of dietary therapy for ulcerative colitis. Dietary intake, fatty acid composition of phospholipids in plasma and neutrophils, serum fat-soluble vitamin levels, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were analyzed in 29 ulcerative colitis patients (7 males and 22 females), who were treated at the Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Hospital. Total fat intake, fat energy ratio and linoleic acid intake were significantly lower, while protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher, in the patients than age- and sex-matched controls. In the neutrophil phospholipids of ulcerative colitis patients, significantly higher levels of linoleic aicd and arachidonic acid and a lower level of eicosapentaenoic acid were observed. The concentrations of serum retinol and beta-carotene but not alpha-tocopherol were significantly lower and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity was also lower than in the controls. Significant correlations between serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity and retinol (r = 0.567, p = 0.0031), alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.560, p = 0.0036) and beta-carotene (r = 0.440, p = 0.0279) concentrations were observed in the ulcerative colitis patients. A diet restricting the intake of linoleic acid and supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidative vitamins may be recommendable for the nutritional management of ulcerative colitis patients.

  16. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  17. Dietary antioxidant intake and its association with cognitive function in an ethnically diverse sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706

  18. Effect of increasing dietary antioxidants on concentrations of vitamin E and total alkenals in serum of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Jewell, D E; Toll, P W; Wedekind, K J; Zicker, S C

    2000-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids has been implicated as a contributor to aging and various chronic diseases. The presence of total alkenals (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals) in blood or tissues is an indicator of lipid peroxidation, which may be a result of in vivo oxidative reactions. Vitamin E functions as a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents propagation of free radical damage in biologic membranes. This 6-week dose-titration study was conducted to assess the effect of selected dietary vitamin E levels on byproducts of in vivo oxidative reactions in dogs and cats. Forty healthy adult dogs and 40 healthy adult cats were assigned to four equal groups per species in a complete random block design. A control group for both dogs and cats was fed dry food containing 153 and 98 IU vitamin E/kg of food (as fed), respectively. Canine and feline treatment groups were fed the same basal dry food with vitamin E added at three different concentrations. The total analyzed dietary vitamin E levels for the canine treatment groups were 293, 445, and 598 IU vitamin E/kg of food, as fed. The total analyzed dietary vitamin E levels for the feline treatment groups were 248, 384, and 540 IU vitamin E/kg of food, as fed. Increasing levels of dietary vitamin E in dog and cat foods caused significant increases in serum vitamin E levels compared with baseline values. Although all treatments increased concentrations of vitamin E in serum, all were not effective at decreasing serum alkenal levels. The thresholds for significant reduction of serum alkenal concentrations in dogs and cats were 445 and 540 IU vitamin E/kg of food, respectively, on an as-fed basis. The results of this study show that normal dogs and cats experience oxidative damage and that increased dietary levels of antioxidants may decrease in vivo measures of oxidative damage.

  19. Effects of megadoses of dietary vitamin E on the antioxidant status of rats fed lard or salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Flader, Diana; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether megadoses of vitamin E in the diet of rats can have pro-oxidative activity. Two experiments with rats were conducted in which both the dietary vitamin E concentration (Experiment 1: 100; 500; 3000; 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg, and Experiment 2: 100; 1000; 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg) and the type of dietary fat (lard vs. salmon oil) were varied. Experimental parameters were the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, the activities of several antioxidative enzymes, the concentration of glutathione in the liver, and the lag time during copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Increasing the dietary vitamin E concentration to 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg led to a significant reduction of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the liver after feeding salmon oil, and also to a significant reduction in 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol after feeding both dietary fats. Megadoses of vitamin E (3000 and 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg) also led to a reduction in the activity of superoxide dismutase and the concentration of glutathione in the liver of rats fed salmon oil. The lag time during LDL oxidation was independent of the dietary vitamin E concentration. The study shows that megadoses of vitamin E, far from having pro-oxidative activity, actually increase the anti-oxidative capacity of the liver, especially after ingestion of salmon oil.

  20. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  1. Dietary antioxidants and dementia in a population-based case-control study among older people in South Germany.

    PubMed

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Peter, Richard; Biesalski, Hans K; Ludolph, Albert C; Riepe, Matthias; Nagel, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease. Antioxidants may prevent the onset AD as high dietary intake of vitamin C and E were reported to be associated with lower risk of the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of antioxidants in persons with mild dementia to test whether it is associated with lower levels of antioxidants in a cross-sectional study in the population of the "Activity and Function in the Ederly in Ulm" (ActiFE) study. Main exposure measures were vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lycopene, and coenzyme Q10 as analyzed by HPLC. Main outcome measures were mild cognitive impairment among 74 mildly demented compared to 158 age- and gender-matched controls. We found that blood vitamin C and β-carotene concentrations were significantly lower in demented than in control persons even after adjusting for school education, intake of dietary supplements, smoking habits, body mass index, and alcohol consumption (3rd versus 1st tertile: OR: 0.29, 95% CI, 0.09-0.96 and 0.13, 95% CI, 0.03-0.55, respectively). No associations were found for vitamin E, lycopene, and coenzyme Q10. Our findings suggest an association of vitamin C and β-carotene with dementia. However this is limited to the cross-sectional character of our study and longitudinal data will give further insight into this association.

  2. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  3. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  4. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  5. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  6. Effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant activity in ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Kan; Su, Rui; Liu, Wenzhong; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Du, Min; Zhang, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract (TBE) supplementation on animal growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative activity in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of lambs. The results showed that dietary TBE increased body weight, average daily gain, carcass weight, dry matter intake, and digestive organ weight. Dietary TBE had no effect on the pH, color, shear force or intramuscular fat of Longissimus muscle examined, whereas the cooking loss was decreased. The total antioxidative capacity and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) activity of Longissimus muscle were increased in lambs fed TBE. The mRNA contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx4 and nuclear factor-like-2 factor (Nrf2) did not vary among the groups, and greater protein levels of GPx4 and Nrf2 were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that TBE can be used as a feed ingredient in lamb production to improve its growth performance, and relieve oxidative stress and increase water holding capacity of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the immune responses of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.).

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E I; Vielma, J; Aaltonen, T M; Koskela, J

    2003-08-01

    Low phosphorous (P) feeds in aquaculture are recommended to reduce eutrophication of water systems. However, the feed should be adequate for normal growth and intact immune defence. Influence of low dietary P supply on non-specific and specific immune defence of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) was studied in two trials. For Trial 1, a semi-purified, low-P diet was formulated and supplied with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 g P kg(-1)to obtain a P gradient of 4.4-14.9 g kg(-1)diet. Diets were fed to four replicate groups of fingerling whitefish for 42 days in a flow-through, freshwater system maintained at 15 degrees C. Fish fed with the P-unsupplemented diet had significantly lower plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels than fish fed with the P-fortified diets (means 2.53 vs. 3.19 mg ml(-1); P=0.047). Plasma lysozyme activity did not differ between fish fed with the P-unsupplemented diet and fish fed with the P-fortified diets (means 21.8 vs. 25.5 U ml(-1); P=0.107). For Trial 2, fish were acclimated for 49 days by feeding the lowest or highest dietary P contents, and thereafter immunised with a single intraperitoneal injection of a novel antigen, bovine gamma globulin (BGG). A clear antibody response against BGG was elicited but the antibody levels did not differ between fish fed low-P or high-P contents. Similar to Trial 1, plasma IgM was lower in fish fed low-P diets, and low-P diet did not influence plasma lysozyme activity. In both trials the growth of fish, having received low-P diet, was significantly lowered. It is concluded that P deficiency has only minor effects on the immune parameters in whitefish, and the practical aquafeed with P contents sufficient for normal growth does not compromise immune functions of this species.

  8. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ryz, Natasha R; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan; Vallance, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense.

  9. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryz, Natasha R.; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M.; Jacobson, Kevan

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense. PMID:26336925

  10. Effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on gene expression of selenoprotein N in chicken muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiu-li; Zhang, Zi-wei; Shan, An-shan; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1), selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine-synthase (SecS) mRNA abundance in chicken skeletal and cardiac muscles. To investigate collective responses of these genes to dietary Se concentrations ranging from deficiency to moderately high level in muscle tissues of chicken, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to a diet of deficient Se and supplemented with Se (0.15 mg Se/kg and 1.50 mg Se/kg) as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. Muscle tissues (flight, breast, leg, and cardiac muscles) were collected and examined for Se content and mRNA levels of SelN on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 days, respectively. Moreover, SPS1 and SecS mRNA levels were analyzed. The results showed that the expression of SelN gene in cardiac muscle responded to dietary Se concentrations. SelN gene was downregulated in the Se deficiency group (L group), and upregulated in the Se excess group (H group) compared with the moderate Se group (M group) (P < 0.05) in cardiac muscle. Se deficiency mainly unregulated SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with M group. Excess dietary Se mainly resulted in the upregulation of SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with the M group. SecS mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a similar change compared with SelN in cardiac muscle. SPS1 mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a downregulation in L group and upregulation in H group. However, SelN mRNA levels displayed a different expression pattern in different skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, Se also regulated the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNAs. In summary, Se regulated the expression of SelN gene and affected the mRNA levels of SecS and SPS1. The level of Se in the feed may regulate SelN biosynthesis by affecting the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNA.

  11. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  12. Antioxidant status, peroxidase activity, and PR protein transcript levels in ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana vtc mutants.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Ascorbate is the most abundant small molecule antioxidant in plants and is proposed to function, along with other members of an antioxidant network, in controlling reactive oxygen species. A biochemical and molecular characterization of four ascorbate-deficient (vtc) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants has been carried out to determine if ascorbate deficiency is compensated by changes in the other major antioxidants. Seedlings grown in vitro were used to minimize stress and longer term developmental differences. Comparison was made with the low glutathione cad2 mutant and vtc2-1 treated with D,L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine to cause combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency. The pool sizes and oxidation state of ascorbate and glutathione were not altered by deficiency of the other. alpha-Tocopherol and activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase were little affected. Ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2. Ionically bound cell wall peroxidase activity was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc4. Supplementation with ascorbate increased cell wall peroxidase activity. 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, increased cell wall peroxidase activity in the wild type and vtc1. The transcript level of an endochitinase, PR1, and PR2, but not GST6, was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc-2-2. Endochitinase transcript levels increased after ascorbate, paraquat, salicylic acid, and UV-C treatment, PR1 after salicylic acid treatment, and PR2 after paraquat and UV-C treatment. Camalexin was higher in vtc1 and the vtc2 alleles. Induction of PR genes, cell wall peroxidase activity, and camalexin in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2 suggests that the mutants are affected in pathogen response signalling pathways.

  13. Response to dietary phosphorus deficiency is affected by genetic background in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L S; Qu, A; Cutler, S A; Mahajan, A; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F; Weber, T E; Kerr, B J; Stahl, C H

    2008-10-01

    Concern over the environmental effect of P excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were housed individually and fed either a P-adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P-deficient diet (PD) for 14 wk. Initially and monthly, blood samples were collected and BW recorded after an overnight fast. Growth performance and plasma indicators of P status were determined monthly. At the end of the trial, carcass traits, meat quality, bone strength, and ash percentage were determined. Pigs fed the PD diet had decreased (P < 0.05) plasma P concentrations and poorer G:F (P < 0.05) over the length of the trial. After 4 wk on trial, pigs fed the PD diet had increased (P < 0.05) plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma parathyroid hormone compared with those fed the PA diet. At the end of the trial, pigs fed the PD diet had decreased (P < 0.05) BW, HCW, and percentage fat-free lean and tended to have decreased LM area (P = 0.06) and marbling (P = 0.09) and greater (P = 0.12) 10th-rib backfat than pigs fed the PA diet. Additionally, animals fed the PD diet had weaker bones and also decreased (P < 0.05) ash percentage and increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of 1alpha-hydroxylase and parathyroid hormone receptor mRNA in kidney tissue. Regardless of dietary treatment, PIC337-sired pigs consumed more feed and gained more BW than their PIC280-sired counterparts (P < 0.05) during the study. The PIC337-sired pigs also had greater (P < 0.05) HCW, larger (P < 0.01) LM area, and tended to have (P = 0.07) greater dressing percentage. Meat from the PIC337-sired pigs also tended to have greater (P = 0.12) concentrations of lactate but decreased (P = 0.07) concentrations of total glucose units 24 h postslaughter. Although plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05) in all the animals fed the PD diet, this elevation due to P deficiency

  14. Dietary zinc deficiency fuels esophageal cancer development by inducing a distinct inflammatory signature

    PubMed Central

    Taccioli, C; Chen, H; Jiang, Y; Liu, XP; Huang, K; Smalley, KJ; Farber, JL; Croce, CM; Fong, LY

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The causes of inflammation in ESCC, however, are undefined. Dietary zinc-deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of ESCC. We have previously shown that short-term ZD (6 weeks) in rats induces overexpression of the proinflammatory mediators S100a8 and S100a9 in the esophageal mucosa with accompanying esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Here we report that prolonged ZD (21 weeks) in rats amplified this inflammation that when combined with non-carcinogenic low doses of the environmental carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) elicited a 66.7% (16/24) incidence of ESCC. With zinc-sufficiency NMBA produced no cancers (0/21) (P<0.001). At tumor endpoint, the neoplastic ZD esophagus as compared with zinc-sufficient esophagus had an inflammatory gene signature with upregulation of numerous cancer-related inflammation genes (CXC and CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, and Cox-2) in addition to S100a8 and S100a9. This signature was already activated in the earlier dysplastic stage. Additionally, time-course bioinformatics analysis of expression profiles at tumor endpoint and prior to NMBA exposure revealed that this sustained inflammation was due to ZD rather than carcinogen exposure. Importantly, zinc replenishment reversed this inflammatory signature at both the dysplastic and neoplastic stages of ESCC development, and prevented cancer formation. Thus, the molecular definition of ZD-induced inflammation as a critical factor in ESCC development has important clinical implications with regard to development and prevention of this deadly disease. PMID:22179833

  15. Dietary protein deficiency and Mycobacterium bovis BCG affect interleukin-2 activity in experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, D N; Mintzer, C L; Bartow, R A; Parr, R L

    1989-01-01

    Inbred strain 2 guinea pigs were vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG or were left unvaccinated. They were maintained for 6 weeks on defined, isocaloric diets containing either 30% (control animals) or 10% (animals receiving low protein) ovalbumin as the sole protein source. Animals were challenged by the respiratory route with a low dose of virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv and killed 4 weeks later. Protein-malnourished animals were not protected by previous vaccination with BCG. Lymphocytes isolated from various tissues were tested in vitro for proliferative responses to mitogen (concanavalin A) and antigen (purified protein derivative [PPD]), production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), and response to exogenous recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2). Protein-malnourished guinea pigs responded only weakly to PPD skin tests, and their blood and lymph node lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation when cultured with PPD in vitro. IL-2 levels were consistently low in cultures of stimulated blood and spleen lymphocytes from protein-deprived animals. BCG vaccination of nutritionally normal guinea pigs, on the other hand, induced significantly more IL-2 production by PPD- and concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes. The addition of exogenous mouse rIL-2 (40 and 80 U/ml) in vitro to PPD-stimulated blood and lymph node cells from nonvaccinated, protein-deprived guinea pigs resulted in no improvement of the proliferative response. Previous vaccination of malnourished guinea pigs did not consistently enhance the response of PPD-stimulated lymphocytes to added rIL-2. Dietary protein deficiency and BCG vaccination appear to modulate antigen-driven cellular immunity in animals with tuberculosis by altering the production of, and the response to, IL-2 by PPD-stimulated lymphocytes. PMID:2788135

  16. Smad3 Deficiency Ameliorates Hepatic Fibrogenesis through the Expression of Senescence Marker Protein-30, an Antioxidant-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Da-Hee; Hwang, Meeyul; Park, Jin-Kyu; Goo, Moon-Jung; Hong, Il-Hwa; Ki, Mi-Ran; Ishigami, Akihito; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Smad3 is a key mediator of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling pathway that plays central role in inflammation and fibrosis. In present study, we evaluated the effect of Smad3 deficiency in Smad3−/− mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. The animals were received CCl4 or olive oil three times a week for 4 weeks. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate the fibrosis development in the mice. Alteration of protein expression controlled by Smad3 was examined using a proteomic analysis. CCl4-induced liver fibrosis was rarely detected in Smad3−/− mice compared to Smad3+/+. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins related to antioxidant activities such as senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), selenium-binding proteins (SP56) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were up-regulated in Smad3−/− mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that SMP30 protein expression was increased in Smad3−/− mice. And SMP30 levels were decreased in CCl4-treated Smad3+/+ and Smad3−/− mice. These results indicate that Smad3 deficiency influences the proteins level related to antioxidant activities during early liver fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that Smad3 deteriorate hepatic injury by inhibitor of antioxidant proteins as well as mediator of TGF-β1 signaling. PMID:24304543

  17. Dietary deficiencies of unsaturated fatty acids and starch cause atopic dermatitis-like pruritus in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Shimazaki, Yuki; Muto, Yoshiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Ohya, Susumu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Hairless mice fed with a special diet (named HR-AD) show atopic dermatitis (AD)-like pruritic skin inflammation that is almost completely resolved with the supplementation of an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), the linoleic acid (LA). This suggests that the dietary deficiency of LA is the key cause of this dermatitis. However, because there is no appropriate control diet for HR-AD, the involvement of other dietary ingredients cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, it has not yet been tested whether only UFA deficiency can cause such AD-like pruritus. In this study, using semi-purified custom diets, we attempted to reproduce this syndrome. Four-week-old hairless mice were maintained on a widely used standard diet American Institute of Nutrition-76A (AIN-76A), its modifications, or HR-AD. Several modifications of fat and carbohydrate components revealed that dietary deficiency of both UFAs and cornstarch was required to induce severe skin barrier dysfunction as typically occurred in HR-AD-fed mice. An UFA- and cornstarch-deficient diet caused severe AD-like pruritus comparable to HR-AD, despite weak Th2 immune responses and absence of immunoglobulin E production. On the other hand, a diet lacking UFAs but containing cornstarch significantly alleviated the development of pruritic dermatitis. Furthermore, the supplementation of wheat starch similarly improved skin barrier function. In conclusion, this study showed that a lack of certain starches might also be the cause of diet-induced AD. Our findings could help to reproduce the diet-induced AD itch model and also provide evidence that certain starches can have protective and ameliorative effects on AD-like pruritus.

  18. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of dietary methyl donor deficiency combined with unpredictable chronic mild stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Javelot, H; Messaoudi, M; Jacquelin, C; Bisson, J F; Rozan, P; Nejdi, A; Lazarus, C; Cassel, J C; Strazielle, C; Lalonde, R

    2014-03-15

    Methyl donor deficiencies and chronic stress cause depression independently, but their interaction has never been thoroughly evaluated. In our study, methyl donor deficient diet and chronic stress condition consisted respectively of a B2, B9, B12, and choline-free diet and a chronic mild stress procedure. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups with three "diet" conditions (free-feeding, pair-fed and methyl donor deficient diet) and two "stress" conditions (no-stress and stress) and were evaluated in the open-field, the elevated plus-maze and the forced swimming test. After the behavioral evaluation, corticosterone and homocysteine plasma levels were measured and dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, 5HIAA concentrations were evaluated in several brain areas. Rats given a methyl donor deficient diet for 11 weeks causing elevated plasma homocysteine levels were compared to pair-fed and free-feeding rats with or without unpredictable chronic mild stress. Regardless of stress environmental conditions, the methyl donor deficient diet decreased plasma corticosterone levels and caused disinhibition in the elevated plus-maze condition relative to both control groups. However, stress potentiated the effects of the deficient regimen on rearing in the open-field and climbing in the forced swim test. The dietary changes involved in behavior and plasma corticosterone could be caused by homocysteine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolites in selective brain regions and it can be noted that regardless of stress-conditions, methyl donor deficient diet decreases DOPAC/dopamine and 5HIAA/serotonin ratios in striatum and hypothalamus and selectively 5HIAA/serotonin ratio in the sensorimotor cortex. Our experimental data is particularly relevant in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders frequently associated with folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Astaxanthin on Growth, Muscle Pigmentation and Antioxidant Capacity of Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Khosravi, Sanaz; Chang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets. Muscle astaxanthin content increased with increased astaxanthin in the diet. Deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh resulted in a decrease in lightness and an increase in redness and yellowness. The fillets from trout fed the AX75 diet had significantly lower lightness than trout fed the AX50 and AX100 diets. Fish fed the AX50 and AX75 diets showed significantly lower catalase activity than those fed the control diet. Total antioxidant status increased significantly in all astaxanthin supplemented groups when compared to the control group. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in fish fed the AX50 diet compared to fish fed the AX0 diet. These findings suggest that while fillet pigmentation increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin concentration, indices of fish antioxidant capacity may not be affected in a dose dependent manner. PMID:27752505

  20. Contribution of Dietary Intakes of Antioxidants to Homocysteine-Induced Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation in Atherosclerotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hongseog; Oh, Hyunhee; Park, Hyesoon; Park, Miyoung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Elevated circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) levels are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, which may be due to high plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and low intakes of antioxidants. We investigated the contribution of dietary intakes of antioxidants to Hcy-induced LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic patients (AP) and controls. Materials and Methods Male AP (n = 101) who were confirmed by coronary angiography and 91 controls were evaluated by blood biochemistry and dietary intakes. To determine whether homocysteine is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, subjects were divided into three groups; low- (≤ 6.9 uM/L), normal- (7 uM-12 uM/L) and high- (≥ 12.1 uM/L) Hcy. Results Plasm levels of homocysteine and LDL were higher, but plasma apo A-I in HDL and folate were lower in the AP group. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of atherosclerosis was 3.002 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-7.09] for patients in the highest tertile with homocysteine ≥ 12.1 uM/L. AP having high homocysteine levels had low intakes of vitamin A, β-carotene and vitamin C. By logistic regression analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), plasma LDL, plasma folate, and low intakes of vitamin A and β-carotene were found to be risk factors for atherosclerosis in patients with high-Hcy, but dietary B vitamins including folate were not. Conclusion A high-Hcy level was a risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with high Ox-LDL levels. High intakes of antioxidants appeared to be a protective factor for atherosclerosis, perhaps exerting a pro-oxidative effect on LDL when combined with high levels of Hcy and LDL. However, more evidence for the benefits of B vitamins as a homocysteine-lowering therapy is needed. PMID:20499417

  1. Hepatic lipase- and endothelial lipase-deficiency in mice promotes macrophage-to-feces RCT and HDL antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Chen, Xiangyu; Julve, Josep; Quesada, Helena; Santos, David; Metso, Jari; Tous, Monica; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol (HDLc) levels and presumably could affect two main HDL atheroprotective functions, macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and HDL antioxidant properties. In this study, we assessed the effects of both HL and EL deficiency on macrophage-specific RCT process and HDL ability to protect against LDL oxidation. HL- and EL-deficient and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled mouse macrophages, after which the appearance of [(3)H]cholesterol in plasma, liver, and feces was determined. The degree of HDL oxidation and the protection of oxidative modification of LDL co-incubated with HDL were evaluated by measuring conjugated diene kinetics. Plasma levels of HDLc, HDL phospholipids, apoA-I, and platelet-activated factor acetyl-hydrolase were increased in both HL- and EL-deficient mice. These genetically modified mice displayed increased levels of radiolabeled, HDL-bound [(3)H]cholesterol 48h after the label injection. The magnitude of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol in feces was also increased in both the HL- and EL-deficient mice. HDL from the HL- and EL-deficient mice was less prone to oxidation and had a higher ability to protect LDL from oxidation, compared with the HDL derived from the wild-type mice. These changes were correlated with plasma apoA-I and apoA-I/HDL total protein levels. In conclusion, targeted inactivation of both HL and EL in mice promoted macrophage-to-feces RCT and enhanced HDL antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  3. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  4. Breast-feeding, dietary intakes and their associations with subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yewu; Tao, Fangbiao; Yin, Huiping; Zhu, Xiaoming; Ji, Guoping; Kong, Shenghua; Song, Qinhua; Chen, Jianhua; Chu, Chengzhi; Li, Zhu

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations between breast-feeding, dietary intakes and other related factors and subclinical vitamin A deficiency (SVAD) in children aged 0-5 years in an area in China where mild vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is found. Data were from a population-based cross-sectional study with 1052 children aged 0-5 years. SVAD cases were identified by the indicator of serum retinoldietary intakes and other factors were collected through a pre-designed questionnaire. The prevalence of SVAD in children aged 0-5 years was 6.9%. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of SVAD for breastfeeding was 3.56 (95% confidence limits (95% CL) 2.17-5.82). After adjustment for sex, age in categories, residence, mother's education, mother's occupation, vitamin A preparation supplements, rank in siblings and diarrhoea, the odds ratio for breast-feeding fell to 2.38 (95% CL 1.13-4.95). The odds ratios for breast-feeding within children aged 1 year were 5.46 (95% CL 2.07-15.03) and 4.6 (95% CL 1.72-12.82) before and after adjustment of other confounders, respectively. The odds ratios for breast-feeding did not show statistical significance within children aged 0 or 2 years. The odds ratios decreased, but remained statically significant after further adjustments for individual dietary factor or all dietary factors. Breast-feeding was a risk factor of SVAD for children, especially for those aged 1 year. The differences in dietary intakes and other established risk factors could not fully explain the increased risk. This finding implies that prolonged breast-feeding alone may not ensure protection of children from VAD in an area with mild SVAD.

  5. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  6. Evaluation of anti-apoptotic activity of different dietary antioxidants in renal cell carcinoma against hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neeraj K; Mangal, Sharad; Sahu, Tejram; Mehta, Abhinav; Vyas, Suresh P; Tyagi, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely ascorbic acid,α-tocopherol acetate, citric acid, salicylic acid, and estimate H2O2-induced apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma cells. Methods The intracellular antioxidant potency of antioxidants was investigated. H2O2-induced apoptosis in RCC-26 was assayed with the following parameters: cell viability (% apoptosis), nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation, bcl-2 levels and flow cytometery analysis (ROS production evaluation). Results The anticancer properties of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol acetate, citric acid, salicylic acid with perdurable responses were investigated. It was observed that these antioxidants had protective effect (anti-apoptotic activity) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC-26) cell line. Conclusions This study reveals and proves the anticancer properties. However, in cancer cell lines anti-apoptotic activity can indirectly reflect the cancer promoter activity through radicals scavenging, and significantly protect nucleus and bcl-2. PMID:23569726

  7. Dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and mortality: A report from two cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jing; Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated dietary antioxidant vitamins intake in relation to risk of mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between total carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from diet and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease in 134,358 participants (59,739 men and 74,619 women) from the Shanghai Men's Health Study and Shanghai Women's Health Study, two prospective cohort studies of middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Participants were followed up for a median period of 8.3 and 14.2 years for men and women, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During the 495,332 and 1,029,198 person-years of follow-up for men and women, respectively, there were 10,079 deaths (4170 men and 5909 women). For men, compared with the lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted risk reductions in the highest categories were 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92) for dietary total carotene and 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91) for dietary vitamin C. Associations were weaker in women than in men, though they were still statistically significant (highest versus lowest quintiles of dietary total carotene, HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95; dietary vitamin C: HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91). Significant inverse associations were observed between dietary total carotene, vitamin C, and risk of cardiovascular disease mortality but not cancer mortality. This study suggests that total carotene and vitamin C intake from diet were inversely associated with deaths from all causes and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged or elderly people in China. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.

  9. [THE EFFECT OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM ENZYMES].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, O G; Koliada, A K; Kukharskyy, V M; Bazhynova, A I; Vaiserman, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study we demonstrated that dietary restriction only at the development stage of Drosophila melanogaster may impact the life span of adult flies. It was important that we didn't use qualitative (restriction of proteins or other macro- or microelements) and not a calorie restriction as well, but quantitative dietary restriction that was the proportional reduction of all food components in the larval medium. In the situations when the larvae were reared in the medium types, that contained protein and carbohydrate components in concentrations of 90-10% of food components compared to the standard one (100%), the males were characterised with the significant increase in the maximum life span. The average life span was also increased, but only in those male individuals that developed in the medium types, that contained 50% and 60% of food components compared to controls. Such an effect we haven't detected in the female flies. To study the biochemical changes associated with the physiological effects we have determined the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the male flies the 50% dietary restriction implemented during the development has led to the significant increase in a SOD and catalase activity. Also the flies of both sexes reared in the medium with the 50% of food components have been characterised with the reduction in the accumulation of glycation end products. According to these results, we suggest that the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the increase of the flies life span caused by the dietary restriction during the development.

  10. Dual role of selected antioxidants found in dietary supplements: crossover between anti- and pro-oxidant activities in the presence of copper.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P; Lutterodt, Herman; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Antholine, William E; Wamer, Wayne

    2012-03-14

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo can result in damage associated with many aging-associated diseases. Defenses against ROS that have evolved include antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, and catalases, which can scavenge ROS. In addition, endogenous and dietary antioxidants play an important role in moderating damage associated with ROS. In this study, we use four common dietary antioxidants to demonstrate that, in the presence of copper (cupric sulfate and cupric gluconate) and physiologically relevant levels of hydrogen peroxide, these antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants by producing hydroxyl radicals. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate that the level of hydroxyl radical formation is a function of the pH of the medium and the relative amounts of antioxidant and copper. On the basis of the level of hydroxyl radical formation, the relative pro-oxidant potential of these antioxidants is cysteine > ascorbate > EGCG > GSH. It has been reported that copper sequestered by protein ligands, as happens in vivo, loses its redox activity (diminishing/abolishing the formation of free radicals). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and GSH efficiently react with cupric sulfate sequestered with bovine serum albumin to generate hydroxyl radicals. Overall, the results demonstrate that in the presence of copper, endogenous and dietary antioxidants can also exhibit pro-oxidative activity.

  11. Dual Role of Selected Antioxidants Found in Dietary Supplements: Crossover between Anti- and Pro-oxidant Activities in the Presence of Copper

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P.; Lutterodt, Herman; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Antholine, William E.; Wamer, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo can result in damage associated with many aging-associated diseases. Defenses against ROS that have evolved include antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, and catalases, which can scavenge ROS. In addition, endogenous and dietary antioxidants play an important role in moderating damage associated with ROS. In this study, we use four common dietary antioxidants to demonstrate that, in the presence of copper (cupric sulfate and cupric gluconate) and physiologically relevant levels of hydrogen peroxide, these antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants by producing hydroxyl radicals. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate that the level of hydroxyl radical formation is a function of the pH of the medium and the relative amounts of antioxidant and copper. Based on the level of hydroxyl radical formation, the relative pro-oxidant potential of these antioxidants is: cysteine > ascorbate >EGCG > GSH. It has been reported that copper sequestered by protein ligands, as happens in vivo, loses its redox activity (diminishing/abolishing the formation of free radicals). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and GSH efficiently react with cupric sulfate sequestered with bovine serum albumin to generate hydroxyl radicals. Overall, the results demonstrate that, in the presence of copper endogenous and dietary antioxidants can also exhibit pro-oxidative activity. PMID:22339379

  12. Gross and histological signs of dietary deficiencies of biotin and pantothenic acid in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Poston, H A; Page, J W

    1982-07-01

    We describe the pathologic changes of single or simultaneous dietary deprivations of biotin (B) and pantothenic acid (PA) in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A deficiency of PA produced gross signs of anorexia, inanition, emaciation, gill abnormalities and high mortality. In B-deficient fish, growth retardation reached statistically significant levels (P less than 0.05) after week 10, but gill and liver lesions were observed earlier. Anorexia and reduced weight gain were observed earlier in fish deprived of both nutrients than in those deficient in B alone. All B-deficient trout fed PA survived the study, and were less anorexic, anemic and emaciated than were those fed B without PA. Deposition of glycogen was greater in kidney tubules of B-deficient fish than in those lacking both vitamins. However, lesions interpreted to be mitochondrial conglutination and cellular necrosis of renal tubules and pancreatic acini were more exaggerated in fish fed neither nutrient than in those deprived of only one. Both vitamins are needed for energy transfer metabolism and their absence in metabolically active tissues causes lesions that resemble those reported for cellular anoxia.

  13. Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6.

  14. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  15. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  16. Dietary rice protein isolate attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice-based diets may have been reported to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) for this protection remains unknown. In this report, the mechanism(s) contributing to the atheroprotective effects of rice-based diet was addressed using the apolipopro...

  17. Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Haas, Anabel; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-02-01

    Thermal stress leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species. If an organism is not able to simultaneously mount an efficient antioxidant defense system, this may lead to increased oxidative damage, which is potentially deleterious in terms of health and fitness. Exposure to cold or heat is therefore expected to be associated with a high demand for antioxidants. In agreement, several studies have shown that supplementing the diet of thermally stressed organisms with antioxidants leads to a reduction of oxidative damage. However, whether organisms can actively supplement their diet with antioxidants to alleviate temperature-induced oxidative damage is unknown. Here, we show that captive Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) supplement their diet more with seeds rich in antioxidants below than within their thermoneutral zone. Moreover, having access to seeds rich in antioxidants at temperatures below thermoneutrality decreases their oxidative damage. These results indicate that, when facing a thermal challenge, animals are able to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of their food to improve their oxidative balance. Having access to food resources rich in antioxidants may therefore be of primary importance for organisms in their natural habitat, as it may help them to cope with oxidative constraints due to challenging temperature regimes.

  18. Efficacy of dietary antioxidants combined with a chemotherapeutic agent on human colon cancer progression in a fluorescent orthotopic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huaiyu; Das, Tapas; Pereira, Suzette; Yang, Zhijian; Zhao, Ming; Mukerji, Pradip; Hoffman, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    We report here the efficacy of dietary antioxidants in combination with chemotherapy on tumor growth in the orthotopic COLO-205-green fluorescent protein (GFP) human colon cancer mouse model. The orthotopically-transplanted nude mice used for the study were randomly divided into 5 groups (A-E) after surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of tumor tissue. The following diets were given: Diet A, modified AIN-93M mature rodent diet with 4% fish oil; Diet B, modified AIN-93M which contains added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium at levels present in the standard AIN-93M diet; Diet C, Diet A without added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, or selenium; Diet D, Diet A with 5 times the amount of added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium present in Diet B. Cisplatin, 7 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally on day 16 after SOI. Throughout the course of treatment, noninvasive whole-body imaging, based on the GFP expression of the tumor, permitted visualization of tumor progression. At sacrifice, the mean tumor weights showed significant statistical differences in all of the treated groups compared to the negative control (no cisplatin treatment) (p antioxidants in combination with fish oil for colon cancer progression and suggests the design of clinical trials for this regimen.

  19. Rice Bran Dietary Supplementation Improves Neurological Symptoms and Loss of Purkinje Cells in Vitamin E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toru; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Hanaki, Takehiko; Yamakawa, Miho; Nakasone, Masato; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Koike, Taisuke; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin E (VE, α-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is well known as an antioxidant. A deficiency in VE induces oxidative stress in the brain and causes motor and memory dysfunction. The consumption of a VE-rich diet has been given much attention in recent years, in regards to anti-aging and the prevention of age-related neuronal disorders. Methods A VE-deficient mouse model was prepared by feeding the animals a diet lacking VE. In addition, to evaluate the effect of VE-containing rice bran (RB) on VE deficiency, a diet including RB was also provided. VE levels in the brain tissue, as well as in the RB, were measured using an HPLC system. Behavioral tests, including rotarod, wheel running activity, Y-maze, and elevated plus maze were performed. To clarify the effect of VE deficiency and RB, we investigated the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Histological studies were performed using HE staining and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1). Results VE in the mouse brain under a VE-deficient diet was decreased, and recovered α-tocopherol levels were observed in the brain of mice fed an RB diet. Motor behavioral scores were decreased in VE-deficient conditions, while the supplementation of RB improved motor function. HO-1, a marker of oxidative stress, was upregulated in the mouse brain under VE deficiency, however, RB supplementation inhibited the increase of HO-1. Histological analyses showed neuronal degeneration of Purkinje cells and decreased GFAP-immunoreactivity of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum. In addition, activated astrocytes and microglia were observed in mice fed the VE-deficient diet. Mice fed the RB diet showed improvement in these histological abnormalities. Conclusion A VE-deficient diet induced motor dysfunction in mice due to the degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Oral supplementation of RB

  20. Long-term dietary nitrite and nitrate deficiency causes the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice.

    PubMed

    Kina-Tanada, Mika; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kaname, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Taro; Nakasone, Junko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Ishida, Masayoshi; Kubota, Haruaki; Taira, Yuji; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kina, Shin-Ichiro; Sunakawa, Hajime; Omura, Junichi; Satoh, Kimio; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shiro; Ohya, Yusuke; Matsushita, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Arasaki, Akira; Tsutsui, Masato

    2017-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water. Nitrite and nitrate were undetectable in both the chow and the water. Three months of the LND did not affect food or water intake in wild-type C57BL/6J mice compared with a regular diet (RD). However, in comparison with the RD, 3 months of the LND significantly elicited visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance. Eighteen months of the LND significantly provoked increased body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine, while 22 months of the LND significantly led to death mainly due to cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction. These abnormalities were reversed by simultaneous treatment with sodium nitrate, and were significantly associated with endothelial NOS downregulation, adiponectin insufficiency and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. These results provide the first evidence that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency gives rise to the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic role of the exogenous NO production system in the metabolic syndrome and its vascular complications.

  1. Dietary coenzyme Q10 does not protect against cigarette smoke-augmented atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C Gary; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan

    2010-06-01

    Dietary coenzyme Q10 reduces spontaneous atherosclerosis in the apoE-deficient mouse model of experimental atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) enhances atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-deficient mice. The aim of the present study was to determine if CoQ10 protected against SSCS-mediated atherosclerosis. Female apoE-deficient mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet (SFD) alone, or supplemented with 1% wt/wt coenzyme Q10 (SFD-Q10). Mice in each diet group were exposed to SSCS for 4hrs/day, 5days/week in a whole-body exposure chamber maintained at 35+/-4mg smoke particulates/m(3). Mice kept in filtered ambient air served as controls. Mice were euthanized after either 6 or 15weeks of SSCS exposure and following measurements were performed: i) lung 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity; ii) plasma cholesterol and CoQ10 concentrations; iii) aortic intimal area covered by atherosclerotic lesions; and, iv) pathological characterization of lesions. Lung EROD activity increased in SSCS mice of both diet groups, confirming SSCS exposure. Plasma concentrations of CoQ10 in SFD-Q10-fed mice were increased markedly in comparison to SFD-fed mice. Plasma cholesterol concentrations and distributions of cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions were unaffected by SSCS exposure. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in control mice. As reported previously, exposure to SSCS increased the size of lesions in apoE-/- mice at both time points. However, dietary supplementation with CoQ10 had no effect on atherosclerotic lesions augmented by SSCS exposure. The results suggest a role of oxidative processes in smoke-augmented atherosclerosis that are different than those mitigated by CoQ10.

  2. Cadmium-induced alterations in the antioxidant defense system of the rat eye in relation to dietary selenium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinno, J.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cadmium (Cd)upon enzymatic antioxidant function in the ocular tissues of the albino rat. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Se-independent GSH-Px and catalase, and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione, and the elements Se, Cd and copper (Cu) were determined in ocular tissues from each group. Feeding rats a low Se diet resulted in a significant decrease in GSH-Px activity irrespective of Cd treatment. Activity of Se-independent GSH-Px in rats maintained on the low Se diet decreased when compared to Se-adequate controls. Cd treatment of rats fed low Se resulted in increased activity when compared to low-Se controls. When comparisons were made between ocular TBARS in rats maintained at either level of dietary Se, with or without Cd treatment, decreased ocular TBARS were observed in Cd-treated groups. A significant decrease in the ocular concentration of Se occurred in rats fed 0.05 ppm Se when compared to rats supplemented with 0.10 ppm Se. Administering Cd to the low Se group increased ocular Se levels 100%. A negative correlation between ocular Se concentration and the level of TBARS was observed, suggesting a possible alternate role for Se as an antioxidant in the eye.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohua; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Changzhen; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Dong, Ji; Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao; Qiao, Shanyi; Zhang, Shouguo; Wang, Lin; Wen, Xiaoxue

    2014-09-01

    Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg(-1) and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm(-2) HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of KFL against HPM-induced oxidative stress. In summary, the dietary supplement KFL is a promising natural complex, which ameliorates oxidative stress, with neuroprotective effects against HPM.

  4. Microstructure, nutrient composition and antioxidant capacity of king palm flour: a new potential source of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    de Simas, Karina N; Vieira, Leila do N; Podestá, Rossana; Vieira, Manoela A; Rockenbach, Ismael I; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; de Deus Medeiros, João; de Francisco, Alícia; Amante, Edna R; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition, microstructure, and antioxidant capacity of king palm flour obtained from residues from organic king palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) processing. King palm flour exhibited high levels of dietary fibre (70.85%) and total ash (3.27%); low contents of protein (3.51%) and lipid (0.91%). Iron, magnesium, calcium and potassium contents were 7.31, 517.03, 801.33 and 1041.95 mg/100g, respectively. The high concentration of glucose, xylose and arabinose suggests the presence of some polysaccharides, such as cellulose and hemicelluloses (xyloglucans and arabinoxylans). Methanol and aqueous extracts of king palm flour showed 1.27 and 0.95 mg/g (Gallic Acid Equivalents) of total polyphenols, respectively. Methanol extract yielded the best antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) and 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS()(+)) methods. The micrographs of leaf sheath showed the presence of druses, which are characterized as calcium oxalate deposition, contributing to the calcium content in king palm flour. The presence of primary and secondary cell walls lignified in leaf sheath contributed to high levels of dietary fibre detected in king palm flour. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  6. Enhancement of soluble dietary fibre, polyphenols and antioxidant properties of chapatis prepared from whole wheat flour dough treated with amylases and xylanase.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, Mysore S; Bhagwat, Suresh G; Salimath, Paramahans V; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S

    2012-03-15

    Chapati preparation involves various processing steps such as mixing the flour into dough, sheeting and baking. During these processing steps, flour components are likely to undergo changes in their nutrient and polyphenol composition and their antioxidant properties due to phenol-mediated crosslinking of proteins and carbohydrates. Therefore, in the present study, changes in nutritional, nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of chapatis prepared from doughs treated with amylases and xylanase were determined. An increase in insoluble dietary fibre content and a decrease in soluble polyphenol content were observed during preparation of control chapatis from whole wheat flours. However, significant increases in soluble dietary fibre and soluble polyphenol contents were observed in chapatis prepared from amylase-treated doughs compared with control chapatis. Extracts of chapatis prepared from amylase- and xylanase-treated doughs showed better antioxidant properties than extracts of control chapatis. Among these enzyme treatments, chapatis prepared from amylase-treated doughs showed better antioxidant properties than chapatis prepared from xylanase-treated doughs. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts of chapatis prepared from doughs treated with amylases showed the presence of potential antioxidant phenolic acids such as caffeic, gentisic and syringic acids in addition to the phenolic acids present in control chapatis. Treatment of doughs with amylases increased the contents of soluble dietary fibre and soluble polyphenols as well as improving the antioxidant properties of chapatis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Early-in-life dietary zinc deficiency and supplementation and mammary tumor development in adulthood female rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F

    2017-06-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium improves growth, survival, antioxidant and immune status of meagre, Argyrosomus regius, juveniles.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Abdallah Tag-Eldein; Goda, Ashraf Abdelsamee; Omar, Eglal Ali; Khalil, Hala Saber; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is considered one of the main obstacles to immune competence and high mortality rate of marine fish larvae due to the high dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and accelerated metabolic rate. This study was carried out to assess the effect of different dietary selenium (Se) yeast on growth, antioxidant status, hematological changes, and cellular and humoral immune parameters in meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Juvenile specimens (3.20 ± 0.17 g) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, a control group fed a basal diet and another three groups fed Se-supplemented diets at doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) diet for 63 days and the final analyzed selenium concentrations were 0.77, 1.51, 2.97 and 3.98 mg Se kg(-1) diet, respectively. The results indicated that growth performance, feed conversion ratio and survival were significantly improved with 2.97 and 3.98 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) compared to the control group. The catalase, superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant status were significantly increased, and thiobarbituric reactive substances in liver homogenate were significantly decreased with increasing Se supplementation respect to the control fish in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, hematological and innate immune parameters (immunoglobulin, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, ACH50 and respiratory burst activity) were also significantly higher in fish fed the Se-yeast supplemented diets compared to the control group. The results demonstrated that the supplementation of 3.98 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) diet improves growth performance, antioxidant balance and innate immune status of meagre juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary antioxidants and the aetiology of pancreatic cancer: a cohort study using data from food diaries and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Banim, Paul J R; Luben, Robert; McTaggart, Alison; Welch, Ailsa; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hart, Andrew R

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether the dietary antioxidants vitamins C and E, selenium and zinc decrease the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, for the first time using 7-day food diaries, the most accurate dietary methodology in prospective work. 23,658 participants, aged 40-74 years, recruited into the EPIC-Norfolk Study completed 7-day food diaries which recorded foods, brands and portion sizes. Nutrient intakes were calculated in those later diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and in 3970 controls, using a computer program with information on 11,000 foods. Vitamin C was measured in serum samples. The HRs of developing pancreatic cancer were estimated across quartiles of intake and thresholds of the lowest quartile (Q1) against a summation of the three highest (Q2-4). Within 10 years, 49 participants (55% men), developed pancreatic cancer. Those eating a combination of the highest three quartiles of all of vitamins C and E and selenium had a decreased risk (HR=0.33, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84, p<0.05). There were threshold effects (Q2-4 vs Q1) for selenium (HR=0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.93, p<0.05) and vitamin E (HR=0.57, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.09, p<0.10). The HRs of quartiles for antioxidants, apart from zinc, were <1, but not statistically significant. For vitamin C, there was an inverse association with serum measurements (HR trend=0.67, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.91, p=0.01), but the threshold effect from diaries was not significant (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.26). The results support measuring antioxidants in studies investigating the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. If the association is causal, 1 in 12 cancers might be prevented by avoiding the lowest intakes.

  10. Excess dietary vitamin E lowers the activities of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes of rats fed salmon oil.

    PubMed

    Eder, Klaus; Flader, Diana; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna

    2002-11-01

    In vitro studies suggest that high vitamin E supplementation has prooxidative activity, but very few studies have investigated this effect in vivo. We investigated the effect of excess vitamin E on the antioxidative status of rat erythrocytes and indicators of hemolysis. Six groups of growing male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed purified diets with three different vitamin E doses [100, 1000 and 10,000 mg all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA)/kg diet] and two different dietary fats (salmon oil and lard) for 8 wk. The rats whose diet contained salmon oil and 10,000 mg TA/kg had lower activities of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05) and a lower concentration of glutathione (P < 0.05) in the erythrocyte cytosol than rats whose diet contained 100 mg TA/kg. The concentration of free hemoglobin and the binding capacity of haptoglobin in plasma, both indicators of in vivo hemolysis, did not differ between rats fed the salmon oil diet with 100 or 10,000 mg TA/kg. In the rats whose diet contained lard, the activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and indicators of in vivo hemolysis were independent of the dietary vitamin E concentration. The results of the study suggest that an excessive vitamin E intake, when combined with salmon oil in the diet, lowers the activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes without affecting in vivo hemolysis.

  11. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  12. Dietary quebracho tannins are not absorbed, but increase the antioxidant capacity of liver and plasma in sheep.

    PubMed

    López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-08-01

    A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.

  13. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary dehydrated lemon peel improves the immune but not the antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    García Beltrán, José María; Espinosa, Cristóbal; Guardiola, Francisco A; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-05-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is the third most important species of citrus in the world, while Spain is the major producer in Europe. Numerous beneficial effects of lemon are known, which explains their use in traditional medicine. The paper describes the effect of dietary dehydrated lemon peel (a sub-product of the lemon industry) on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) over a period of 30 days. Fish fed diets enriched with dehydrated lemon peel (1.5% and 3%) for 15 days showed improved growth and both humoral (seric immunoglobulin M) and cellular (peroxidase activity and phagocytic ability of head kidney leucocytes) immunity, as well as the expression of some immune-related genes (nkefa, il1β, igth and csfr1). However, decreases growth promotion was observed after thirty days of trial. Neither the anti-oxidant enzymes activity nor the expression of several anti-oxidants and anti-stress genes in liver was improved by the diet. The possible inclusion of dehydrated lemon peel in fish diets for its immunostimulant effects is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function.

  16. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes, and renal tubular functions in children with iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Kurekci, Ahmet Emin; Gursel, Orhan; Hacıhamdioglu, Duygu Ovunc; Kurt, Ismail; Aydın, Ahmet; Ozcan, Okan

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of iron deficiency (ID) or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on oxidative stress and renal tubular functions before and after treatment of children. A total of 30 children with a diagnosis of IDA constituted the IDA group and 32 children with a diagnosis of ID constituted the ID group. Control group consisted 38 age-matched children. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), serum, and urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels, and intra-erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured before and after iron therapy in the IDA and ID groups, whereas it was studied once in the control group. We have divided the study group in groups according to age (infants <2 years, children 3-9 years, and adolescents 10-15 years). Patients with IDA (infant, adolescent) and ID (infant, children, and adolescent) had a significantly high level of MDA in post-treatment period in comparison to those of healthy control. Patients with IDA (children, adolescent) and ID (infant, children) had a significantly high level of pre-treatment GSH-Px than controls. Post-treatment SOD was lower in IDA (children and adolescent) groups than control and post-treatment CAT was lower in IDA and ID (adolescent) groups than control. These findings show that ferrous sulfate used in the treatment of ID or IDA could lead to oxidative stress; however, a marked deterioration of in proximal renal tubular functions was not seen.

  18. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of dietary antioxidants to protect against DNA damage in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul R; Reed, Catrina F; Mann, Sarah J; Ransley, Raymond; Stevenson, Joy; Charlton, Chris J; Smith, Brigitte H E; Harper, E Jean; Rawlings, John M

    2002-06-01

    We studied the effects of feeding an antioxidant blend of vitamins, minerals and carotenoids to a mixed adult dog population (n = 40, mean 4.4 +/- 1.85 y) for a 16-wk period. Compared to the control group of dogs (n = 20), the antioxidant (AOX)-supplemented group of dogs (n = 20) demonstrated significant increases in plasma levels of vitamin E and taurine by 4 wk of supplementation (P < 0.01) and total antioxidant activity (as measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) by 8 wk of supplementation (P < 0.05). Following 8 wk of supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also showed significant reductions in both endogenous and exogenous DNA damage (P < 0.005) compared to that of the control dogs, as measured by the comet assay. Over an 8-wk rabies vaccination course that started at 8 wk supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also demonstrated significantly higher vaccine-specific virus-neutralizing antibody levels at 2, 4 and 6 wk postvaccination (P < 0.05) and a tendency toward establishing a vaccine-specific antibody response quicker than did the control group of dogs. These findings in dogs suggest that antioxidant supplementation can achieve sustained increases in circulating levels of antioxidants that exert a protective effect by a decrease in DNA damage, leading to improved immunological performance. These findings also have implications in a wider context where free-radical damage has been associated with a variety of degenerative disorders and the aging process in general.

  20. Paradoxical zinc toxicity and oxidative stress in the mammary gland during marginal dietary zinc deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Zeynep; Mack, Ronald P.; Lee, Sooyeon; Soybel, David I.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) regulates numerous cellular functions. Zn deficiency is common in females; ~80% of women and 40% of adolescent girls consume inadequate Zn. Zn deficiency enhances oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage. Oxidative stress and inflammation is associated with breast disease. We hypothesized that Zn deficiency increases oxidative stress in the mammary gland, altering the microenvironment and architecture. Zn accumulated in the mammary glands of Zn deficient mice and this was associated with macrophage infiltration, enhanced oxidative stress and over-expression of estrogen receptor α. Ductal and stromal hypercellularity was associated with aberrant collagen deposition and disorganized e-cadherin. Importantly, these microenvironmental alterations were associated with substantial impairments in ductal expansion and mammary gland development. This is the first study to show that marginal Zn deficiency creates a toxic microenvironment in the mammary gland impairing breast development. These changes are consistent with hallmarks of potential increased risk for breast disease and cancer. PMID:25088245

  1. Dietary supplementation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil during the lifetime of the rat: its effects on the antioxidant status in liver, kidney and heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Youdim, K A; Deans, S G

    1999-09-08

    This study aimed not only to identify age-related changes in certain antioxidant systems, but to assess whether dietary supplementation of thyme oil could address the unfavourable antioxidant-pro-oxidant balance that occurs with age. The present study has shown that there were significant declines in the superoxide dismutase activities in the liver and heart of old rats, although kidney showed no decline. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity was found to have increased significantly in old rats, while a significant decrease was observed in kidney. Heart GSHPX activity was not found to differ significantly between young and old rats. There were also significant declines in the total antioxidant status in each tissue examined. A general feature of these various antioxidant parameters measured was that their activities remained higher in rats whose diets were supplemented with thyme oil, suggesting that they retained a more favourable antioxidant capacity during their life span.

  2. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  3. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  4. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Rajani; Brown, Danielle Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO supplements and dietary intake of AOs via whole foods. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AOs in preventing tumorigenesis and outline four targeted dietary AOs. We review the results of research evaluating oral AOs supplements as compared to dietary AOs intake via whole foods. While these specific supplements have not shown efficacy, intake of AOs via consumption of whole foods has shown some promise. Lessons learned from the field of hypertension research may provide important guidance in future study design. Further research on the role of dietary AOs in the prevention of NMSC is warranted and should focus on intake via whole food consumption. PMID:26583073

  5. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A

    1999-02-01

    The immune system is highly reliant on accurate cell-cell communication for optimal function, and any damage to the signalling systems involved will result in an impaired immune responsiveness. Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is a particular hazard to the immune system, since phagocytic cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body's defence against infection. Adequate amounts of neutralizing antioxidants are required, therefore, to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components (e.g. Se in the metalloenzyme glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9)). Numerous epidemiological studies have found strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that a boost to the body's immune system by antioxidants might, at least in part, account for this. Although more striking effects have been observed in the elderly, there is also evidence that antioxidant nutrients can modify cell-mediated immune responses in younger individuals. Indeed, it might be essential to have an adequate intake of antioxidant nutrients from an early age in order to help prevent the development of, or at least delay the onset of, several degenerative disorders. The present paper will review the effects of specific nutrients on immune function in young to middle-aged human subjects, focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and on Se. A further review, dealing more specifically with the effects of carotenoids on human immune function, will be presented at a forthcoming meeting of the Nutrition Society.

  6. Antioxidant balance and free radical generation in vitamin e-deficient mice after dermal exposure to cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, A A; Kisin, E R; Murray, A R; Kommineni, C; Castranova, V; Mason, R P; Kadiiska, M B; Gunther, M R

    2002-11-01

    Organic peroxides are widely used in the chemical industry as initiators of oxidation for the production of polymers and fiber-reinforced plastics, in the manufacture of polyester resin coatings, and pharmaceuticals. Free radical production is considered to be one of the key factors contributing to skin tumor promotion by organic peroxides. In vitro experiments have demonstrated metal-catalyzed formation of alkoxyl, alkyl, and aryl radicals in keratinocytes incubated with cumene hydroperoxide. The present study investigated in vivo free radical generation in lipid extracts of mouse skin exposed to cumene hydroperoxide. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique was used to detect the formation of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) radical adducts, following intradermal injection of 180 mg/kg PBN. It was found that 30 min after topical exposure, cumene hydroperoxide (12 mmol/kg) induced free radical generation in the skin of female Balb/c mice kept for 10 weeks on vitamin E-deficient diets. In contrast, hardly discernible radical adducts were detected when cumene hydroperoxide was applied to the skin of mice fed a vitamin E-sufficient diet. Importantly, total antioxidant reserve and levels of GSH, ascorbate, and vitamin E decreased 34%, 46.5%. 27%, and 98%, respectively, after mice were kept for 10 weeks on vitamin E-deficient diet. PBN adducts detected by ESR in vitamin E-deficient mice provide direct evidence for in vivo free radical generation in the skin after exposure to cumene hydroperoxide.

  7. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on zinc-deficiency-induced changes in oxidative defense mechanisms and tissue oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Keen, C L

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary carbohydrate type on the expression of zinc (Zn) deficiency in rats with respect to tissue oxidative damage and defense mechanisms. Rats were fed diets containing adequate (+Zn) or low concentrations (-Zn) of Zn. Both fructose- and glucose-based diets were tested. Pair-fed controls were also studied to evaluate changes in the oxidative defense system which are secondary to Zn-deficiency-induced anorexia. Plasma and liver Zn concentrations and CuZn superoxide dismutase activities were lower in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats. Liver glutathione (GSH) and disulfide glutathione concentrations were higher in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats; this difference was most pronounced in the fructose groups. Liver and heart selenium glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activities were lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in the +Zn-fructose group. Liver Se-GSH-Px activity was higher in the fructose groups than in the glucose groups. Liver GSH reductase (GSH-Red) activity was lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in its control group. Liver glutamine synthetase activity was lower in the -Zn-glucose group and in the fructose groups than in the glucose control group. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) production was similar among the groups. Collectively, these results support the concept that Zn deficiency can result in an impaired oxidant defense system. Based on the observation that pair-fed control animals also showed evidence of oxidative damage, we suggest that one factor that contributes to the effect of Zn deficiency is the reduction in caloric intake that occurs in these animals. Fructose feeding resulted in increased activities of several of the oxidant defense enzymes. Protein oxidative damage assessed by glutamine synthetase activity was increased by both Zn deficiency and fructose feeding.

  8. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P < 0.05). Contrary to glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and triiodothyronine, plasma cortisol content increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 22.4%, and then levelled off. The hepatic total antioxidative capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase levels reached the peak at the fish fed diet with 16.8% carbohydrate (P < 0.05). This also held true for hepatic superoxide dismutase activities, whereas the hepatic malondialdehyde content of fish fed dietary starch level of 16.8% was significantly lower than that of fish fed no CHO diet, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P < 0.05). However, survival rate showed little difference among 0%, 5.6%, 22.4% and 28% CHO groups (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano.

  9. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Selenium Deficiency Partially Rescues Type 2 Diabetes–Like Phenotypes of Glutathione Peroxidase-1–Overexpressing Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xi; Pepper, Matthew P.; Vatamaniuk, Marko Z.; Roneker, Carol A.; Li, Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether dietary Se deficiency precluded overproduction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) activity in mice overexpressing (OE) this gene and thus rescued their type 2 diabetes–like phenotypes. A total of 20 male OE and wild-type (WT) mice were fed an Se-deficient (<0.02 mg/kg) diet or an Se-supplemented (0.3 mg/kg as sodium selenite) diet from 1 to 5 mo of age. Dietary Se deficiency eliminated or attenuated (P < 0.05) genotype differences in concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and/or hepatic lipids, insulin sensitivity, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at the end of the study. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) OE islet mRNA levels of 2 key transcriptional activators (Beta2 and Foxa2) and removed genotype differences in islet mRNA levels of 7 genes (Beta2, Cfos, Foxa2, Pregluc, Ins1, p53, and Sur1) related to insulin synthesis and secretion. Compared with those of the Se-adequate OE mice, the Se-deficient OE mice had lower (P < 0.05) hepatic mRNA levels of 2 key rate-limiting enzymes for lipogenesis (Acc1) and glycolysis (Gk1), along with lower (P < 0.05) activities of hepatic glucokinase and muscle phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Dietary Se deficiency also decreased (P < 0.05) blood glucose and hepatic lipid concentrations in the WT mice. In conclusion, dietary Se deficiency precluded the overproduction of GPX1 in full-fed OE mice and partially rescued their metabolic syndromes. This alleviation resulted from modulating the expression and/or function of proinsulin genes, lipogenesis rate-limiting enzyme genes, and key glycolysis and gluconeogenesis enzymes in islets, liver, and muscle. PMID:23014491

  11. Neurologically normal development of a patient with severe methionine adenosyltransferase I/III deficiency after continuing dietary methionine restriction.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Koichi; Shiohara, Masaaki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Sueki, Akane; Ide, Yuichiro; Takeuchi, Koichi; Hagimoto, Rokuro; Kinoshita, Tatsuya; Yabuhara, Akihiko; Mudd, S Harvey; Koike, Kenichi

    2013-11-01

    There is not much information on established standard therapy for patients with severe methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) I/III deficiency. We report a boy with MAT I/III deficiency, in whom plasma methionine and total homocysteine, and urinary homocystine were elevated. Molecular genetic studies showed him to have novel compound heterozygous mutations of the MAT1A gene: c.191T>A (p.M64K) and c.589delC (p.P197LfsX26). A low methionine milk diet was started at 31 days of age, and during continuing dietary methionine restriction plasma methionine levels have been maintained at less than 750 μmol/L. He is now 5 years old, and has had entirely normal physical growth and psychomotor development. Although some severely MAT I/III deficient patients have developed neurologic abnormalities, we report here the case of a boy who has remained neurologically and otherwise normal for 5 years during methionine restriction, suggesting that perhaps such management, started in early infancy, may help prevent neurological complications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency combined with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a challenge in clinical and dietary management.

    PubMed

    Grünert, Sarah C; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Wermuth, Bendicht; Lehnert, Willy; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Schwab, K Otfried

    2013-07-05

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common urea cycle defect. The clinical presentation in female manifesting carriers varies both in onset and severity. We report on a female with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and recurrent episodes of hyperammonemia. Since OTC activity measured in a liver biopsy sample was within normal limits, OTC deficiency was initially excluded from the differential diagnoses of hyperammonemia. Due to moderately elevated homocitrulline excretion, hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome was suggested, but further assays in fibroblasts showed normal ornithine utilization. Later, when mutation analysis of the OTC gene became available, a known pathogenic missense mutation (c.533C>T) in exon 5 leading to an exchange of threonine-178 by methionine (p.Thr178Met) was detected. Skewed X-inactivation was demonstrated in leukocyte DNA. In the further clinical course the girl developed marked obesity. By initiating physical activities twice a week, therapeutic control of both diabetes and OTC deficiency improved, but obesity persisted. In conclusion, our case confirms that normal hepatic OTC enzyme activity measured in a single liver biopsy sample does not exclude a clinical relevant mosaic of OTC deficiency because of skewed X-inactivation. Mutation analysis of the OTC gene in whole blood may be a simple way to establish the diagnosis of OTC deficiency. The joint occurrence of OTC deficiency and diabetes in a patient has not been reported before.

  13. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency combined with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a challenge in clinical and dietary management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common urea cycle defect. The clinical presentation in female manifesting carriers varies both in onset and severity. We report on a female with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and recurrent episodes of hyperammonemia. Since OTC activity measured in a liver biopsy sample was within normal limits, OTC deficiency was initially excluded from the differential diagnoses of hyperammonemia. Due to moderately elevated homocitrulline excretion, hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome was suggested, but further assays in fibroblasts showed normal ornithine utilization. Later, when mutation analysis of the OTC gene became available, a known pathogenic missense mutation (c.533C>T) in exon 5 leading to an exchange of threonine-178 by methionine (p.Thr178Met) was detected. Skewed X-inactivation was demonstrated in leukocyte DNA. In the further clinical course the girl developed marked obesity. By initiating physical activities twice a week, therapeutic control of both diabetes and OTC deficiency improved, but obesity persisted. In conclusion, our case confirms that normal hepatic OTC enzyme activity measured in a single liver biopsy sample does not exclude a clinical relevant mosaic of OTC deficiency because of skewed X-inactivation. Mutation analysis of the OTC gene in whole blood may be a simple way to establish the diagnosis of OTC deficiency. The joint occurrence of OTC deficiency and diabetes in a patient has not been reported before. PMID:23829977

  14. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P < 0.05). These data suggested that folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P < 0.05). These data indicated

  15. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  16. The effects of dietary flax oil and antioxidants on ascites and pulmonary hypertension in broilers using a low temperature model.

    PubMed

    Walton, J P; Julian, R J; Squires, E J

    2001-03-01

    1. Three experiments were conducted using a low temperature model to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ascites in broiler chickens. Diets containing 25 g or 50 g flax oil/kg food and control diets with an equivalent amount of animal/vegetable (A/V) blend oil, with and without supplemental antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) were used. The amount of PH was assessed by the ratio of right ventricle weight to total ventricle weight (RV/TV ratio). Birds were considered to suffer from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) if the RV/TV ratio was greater than 0.299. 2. In experiment 1, the test diets contained 50 g oil/kg food and were given during the grower period only. Birds fed on the flax oil diet tended to have a lower incidence of PHS, ascites and lower RV/TV ratios than birds fed on the control diet. However, when the flax oil diet was supplemented with antioxidants, the incidence of ascites, PHS, haematocrit and whole blood and plasma viscosity increased compared with birds fed on the flax oil diet without antioxidants. These effects were not seen in experiment 2, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food (25 g flax oil plus 5 g A/V blend oil/kg food compared to 30 g A/V blend oil/kg food) were given during the grower period. However, in experiment 3, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food were given from day 1 to week 8, birds fed on the control diet supplemented with antioxidants had a higher incidence of PHS than those fed on the control diet alone. 3. In all 3 experiments, there was no significant effect of dietary fat source or supplemental antioxidants on total food intake or food conversion. 4. We conclude that diets containing 50 g flax oil/kg food tend to reduce the incidence of PHS and ascites in broilers using a low temperature model but the results were not statistically significant. In some cases, supplementing diets with a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C increased the incidence of ascites and PHS.

  17. Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Sugar Beet Dietary Fibre.

    PubMed

    Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Medić, Đorđe; Tadić, Vanja; Marković, Goran; Gyura, Julliana; Pagano, Ester; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Milić, Nataša

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine if hydrogen peroxide treatment of sugar beet fibre that aimed at improving its physicochemical properties would impair its antioxidant potential. Three different sugar beet fibres were obtained from sugar beet - non-treated fibre (NTF) from sugar beet cossettes extracted with sulphurous acid, treated fibre (TF) from NTF treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and commercially available Fibrex(®) . The antioxidant activity of extractable and non-extractable fibre fractions in ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v) of three fibre samples was estimated. Non-extractable fractions obtained after alkaline treatment of investigated fibres were much higher in phenolic compounds and possessed higher antioxidant potential than extractable fractions. Ferulic acid was proven to be the dominant phenolic acid. Regarding both extractable and non-extractable fractions, Fibrex(®) had the highest antioxidant activity in chemical tests, while NTF was superior in comparison with TF. Based on the results of Caco-2 cells-based test, all non-extractable fractions possessed potential for reactive oxygen species inhibition. Regarding the extractable fractions, only the TF manifested this effect.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of dietary antioxidant on performance and physiological responses following heat stress in laying hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative damage, increasing mortality and reducing productivity in chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in laying hens during HS. Eighty 32-wk-old W-36 White Leghorn hens were used in this study. Hens were randoml...

  19. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  20. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  1. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned.

  2. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of vitamins D(3) and E on quality characteristics of pigs and longissimus muscle antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Lahucky, Rudolf; Bahelka, Ivan; Kuechenmeister, Ulrich; Vasickova, Katarina; Nuernberg, Karin; Ender, Klaus; Nuernberg, Gerd

    2007-10-01

    The effects of addition of vitamin D(3) and vitamin E to pig diets on blood plasma calcium concentration, meat quality (longissimus muscle) and antioxidative capacity were investigated. Two treatments consisted of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days separately (group D) and a combination of vitamin E (500mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for 30 days and vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days (group D+E) to growing-finishing pigs before slaughter. Pigs fed with vitamin D(3) had higher (P<0.01) plasma calcium concentration compared with control pigs. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat (longissimus muscle). Vitamin D(3) supplementation resulted in higher (P=0.07) a(∗) values of loin chops at 5 days of storage. Vitamin D(3) and vitamin E supplementation did not affect other meat quality characteristics or tenderness (quantified by Warner-Bratzler shear force). Antioxidative capacity (measured as MDA production after incubation of longissimus muscle homogenates with Fe(2+)/ascorbate) was improved by vitamin E and partly by vitamin D(3) supplementation.

  4. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  5. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture.

    PubMed

    Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  6. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  7. Rats fed the dietary supplement vitamix® (ceregumil® with vitamins) show greater physical resistance and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; López-Ávalos, María Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pedraza, Carmen; de Andrés, Amelia Victoria; Jiménez-Palomo, Pedro; Casares-Mira, Jose Esteban; López-Arillo, Isabel

    2008-10-01

    Vitamix® is a dietary product composed of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cereals and pulses with honey, calcium glycerophosphate, vitamins B and D, selenium and fluoride. The basic product, Ceregumil®, patented in 1912, was highly popular as tonic and consumers reported a feeling of health, resistance to illness, and increased predisposition to work and exercise. In the present study we analysed the effect of Vitamix® used as dietary supplement, on several physiological parameters in laboratory rats. We periodically performed hemograms and measured intake and weight, as well as blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, transaminases and malondialdehyde, a lipoperoxidation product. Physical probes were performed and a histochemical study was done in the liver. Rats fed with Vitamix® displayed lower intake and body weight in adult ages, showed and increased antioxidant activity, higher resistance in the wire hang test and lower fatigue in the Morris pool, specially those specimens considered as bad performers supplemented with Vitamix®. The rest of the measured parameters remained similar to control and no hepatic alterations were found. This study supports a scientific basis to know the effect of these complements over physiological parameters. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber inhibits intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to cell cycle and immune response.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Lizárraga, Daneida; Miranda, Anibal; Vinardell, Maria P; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Torres, Josep L; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Capellà, Gabriel; Cascante, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that fiber and phenolic compounds might have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Accordingly, we assessed the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin (PA)-rich dietary fiber [grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF)] on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Mice were fed a standard diet (control group) or a 1% (w/w) GADF-supplemented diet (GADF group) for 6 weeks. GADF supplementation greatly reduced intestinal tumorigenesis, significantly decreasing the total number of polyps by 76%. Moreover, size distribution analysis showed a considerable reduction in all polyp size categories [diameter <1mm (65%), 1-2mm (67%) and >2mm (87%)]. In terms of polyp formation in the proximal, middle and distal portions of the small intestine, a decrease of 76, 81 and 73% was observed, respectively. Putative molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis were investigated by comparison of microarray expression profiles of GADF-treated and non-treated mice. We observed that the effects of GADF are mainly associated with the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of genes related to the immune response and inflammation. Our findings show for the first time the efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of GADF against intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting its potential for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  9. Further studies on the effects of dietary copper deficiency on rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mylroie, A.A.; Boseman, A.; Kyle, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain further information on the effect of Cu deficiency on the pancreas and on pancreatic SOD activity. In a series of experiments, groups of male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a Cu sufficient Cu or Cu deficient purified AIN-'76 diet. Cu levels were determined in blood and selected organs by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were determined. Aliquots of homogenized pancreas were assayed for CuSOD, MnSOD and other pancreatic enzyme activities. Although the experimental conditions appeared to be identical to those used in previous experiments, the results were different. In the experiments reported here, even though pancreatic weights decreased by week 7 relative to controls, there was no evidence of pancreatic atrophy. There was no significant decrease in CuSOD, but an unexpected increase in MnSOD activity by week 9 in rats fed Cu-deficient diet. An examination of all data indicates that the difference in results between previous experiments and those reported here was due to the varying degree of Cu deficiency produced: Cu deficiency was less pronounced in the present study.

  10. Increased folate uptake prevents dietary development of folate deficiency in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    McMartin, K.E.; Collins, T.D.; Eisenga, B.H.; Bhandari, S.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Folic acid and folate deficiency have been implicated in disorders of the central nervous system. In a study of the mechanism for the effects of chronic ethanol on folate homeostasis, the uptake of {sup 3}H-folic acid by the rat brain has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed sulfonamide-supplemented folate-sufficient and folate-deficient liquid diets containing either ethanol or isoenergic carbohydrate as a control. After 16 weeks, severe folate depletion occurred in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung intestine, testes), but not in the brain. Tissue retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was increased four-fold in the brain of folate-deficient rats. A smaller increase in uptake was observed in the other tissues, except for the liver, in which the retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was slightly decreased. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased hepatic folate uptake, but not that by the increase the uptake of folate from the plasma of folate-deficient rats, thereby inhibiting the development of brain folate deficiency.

  11. Effects of protein deficiency on liver trace elements and antioxidant activity in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; López-Lirola, A; Olivera, R Martín; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Galindo-Martín, L; Abreu-González, P; Sánchez-Sanchez, J J; Martínez-Riera, A

    2003-01-01

    In liver cirrhosis, liver tissue becomes progressively substituted by fibrosis, ultimately leading to architectural distortion, liver circulatory changes, and liver failure. Some data support the hypothesis that protein undernutrition may play a role in the development and progression of nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis and that this progression is at least partially mediated by changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and other antioxidative systems, leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation. We analyzed the effects of protein deficiency on liver Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Se in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis, the relation of protein undernutrition and these trace elements with the activity of some hepatic antioxidative enzymatic mechanisms, and the relation of all of them with morphological and biochemical changes in 40 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats divided in four groups. Liver cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 to 10 rats fed a 2% protein diet and another 10 fed a 18% protein control diet; two further groups included rats without cirrhosis fed the 2% protein and the 18% protein diets. The study period lasted 6 wk. GPX, SOD, and lipid peroxidation products as well as Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, and Fe were determined in liver samples. We found that liver GPX and Se were reduced in the cirrhotic animals, especially in the low-protein-fed ones, protein deficiency, but not cirrhosis, exerting the main effects. A close correlation was found between liver GPX and serum albumin and weight loss and an inverse one among GPX and hepatocyte ballooning, liver fibrosis, and fat, histomorphometrically determined. These results suggest a pathogenetic role of decreased GPX in the progression of liver disease, which may become enhanced by concomitant protein undernutrition. In addition to iron, the levels of which were increased in the malnourished rats, no differences were found regarding the other trace elements, SOD

  12. Selenium deficiency decreases antioxidative capacity and is detrimental to bone microarchitecture in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selenium (Se), a chemical component of selenoproteins (such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase), plays a major role in cellular redox status and may have beneficial effects on bone health. The deficiency of Se has been linked to increased oxidative stress with increased levels of r...

  13. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  14. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( < 0.0001) in response to prolonged exercise but was not affected by dietary treatment. Serum lipid hydroperoxides were affected by treatment ( = 0.052) and were higher ( = 0.012) in horses receiving CON than SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P < 0.0001) and decreased in RBC lysate ( = 0.010) after prolonged exercise. A Se treatment × time interaction was observed for RBC GPx activity (P = 0.048). Muscle and expression and GPx activity did not change during the 24-h period after exercise. Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following

  15. Dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers through maintaining muscle energy metabolism and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Wang, L; Zhao, X H; Chen, X Y; Yang, L; Geng, Z Y

    2017-03-02

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate. All birds in the 3 crates were transported according to the following protocols: 0-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (control group), 3-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (T group), and 3-hour transport of birds in the Res group (T + Res group). The results showed that Res not only improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) but also tended to improve birds' final body weight (P < 0.10). In the Res-free group, a 3-hour transport increased serum corticosterone concentration, muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate contents, and muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while it decreased muscle glycogen content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities (P < 0.05), which induced decreased breast meat quality (lower pH24h and higher drip loss and L*24 h, P < 0.05). Nevertheless, compared with the T group, Res increased muscle glycogen content and T-SOD and GSH-PX activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10), while it decreased muscle MDA content and LDH activity (P < 0.05), which is beneficial to the meat quality maintenance of transported broilers (lower drip loss, L*24 h, and higher pH24h, P < 0.05 or P < 0.10). This study provides the first evidence that dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers

  16. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia regardless of antioxidant, thiamine, riboflavin, cobalamine, and folate status in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Molina-López, Jorge; Florea, Daniela; Quintero-Osso, Bartolomé; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Del Pozo, Elena Planells

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decreasing their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the nutritional pyridoxal-5'-phosphate status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying it's association with factors involved in the pyridoxine and other B vitamins metabolism, as the total antioxidant capacity and Hcy as cardiovascular risk biomarker. Prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. One hundred and three critically ill patients from different hospitals, and eighty four healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent. Data from daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, clinical and nutritional parameters, antioxidant status and homocysteine levels was taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folate status proved deficient in a large number of patients, being significantly lower in comparison with control group, and significantly decreased at 7th day of ICU stay. Higher homocysteine was observed in patients compared with control group (p < 0.05) where 31.5 and 26.8 percent of subjects presented hyperhomocysteinemia at initial and final of study, respectively. Antioxidant status was lower than control group in two periods analysed, and decreased at 7th day of ICU stay (p < 0.05) being associated with PLP deficiency. PLP deficiency was also correlated with hyperhomocysteinemia at two times measured (r. -0.73, p < 0.001; r. -0.69, p < 0.001, respectively), showing at day 7 an odds ratio of 6.62 in our multivariate model. Critically ill patients with SIRS show deficient B vitamin and low antioxidant statuses. Despite association found between PLP deficiency and low antioxidant status in critically ill patients, PLP deficiency

  17. Experimental evidence for protein oxidative damage and altered antioxidant defense in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Derks, Terry G J; Touw, Catharina M L; Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Vanzin, Camila S; Negretto, Giovanna; Mescka, Caroline P; Reijngoud, Dirk Jan; Smit, G Peter A; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in asymptomatic, nonstressed, MCAD-deficient patients and healthy controls. Patients were subdivided into three groups based on therapy: patients without prescribed supplementation, patients with carnitine supplementation, and patients with carnitine plus riboflavin supplementation. Compared with healthy controls, nonsupplemented MCAD-deficient patients and patients receiving carnitine supplementation displayed decreased plasma sulfhydryl content (indicating protein oxidative damage). Increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in patients receiving carnitine supplementation probably reflects a compensatory mechanism for scavenging reactive species formation. The combination of carnitine plus riboflavin was not associated with oxidative damage. These are the first indications that MCAD-deficient patients experience protein oxidative damage and that combined supplementation of carnitine and riboflavin may prevent these biochemical alterations. Results suggest involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of MCAD deficiency. The underlying mechanisms behind the increased SOD activity upon carnitine supplementation need to be determined. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical relevance of oxidative stress, including the possibility of antioxidant therapy.

  18. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-18

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis.

  19. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  20. Prevalence of iron deficiency in 12-mo-old infants from 11 European areas and influence of dietary factors on iron status (Euro-Growth study).

    PubMed

    Male, C; Persson, L A; Freeman, V; Guerra, A; van't Hof, M A; Haschke, F

    2001-05-01

    A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency in European infants at 12 mo of age, and to study the influence of socio-economic status, dietary factors, growth and morbidity on iron status. The cohort consisted of 488 normal term infants from primary healthcare centres in 11 European areas. Assessed were socio-economic variables, dietary intake, anthropometry and morbidity at regular intervals from birth to 12 mo, and haemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation and serum transferrin receptor concentrations at age 12 mo. The prevalence of anaemia was 9.4%, of iron deficiency 7.2%, and of iron deficiency anaemia 2.3%. More than 40% of anaemia was associated with normal iron status and associated with an increased frequency of recent infections. Iron deficiency anaemia was significantly more frequent with low (5.1%) than high socio-economic status (0%). Dietary factors accounted for most of this variation in multiple regression analysis. Early introduction of cows' milk was the strongest negative determinant of iron status. Feeding of iron-fortified formula was the main factor positively influencing iron status. Other dietary factors, including breastfeeding, did not play a significant role as determinants of iron status at age 12 mo. Conclusion. Iron deficiency anaemia is present in 2.3% of 12-mo-old European infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia varies strongly with socio-economic status. Avoidance of cows' milk feeding during the first year of life is the key measure in the prevention of iron deficiency.

  1. Effects of dietary fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Yang, Rui; Li, Ming; Zhou, Qicun; Liang, Xiongpei; Elmada, Zacharia Cassian

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Totally 420 individuals of juvenile yellow catfish were randomly allocated to 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fishes per replicate. The same experimental fish were randomly subjected to one of the following 7 treatments for 12 weeks: The basal diet was applied as control group, the experimental groups were fed on fucoidan extracted from Sargassum horneri (SF) and commodity fucoidan purchased from the market (MF), and the effective dosages were 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% per kilogram feed (the groups were respectively marked as SF1, SF2, SF3, MF1, MF2 and MF3). The capabilities of anti-oxidation and innate immunity were detected by the blood characters, serum enzyme activities, serum MDA content, respiratory burst activity and phagocytic index of head-kidney macrophages. Challenge test was conducted also. The results indicated that the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) values of the yellow catfish were significantly decreased when dietary with SF and MF, while there was no significant difference between the MF1 and the control group. Fish fed on SF and MF diets had a lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level than those fed on basal diet except SF2 group. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose (GUL) levels of the fish were significantly decreased at the 0.2% dietary fucoidan level, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased when the fish fed dietary SF and MF. The CAT activities of SF groups were higher than that of control groups, while these values were not significantly changed in MF1 and MF3 groups. The maximum of catalase (CAT) activities of the fish fed on two kind

  2. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses modulate skeletal muscle heat shock protein and inflammatory gene expression in sheep exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Fahri, F T; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the expression of heat shock proteins and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were allocated to either a control (10 IU vitamin E and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high-antioxidant (VitE+Se; 100 IU vitamin E and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet and were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18°C-21°C and 26%-30% relative humidity; heat stress [HS]: 28°C-40°C and 40%-50% relative humidity) for 1 wk. Physiological parameters were recorded daily, and muscle biopsies were conducted at the end of thermal treatments. Total RNA was extracted from muscle samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA for real-time PCR analysis. Respiration rates and rectal temperature were increased in response to HS (84.2 vs. 161 breaths per minute and 39.52°C vs. 40.06°C for TN and HS conditions, respectively; P < 0.001). There were interactions between dietary and thermal treatments, indicating that dietary antioxidant supplementation reduced respiration rate (P = 0.097) and rectal temperature (P = 0.086) of sheep during HS but not TN conditions. Skeletal muscle heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) mRNA abundance was increased by HS (1.3-fold; P < 0.050) but was not changed (P = 0.77) by dietary antioxidant supplementation. The expression of skeletal muscle heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA was increased (P < 0.001) 3.5-fold by HS and tended (P = 0.08) to be increased by dietary antioxidant supplementation. Although there were no main effects of diet (P = 0.42) or HS (P = 0.47) on skeletal muscle HSP90 mRNA expression, there was an interaction (P = 0.040) such that HSP90 mRNA expression was increased (P = 0.010) in antioxidant-supplemented sheep under HS compared to TN conditions. Skeletal muscle nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tissue necrosis factor α (TNF-α) m

  3. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Sosa, Silvio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Tubaro, Aurelia; Menichini, Francesco; Loggia, Roberto Della

    2008-02-28

    Five hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from Calabria region (Italy) used in local traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition of croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice) and in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties (inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bovine brain liposomes peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging). All the extracts showed an anti-inflammatory effect: 300 microg/cm(2) provoked oedema reductions ranging from 21 to 27%. All the extracts exerted also radical scavenging and/or antioxidant properties, the most active plant being Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) which contained the highest amount of phenolics (337 mg/g) and of flavonoids (15.75 mg/g). Moreover, the content and the composition of sterols were assessed by GC-MS in the examined plants Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) contained the highest number of sterols.

  4. Use of Sodium Butyrate as an Alternative to Dietary Fiber: Effects on the Embryonic Development and Anti-Oxidative Capacity of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets—(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)—intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF. PMID:24852604

  5. Interactive effects of dietary fat/carbohydrate ratio and body mass index on iron deficiency anemia among Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi-Chun; Owaga, Eddy; Palupi, Khairizka Citra; Pan, Wen-Harn; Bai, Chyi-Huey

    2014-09-24

    Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI). One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ≥ 19 years, enrolled in the third Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005-2008, were selected. Half of the women were either overweight (24.0%) or obese (25.3%). The overall prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA among adult women was 19.5%, 8.6% and 6.2%. BMI showed a protective effect on IDA: overweight (odds ratio, OR: 0.365 (0.181-0.736)) and obese (OR: 0.480 (0.259-0.891)) when compared with normal weight. Univariate analysis identified increased IDA risk for overweight/obese women who consumed higher dietary fat but lower carbohydrate (CHO) (OR: 10.119 (1.267-80.79)). No such relationship was found in IDA women with normal weight (OR: 0.375 (0.036-4.022)). Analysis of interaction(s) showed individuals within the highest BMI tertile (T3) had the lowest risk for IDA and the risk increased with increasing tertile groups of fat/CHO ratio; OR 0.381 (0.144-1.008; p = 0.051), 0.370 (0.133-1.026; p = 0.056) and 0.748 (0.314-1.783; p = 0.513); for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, a protective effect of BMI on IDA may be attenuated in women who had increased fat/CHO ratio.

  6. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  7. Adaptive regulation of riboflavin transport in heart: effect of dietary riboflavin deficiency in cardiovascular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Karthi, Sellamuthu; Mahesh, Ayyavu; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Manole, Andreea; Houlden, Henry; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2017-08-23

    Deficiency or defective transport of riboflavin (RF) is known to cause neurological disorders, cataract, cardiovascular anomalies, and various cancers by altering the biochemical pathways. Mechanisms and regulation of RF uptake process is well characterized in the cells of intestine, liver, kidney, and brain origin, while very little is known in the heart. Hence, we aimed to understand the expression and regulation of RF transporters (rRFVT-1 and rRFVT-2) in cardiomyocytes during RF deficiency and also investigated the role of RF in ischemic cardiomyopathy and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. Riboflavin uptake assay revealed that RF transport in H9C2 is (1) significantly higher at pH 7.5, (2) independent of Na(+) and (3) saturable with a Km of 3.746 µM. For in vivo studies, male Wistar rats (110-130 g) were provided riboflavin deficient food containing 0.3 ± 0.05 mg/kg riboflavin for 7 weeks, which resulted in over expression of both RFVTs in mRNA and protein level. RF deprivation resulted in the accumulation of cardiac biomarkers, histopathological abnormalities, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential which evidenced the key role of RF in the development of cardiovascular pathogenesis. Besides, adaptive regulation of RF transporters upon RF deficiency signifies that RFVTs can be considered as an effective delivery system for drugs against cardiac diseases.

  8. Copper, iron, and selenium dietary deficiencies negatively impact skeletal integrity: A review.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Denis M

    2016-06-01

    Nutrients have been known to have a significant role in maintaining the health of the skeleton, both bone and cartilage. The nutrients that have received the majority of the attention are Vitamin D and calcium. However, limited attention has been directed toward three trace elements that may have mechanistic impact upon the skeletal tissues and could compromise skeletal health resulting from inadequate intakes of copper, iron, and selenium. The role of copper and selenium has been known, but the role of iron has only received recent attention. Copper deficiency is thought to impact bone health by a decrease in lysyl oxidase, a copper-containing enzyme, which facilitates collagen fibril crosslinking. Iron deficiency impact upon bone has only recently been discovered but the exact mechanism on how the deficient states enhance bone pathology is speculative. Selenium deficiency has an impact on cartilage thereby having an indirect impact on bone. However, several studies suggest that a mycotoxin when consumed by humans is the culprit in some cartilage disorders and the presence of selenium could attenuate the pathology. This review summarizes the current knowledge base with respect to skeletal integrity when each of these three trace elements are inadequate in diets of both animals and humans. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  9. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a reactive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Zinc (Zn) deficiency affects approximately 30% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient and is important for the body’s ability to function. To date, accurate biological markers of the Zn subject’s status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chicken mod...

  10. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    David R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  11. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    David R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  12. Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, S A; Mathot, J N; de Fouw, N J; Tijburg, L B

    1996-02-01

    Consumption of a range of dietary antioxidants may be beneficial in protecting low density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidative modification, as studies have demonstrated that antioxidants other than vitamin E may also function against oxidation of LDL in vitro. In the present study, the effect of polyphenol antioxidants on the susceptibility of LDL to copper-mediated oxidation was investigated after feeding semi-purified diets to 3 groups of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. All diets comprised 40% energy as fat with 17% energy as oleic acid. Dietary fatty acid compositions were identical. Oils with different polyphenol contents were used to provide the dietary source of oleic acid-refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and Trisun high oleic sunflower seed oil. Polyphenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and p-tyrosol) could only be detected in the extra virgin olive oil. Vitamin E was equalised in all diets. LDL oxidizability in vitro was determined by continuously monitoring the copper-induced formation of conjugated dienes after 6 weeks of experimental diet feeding. The lag phase before demonstrable oxidation occurred was significantly increased in the high polyphenol, extra virgin olive oil group (P < 0.05) when compared with combined results from the low polyphenol group (refined olive oil and Trisun), even though the LDL vitamin E concentration in the high polyphenol group was significantly lower. The rate of conjugated diene formation was not influenced by the presence of dietary polyphenols. Results demonstrate that antioxidants, possibly phenolic compounds which are present only in extra virgin olive oil, may contribute to the endogenous antioxidant capacity of LDL, resulting in an increased resistance to oxidation as determined in vitro.

  13. Effect of selected dietary antioxidants on fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-09-01

    1. Single comb White Leghorn hens of an inbred line highly susceptible to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) were fed supplemented dietary ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg), alpha-tocopherol (75 mg/kg), or L-cysteine (3 g/kg, and 6 g/kg) for 28 d in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of these compounds against the disease. 2. Supplementation of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or a low level of L-cysteine (3 g/kg) did not significantly affect any of the hepatic variables evaluated. Hepatic glutathione was not increased by the supplementation of dietary L-cysteine. 3. L-cysteine supplemented at a level of 6 g/kg decreased hepatic dry matter and fat contents without affecting the hepatic malondialdehyde or the liver haemorrhagic score. 4. Because one of the predisposing factors of FLHS is a high hepatic fat content it was concluded that dietary supplementation of L-cysteine (6 g/kg) may be useful in the prevention of the disease.

  14. Dietary Fat Interacts with PCBs to Induce Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Mice Deficient in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V.; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (LDL-R−/−) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil–fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil–enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil–diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil–fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil–fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

  15. Effects of dietary vitamin E type on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Song, Z H; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-09-24

    Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play multiple roles in some immune-pathological events. Vitamin E, as a very potent antioxidant, perhaps deceases the potentially negative effects of such oxidative stress to prevent immune-pathological damage to broilers. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of dietary natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity in cyclophosphamide (CY) immunosuppressed broilers. 192 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broilers were randomly distributed into 4 groups: 1) non-CY-challenged control; 2) CY-challenged control; 3) CY-challenged group+20 IU DL-α-tocopherol acetate per kg feed; and 4) CY-challenged group+20 IU D-α-tocopherol per kg feed. The maize-soybean basal diet in the control group contained α-tocopherol (7.12 mg/kg). Broilers were intramuscularly injected with 80 mg/kg body weight of CY or sterile saline at 16, 17, and 18 d of age. CY decreased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain and average daily feed intake, but vitamin E did not alter the growth performance of broilers before or after CY injection (P > 0.05). The decreased absolute weight of the spleen, thymus and bursa, serum interleukin 2 (IL-2), and interleukin 6 (IL-2) concentrations in CY-treated broilers were alleviated by vitamin E (P < 0.05). The decreased relative weight (g/kg body weight) of the bursa in the CY-treated broilers was increased by natural vitamin E (P < 0.05). The CY-induced increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreases in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione, vitamin C, and α-tocopherol levels, and total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in both serum and the liver were attenuated by vitamin E (P < 0.05). Additionally, natural vitamin E increased α-tocopherol and T-AOC levels and decreased MDA content in the liver of CY-treated broilers (P < 0.05) when compared to the synthetic form. In

  16. Pre- and postnatal dietary protein deficiency influences anxiety, memory and social behaviour in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Neville; Rimbach, Rebecca; Rymer, Tasmin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein deficiency influences the behavioural phenotypes of mammals. We studied whether protein deficiency during gestation and/or post-weaning heightened anxiety, reduced memory recall and influenced competitive ability in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. Mice were subjected to five protein diet treatments, which they received continuously, or were raised on one diet to weaning and switched to an alternate diet post-weaning (Day 16): 1) HP-HP: high protein (24%); first letter pair indicates maternal diet and the second pair indicates offspring diet post-weaning; 2) BP-BP: baseline protein (19%); 3) LP-LP: low protein (10%); 4) HP-LP: switched from high to low protein diet; and 5) LP-HP: switched from low protein to high protein diet. From Day 70, when mice were sexually mature, 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females) per treatment were subjected to three successive experiments, in which we tested their anxiety responses in: 1) an open field arena (time spent in the centre of the open field); 2) novel object recognition (time spent exploring a novel object); and 3) social interactions (excluding BP-BP) in age-matched same-sex dyadic encounters (aggressive, amicable and avoidance behaviours). LP-LP and LP-HP treatment mice spent the least amount of time in the centre of the open field, did not demonstrate object preference compared to the other treatments, and were the most aggressive in dyadic encounters. Our study shows that the systemic effects of protein-deficient diets during early life shapes the behavioural phenotype in R. d. chakae, possibly through early organisation of neuro-biological pathways or competition among littermates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activity in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huey-Fang; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on specific antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activities in burned mice vaccinated with detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin A linked with the outer membrane proteins I and F, named PEIF. Also, the survival rate of burned mice complicated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Experiment 1: Thirty BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, while the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The mice were immunized twice with PEIF, and the production of specific antibodies against PEIF was measured every week. After 8 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. Mice were sacrificed 24h after the burn. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues as well as the specific antibody production were analyzed. Experiment 2: Twenty-eight mice were divided into two groups and vaccinated as described in experiment 1. After the burn the mice were infected with P. aeruginosa, and the survival rate was observed for 8 days. The results demonstrated that antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in tissues were significantly lower in the Arg group than in the control group after the burn. The production of specific antibodies against P. aeruginosa significantly increased in the Arg group at 4 and 7 weeks after immunization, and 24h after the burn. The survival rates of vaccinated burned mice after bacterial infection did not significantly differ between the two groups. These results suggest that vaccinating mice with Arg supplementation may enhance humoral immunity and attenuate the oxidative stress induced by burn injury. However, Arg supplementation did not improve survival in vaccinated mice complicated with P. aeruginosa infection.

  18. Role of coprophagy in masking dietary deficiencies of cystine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kwong, E; Barnes, R H

    1975-11-01

    When a diet containing raw soybean was fed to rats, there was an increase in the synthesis of pancreatic protein, presumably exocrine protein, as evidenced by an increased uptake of [35S]cystine. There was also an increased transsulfuration of methionine sulfur as indicated by labeled sulfur transformation from methionine to cystine. This same pattern of events was produced in rats receiving a casein-containing diet when 50 mg of crystalline trypsin inhibitor was administered by gavage. However, if coprophagy was prevented, the increased uptake of [35S]cystine and [35S]methionine transsulfuration under both dietary conditions was blocked. It was found that prevention of coprophagy was without effect upon these two processes if supplementary dietary cystine was provided or if a dietary protein source with adequate cystine, i.e., heat-treated soybean, was provided. It was concluded that by practicing coprophagy, sufficient fecal cystine was being returned to the upper intestinal tract to permit some synthesis of pancreatic exocrine protein and with this stimulation of synthesis, transulfuration could proceed. This assumes that the biosynthesis of cystine is dependent upon the availability of sufficient cystine to permit active protein synthesis. In another situation where cystine requirement is high, namely, the rapidly growing rat, a limited amount of cystine was fed by providing a 12% casein diet. Either supplementary cystine or methionine was provided and it was found that both amino acids gave optimal growth in conventional rats, but when coprophagy was prevented, optimal growth was achieved only with the cystine-supplemented diet.

  19. Antioxidant dietary approach in treatment of fatty liver: New insights and updates

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Di Giacomo, Mariangela; Zara, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinicopathological condition, encompassing a range of conditions caused by lipid deposition within liver cells. To date, no approved drugs are available for the treatment of NAFLD, despite the fact that it represents a serious and growing clinical problem in the Western world. Identification of the molecular mechanisms leading to NAFLD-related fat accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative balance impairment facilitates the development of specific interventions aimed at preventing the progression of hepatic steatosis. In this review, we focus our attention on the role of dysfunctions in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the pathogenesis of fatty liver. Major data from the literature about the mitochondrial targeting of some antioxidant molecules as a potential treatment for hepatic steatosis are described and critically analysed. There is ample evidence of the positive effects of several classes of antioxidants, such as polyphenols (i.e., resveratrol, quercetin, coumestrol, anthocyanins, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin), carotenoids (i.e., lycopene, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) and glucosinolates (i.e., glucoraphanin, sulforaphane, sinigrin and allyl-isothiocyanate), on the reversion of fatty liver. Although the mechanism of action is not yet fully elucidated, in some cases an indirect interaction with mitochondrial metabolism is expected. We believe that such knowledge will eventually translate into the development of novel therapeutic app