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Sample records for antioxidant dietary deficiency

  1. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  2. Cardiac Electrophysiological Alterations in Heart/Muscle-Specific Manganese-Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Mice: Prevention by a Dietary Antioxidant Polyphenol

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Akio; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiological alterations induced by chronic exposure to reactive oxygen species and protective effects of dietary antioxidant have not been thoroughly examined. We recorded surface electrocardiograms (ECG) and evaluated cellular electrophysiological abnormalities in enzymatically-dissociated left ventricular (LV) myocytes in heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase-deficient (H/M-Sod2−/−) mice, which exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy due to increased oxidative stress. We also investigated the influences of intake of apple polyphenols (AP) containing mainly procyanidins with potent antioxidant activity. The QRS and QT intervals of ECG recorded in H/M-Sod2−/− mice were prolonged. The effective refractory period in the LV myocardium of H/M-Sod2−/− mice was prolonged, and susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation induced by rapid ventricular pacing was increased. Action potential duration in H/M-Sod2−/− LV myocytes was prolonged, and automaticity was enhanced. The density of the inwardly rectifier K+ current (IK1) was decreased in the LV cells of H/M-Sod2−/− mice. The AP intake partially improved these electrophysiological alterations and extended the lifespan in H/M-Sod2−/− mice. Thus, chronic exposure of the heart to oxidative stress produces a variety of electrophysiological abnormalities, increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and action potential changes associated with the reduced density of IK1. Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients may prevent oxidative stress-induced electrophysiological disturbances. PMID:24772433

  3. Dietary polyphenols: Antioxidants or not?

    PubMed

    Croft, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Population studies have shown a strong association between dietary intake of polyphenols and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. These associations have been confirmed to some extent by intervention studies which have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure with certain polyphenols or food extracts rich in polyphenols. The mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of dietary polyphenols is still under active investigation. It is unlikely that polyphenols act as antioxidants in vivo. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols or their metabolites act as signalling molecules and can increase nitric oxide bioavailability and induce protective enzymes. This review will outline some of the key issues in dietary polyphenol research that suggest mechanistic insights into the action of these bioactive compounds. There are a number of issues that remain to be resolved in bridging the gap between observational studies and intervention trials using food extracts or pure polyphenol compounds.

  4. Flesh Quality Loss in Response to Dietary Isoleucine Deficiency and Excess in Fish: A Link to Impaired Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Defense in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the impact of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on fish growth and flesh quality and revealed a possible role of muscle antioxidant defense in flesh quality in relation to dietary Ile. Grass carp (weighing 256.8±3.5 g) were fed diets containing six graded levels of Ile (3.8, 6.6, 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.5 g/kg) for eight weeks. The results indicated that compared with Ile deficiency (3.8 g/kg diets) and excess (18.5 g/kg diets) groups, 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations promoted fish growth and muscle fat deposition, whereas 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diets supplementation enhanced muscle nutrients (protein and total EAAs) deposition. Furthermore, muscle shear force, pH value, and hydroxyproline concentration were improved by 9.3–12.5, 9.3 and 9.3 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. However, muscle cooking loss, lactate content, and activities of cathepsin B and L were decreased by 6.6–15.2, 9.3–12.5, 9.3–12.5 and 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Additionally, 6.6–15.2 and 6.6–12.5 g Ile/kg diet supplementations attenuated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, respectively. The activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione content were enhanced by 6.6–9.3, 6.6–12.5 and 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Moreover, the relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes, including Cu/Zn-SOD (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets) and GPx (12.5 g/kg diets), as well as antioxidant-related signaling molecules, including NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), target of rapamycin (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (9.3–12.5 g/kg diets) and casein kinase 2 (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), were up-regulated when Ile diet supplementations were administered at these levels, respectively, whereas the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 was down-regulated with 9.3 g Ile/kg diet

  5. Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo. PMID:22312245

  6. Dietary riboflavin deficiency decreases immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary riboflavin on the growth, gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement component 3 content in the gills of fish (P < 0.05). Moreover, riboflavin deficiency caused oxidative damage, which might be partly due to decrease copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in the gills of fish (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-c and Claudin-3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and NF-E2-related factor 2) and antioxidant enzymes (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the gills of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b and myosin light chain kinase) and tight junction protein Claudin-12 were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the gills of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In addition, this study indicated for the first time that young fish fed a riboflavin-deficient diet exhibited anorexia and poor growth. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased growth and gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as

  7. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-04

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  8. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-15 and -3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in fish gills fed niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling

  9. Contribution of Macromolecular Antioxidants to Dietary Antioxidant Capacity: A Study in the Spanish Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61% to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.

  10. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  11. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  12. Oxidative stress, circulating antioxidants, and dietary preferences in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Alan, Rebecca R; McWilliams, Scott R

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of metabolism and increases during intensive exercise. This is especially problematic for migratory birds that metabolize fat to fuel long-distance flight. Birds can mitigate damage by increasing endogenous antioxidants (e.g. uric acid) or by consuming dietary antioxidants (e.g. tocopherol). During flight, birds may increase protein catabolism of lean tissue which may increase circulating uric acid and many birds also consume an antioxidant-rich frugivorous diet during autumn migration. We evaluated three related hypotheses in a migratory passerine: (1) protein consumption is positively related to circulating antioxidants, (2) a dietary oxidative stressor [i.e. polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)] influences antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage, and (3) oxidative stress influences dietary antioxidant preferences. White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) consuming a high protein diet increased circulating uric acid; however, uric acid, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress did not differ between birds consuming a high PUFA versus a low PUFA diet, despite increased oxidative damage in high PUFA birds. Birds did not prefer antioxidant-rich diets even when fed high PUFA, low protein. We conclude that White-throated Sparrows successfully mitigated oxidative damage associated with a high PUFA diet and mounted an endogenous antioxidant response independent of uric acid, other circulating antioxidants, and dietary antioxidants.

  13. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  14. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants.

  15. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA.

  16. Dietary intake of natural antioxidants: vitamins and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Landete, J M

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert their toxic effect because of an increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection; oxidative stress is rapidly gaining recognition as a key phenomenon in chronic diseases. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Endogenous defence mechanisms are inadequate for the complete prevention of oxidative damage, and different sources of dietary antioxidants may be especially important. This article calls attention to the dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols. Compelling evidence has led to the conclusion that diet is a key environmental factor and a potential tool for the control of chronic diseases. More specifically, fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert a protective effect. The high content of minerals and natural antioxidant as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables may be a main factor responsible for these effects.

  17. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model. PMID:24804252

  18. Biology of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model.

  19. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  20. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  1. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zujko, Małgorzata Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs) in comparison with young (20–40 yrs) and middle age (41–60 yrs) groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ) took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and flavonoid content (FC) were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake. PMID:26236427

  2. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  3. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  4. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on the in vitro fertilizing ability of mice spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; García-Montalvo, E A; Izquierdo-Vega, J A; Del Razo, L M

    2008-08-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for mammals, being integral part of antioxidant system. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selenium deficiency on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa and on oxidative stress in these cells. Male C57BL/6N mice were maintained on selenium-deficient or selenium-sufficient diets (0.02 or 0.2 ppm of selenium as selenomethionine, respectively) for 4 months. Liver glutathione peroxidase activity measurements were used to confirm selenium deficiency. Sperm quality and IVF capability among both groups were evaluated. To assess oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde production was determined in spermatozoa as well as the testes. Ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa nuclei using transmission electron microscopy were also performed. The percentage of eggs fertilized with sperm from selenium-deficient mice was significantly decreased by approximately 67%. This reduced fertilization capacity was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in both the testes and sperm, indicating that selenium deficiency induced oxidative stress. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from selenium-deficient animals exhibited altered chromatin condensation. Deficiency in dietary selenium decreases the reproductive potential of male mice and is associated with oxidative damage in spermatozoa.

  5. Fisetin: A Dietary Antioxidant for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441

  6. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.

  7. The interaction of type of dietary carbohydrates with copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fields, M; Ferretti, R J; Smith, J C; Reiser, S

    1984-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine if the more severe copper deficiency in rats fed sucrose and fructose, as compared to starch, is due to a specific effect of the fructose or to a nonspecific effect of any simple carbohydrate. Seventy weanling male rats were fed, for 9 wk, copper-deficient diets or copper-supplemented diets containing either 62% starch, fructose, or glucose. Decreased hematocrit, serum copper, and ceruloplasmin concentrations but increased heart and liver weights, total liver lipid, and hepatic iron concentrations were found in all copper-deficient rats regardless of the dietary carbohydrate. Feeding rats the high glucose diet decreased plasma albumin and liver glycogen but increased blood urea nitrogen when compared to rats fed starch. However, rats fed fructose generally exhibited a more severe copper deficiency as compared to rats fed either starch or glucose. The severity was characterized by lower (p less than 0.05) body weight, liver glycogen, hematocrit, serum copper, and albumin. Conversely, liver and heart weights, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were higher (p less than 0.05). Plasma cholesterol was increased by copper deficiency only in rats fed fructose or glucose. During the study, 17 of the 40 rats fed copper-deficient diets died; 66% of those fed fructose, 26% fed glucose, and 30% fed starch. These results suggest that the fructose moiety of sucrose is responsible for the increased severity of copper deficiency in rats fed sucrose as compared to starch.

  8. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  9. Testicular apoptosis after dietary zinc deficiency: ultrastructural and TUNEL studies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepa; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2011-10-01

    The present study was conducted in Wistar rats to determine whether prepubertal dietary zinc deficiency causes apoptotic changes in testes. Prepubertal male Wistar rats (40-50 gm) were divided into 3 groups: zinc control (ZC), pairfed (PF), and zinc deficient (ZD). Control and pairfed groups were given a 100 ppm zinc diet while the deficient groups received 1 ppm zinc diet for 2 and 4 weeks (w), respectively. Ultrastructural studies revealed several apoptotic features such as wavy basement membrane, displaced nuclei, chromatin condensation, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear membrane dissolution, loss of inter-Sertoli cell junctional complexes, and intercellular bridges and deformed mitochondria. A variable spectrum of sperm defects had also been visualized e.g., acrosomal deformities such as decapitation and a ring of condensed chromatin around the nuclear periphery, deformed sperm heads with a condensed nucleus, tail-elements with superfluous cytoplasm, and damage to the mitochondrial sheath and aggregation of spermatozoa within the membrane. This was further supported by TUNEL studies. Apoptotic index, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index also revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in zinc deficient groups (2 and 4 w) when compared with their respective control and pairfed groups. All the above findings are indicative that changes observed in the testes after dietary zinc deficiency are due to the onset of apoptosis. Increased apoptotic degeneration in testes may cause irreversible changes in the germ cells associated with decreased epididymal sperm concentration, motility, and fertility index which contributes to the low efficiency of spermatogenesis thereby indicating a possible role of zinc in fertility.

  10. Dietary Antioxidant Capacity and Its Association with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahdiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major disorders in pregnancy leading to many adverse maternal outcomes. Although the etiology of PE is not fully understood, resent studies suggest that an imbalance between free radicals production and the antioxidant defense system might have key role. Our aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum TAC and risk of PE in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. This case-control study conducted on 55 women with preeclampsia and 93 with normal pregnancy. Dietary intakes were obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 168 itmes. Dietary TAC was assessed according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Database for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Release 2. Serum TAC was measured by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). After adjusting for energy, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and history of PE, no relationship was found between intake of hydrophilic-ORAC (H-ORAC), lipophilic-ORAC (L-ORAC), total phenolics (TP), total-ORAC (T-ORAC), and PE risk. However, serum TAC had a significant positive relationship with the risk of PE after adjusting for energy (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16–0.35), BMI and history of PE (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01–0.32). Findings of this study indicate that serum TAC is positively associated with the risk of PE but no association was found between intake of antioxidant indices and PE risk. PMID:28168181

  11. Dietary antioxidants and cardioprotection--fact or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, U P

    1997-03-01

    The emerging dogma that low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a contributing cause and not simply a consequence of atherosclerosis is based on three lines of experimental evidence: (i) lipid peroxidation products and oxidized LDLs are present in atherosclerotic lesions; (ii) oxidized LDL has an array of potentially proatherogenic properties in vitro, including uptake by macrophages via a number of distinct "scavenger" receptors; and (iii) treatment of hypercholesterolemic animals with potent antioxidant drugs can retard the development of atherosclerosis. Additional support for the role of lipoprotein oxidation in atherogenesis was provided by cross-cultural dietary comparisons, which suggested an inverse correlation between antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality. As well, several large case-control studies indicated that antioxidant vitamin intake, particularly vitamin E, was associated with reduced coronary risk. However, these studies do not indicate whether this association is causal, or if vitamin supplementation is merely a marker for some other protective factor. To test this properly, randomized controlled intervention studies are required. In several animal models, a number of different antioxidant drugs have been shown to retard atherosclerosis, but results with vitamin supplementation are unclear. Results of intervention trials in humans show no benefit to long-term beta-carotene supplementation, and the only published study of vitamin E found a reduction of nonfatal myocardial infarction but no reduction (actually an increase) in fatal myocardial infarction and total mortality. Several other large antioxidant intervention trials are underway. Until the results of these studies are available, there appears to be insufficient evidence on which to base recommendations regarding antioxidant supplements for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  12. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health. PMID:20716914

  13. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for assessing antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-10-31

    A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.

  14. Dietary selenium deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in mouse mastitis models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Yao, Minjun; Li, Yimeng; He, Xuexiu; Yang, Zhengtao

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that plays a critical role in anti-inflammatory processes and antioxidant defense system. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary selenium deficiency on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mouse models. Se content in the liver was assessed by fluorescent atomic absorption spectrometry. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis actor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β in the supernatant of the mammary tissue were determined according to the corresponding kits. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that the Se-deficient mouse model was successfully replicated, and selenium deficiency exacerbated mammary gland histopathology, increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and facilitated the activation of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that selenium deficiency resulted in more severe inflammatory response in LPS-induced mouse mastitis.

  15. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins.

  16. Role of dietary antioxidants in human metapneumovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P; Garofalo, Matteo P; Wu, Haotian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2015-03-16

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation.

  17. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Dietary folate deficiency enhances arsenic-induced micronucleus formation in mice.

    Folate deficiency increases background levels ofDNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary...

  18. Impact of Dietary Antioxidants on Sport Performance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-07-01

    Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0%, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9%). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2%, double dose -0.5 ± 3.3%). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance.

  19. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  20. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Embaby, Mohamed A.; Doleib, Nada M.; Taha, Mona M.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes. PMID:27536197

  1. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  2. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Z; Bahadoran, Z; Abedini, S; Houshyar-Rad, A; Rashidkhani, B

    2015-09-28

    There is growing evidence that dietary antioxidants may have favourable effects in reducing cancer risk. In a case-control study we investigated the association of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and risk of breast cancer. Sociodemographic data, medical history and anthropometric measurements were collected from 275 women (100 breast cancer cases & 175 controls). Participants' usual dietary intake was measured using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and their dietary TAC was estimated. An inverse, but non-significant, association was observed between dietary TAC and breast cancer risk. Multiple logistic regression models based on TAC of individual food groups showed that consumption of fruits and vegetables with higher TAC (μmolTE/100 g) was associated with a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer. Our study supports a protective effect of dietary antioxidants in relation to breast cancer risk. Food selection based on TAC of foods may be an effective strategy to modify the risk of cancer.

  3. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  4. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  5. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  6. Screening of dietary antioxidants against mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress by visualization of intracellular redox state.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sunita; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Hoseki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment and the resulting generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with aging and its related pathological conditions. Recently, dietary antioxidants have gained significant attention as potential preventive and therapeutic agents against ROS-generated aging and pathological conditions. We previously demonstrated that food-derived antioxidants prevented intracellular oxidative stress under proteasome inhibition conditions, which was attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS generation, followed by cell death. Here, we further screened dietary antioxidants for their activity as redox modulators by visualization of the redox state using Redoxfluor, a fluorescent protein redox probe. Direct alleviation of ROS by antioxidants, but not induction of antioxidative enzymes, prevented mitochondria-mediated intracellular oxidation. The effective antioxidants scavenged mitochondrial ROS and suppressed cell death. Our study indicates that redox visualization under mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress is useful for screening potential antioxidants to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of aging-related diseases.

  7. Maternal dietary zinc supplementation enhances the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability of chick embryos from maternal normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongwen; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Liyang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2017-02-03

    The role of maternal dietary zinc supplementation in protecting the embryos from maternal hyperthermia-induced negative effects via epigenetic mechanisms was examined using an avian model (Gallus gallus). Broiler breeder hens were exposed to two maternal temperatures (21°C and 32°C) × three maternal dietary zinc treatments (zinc-unsupplemented control diet, the control diet + 110 mg zinc/kg inorganic or organic zinc) for 8 weeks. Maternal hyperthermia increased the embryonic mortality and induced oxidative damage evidenced by the elevated mRNA expressions of heat shock protein genes. Maternal dietary zinc deficiency damaged the embryonic development associated with the global DNA hypomethylation and histone 3 lysine 9 hyperacetylation in the embryonic liver. Supplementation of zinc in maternal diets effectively eliminated the embryonic mortality induced by maternal hyperthermia and enhanced antioxidant ability with the increased mRNA and protein expressions of metallothionein IV in the embryonic liver. The increased metallothionein IV mRNA expression was due to the reduced DNA methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation of the metallothionein IV promoter regardless of zinc source. These data demonstrate that maternal dietary zinc addition as an epigenetic modifier could protect the offspring embryonic development against maternal heat stress via enhancing the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability.

  8. Dietary taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S; Pacioretty, L M; Kallfelz, F A; Stipanuk, M H; King, J M; Gilmour, R F

    1991-02-01

    Taurine deficiency has been implicated as a potential cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between taurine and myocardial function is presently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dilated cardiomyopathy in the fox is associated with dietary taurine deficiency. A total of 68 foxes from farms with a history of death caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and 14 foxes from a farm with no history of dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by echocardiography in 48% of the foxes from one farm with a positive history and in none of the foxes from the control farm. Foxes less than 9 months of age were more commonly affected than older foxes (p = 0.03). Plasma taurine concentrations were significantly less (p less than 0.01) in foxes that had dilated cardiomyopathy (26.8 +/- 16.4 nmol/ml) than in the control foxes (99.3 +/- 60.2 nmol/ml). A significantly higher (p less than 0.01) incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy was present in foxes with a history of a sibling or offspring that died of dilated cardiomyopathy than in foxes without a family history of cardiac death. In one fox with dilated cardiomyopathy that was tested, the myocardial taurine concentration was lower (1.7 mumol/gm wet weight) than that of control foxes (7.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/gm wet weight). Hepatic cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase activity was significantly less (p less than 0.001) in foxes with dilated cardiomyopathy (0.97 +/- 0.2 nmol/mm.mg protein) than in control foxes (2.11 +/- 0.07 nmol CO2/mm.mg protein).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mary A.; Schliep, Karen C.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Radin, Rose G.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Kalwerisky, Robyn A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are prospectively assessed dietary factors, including overall diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients, associated with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) in healthy reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), fiber and isoflavone intake were positively associated with LPD while selenium was negatively associated with LPD after adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY LPD may increase the risk of infertility and early miscarriage. Prior research has shown positive associations between LPD and low energy availability, either through high dietary restraint alone or in conjunction with high energy expenditure via exercise, but few studies with adequate sample sizes have been conducted investigating dietary factors and LPD among healthy, eumenorrheic women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study (2005–2007) prospectively enrolled 259 women from Western New York state, USA, and followed them for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women aged 18–44 years, with self-reported BMI between 18 and 35 kg/m2 and cycle lengths between 21 and 35 days, were included in the study. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle and daily diaries capturing vigorous exercise, perceived stress and sleep; they also provided up to eight fasting serum samples during clinic visits timed to specific phases of the menstrual cycle using a fertility monitor. Cycles were included for this analysis if the peak serum luteal progesterone was >1 ng/ml and a urine or serum LH surge was detected. Associations between prospectively assessed diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients and LPD (defined as luteal duration <10 days) were evaluated using generalized linear models adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE LPD

  10. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients.

  11. Maternal dietary choline deficiency alters angiogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mehedint, Mihai G.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether maternal dietary choline modulates angiogenesis in fetal brain. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were fed either a choline-deficient (CD), control (CT), or choline-supplemented diet (CS) from days 12 to 17 (E12-17) of pregnancy and then fetal brains were studied. In CD fetal hippocampus, proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS) while differentiated EC clusters (expressing factor VIII related antigen (RA)) increased by 25% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS). These changes were associated with > 25% decrease in the number of blood vessels in CD fetal hippocampus (p < 0.01 vs. CT and CS), with no change in total cross-sectional area of these blood vessels. Expression of genes for the angiogenic signals derived from both endothelial and neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) was increased in CD fetal hippocampus VEGF C (Vegfc), 2.0-fold, p < 0.01 vs. CT and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), 2.1-fold, (p < 0.01 vs. CT)). Similar increased expression was observed in NPC isolated from E14 fetal mouse brains and exposed to low (5 μM), CT (70 μM), or high choline (280 μM) media for 72 h (low choline caused a 9.7-fold increase in relative gene expression of Vegfc (p < 0.001 vs. CT and high) and a 3.4-fold increase in expression of Angpt2, (p < 0.05 vs. CT and high). ANGPT2 protein was increased 42.2% (p < 0.01). Cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide islands in the proximity of the promoter areas of Vegfc and Angpt2 were hypomethylated in low choline NPC compared to CT NPC (p < 0.01). We conclude that maternal dietary choline intake alters angiogenesis in the developing fetal hippocampus. PMID:20624989

  12. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  13. Rapid and repeatable redox cycling of an insoluble dietary antioxidant: electrochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan E; Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; March, John C; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-10-08

    There are many unresolved questions concerning the health benefits of dietary antioxidants due in part to the complexity of the materials and mechanisms of action. We applied a new electrochemical method and report new observations for one of the richest sources of dietary antioxidants. We observed that the insoluble fraction of clove is redox-active and can be rapidly and repeatedly switched between oxidized and reduced states. Also, the radical scavenging antioxidant properties of insoluble clove are largely independent of this reversible redox activity, which is similar to observations made with the natural phenolic melanin. In contrast to melanin, insoluble clove was observed to have little pro-oxidant activity (as measured by H2O2 generation) irrelevant to whether it was poised in an oxidized or reduced state. These results suggest that dietary antioxidants, even when insoluble and nonabsorbed, can undergo important redox interactions in the intestinal tract.

  14. Neuroprotection by Cocktails of Dietary Antioxidants under Conditions of Nerve Growth Factor Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Amara, Flavio; Berbenni, Miluscia; Fragni, Martina; Leoni, Giampaolo; Viggiani, Sandra; Ippolito, Vita Maria; Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Alberghina, Lilia; Riccio, Paolo; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may be useful in counteracting the chronic inflammatory status in neurodegenerative diseases by reducing oxidative stress due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we newly described the efficacy of a number of dietary antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, thiolic compounds, and oligoelements) on viability of neuronal PC12 cells following Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) deprivation, a model of age-related decrease of neurotrophic support that triggers neuronal loss. Neuroprotection by antioxidants during NGF deprivation for 24 h was largely dependent on their concentrations: all dietary antioxidants were able to efficiently support cell viability by reducing ROS levels and restoring mitochondrial function, while preserving the neuronal morphology. Moreover, ROS reduction and neuroprotection during NGF withdrawal were also achieved with defined cocktails of 3-6 different antioxidants at concentrations 5-60 times lower than those used in single treatments, suggesting that their antioxidant activity was preserved also at very low concentrations. Overall, these data indicate the beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by decreased NGF availability and suggest that defined cocktails of dietary factors at low concentrations might be a suitable strategy to reduce oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases, while limiting possible side effects.

  15. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEI BY ARSENIC IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the genotoxicity of chemical agents. Arsenic, a known human carcinogen present in drinking water supplies around the world, induces chromosomal and DNA damage. The effect of dietary folate deficiency on...

  16. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  17. The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  19. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  20. The severity of copper deficiency in rats is determined by the type of dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fields, M; Ferretti, R J; Reiser, S; Smith, J C

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the interaction between copper and dietary carbohydrates on clinical and enzymatic indices associated with copper deficiency. Copper deficiency was produced in rats by feeding diets adequate in all nutrients including selenium and chromium, but marginal in copper (1.2 micrograms/g diet) containing 62% of either starch, fructose, or glucose. During the fifth week, the fructose of the copper-deficient diet (20 rats) was replaced by either starch (10 rats) or by glucose (10 rats). The experiment was terminated after 11 weeks. Copper deficiency in rats fed fructose significantly lowered body weight and hematocrit, but increased liver weight, blood urea nitrogen, ammonia, cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared to rats fed starch or glucose. The copper metalloenzyme, superoxide dismutase, the selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic ATP were decreased in the copper-deficient rats fed fructose as compared to copper-deficient rats fed starch or glucose. These results indicate that fructose may be the dietary component which has a deleterious effect on copper and selenium status. Changing the type of dietary carbohydrate in copper-deficient rats from fructose to either starch or glucose ameliorated the severity of the deficiency. The protective effects were more pronounced with starch than with glucose.

  1. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita−1 d−1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  2. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  3. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  4. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  5. Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, A; Rincón, M; Pulido, R; Saura-Calixto, F

    2001-11-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit, widely consumed fresh and also processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, and jams). Pulp and peel fractions were tested, and both showed high content of dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). The antioxidant activity of polyphenol compounds was studied, using three complementary methods: (i) free radical DPPH* scavenging, (ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and (iii) inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. All fractions tested showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity, and this activity was correlated with the corresponding total phenolic content. A 1-g (dry matter) portion of peel contained DPPH* activity, FRAP activity, and inhibition of copper-induced in vitro LDL oxidation, equivalent to 43 mg, 116 mg, and 176 mg of Trolox, respectively. These results indicate that guava could be a suitable source of natural antioxidants. Peel and pulp could also be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF), a new item which combines in a single natural product the properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds.

  6. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  7. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  8. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-08

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  9. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  10. [The antioxidant effects of emoxipin in patients with iron-deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Shved, M I; Palamar, T O

    1995-01-01

    A total of 78 female patients of child-bearing age with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) of varying genesis and degree of severity were examined for effectiveness of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine in a combined treatment of IDA. IDA was found to be associated with activation of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO) and decrement in antioxidant defence of the body. Conventional antianemic therapy does not lead to normalization of parameters characterizing LPO. Incorporation into a complex therapy of a synthetic antioxidant emoxypine reduces activity of free-radical oxidation of lipids, which fact prevents the pathological process from progressing and leads to more rapid and lasting clinical remission.

  11. Response to Dietary Phosphate Deficiency is Affected by Genetic Background in Growing Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the environmental impact of phosphate (P) excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were fed either a P adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P deficient diet ...

  12. Dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Partula, Valentin; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results suggested that iron-induced lipid peroxidation may explain the direct associations observed between red/processed meat intakes and colorectal and breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk, and its potential modulation by an antioxidant supplementation and lipid intake. This prospective study included 4646 women from the SU.VI.MAX trial (daily low-dose antioxidants vs. placebo). 188 incident breast cancers were diagnosed (median follow-up=12.6y). Dietary iron intake was assessed using repeated 24h dietary records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed. Dietary iron intake was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HRT3vs.T1=1.67 (1.02-2.71), P-trend=0.04). This association was observed in the placebo group (HRT3vs.T1=2.80 (1.42-5.54), P-trend=0.003), but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend=0.7, P-interaction=0.1). Besides, in the placebo group, the increased breast cancer risk associated with dietary iron intake was more specifically observed in women with higher lipid intake (P-trend=0.046). These findings suggest that dietary iron intake may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk, especially in women who did not received antioxidants during the trial and who consumed more lipids. This supports the experimental results suggesting that breast cancer risk may be increased by iron-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:27738321

  13. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.

  14. EFFECT OF DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ON ARSENIC GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen found in drinking water supplies throughout the world, is clastogenic in human and rodent cells. An estimated ten percent of Americans are deficient in folate, a methyl donor necessary for normal nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis, and DNA methylatio...

  15. Dimethylthiourea inhibits heart weight and hematocrit changes caused by dietary copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, J.T. )

    1991-03-11

    Feeding antioxidants to rats in a copper (Cu)-deficient diet can partially inhibit the cardiac enlargement and anemia caused by Cu deficiency. This study was done to determine whether an antioxidant which bypassed the gastrointestinal tract was also protective and whether an agent more potent than previously used was more effective in this inhibition. Male, weanling rats were fed diets deficient or sufficient in Cu for 4 wks. Dimethylthiourea (DMTU) or saline was injected (ip) 4 times a week; minimum amount of DMTU retained during the experiment was estimated to be 250 mg/kg. Unlike other antioxidants, DMTU completely prevented the increase in heart wt/body wt ratio; like the other agents, it only partially inhibited the anemia of Cu deficiency. DMTU did not affect plasma or liver Cu content of CuD rats; however, heart copper of CuD rats was significantly increased by DMTU. The effects of DMTU on heart size and hematocrit (Hct) may be attributed to its antioxidant function, but the possibility of altered mineral status must also be considered.

  16. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  17. Dietary carotenoids do not improve motility or antioxidant capacity in cichlid fish sperm.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Melissa; Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2014-10-01

    Carotenoids may act as antioxidants under many circumstances. We examined the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants in the gonads of male convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), a species in which males lack the carotenoid-based breeding coloration that characterizes females. Male fish were fed one of four diets that included different combinations of xanthophyll and carotene carotenoids, and then we measured carotenoid concentration of the gonads, gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm motility, and the antioxidant capacity of the gonads. Significant differences were found in gonadal carotenoid content among treatment groups, suggesting that dietary carotenoids were indeed sequestered in the gonads. There were no differences among diet groups, however, in GSI, sperm motility, or gonadal antioxidant capacity. These findings suggest that carotenoids are required only in small amounts in the testes of male convict cichlids or that they play a limited role in protecting sperm from oxidative damage.

  18. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  19. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arun K.; Rajkumar, V.; Banerjee, Rituparna; Biswas, S.; Das, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods. PMID:25049864

  20. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects.

  1. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun K; Rajkumar, V; Banerjee, Rituparna; Biswas, S; Das, Arun K

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  2. Lack of an effect of dietary fructose on severity of zinc deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Failla, M L; Fields, M; Rose, A; Seidel, K

    1987-08-01

    Because feeding rats diets containing fructose as the carbohydrate source reduces copper and selenium status, we investigated whether the type of dietary carbohydrate also affected indices of zinc status. The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial study with the source of dietary carbohydrate (cornstarch or fructose) and the level of dietary zinc (0.7 or 31 micrograms Zn/g) as the variables. The experiment utilized 76 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups. Animals fed a zinc-deficient fructose diet were allowed to consume the diet ad libitum; all other groups were pair-fed to that group to ensure equivalent nutrient and energy intake. The results of the 29-d study showed that the most sensitive indices of zinc status measured, including growth, survival and the zinc concentrations of plasma, femur and testes, were not affected by the type of dietary carbohydrate. This lack of an effect of fructose on the zinc status of the experimental animals indicates that the ability of fructose to exacerbate copper and selenium deficiencies is specific, rather than representing a generalized effect of this simple sugar on the requirements and/or metabolism of all essential trace elements.

  3. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinases and gastrointestinal cancers: Impacts of dietary antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sugreev; Kesh, Kousik; Ganguly, Nilanjan; Jana, Sayantan; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK (reversion including cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2, -9 and -14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is

  5. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mankowski, Robert T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Buford, Thomas W.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiological homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), where excess of ROS can be scavenged by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants to protect against deleterious oxidative stress. Free radicals, however, have recently been recognized as crucial signaling agents that promote adaptive mechanisms to ET, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant (AO) enzyme activity defense system upregulation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Commonly used non-enzymatic AO supplements, such as vitamins C and E, a-lipoic acid, and polyphenols, in combination with ET, have been proposed as ways to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and hence improve adaptation responses to endurance training. Preclinical and clinical studies to date have shown inconsistent results indicating either positive or negative effects of endurance training combined with different blends of AO supplements (mostly vitamins C and E and a-lipoic acid) on redox status, mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, and insulin sensitivity. Preclinical reports on ET combined with resveratrol, however, have shown consistent positive effects on exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity, with clinical trials reporting mixed effects. Relevant clinical studies have been few and have used inconsistent results and methodology (types of compounds, combinations, and supplementation time). The future studies would investigate the effects of specific antioxidants and other popular supplements, such as a-lipoic acid and resveratrol, on training effects in humans. Of particular importance are older adults who may be at higher risk of age-related increased oxidative stress, an impaired AO enzyme defense system, and comorbidities such as hypertension, insulin resistance, and

  6. Differential effect of dietary antioxidant classes (carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E) on lutein absorption.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Thap, Sinay; Tourniaire, Franck; André, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Morange, Sophie; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Borel, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    Lutein is assumed to protect the human retina from blue light and oxidative stress and diminish the incidence of age-related macular degeneration. This antioxidant is commonly ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidants, i.e. carotenoids, polyphenols and vitamins C and E, affect lutein absorption. We measured the effect of adding a mixture of antioxidants (500 mg vitamin C, 67 mg (100 IU) vitamin E and 1 g polyphenols) to a lutein-containing meal (18 mg) on the postprandial lutein response in the chylomicron-rich fraction in eight healthy men. Lutein response was weakest (-23 %; P=0 x 07) after ingestion of the meal containing antioxidants (21 x 9 (sem 4 x 6) v. 28 x 4 (sem 7 x 2) nmol x h/l). To assess the effect of each class of antioxidants and potential interactions, we subsequently evaluated the effect of various combinations of antioxidants on lutein uptake by human intestinal Caco-2 TC-7 cells. A full factorial design showed that both a mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and naringenin) and a mixture of carotenoids (lycopene plus beta-carotene) significantly (P<0 x 05) impaired lutein uptake by (-10 to-30 %), while vitamins C and E had no significant effect. Subsequent experiments showed that the aglycone flavanone naringenin was the only polyphenol responsible for the effect of the polyphenol mixture, and that the carotenoid effect was not carotenoid species-dependent. Taken together, the present results suggest that lutein absorption is not markedly affected by physiological concentrations of vitamins C and E but can be impaired by carotenoids and naringenin

  7. Antioxidative and proteolytic systems protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in S-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Rychter, Anna M; Juszczuk, Izabela M

    2015-08-15

    We examined the functioning of the antioxidative defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana under sulphur (S) deficiency with an emphasis on the role of mitochondria. In tissue extracts and in isolated mitochondria from S-deficient plants, the concentration of non-protein thiols declined but protein thiols did not change. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in leaf blades and the generation of superoxide anion by isolated mitochondria was higher. Lower abundance of reduced (GSH) plus oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the leaf and root tissues, and leaf mitochondria from S-deficient plants was accompanied by a decrease in the level of GSH and the changes in the GSH/GSSG ratios. In the chloroplasts, the total level of glutathione decreased. Lower levels of reduced (AsA) and oxidized (DHA) ascorbate were reflected in much higher ratios of AsA/DHA. Sulphur deficiency led to an increase in the activity of cytosolic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic antioxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases. The protein carbonyl level was higher in the leaves of S-deficient plants and in the chloroplasts, while in the roots, leaf and root mitochondria it remained unchanged. Protease activity in leaf extracts of S-deficient plants was higher, but in root extracts it did not differ. The proteolytic system reflected subcellular specificity. In leaf and root mitochondria the protease activity was higher, whereas in the chloroplasts it did not change. We propose that the preferential incorporation of S to protein thiols and activation of antioxidative and proteolytic systems are likely important for the survival of S-deficient plants and that the mitochondria maintain redox homeostasis.

  8. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  10. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  11. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  12. Plum pomaces as a potential source of dietary fibre: composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Sójka, Michał; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Zbrzeźniak, Monika; Markowski, Jarosław

    2013-10-01

    Plums because of their composition, especially of dietary fibre, sorbitol and polyphenols content, have positive influence on human health. Generally growing interest in cloudy juices production due to their prevalence compared to clear ones resulted in the appearance of plum cloudy juices on the market. Cloudy plum juice may be the attractive plum product, however during juice production some pomace appears, which is discarded or used for feeding animals most of all. This by product might be a source of valuable health-promoting compounds. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and properties of pomaces of three cultivars obtained in pilot plant scale. The influence of drying parameters and cultivar on bioactive components and antioxidant activity were measured. Plum pomaces were characterized by 38-49% of total dietary fibre in d. m., with the share of soluble fraction from 7 to 13%. Energy value was from 202 to 240 kcal 100 g(-1) d.m. Antioxidant activity was from 10 to 17.4 mikroM TEAC g(-1) d.m. Cultivar and technology of drying had significant influence on polyphenols content of investigated plum pomaces. Considering their health-beneficial components: dietary fiber and polyphenols, plum pomaces can be used for production of dietary fiber preparations.

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  15. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Stephen D; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  16. DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS (SELENIUM & N-ACETYLCYSTEINE) MODULATE PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) IN PCB126-EXPOSED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K.; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and glutathione (GSH), but also increases levels of the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups, but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (TBARS), an indicator for lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity, but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in the controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting antioxidant activity by NAC primarily in serum. These

  17. Effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Erlong; Qin, Zhenyang; Zhou, Zhen; Geng, Yi; Chen, Defang

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish. A total of 320 healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were randomized into four groups; the control group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 IUkg-1 of vitamin E, while the three experimental groups were fed the same basal diet with reduced vitamin E content (0, 25, or 50 IUkg-1). Findings showed that fish in the experimental groups mainly presented with sekoke disease, exophthalmia, leprnorthsis, and ascites. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes comprised nutritional myopathy with muscle fiber denaturation and necrosis, and multi-tissue organ swelling, degeneration, and necrosis. Compared with the control group, RBC count, hemoglobin content, vitamin E concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower in all three experimental groups. However, malondialdehyde content was considerably higher in experimental groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in glutathione peroxidase activity among groups. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E deficiency (<100 IUkg-1) can cause severe injury and, in particular, oxidative damage in common carp. The oxidative damage might be a main influence caused by vitamin E deficiency in fish. These findings reveal the complete systematic pathological effect of vitamin E deficiency in common carp, which may be applicable to other fish and animals.

  18. Cell death caused by selenium deficiency and protective effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Akazawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Niki, Etsuo

    2003-10-10

    Selenium is an essential trace element and it is well known that selenium is necessary for cell culture. However, the mechanism underlying the role of selenium in cellular proliferation and survival is still unknown. The present study using Jurkat cells showed that selenium deficiency in a serum-free medium decreased the selenium-dependent enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase) within cells and cell viability. To understand the mechanism of this effect of selenium, we examined the effect of other antioxidants, which act by different mechanisms. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble radical-scavenging antioxidant, completely blocked selenium deficiency-induced cell death, although alpha-tocopherol (biologically the most active form of vitamin E) could not preserve selenium-dependent enzyme activity. Other antioxidants, such as different isoforms and derivatives of vitamin E, BO-653 and deferoxamine mesylate, also exerted an inhibitory effect. However, the water-soluble antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, and glutathione, displayed no such effect. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) assay revealed that cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased before cell death, and sodium selenite and alpha-tocopherol inhibited ROS increase in a dose-dependent manner. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides was observed by fluorescence probe diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) and HPLC chemiluminescence only in selenium-deficient cells. These results suggest that the ROS, especially lipid hydroperoxides, are involved in the cell death caused by selenium deficiency and that selenium and vitamin E cooperate in the defense against oxidative stress upon cells by detoxifying and inhibiting the formation of lipid hydroperoxides.

  19. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  20. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Sean M; Lam, Byron L

    2014-01-01

    Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI) of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30). The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases. PMID:24899800

  1. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of liver antioxidant mechanisms in Megalobrama amblycephala stimulated with dietary emodin.

    PubMed

    Song, Changyou; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Zhao, Zhenxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Mingchun; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Xu, Pao; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-13

    Oxidative stress is a toxicological endpoint that correlates with the nutrition status of fish through cellular damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. In order to understand the antioxidant mechanism induced by dietary emodin in Megalobrama amblycephala liver, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome alteration under emodin administration. 27 altered protein spots were separated under 30 mg kg(-1) emodin stimulation based on 2-DE, and were all successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF, representing 17 unique proteins. These proteins were functionally classified into antioxidant, metabolism, cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction and cofactor groups. Network interaction and Gene Ontology annotation indicated 10 unique proteins were closely related to antioxidation and directly regulated by each other. Compared with the control group, administration of 30 mg kg(-1) emodin significantly increased the antioxidant-related mRNA expressions of GPx1, GSTm and HSP70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of GAPDH and Sord, which was consistent with the protein expression. Nevertheless, Pgk1 and Aldh8a1 were up- and down-regulated, and ALDOB was down- and up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. These results revealed that the altered proteins enhanced antioxidation via complex regulatory mechanisms, and 30 mg kg(-1) emodin was a suitable immunostimulant for M. amblycephala.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of liver antioxidant mechanisms in Megalobrama amblycephala stimulated with dietary emodin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Changyou; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Zhao, Zhenxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Huimin; Ren, Mingchun; Zhou, Qunlan; Miao, Linghong; Xu, Pao; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a toxicological endpoint that correlates with the nutrition status of fish through cellular damage, inflammation, and apoptosis. In order to understand the antioxidant mechanism induced by dietary emodin in Megalobrama amblycephala liver, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome alteration under emodin administration. 27 altered protein spots were separated under 30 mg kg−1 emodin stimulation based on 2-DE, and were all successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF, representing 17 unique proteins. These proteins were functionally classified into antioxidant, metabolism, cytoskeleton, chaperone, signal transduction and cofactor groups. Network interaction and Gene Ontology annotation indicated 10 unique proteins were closely related to antioxidation and directly regulated by each other. Compared with the control group, administration of 30 mg kg−1 emodin significantly increased the antioxidant-related mRNA expressions of GPx1, GSTm and HSP70, but decreased the mRNA expressions of GAPDH and Sord, which was consistent with the protein expression. Nevertheless, Pgk1 and Aldh8a1 were up- and down-regulated, and ALDOB was down- and up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. These results revealed that the altered proteins enhanced antioxidation via complex regulatory mechanisms, and 30 mg kg−1 emodin was a suitable immunostimulant for M. amblycephala. PMID:28084435

  4. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  5. Influence of dietary iron level and form on biochemical, hematological, and immunological changes in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, H.; Gallaher, D.D.; Kramer, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of Cu, and adequate (50 ..mu..g/g) or high (300 ..mu..g/g) levels of Fe/sup +2/ or Fe/sup +3/. Cu-deficient rats, regardless of Fe level or form, exhibited depressed (p < 0.05) serum Cu, Fe and ceruloplasmin activity, and hemoglobin levels; and elevated (p < 0.05) unsaturated serum Fe binding capacity. Except for high Fe/sup +3/ fed rats, Cu-deficient rats showed decreased hematocrits. Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated spleen lymphoid cells (SLC) of Cu-deficient rats fed adequate dietary Fe, but not by SLC of Cu-deficient rats fed high dietary Fe. High Fe fed rats exhibited reduced proliferation and increased variability in proliferation by Con-A stimulated SLC, which apparently caused a lack of difference in proliferation by SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats fed high Fe. Thus, high dietary Fe did not correct biochemical and hematological parameters in Cu-deficient rats, but because of lowered proliferation and increased variability of SLC proliferation, high dietary Fe did alleviate suppressed Con-A stimulated SLC proliferation in Cu-deficiency.

  6. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    PubMed

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training.

  7. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency.

  8. Effect of dietary manganese on tissue antioxidants in STZ diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.H.; Lee, M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Mn deficiency on tissue antioxidant levels under conditions of STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetes. Weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 groups: (1) Mn+ (manganese-sufficient), nondiabetic; (2) Mn{minus} (manganese-deficient), nondiabetic; (3) Mn+, diabetic for 4 weeks; (4) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 4 weeks; (5) Mn+, diabetic for 8 weeks; and (6) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 8 weeks. Decreased Mn levels in all tissues of Mn{minus} rats were accompanied by decreased MnSOD activity in kidney and heart, but not in liver or pancreas. Hepatic vitamin E was progressively increased in 4 and 8-week diabetic rats. Overall, diabetogenic effects of STZ were not amplified by manganese deficiency.

  9. The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance of juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Ye, Jinyun; Gao, Jun'e; Chen, Lian; Lu, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    The present study was focused on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance in juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with graded levels of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (0.6, 106.5, 194.3, 288.4, 379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that highest weight gain and special growth ratio was obtained at 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO. And adequate dietary CHO content (288.4 g kg(-1)) could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), promote reduced glutathione (GSH) content and then increase the total antioxidant capacities (TAOC) in the liver of M. piceus. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the fish liver could be significantly aggravated by excessive dietary CHO. Serum cortisol (COL) levels could be significantly increased in juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 379.1 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets. Activities of alanine transaminase (GPT) and aspartate transaminase (GOT) were both decreased in the serum of juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 194.3 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)) or CHO-excess diets (379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)). In addition, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of hepcidin (HEPC), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN), lysozyme (LYZ) and complement component 3 (C3) in the blood and liver samples of juvenile Black carp M. piceus compared with the CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)). Moreover, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could also enhance the contents of C3 and plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), and increase the activities of LYZ and total nitric oxide synthase (t-NOS) in the serum compared with the CHO-deficient or CHO-excess diets. Furthermore, the survival rates were also increased by

  10. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 trimethylation and global DNA methylation in zinc deficient oocytes. Moreover, there was a 3–20 fold increase in transcript abundance of repetitive elements (Iap, Line1, Sineb1, Sineb2), but a decrease in Gdf9, Zp3 and Figla mRNA. Only 53% and 8% of mature eggs reached the 2-cell stage after IVF in animals receiving a 3 and 5 day ZDD, respectively, while a 5 day ZDD in vivo reduced the proportion of 2-cells to 49%. In vivo fertilized 2-cell embryos cultured in vitro formed fewer (38%) blastocysts compared to control embryos (74%). Likewise, fewer blastocyst and expanded blastocyst were collected from the reproductive tract of zinc deficient animals on day 3.5 of pregnancy. This could be due to a decrease in Igf2 and H19 mRNA in ZDD blastocyst. Supplementation with a methyl donor (SAM) during IVM restored histone H3K4me3 and doubled the IVF success rate from 17% to 43% in oocytes from zinc deficient animals. Thus, the terminal period of oocyte development is extremely sensitive to perturbation in dietary zinc availability. PMID:23348678

  11. Systematic Review: Generating Evidence-Based Guidelines on the Concurrent Use of Dietary Antioxidants and Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Akiko; Alladin, Karen P.; Igbokwe, Obianuju; White, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The risk–benefit ratio for concurrent use of dietary antioxidants with chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a controversial topic. In this review, the medical literature on concurrent antioxidant use with chemotherapy or radiotherapy was assessed and further steps for generating evidence-based guidelines are suggested. The clinical cancer research community should cooperate and focus new studies on the use of a specific combination of antioxidant and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and determine optimal doses for a specific cancer setting. Mechanistic studies on the interaction between antioxidants and conventional cancer therapy could lead to novel biomarkers for assessing dose adequacy. PMID:22085269

  12. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  13. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Aspuru, Kattalin; Villa, Carlos; Bermejo, Fernando; Herrero, Pilar; López, Santiago García

    2011-01-01

    Iron is necessary for the normal development of multiple vital processes. Iron deficiency (ID) may be caused by several diseases, even by physiological situations that increase requirements for this mineral. One of its possible causes is a poor dietary iron intake, which is infrequent in developed countries, but quite common in developing areas. In these countries, dietary ID is highly prevalent and comprises a real public health problem and a challenge for health authorities. ID, with or without anemia, can cause important symptoms that are not only physical, but can also include a decreased intellectual performance. All this, together with a high prevalence, can even have negative implications for a community’s economic and social development. Treatment consists of iron supplements. Prevention of ID obviously lies in increasing the dietary intake of iron, which can be difficult in developing countries. In these regions, foods with greater iron content are scarce, and attempts are made to compensate this by fortifying staple foods with iron. The effectiveness of this strategy is endorsed by multiple studies. On the other hand, in developed countries, ID with or without anemia is nearly always associated with diseases that trigger a negative balance between iron absorption and loss. Its management will be based on the treatment of underlying diseases, as well as on oral iron supplements, although these latter are limited by their tolerance and low potency, which on occasions may compel a change to intravenous administration. Iron deficiency has a series of peculiarities in pediatric patients, in the elderly, in pregnant women, and in patients with dietary restrictions, such as celiac disease. PMID:22114518

  14. Interactions between excessive manganese exposures and dietary iron-deficiency in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Keith M; Syversen, Tore; Aschner, Judy L; Aschner, Michael

    2005-05-01

    For nearly a century, manganese has been recognized as an essential nutrient for proper bone formation, lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. While manganese deficiency is characterized by symptoms ranging from stunted growth and poor bone remodeling to ataxia, it is manganese toxicity that is far more devastating from a public health standpoint. Most cases of manganese toxicity are the result of occupational exposure to high levels of the metal, and are characterized by specific neurological symptoms referred to as manganism. While manganism shares many common features with Parkinson's disease, there are distinct differences between the two disorders suggesting that manganism might indirectly affect nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. Recent studies from our laboratory show that dietary iron deficiency is a risk factor for brain manganese accumulation and that the striatum is particularly vulnerable. This review briefly discusses manganese from nutritional and toxicological aspects.

  15. Selenoprotein Gene Expression in Thyroid and Pituitary of Young Pigs Is Not Affected by Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess1–3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ji-Chang; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Gang; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Ying; Lei, Xin Gen

    2009-01-01

    Expression and function of selenoproteins in endocrine tissues remain unclear, largely due to limited sample availability. Pigs have a greater metabolic similarity and tissue size than rodents as a model of humans for that purpose. We conducted 2 experiments: 1) we cloned 5 novel porcine selenoprotein genes; and 2) we compared the effects of dietary selenium (Se) on mRNA levels of 12 selenoproteins, activities of 4 antioxidant enzymes, and Se concentrations in testis, thyroid, and pituitary with those in liver of pigs. In Experiment 1, porcine Gpx2, Sephs2, Sep15, Sepn1, and Sepp1 were cloned and demonstrated 84–94% of coding sequence homology to human genes. In Experiment 2, weanling male pigs (n = 30) were fed a Se-deficient (0.02 mg Se/kg) diet added with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast for 8 wk. Although dietary Se resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.05) in Se concentrations and GPX activities in all 4 tissues, it did not affect the mRNA levels of any selenoprotein gene in thyroid or pituitary. Testis mRNA levels of Txnrd1 and Sep15 were decreased (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Se from 0.3 to 3.0 mg/kg. Comparatively, expressions of Gpx2, Gpx4, Dio3, and Sep15 were high in pituitary and Dio1, Sepp1, Sephs2, and Gpx1 were high in liver. In conclusion, the mRNA abundances of the 12 selenoprotein genes in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs were resistant to dietary Se deficiency or excess. PMID:19357213

  16. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  17. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  18. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway.

  19. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses

    PubMed Central

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8 J/cm2) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  20. Effect of excess dietary fluoride on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Miao, L P; Zhou, M Y; Zhang, X Y; Yuan, C; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens. A total of 576 laying hens, 51 wk old, was randomly divided into 6 groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 16 hens. Graded amounts of sodium fluoride (NaF) were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 16 (control), 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg F, respectively. Dietary F at 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased ADFI, laying rate, and average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level or catalase (CAT) concentration among all the treatments, while hens fed F at 800 and 1,000 mg/kg had higher activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Compared with the control group, dietary F at 400 mg/kg increased liver MDA concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased CAT concentration of liver (P < 0.001); 600 mg/kg F decreased liver T-AOC levels (P < 0.001); and 800 mg/kg of F decreased liver total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, feeding F at 600 mg/kg decreased kidney T-AOC levels and T-SOD activity (P < 0.001), and increased MDA concentration of kidney (P < 0.001), while dietary 1,000 mg/kg of F decreased kidney GSH-PX activity (P < 0.05) and CAT concentration (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that excessive F ingestion had an adverse effect on laying performance by inducing oxidative stress and impairing the antioxidant system of laying hens.

  1. Dietary Nitrite Restores NO Homeostasis and is Cardioprotective in eNOS Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Nathan S.; Calvert, John W.; Gundewar, Susheel; Lefer, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) is critical for vascular homeostasis. Nitrite and nitrate are formed endogenously by the step wise oxidation of NO and have for years been regarded as inactive degradation products. As a result both anions are routinely used as surrogate markers of NO production with nitrite as a more sensitive marker. However, both nitrite and nitrate are derived from dietary sources. We sought to determine how exogenous nitrite affects steady state concentrations of NO metabolites thought to originate from NOS derived NO as well as blood pressure and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) demonstrated decreased blood and tissue nitrite, nitrate and nitroso which were further reduced by low nitrite (NOx) diet for 1 week. Nitrite supplementation (50mg/L) in the drinking water for 1 week restored NO homeostasis in eNOS−/− mice and protected against I/R injury. Nitrite failed to alter heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure at the protective dose. These data demonstrate the significant influence of dietary nitrite intake on the maintenance of steady-state NO levels. Dietary nitrite and nitrate may serve as essentials nutrient for optimal cardiovascular health and may provide a novel prevention/treatment modality for disease associated with NO insufficiency. PMID:18501719

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in relative growth rate (RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  3. Commercial dietary ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2006-01-25

    This paper reports an attempt to functionally and chemically characterize commercial ingredients from Vitis vinifera L. grape skins, grape pomace, and leaves, which are used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. The antioxidant capacity of these ingredients was assessed for the first time by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methodology. Ingredients from grape skins and pomace (n = 17) showed ORAC values from 1.38 to 21.4 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg whereas ingredients from leaves (n = 4) showed ORAC values from 1.52 to 2.55 mumol Trolox equivalents/mg. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization-mass sprectrometry analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols revealed the authenticity of the ingredients as derived from V. vinifera L. and confirmed large differences in their phenolic content and distribution. A progressive decline in both antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin content of a grape skin ingredient (43 and 40% decrease, respectively) was observed over a 60 day storage period (45 degrees C and 75% relative humidity), demonstrating its poor stability under these conditions.

  4. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g).

  5. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  6. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  7. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E in the treatment of nutritional iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Orhon, Filiz; Öztürk, Gülyüz; Erbaş, Deniz; Hasanoğlu, Alev

    2006-03-05

    Oxidant status and antioxidants play important roles in anemias. The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E in IDA treatment. Ten patients with IDA aged nine months were given only iron treatment, whereas another 10 patients were administered both iron and vitamin E. The complete blood count, plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase level, and the serum vitamin E level, both before and within the treatment phases were examined. The reticulocyte count at the first week of treatment was found lower in the vitamin E-treated group. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was found higher in the vitamin E-treated group at the end of therapy. The malonyldialdehyde levels of the group treated with vitamin E were found lower during treatment. These results suggest that iron administration in IDA treatment may stimulate lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E supplied with iron may reduce the MDA production. The hematological indications of the findings of our study are that the reticulocyte response develops earlier and the microcytosis recovery occurs more rapidly in the vitamin E-administered group in comparison with the group treated with iron only.

  8. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  9. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  10. Blood donation, being Asian, and a history of iron deficiency are stronger predictors of iron deficiency than dietary patterns in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Matthys, Christophe; Coad, Jane; Jones, Beatrix; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  11. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kathryn L.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Coad, Jane; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children. PMID:25006582

  12. Three successful pregnancies through dietary management of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, V; Eschrich, K; Boney, A; Sullivan, J; McDonald, M; Kishnani, P S; Koeberl, D D

    2007-10-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency (OMIM 229700) has been characterized as the cause of life-threatening hypoglycaemia and lactic acidaemia following prolonged fasting. The patient, an adult African-American woman, presented during the second trimester of her first pregnancy with recurrent episodes of lactic acidaemia and hypoglycaemia. She had recently been admitted to a nearby intensive care unit after presentation with profound hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis, and was found to be pregnant. The history was remarkable for approximately 30 hospitalizations for hypoglycaemia and acidosis. She had previously undergone liver biopsy at another centre and was diagnosed with a 'glycogen storage disease', although no enzyme testing had been done for confirmation. Based on clinical symptoms, a diagnosis of FBPase deficiency was accomplished through gene sequencing, which revealed homozygosity for a panethnic, common mutation, 960/961insG in exon 7. The availability of mutation testing facilitated the confirmation of FBPase deficiency in this patient, obviating liver biopsy for enzyme activity confirmation. The patient underwent three successful pregnancies by strict compliance with dietary management, including nocturnal uncooked cornstarch to manage hypoglycaemia. The pregnancies were complicated by mild gestational diabetes, increased cornstarch requirements, and hypoglycaemia at the time of discharge from the hospital. The three infants had normal birth weights and experienced no complications during the neonatal period. The patient subsequently developed sensorineural hearing loss and early-onset cognitive impairment, despite compliance with the monitoring and treatment of hypoglycaemia. The experience with multiple pregnancies in this FBPase-deficient patient provides insight into the management of hypoglycaemia in inherited disorders of gluconeogenesis.

  13. Type 2 diabetes diminishes the benefits of dietary antioxidants: Evidence from the different free radical scavenging potential.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xie, Yixi; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes. Herein, taking advantage of several radical scavenging, the impact of plasma proteins in diabetes on the benefits of dietary polyphenols was investigated. It illustrated that plasma proteins masked the dietary polyphenols, thus reducing their radical scavenging potential. The plasma proteins from type 2 diabetics bind and protect (i.e., mask) the polyphenol antioxidants less effectively than the non-glycosylated ones in healthy blood do. In the blood of diabetics the less-protected (non-masked) antioxidants react with free radicals before being delivered to the tissues that need them. We should pay more attention to in vivo benefits of dietary polyphenols for type 2 diabetics.

  14. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet), and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet). After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. PMID:22088091

  15. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Th1/ Th2 paradigm has become an important issue in the pathogenesis of asthma, characterized by normal Th-1 and elevated Th-2 cytokine expression, resulting in a Th2 predominance. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) produces a significant Th1 bias, while high-level dietary vitamin A supplementation promo...

  16. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  17. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and <20-540 mg/kg fresh wet weight respectively, for FRAP and AA, which comprised < 1-73 % and < 1-59 % total antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables respectively. We estimate that 100 mg AA is contained in one orange, a few strawberries, one kiwi fruit, 1-2 slices of pineapple, several florets of raw cauliflower or a handful of uncooked spinach leaves. Apples, bananas, pears and plums, the most commonly consumed fruits in the UK, contain very little AA. Results indicate also that the antioxidant capacity of vegetables decreases rapidly and significantly after fragmentation. Results of this, and future studies, using FRASC as a biomonitoring tool will be useful in food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  18. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity.

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  20. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  1. Effects of dietary heavy metals on the immune and antioxidant systems of Galleria mellonella larvae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongqing; Yi, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) on immune and antioxidant systems of Galleria mellonella. In particular, after exposure to diets containing environmentally relevant concentrations (5, 50 and 100 μg/g) of Cr or Pb for 7 d, alterations in innate immune parameters and the activity of endogenous enzymes were measured in larvae. The results showed that 1) compared with the control, the lowest doses (5 μg/g) of Cr and Pb significantly increased the levels of innate immune parameters (total hemocyte count, THC; phagocytic activity; extent of encapsulation) of the larvae and hemolymph immune enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, ACP; alkaline phosphatase, AKP; phenoloxidase, PO), whereas the highest doses (100 μg/g) of Cr and Pb inhibited them; 2) the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT) showed significant increases with increasing concentrations of dietary Cr and Pb, and were significantly higher than those of the control; and 3) feeding the larvae with experimental concentrations of either Cr or Pb resulted similar patterns of changes of all the parameters examined. The current study suggested that moderate amounts of Cr and Pb enhance the innate immunity of G. mellonella, but that large amounts led to the inhibition of larval immune function, and also indicated that the experimental concentrations of Cr and Pb used caused strong oxidative stresses in the larvae.

  2. Sodium nitroprusside-mediated alleviation of iron deficiency and modulation of antioxidant responses in maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to alleviate Fe-deficiency effects, possibly by enhancing the functional Fe status of plants. This study examines changes in tissue Fe status and oxidative metabolism in Fe-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) plants enriched with NO using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source. Methodology Measurements included changes in concentrations of H2O2, non-protein thiols, levels of lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and of the Fe-requiring antioxidant haem enzymes catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Internal NO in Fe-deficient maize plants was manipulated with SNP and the NO scavenger, methylene blue (MB). A key control was treatment with sodium ferrocyanide (SF), a non-NO-supplying analogue of SNP. Principal results SNP but not SF caused re-greening of leaves in Fe-deficient maize plants over 10–20 days, increased in vivo NO content, raised chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, promoted growth in dry weight, increased the activities of H2O2-scavenging haem enzymes and enhanced lipid peroxidation, while decreasing SOD activity and H2O2 concentrations. The NO scavenger, MB, blocked the effects of the SNP. Although SNP and SF each donated Fe and increased active Fe, only SNP increased leaf chlorophyll. Conclusions NO plays a role in Fe nutrition, independently of its effect on total or active Fe status. The most probable mechanism of NO involvement is to increase the intracellular availability of Fe by means of modulating redox. This is likely to be achieved by enhancing the chemical reduction of foliar Fe(III) to Fe(II). PMID:22476060

  3. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  4. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  5. Impact of Dietary Intake on Bone Turnover in Patients with Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Kathryn E; Felner, Eric I; Tangpricha, Vin; Wilson, Peter W F; Singh, Rani H

    2017-01-28

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the PAH enzyme. Patients follow a phenylalanine-restricted diet low in intact protein, and must consume synthetic medical food (MF) to supply phenylalanine-free protein. We assessed relationships between dietary intake and nutrient source (food or MF) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in PAH deficiency. Blood from 44 fasted females 11-52 years of age was analyzed for plasma phenylalanine, serum BTM [CTx (resorption), P1NP (formation)], vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). BTM ratios were calculated to assess resorption relative to formation (CTx/P1NP). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total BMD and age-matched Z-scores. Three-day food records were analyzed for total nutrient intake, nutrients by source (food, MF), and compliance with MF prescription. Spearman's partial coefficients (adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, blood phenylalanine) assessed correlations. All had normal BMD for age (Z-score >-2). Sixty-four percent had high resorption and normal formation indicating uncoupled bone turnover. CTx/P1NP was positively associated with food phenylalanine (r (2) = 0.39; p-value = 0.017), energy (r (2) = 0.41; p-value = 0.011) and zinc (r (2) = 0.41; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP was negatively associated with MF fat (r (2) = -0.44; p-value = 0.008), MF compliance (r (2) = -0.34; p-value = 0.056), and positively with food sodium (r (2) = 0.43; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP decreased significantly with age (p-value = 0.002) and higher PTH (p-value = 0.0002). Phenylalanine was not correlated with any bone indicator. Females with PAH deficiency had normal BMD but elevated BTM, particularly resorption. More favorable ratios were associated with nutrients from MF and compliance. Younger females had less favorable BTM ratios. Promoting micronutrient intake through compliance with MF may impact bone metabolism in

  6. Dietary Curcumin Increases Antioxidant Defenses in Lung, Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Improves Survival in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James C.; Kinniry, Paul A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Serota, Matthew; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Javvadi, Prashanthi; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of lung radiotherapy is limited by radiation tolerance of normal tissues and by the intrinsic radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. The chemopreventive agent curcumin has known antioxidant and tumor cell radiosensitizing properties. Its usefulness in preventing radiation-induced pneumonopathy has not been tested previously. We evaluated dietary curcumin in radiation-induced pneumonopathy and lung tumor regression in a murine model. Mice were given 1%or 5%(w/w) dietary curcumin or control diet prior to irradiation and for the duration of the experiment. Lungs were evaluated at 3 weeks after irradiation for acute lung injury and inflammation by evaluating bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid content for proteins, neutrophils and at 4 months for pulmonary fibrosis. In a separate series of experiments, an orthotopic model of lung cancer using intravenously injected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was used to exclude possible tumor radioprotection by dietary curcumin. In vitro, curcumin boosted antioxidant defenses by increasing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels in primary lung endothelial and fibroblast cells and blocked radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary curcumin significantly increased HO-1 in lungs as early as after 1 week of feeding, coinciding with a steady-state level of curcumin in plasma. Although both 1% and 5% w/w dietary curcumin exerted physiological changes in lung tissues by significantly decreasing LPS-induced TNF-α production in lungs, only 5%dietary curcumin significantly improved survival of mice after irradiation and decreased radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Importantly, dietary curcumin did not protect LLC pulmonary metastases from radiation killing. Thus dietary curcumin ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and increases mouse survival while not impairing tumor cell killing by radiation. PMID:20426658

  7. Antioxidants and Manganese Deficiency in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Chakrabarti, Sila; Seifert, Friederike; Schramel, Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Chlorotic and green needles from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees were sampled in the Calcareous Bavarian Alps in winter. The needles were used for analysis of the mineral and pigment contents, the levels of antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione), and the activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase). In addition, the activities of two respiratory enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase), which might provide the NADPH necessary for functioning of the antioxidative system, were determined. We found that chlorotic needles were severely manganese deficient (3 to 6 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight as compared with up to 190 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight in green needles) but had a similar dry weight to fresh weight ratio, had a similar protein content, and showed no evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation as compared with green needles. In chlorotic needles, the level of total ascorbate and the activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione were not affected. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was similar in both green and chlorotic needles. These results suggest that in spruce needles monodehydroascorbate radical reductase is the key enzyme involved in maintaining ascorbate in its reduced state. The reductant necessary for this process may have been supplied at the expense of photosynthate. PMID:16668974

  8. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  9. Protective effect of dietary potassium against cardiovascular damage in salt-sensitive hypertension: possible role of its antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Megumi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high salt intake induces hypertension and cardiovascular damage, while dietary potassium supplementation counteracts these harmful effects. Actually, the protective effect of potassium is strengthened with excess salt as compared with salt depletion. Although the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in our previous reports, the antihypertensive effect of dietary potassium was accompanied by sympathetic nerve inhibition in salt-sensitive hypertension. Also, potassium supplement suppressed salt-induced insulin resistance. These effects of dietary potassium can explain its cardio- and vasculo-protective action in addition to the potassium supplementation induced decreased salt-induced rise in blood pressure. On the other hand, salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Moreover, sympathoexcitation can be induced by central ROS upregulation and insulin resistance can be caused by ROS excess in the target organs of insulin, such as skeletal muscle. Conversely, the seemingly different actions of potassium can be explained by the antioxidant effect of dietary potassium; in our recent studies, potassium supplementation inhibits salt-induced progress of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and vascular neointima formation by cuff placement around arteries, associated with the inhibition of regional ROS overproduction, in salt-sensitive hypertension. Thus, it is possible that dietary potassium protects against salt-induced cardiovascular damage by the reduction of ROS generation and by central sympatholytic action and amelioration of insulin resistance induced through its antioxidant effect.

  10. ω-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants: immunomodulators or inert dietary supplements?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Expanded abstract Citation Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Thompson BT, deBoisblanc BP, Steingrub J, Rock, P. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, γ-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury. JAMA. 2011; 306(14):1574-1581. PubMed PMID: 21976613. Background The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Methods Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design: The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. All participants had complete follow-up. Setting: This trial occurred at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Subjects: Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition. Intervention: Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, γ -linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Outcomes: Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, −3.2 [95% CI, −5.8 to −0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n 3 group vs 16

  11. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  12. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) on meat quality (pH, Drip loss, Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  13. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  14. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) on the antioxidant capacity, small intestine development, and jejunal gene expression in weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had eight replicates with four piglets per replicate. The piglets were fed either control diet (control) or control diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or pharmacological doses of ZnO (3000 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at days 14 and 28, while intestinal samples were harvested at day 28 of the experiment. Dietary high doses of ZnO supplementation significantly increased the body weight (BW) at day 14 and average daily gain (ADG) of days 1 to 14 in weaned piglets, when compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea of piglets fed ZnO-supplemented diets, at either days 1 to 14, days 14 to 28, or the overall experimental period, was significantly decreased in comparison with those in other groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation with ZnO increased the villus height of the duodenum and ileum in weaned piglets and decreased the crypt depth of the duodenum, when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO supplementation decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at either day 14 or day 28, but increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) at day 14, when compared to that in the control (P < 0.05). ZnO supplementation upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in the jejunum mucosa of weaned piglets, compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the jejunum mucosa was downregulated in the ZnO-supplemented group, compared with the control (P < 0.05). Both in-feed antibiotics and ZnO supplementation decreased the m

  15. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  16. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the 500mg Cd/kg treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of

  17. Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz

    2011-07-15

    The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in the formation of glucuronide, methyl, and sulfate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1-30 μM quercetin, 3'- or 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3'-O-sulfate or 20-100 μM EGCG, 4''-O-methyl-EGCG, and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to coincubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3'-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4'-O-methyl-quercetin, and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC(50) values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0, and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20-100 μM), quercetin-3'-O-sulfate (10-30 μM), and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20-100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4',4''-Di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC(50) value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20-60 μM) and 4''-O-methyl-EGCG (20-100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3'-O-methyl-quercetin and 4',4''-di-O-methyl-EGCG on

  18. Deficient and excess dietary selenium levels affect growth performance, blood cells apoptosis and liver HSP70 expression in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun-Ru; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Guo-Xia; Wu, Ying-Xia; Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Cao, Jun-Ming

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of deficient and excess dietary selenium (Se) on growth, blood cells apoptosis and liver heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). After 8 weeks, yellow catfish (initial weight: 2.12 ± 0.01 g) fed isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing <0.05 (deficient dietary Se) or 6.5 (excess dietary Se) mg Se/kg displayed a significantly lower weight gain ratio (WGR) than those fed a diet containing 0.23 (normal dietary Se) mg Se/kg. As dietary Se levels increased, liver Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase activity and the hepatosomatic index increased significantly. Plasma glucose concentration was highest in the normal treatment compared with the excess dietary Se treatment. Both deficient and excess dietary Se lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in blood cells, whereas only excess dietary Se increased their cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (CF-Ca(2+)) concentration. Excess dietary Se also resulted in the highest level of HSP70 expression, thereby possibly providing a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These results indicate that both deficient and excess dietary Se restrained the growth of juvenile yellow catfish and caused oxidative stress. The overproduction of ROS may act as a signal molecule mediate apoptosis when dietary Se deficiency. Both ROS and CF-Ca(2+) were recorded when dietary Se excess, suggesting that Ca(2+) may be activated by Se and play a major role during Se-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

  19. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  20. Dietary methyl donor deficiency during pregnancy in rats shapes learning and anxiety in offspring.

    PubMed

    Konycheva, Galina; Dziadek, Marie A; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Krägeloh, Christian U; Coolen, Marcel W; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2011-10-01

    Two important lines of research have enhanced our understanding of the molecular role of nutrition in influencing behavior. First, exposure to an adverse environment during early life can influence the long-term behavior of the offspring. Second, regulation of the nervous system development and functioning appears to involve epigenetic mechanisms that require a continuous supply of methyl group donors in food. We hypothesized that a maternal diet during pregnancy deficient in methyl donors (MDD) may lead to altered behavior in offspring through permanent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation. We used a rat model of prenatal dietary MDD to test this hypothesis in female offspring as they aged. Prenatal MDD reduced birth weight, litter size, and newborn viability. Aged female offspring of MDD mothers showed increased anxiety and increased learning ability in comparison with control diet group offspring. To explore the role of MDD on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain of adult offspring, we studied expression and methylation of 4 selected genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11 type 2, neuronatin, and reelin proteins in the hippocampus. No major group differences in methylation or expression of the studied genes were detected, except for a significant down-regulation of the reelin gene in the MDD female offspring. The prenatal MDD diet caused intrauterine growth restriction, associated with long-term effects on the behavior of the offspring. However, the observed behavioral differences between the MDD and control diet offspring cannot be explained by epigenetic regulation of the specific genes investigated in this study.

  1. The stomach as a bioreactor: dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric fluid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kanner, J; Lapidot, T

    2001-12-01

    Atherosclerosis may result partly from processes that occur following food consumption and that involve oxidized lipids in chylomicrons. We investigated reactions that could occur in the acidic pH of the stomach and accelerate the generation of lipid hydroperoxides and co-oxidation of dietary constituents. The ability of dietary polyphenols to invert catalysis from pro-oxidation to antioxidation was examined. The acidic pH of gastric fluid amplified lipid peroxidation catalyzed by metmyoglobin or iron ions. Metmyoglobin catalyzed peroxidation of edible oil, resulting in 8-fold increase of hydroperoxide concentration. The incubation of heated muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid for 2 h enhanced hydroperoxides accumulation by 6-fold to 1200 microM. In the presence of catechin or red wine polyphenols, metmyoglobin catalyzed the breakdown of hydroperoxides to zero, totally preventing lipid peroxidation and beta-carotene cooxidation. We suggest that human gastric fluid may be an excellent medium for enhancing the oxidation of lipids and other dietary constituents. The results indicate the potentially harmful effects of oxidized fats intake in the presence of endogenous catalysts found in foods, and the major benefit of including in the meal plant dietary antioxidants.

  2. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  3. Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Su; Wilson, Jacob M; Lee, Sang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a fundamental cause of frailty, functional decline and disability. In the year 2000, $18.5 billion in health care costs were directly attributable to sarcopenia. This economic burden will increase dramatically as the elderly population grows over the next decade. The primary causes of sarcopenia include a sedentary lifestyle and malnutrition. While resistance training appears to be a promising intervention, older individuals exhibit a blunted hypertrophic response to exercise stimuli. It has been posited that this decrement in regenerative capacity may be due to the loss of postprandial anabolism as well as an increase in reactive oxygen species. As such, a combination of resistance training and nutritional interventions may be a promising candidate in combating sarcopenia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the manipulation of dietary variables may improve the sarcopenic condition are not well understood. To address this gap in extant knowledge, this review will examine the effects of protein, amino acid and/or antioxidant intake on sarcopenia both at rest and following resistance training exercise.

  4. Epigenetic and antioxidant effects of dietary isothiocyanates and selenium: potential implications for cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Lawrence N; Cassidy, Aedin; Johnson, Ian T; Bao, Yongping; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence from epidemiological studies suggesting that increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables may protect against specific cancers more effectively than total fruit and vegetable intake. These beneficial effects are attributed to the glucosinolate breakdown products, isothiocyanates (ITC). Similarly, selenium (Se) consumption has also been inversely associated with cancer risk and as an integral part of many selenoproteins may influence multiple pathways in the development of cancer. This paper will briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of Se and ITC in cancer development with a particular emphasis on its antioxidant properties, and will also address whether alterations in DNA methylation may be a potential mechanism whereby these dietary constituents protect against the carcinogenic process. Furthermore, we will discuss the advantages of combining ITC and Se to benefit from their complementary mechanisms of action to potentially protect against the alterations leading to neoplasia. Based on this review it may be concluded that an understanding of the impact of ITC and Se on aberrant DNA methylation in relation to factors modulating gene-specific and global methylation patterns, in addition to the effect of these food constituents as modulators of key selenoenzymes, such as gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx2) and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1), may provide insights into the potential synergy among various components of a plant-based diet that may counteract the genetic and epigenetic alterations that initiate and sustain neoplasia.

  5. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  6. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  7. Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Manger, Mari; Skeie, Eli; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Chandyo, Ram; Shrestha, Prakash S; Locks, Lindsey; Ulvik, Rune J; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Strand, Tor A

    2014-07-14

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70% of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90% of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20% (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5% (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95% CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy.

  8. The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the immune responses of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.).

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E I; Vielma, J; Aaltonen, T M; Koskela, J

    2003-08-01

    Low phosphorous (P) feeds in aquaculture are recommended to reduce eutrophication of water systems. However, the feed should be adequate for normal growth and intact immune defence. Influence of low dietary P supply on non-specific and specific immune defence of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) was studied in two trials. For Trial 1, a semi-purified, low-P diet was formulated and supplied with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 g P kg(-1)to obtain a P gradient of 4.4-14.9 g kg(-1)diet. Diets were fed to four replicate groups of fingerling whitefish for 42 days in a flow-through, freshwater system maintained at 15 degrees C. Fish fed with the P-unsupplemented diet had significantly lower plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels than fish fed with the P-fortified diets (means 2.53 vs. 3.19 mg ml(-1); P=0.047). Plasma lysozyme activity did not differ between fish fed with the P-unsupplemented diet and fish fed with the P-fortified diets (means 21.8 vs. 25.5 U ml(-1); P=0.107). For Trial 2, fish were acclimated for 49 days by feeding the lowest or highest dietary P contents, and thereafter immunised with a single intraperitoneal injection of a novel antigen, bovine gamma globulin (BGG). A clear antibody response against BGG was elicited but the antibody levels did not differ between fish fed low-P or high-P contents. Similar to Trial 1, plasma IgM was lower in fish fed low-P diets, and low-P diet did not influence plasma lysozyme activity. In both trials the growth of fish, having received low-P diet, was significantly lowered. It is concluded that P deficiency has only minor effects on the immune parameters in whitefish, and the practical aquafeed with P contents sufficient for normal growth does not compromise immune functions of this species.

  9. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ryz, Natasha R; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan; Vallance, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense.

  10. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryz, Natasha R.; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M.; Jacobson, Kevan

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense. PMID:26336925

  11. Effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate and beta-carotene dietary supplementation on the antioxidant enzymes, TBARS and sensory attributes of turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Sárraga, C; Carreras, I; García Regueiro, J A; Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L

    2006-12-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (15 mg/kg) dietary supplementation on the oxidative status of raw turkey breast and leg muscles assessed by thiobarbituric acid test values, the vitamin E levels and the antioxidant enzyme activities. In parallel, a quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was carried out on cooked, stored and reheated samples. 2. Vitamin E was present in sufficient quantity to reduce oxidation, since iron-induced reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly lower in antioxidant-supplemented treatments. The results suggested that the presence of beta-carotene in the diet limits the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol in turkey muscles. 3. In the present study, there was no conclusive relationship between dietary antioxidant supplementation and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. 4. Sensory evaluation showed that a longer supplementation time and dose may be necessary in turkeys to prevent meat from rancidity and warmed-over flavour (WOF). Leg pastiness and stringiness were modified by dietary antioxidant supplementation, indicating the possible synergism between antioxidants and cysteine proteinases in the perception of meat quality. 5. Given the modern trends that lead consumers to increase their consumption of poultry meat, it would be interesting to evaluate the commercial potential and cost effectiveness of routine dietary antioxidant supplementation.

  12. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  13. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  14. Response to dietary phosphorus deficiency is affected by genetic background in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L S; Qu, A; Cutler, S A; Mahajan, A; Lonergan, S M; Rothschild, M F; Weber, T E; Kerr, B J; Stahl, C H

    2008-10-01

    Concern over the environmental effect of P excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were housed individually and fed either a P-adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P-deficient diet (PD) for 14 wk. Initially and monthly, blood samples were collected and BW recorded after an overnight fast. Growth performance and plasma indicators of P status were determined monthly. At the end of the trial, carcass traits, meat quality, bone strength, and ash percentage were determined. Pigs fed the PD diet had decreased (P < 0.05) plasma P concentrations and poorer G:F (P < 0.05) over the length of the trial. After 4 wk on trial, pigs fed the PD diet had increased (P < 0.05) plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma parathyroid hormone compared with those fed the PA diet. At the end of the trial, pigs fed the PD diet had decreased (P < 0.05) BW, HCW, and percentage fat-free lean and tended to have decreased LM area (P = 0.06) and marbling (P = 0.09) and greater (P = 0.12) 10th-rib backfat than pigs fed the PA diet. Additionally, animals fed the PD diet had weaker bones and also decreased (P < 0.05) ash percentage and increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of 1alpha-hydroxylase and parathyroid hormone receptor mRNA in kidney tissue. Regardless of dietary treatment, PIC337-sired pigs consumed more feed and gained more BW than their PIC280-sired counterparts (P < 0.05) during the study. The PIC337-sired pigs also had greater (P < 0.05) HCW, larger (P < 0.01) LM area, and tended to have (P = 0.07) greater dressing percentage. Meat from the PIC337-sired pigs also tended to have greater (P = 0.12) concentrations of lactate but decreased (P = 0.07) concentrations of total glucose units 24 h postslaughter. Although plasma 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05) in all the animals fed the PD diet, this elevation due to P deficiency

  15. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  16. Dietary antioxidant intake and its association with cognitive function in an ethnically diverse sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706

  17. Dietary intake, neutrophil fatty acid profile, serum antioxidant vitamins and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yasuko; Kawakami, Takayo; Ueda, Yukiko; Kunii, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Yachiyo; Shiratori, Yasushi; Okita, Misako

    2007-04-01

    Nutrition may play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of ulcerative colitis. Several studies suggest an association between dietary factors and the onset of ulcerative colitis; however, only few studies have examined the relationship between dietary intake and relapse of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake and antioxidative capacity of ulcerative colitis patients and to elucidate the efficacy of dietary therapy for ulcerative colitis. Dietary intake, fatty acid composition of phospholipids in plasma and neutrophils, serum fat-soluble vitamin levels, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were analyzed in 29 ulcerative colitis patients (7 males and 22 females), who were treated at the Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Hospital. Total fat intake, fat energy ratio and linoleic acid intake were significantly lower, while protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher, in the patients than age- and sex-matched controls. In the neutrophil phospholipids of ulcerative colitis patients, significantly higher levels of linoleic aicd and arachidonic acid and a lower level of eicosapentaenoic acid were observed. The concentrations of serum retinol and beta-carotene but not alpha-tocopherol were significantly lower and serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity was also lower than in the controls. Significant correlations between serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity and retinol (r = 0.567, p = 0.0031), alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.560, p = 0.0036) and beta-carotene (r = 0.440, p = 0.0279) concentrations were observed in the ulcerative colitis patients. A diet restricting the intake of linoleic acid and supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidative vitamins may be recommendable for the nutritional management of ulcerative colitis patients.

  18. Dietary zinc deficiency fuels esophageal cancer development by inducing a distinct inflammatory signature

    PubMed Central

    Taccioli, C; Chen, H; Jiang, Y; Liu, XP; Huang, K; Smalley, KJ; Farber, JL; Croce, CM; Fong, LY

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The causes of inflammation in ESCC, however, are undefined. Dietary zinc-deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of ESCC. We have previously shown that short-term ZD (6 weeks) in rats induces overexpression of the proinflammatory mediators S100a8 and S100a9 in the esophageal mucosa with accompanying esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Here we report that prolonged ZD (21 weeks) in rats amplified this inflammation that when combined with non-carcinogenic low doses of the environmental carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) elicited a 66.7% (16/24) incidence of ESCC. With zinc-sufficiency NMBA produced no cancers (0/21) (P<0.001). At tumor endpoint, the neoplastic ZD esophagus as compared with zinc-sufficient esophagus had an inflammatory gene signature with upregulation of numerous cancer-related inflammation genes (CXC and CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, and Cox-2) in addition to S100a8 and S100a9. This signature was already activated in the earlier dysplastic stage. Additionally, time-course bioinformatics analysis of expression profiles at tumor endpoint and prior to NMBA exposure revealed that this sustained inflammation was due to ZD rather than carcinogen exposure. Importantly, zinc replenishment reversed this inflammatory signature at both the dysplastic and neoplastic stages of ESCC development, and prevented cancer formation. Thus, the molecular definition of ZD-induced inflammation as a critical factor in ESCC development has important clinical implications with regard to development and prevention of this deadly disease. PMID:22179833

  19. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  20. Dietary deficiencies of unsaturated fatty acids and starch cause atopic dermatitis-like pruritus in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Shimazaki, Yuki; Muto, Yoshiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Ohya, Susumu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Hairless mice fed with a special diet (named HR-AD) show atopic dermatitis (AD)-like pruritic skin inflammation that is almost completely resolved with the supplementation of an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), the linoleic acid (LA). This suggests that the dietary deficiency of LA is the key cause of this dermatitis. However, because there is no appropriate control diet for HR-AD, the involvement of other dietary ingredients cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, it has not yet been tested whether only UFA deficiency can cause such AD-like pruritus. In this study, using semi-purified custom diets, we attempted to reproduce this syndrome. Four-week-old hairless mice were maintained on a widely used standard diet American Institute of Nutrition-76A (AIN-76A), its modifications, or HR-AD. Several modifications of fat and carbohydrate components revealed that dietary deficiency of both UFAs and cornstarch was required to induce severe skin barrier dysfunction as typically occurred in HR-AD-fed mice. An UFA- and cornstarch-deficient diet caused severe AD-like pruritus comparable to HR-AD, despite weak Th2 immune responses and absence of immunoglobulin E production. On the other hand, a diet lacking UFAs but containing cornstarch significantly alleviated the development of pruritic dermatitis. Furthermore, the supplementation of wheat starch similarly improved skin barrier function. In conclusion, this study showed that a lack of certain starches might also be the cause of diet-induced AD. Our findings could help to reproduce the diet-induced AD itch model and also provide evidence that certain starches can have protective and ameliorative effects on AD-like pruritus.

  1. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  2. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190-240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40-60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  3. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  4. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  5. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  6. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  7. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  8. Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6.

  9. Antioxidant status, peroxidase activity, and PR protein transcript levels in ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana vtc mutants.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Ascorbate is the most abundant small molecule antioxidant in plants and is proposed to function, along with other members of an antioxidant network, in controlling reactive oxygen species. A biochemical and molecular characterization of four ascorbate-deficient (vtc) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants has been carried out to determine if ascorbate deficiency is compensated by changes in the other major antioxidants. Seedlings grown in vitro were used to minimize stress and longer term developmental differences. Comparison was made with the low glutathione cad2 mutant and vtc2-1 treated with D,L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine to cause combined ascorbate and glutathione deficiency. The pool sizes and oxidation state of ascorbate and glutathione were not altered by deficiency of the other. alpha-Tocopherol and activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase were little affected. Ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2. Ionically bound cell wall peroxidase activity was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc4. Supplementation with ascorbate increased cell wall peroxidase activity. 2,6-Dichlorobenzonitrile, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis, increased cell wall peroxidase activity in the wild type and vtc1. The transcript level of an endochitinase, PR1, and PR2, but not GST6, was increased in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc-2-2. Endochitinase transcript levels increased after ascorbate, paraquat, salicylic acid, and UV-C treatment, PR1 after salicylic acid treatment, and PR2 after paraquat and UV-C treatment. Camalexin was higher in vtc1 and the vtc2 alleles. Induction of PR genes, cell wall peroxidase activity, and camalexin in vtc1, vtc2-1, and vtc2-2 suggests that the mutants are affected in pathogen response signalling pathways.

  10. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Astaxanthin on Growth, Muscle Pigmentation and Antioxidant Capacity of Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Khosravi, Sanaz; Chang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets. Muscle astaxanthin content increased with increased astaxanthin in the diet. Deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh resulted in a decrease in lightness and an increase in redness and yellowness. The fillets from trout fed the AX75 diet had significantly lower lightness than trout fed the AX50 and AX100 diets. Fish fed the AX50 and AX75 diets showed significantly lower catalase activity than those fed the control diet. Total antioxidant status increased significantly in all astaxanthin supplemented groups when compared to the control group. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in fish fed the AX50 diet compared to fish fed the AX0 diet. These findings suggest that while fillet pigmentation increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin concentration, indices of fish antioxidant capacity may not be affected in a dose dependent manner. PMID:27752505

  11. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  12. Dietary coenzyme Q10 does not protect against cigarette smoke-augmented atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C Gary; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan

    2010-06-01

    Dietary coenzyme Q10 reduces spontaneous atherosclerosis in the apoE-deficient mouse model of experimental atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) enhances atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE-deficient mice. The aim of the present study was to determine if CoQ10 protected against SSCS-mediated atherosclerosis. Female apoE-deficient mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet (SFD) alone, or supplemented with 1% wt/wt coenzyme Q10 (SFD-Q10). Mice in each diet group were exposed to SSCS for 4hrs/day, 5days/week in a whole-body exposure chamber maintained at 35+/-4mg smoke particulates/m(3). Mice kept in filtered ambient air served as controls. Mice were euthanized after either 6 or 15weeks of SSCS exposure and following measurements were performed: i) lung 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity; ii) plasma cholesterol and CoQ10 concentrations; iii) aortic intimal area covered by atherosclerotic lesions; and, iv) pathological characterization of lesions. Lung EROD activity increased in SSCS mice of both diet groups, confirming SSCS exposure. Plasma concentrations of CoQ10 in SFD-Q10-fed mice were increased markedly in comparison to SFD-fed mice. Plasma cholesterol concentrations and distributions of cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions were unaffected by SSCS exposure. Dietary supplementation with CoQ10 significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in control mice. As reported previously, exposure to SSCS increased the size of lesions in apoE-/- mice at both time points. However, dietary supplementation with CoQ10 had no effect on atherosclerotic lesions augmented by SSCS exposure. The results suggest a role of oxidative processes in smoke-augmented atherosclerosis that are different than those mitigated by CoQ10.

  13. Dual role of selected antioxidants found in dietary supplements: crossover between anti- and pro-oxidant activities in the presence of copper.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P; Lutterodt, Herman; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Antholine, William E; Wamer, Wayne

    2012-03-14

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo can result in damage associated with many aging-associated diseases. Defenses against ROS that have evolved include antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, and catalases, which can scavenge ROS. In addition, endogenous and dietary antioxidants play an important role in moderating damage associated with ROS. In this study, we use four common dietary antioxidants to demonstrate that, in the presence of copper (cupric sulfate and cupric gluconate) and physiologically relevant levels of hydrogen peroxide, these antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants by producing hydroxyl radicals. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate that the level of hydroxyl radical formation is a function of the pH of the medium and the relative amounts of antioxidant and copper. On the basis of the level of hydroxyl radical formation, the relative pro-oxidant potential of these antioxidants is cysteine > ascorbate > EGCG > GSH. It has been reported that copper sequestered by protein ligands, as happens in vivo, loses its redox activity (diminishing/abolishing the formation of free radicals). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and GSH efficiently react with cupric sulfate sequestered with bovine serum albumin to generate hydroxyl radicals. Overall, the results demonstrate that in the presence of copper, endogenous and dietary antioxidants can also exhibit pro-oxidative activity.

  14. Rice Bran Dietary Supplementation Improves Neurological Symptoms and Loss of Purkinje Cells in Vitamin E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toru; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Hanaki, Takehiko; Yamakawa, Miho; Nakasone, Masato; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Koike, Taisuke; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin E (VE, α-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is well known as an antioxidant. A deficiency in VE induces oxidative stress in the brain and causes motor and memory dysfunction. The consumption of a VE-rich diet has been given much attention in recent years, in regards to anti-aging and the prevention of age-related neuronal disorders. Methods A VE-deficient mouse model was prepared by feeding the animals a diet lacking VE. In addition, to evaluate the effect of VE-containing rice bran (RB) on VE deficiency, a diet including RB was also provided. VE levels in the brain tissue, as well as in the RB, were measured using an HPLC system. Behavioral tests, including rotarod, wheel running activity, Y-maze, and elevated plus maze were performed. To clarify the effect of VE deficiency and RB, we investigated the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Histological studies were performed using HE staining and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1). Results VE in the mouse brain under a VE-deficient diet was decreased, and recovered α-tocopherol levels were observed in the brain of mice fed an RB diet. Motor behavioral scores were decreased in VE-deficient conditions, while the supplementation of RB improved motor function. HO-1, a marker of oxidative stress, was upregulated in the mouse brain under VE deficiency, however, RB supplementation inhibited the increase of HO-1. Histological analyses showed neuronal degeneration of Purkinje cells and decreased GFAP-immunoreactivity of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum. In addition, activated astrocytes and microglia were observed in mice fed the VE-deficient diet. Mice fed the RB diet showed improvement in these histological abnormalities. Conclusion A VE-deficient diet induced motor dysfunction in mice due to the degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Oral supplementation of RB

  15. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  16. Dietary rice protein isolate attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice-based diets may have been reported to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) for this protection remains unknown. In this report, the mechanism(s) contributing to the atheroprotective effects of rice-based diet was addressed using the apolipopro...

  17. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  18. Cadmium-induced alterations in the antioxidant defense system of the rat eye in relation to dietary selenium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinno, J.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cadmium (Cd)upon enzymatic antioxidant function in the ocular tissues of the albino rat. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Se-independent GSH-Px and catalase, and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione, and the elements Se, Cd and copper (Cu) were determined in ocular tissues from each group. Feeding rats a low Se diet resulted in a significant decrease in GSH-Px activity irrespective of Cd treatment. Activity of Se-independent GSH-Px in rats maintained on the low Se diet decreased when compared to Se-adequate controls. Cd treatment of rats fed low Se resulted in increased activity when compared to low-Se controls. When comparisons were made between ocular TBARS in rats maintained at either level of dietary Se, with or without Cd treatment, decreased ocular TBARS were observed in Cd-treated groups. A significant decrease in the ocular concentration of Se occurred in rats fed 0.05 ppm Se when compared to rats supplemented with 0.10 ppm Se. Administering Cd to the low Se group increased ocular Se levels 100%. A negative correlation between ocular Se concentration and the level of TBARS was observed, suggesting a possible alternate role for Se as an antioxidant in the eye.

  19. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  20. Efficacy of dietary antioxidants combined with a chemotherapeutic agent on human colon cancer progression in a fluorescent orthotopic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huaiyu; Das, Tapas; Pereira, Suzette; Yang, Zhijian; Zhao, Ming; Mukerji, Pradip; Hoffman, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    We report here the efficacy of dietary antioxidants in combination with chemotherapy on tumor growth in the orthotopic COLO-205-green fluorescent protein (GFP) human colon cancer mouse model. The orthotopically-transplanted nude mice used for the study were randomly divided into 5 groups (A-E) after surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of tumor tissue. The following diets were given: Diet A, modified AIN-93M mature rodent diet with 4% fish oil; Diet B, modified AIN-93M which contains added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium at levels present in the standard AIN-93M diet; Diet C, Diet A without added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, or selenium; Diet D, Diet A with 5 times the amount of added antioxidants vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium present in Diet B. Cisplatin, 7 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally on day 16 after SOI. Throughout the course of treatment, noninvasive whole-body imaging, based on the GFP expression of the tumor, permitted visualization of tumor progression. At sacrifice, the mean tumor weights showed significant statistical differences in all of the treated groups compared to the negative control (no cisplatin treatment) (p antioxidants in combination with fish oil for colon cancer progression and suggests the design of clinical trials for this regimen.

  1. Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Haas, Anabel; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-02-01

    Thermal stress leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species. If an organism is not able to simultaneously mount an efficient antioxidant defense system, this may lead to increased oxidative damage, which is potentially deleterious in terms of health and fitness. Exposure to cold or heat is therefore expected to be associated with a high demand for antioxidants. In agreement, several studies have shown that supplementing the diet of thermally stressed organisms with antioxidants leads to a reduction of oxidative damage. However, whether organisms can actively supplement their diet with antioxidants to alleviate temperature-induced oxidative damage is unknown. Here, we show that captive Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) supplement their diet more with seeds rich in antioxidants below than within their thermoneutral zone. Moreover, having access to seeds rich in antioxidants at temperatures below thermoneutrality decreases their oxidative damage. These results indicate that, when facing a thermal challenge, animals are able to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of their food to improve their oxidative balance. Having access to food resources rich in antioxidants may therefore be of primary importance for organisms in their natural habitat, as it may help them to cope with oxidative constraints due to challenging temperature regimes.

  2. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  3. Paradoxical zinc toxicity and oxidative stress in the mammary gland during marginal dietary zinc deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Zeynep; Mack, Ronald P.; Lee, Sooyeon; Soybel, David I.; Kelleher, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) regulates numerous cellular functions. Zn deficiency is common in females; ~80% of women and 40% of adolescent girls consume inadequate Zn. Zn deficiency enhances oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage. Oxidative stress and inflammation is associated with breast disease. We hypothesized that Zn deficiency increases oxidative stress in the mammary gland, altering the microenvironment and architecture. Zn accumulated in the mammary glands of Zn deficient mice and this was associated with macrophage infiltration, enhanced oxidative stress and over-expression of estrogen receptor α. Ductal and stromal hypercellularity was associated with aberrant collagen deposition and disorganized e-cadherin. Importantly, these microenvironmental alterations were associated with substantial impairments in ductal expansion and mammary gland development. This is the first study to show that marginal Zn deficiency creates a toxic microenvironment in the mammary gland impairing breast development. These changes are consistent with hallmarks of potential increased risk for breast disease and cancer. PMID:25088245

  4. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles.

  5. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study.

  6. Dietary quebracho tannins are not absorbed, but increase the antioxidant capacity of liver and plasma in sheep.

    PubMed

    López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-08-01

    A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.

  7. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on zinc-deficiency-induced changes in oxidative defense mechanisms and tissue oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Keen, C L

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary carbohydrate type on the expression of zinc (Zn) deficiency in rats with respect to tissue oxidative damage and defense mechanisms. Rats were fed diets containing adequate (+Zn) or low concentrations (-Zn) of Zn. Both fructose- and glucose-based diets were tested. Pair-fed controls were also studied to evaluate changes in the oxidative defense system which are secondary to Zn-deficiency-induced anorexia. Plasma and liver Zn concentrations and CuZn superoxide dismutase activities were lower in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats. Liver glutathione (GSH) and disulfide glutathione concentrations were higher in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats; this difference was most pronounced in the fructose groups. Liver and heart selenium glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activities were lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in the +Zn-fructose group. Liver Se-GSH-Px activity was higher in the fructose groups than in the glucose groups. Liver GSH reductase (GSH-Red) activity was lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in its control group. Liver glutamine synthetase activity was lower in the -Zn-glucose group and in the fructose groups than in the glucose control group. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) production was similar among the groups. Collectively, these results support the concept that Zn deficiency can result in an impaired oxidant defense system. Based on the observation that pair-fed control animals also showed evidence of oxidative damage, we suggest that one factor that contributes to the effect of Zn deficiency is the reduction in caloric intake that occurs in these animals. Fructose feeding resulted in increased activities of several of the oxidant defense enzymes. Protein oxidative damage assessed by glutamine synthetase activity was increased by both Zn deficiency and fructose feeding.

  8. Effects of dietary zinc on gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoli

    2011-06-01

    The expression patterns of different genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins were investigated, in present study, by real-time quantitative PCR in the hepatopancreas of abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed with different levels of dietary zinc (6.69, 33.8, 710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) for 20 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes include Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione-s-transferase (mu-GST) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). The results showed that the mRNA expression of these antioxidant enzymes increased and reached the maximum at the dietary zinc level of 33.8 mg/kg, and then dropped progressively. Expression levels of the heat shock proteins (HSP26, HSP70 and HSP90) firstly increased at 33.8 mg/kg dietary Zn level, and reached to the maximum at 710.6 mg/kg, then dropped at 3462.5 mg/kg (p<0.05). Excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) significantly increases the Zn content and significantly decreases the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in hepatopancreas (p<0.05). These findings showed that dietary Zn (33.8 mg/kg) could highly trigger the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, but excessive dietary Zn (710.6 and 3462.5 mg/kg) induces a high oxidative stress in abalone.

  9. Dietary Selenium Deficiency Partially Rescues Type 2 Diabetes–Like Phenotypes of Glutathione Peroxidase-1–Overexpressing Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xi; Pepper, Matthew P.; Vatamaniuk, Marko Z.; Roneker, Carol A.; Li, Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether dietary Se deficiency precluded overproduction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) activity in mice overexpressing (OE) this gene and thus rescued their type 2 diabetes–like phenotypes. A total of 20 male OE and wild-type (WT) mice were fed an Se-deficient (<0.02 mg/kg) diet or an Se-supplemented (0.3 mg/kg as sodium selenite) diet from 1 to 5 mo of age. Dietary Se deficiency eliminated or attenuated (P < 0.05) genotype differences in concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, and/or hepatic lipids, insulin sensitivity, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at the end of the study. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P < 0.05) OE islet mRNA levels of 2 key transcriptional activators (Beta2 and Foxa2) and removed genotype differences in islet mRNA levels of 7 genes (Beta2, Cfos, Foxa2, Pregluc, Ins1, p53, and Sur1) related to insulin synthesis and secretion. Compared with those of the Se-adequate OE mice, the Se-deficient OE mice had lower (P < 0.05) hepatic mRNA levels of 2 key rate-limiting enzymes for lipogenesis (Acc1) and glycolysis (Gk1), along with lower (P < 0.05) activities of hepatic glucokinase and muscle phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Dietary Se deficiency also decreased (P < 0.05) blood glucose and hepatic lipid concentrations in the WT mice. In conclusion, dietary Se deficiency precluded the overproduction of GPX1 in full-fed OE mice and partially rescued their metabolic syndromes. This alleviation resulted from modulating the expression and/or function of proinsulin genes, lipogenesis rate-limiting enzyme genes, and key glycolysis and gluconeogenesis enzymes in islets, liver, and muscle. PMID:23014491

  10. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function.

  11. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Rajani; Brown, Danielle Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO supplements and dietary intake of AOs via whole foods. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AOs in preventing tumorigenesis and outline four targeted dietary AOs. We review the results of research evaluating oral AOs supplements as compared to dietary AOs intake via whole foods. While these specific supplements have not shown efficacy, intake of AOs via consumption of whole foods has shown some promise. Lessons learned from the field of hypertension research may provide important guidance in future study design. Further research on the role of dietary AOs in the prevention of NMSC is warranted and should focus on intake via whole food consumption. PMID:26583073

  12. Role of dietary antioxidants to protect against DNA damage in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul R; Reed, Catrina F; Mann, Sarah J; Ransley, Raymond; Stevenson, Joy; Charlton, Chris J; Smith, Brigitte H E; Harper, E Jean; Rawlings, John M

    2002-06-01

    We studied the effects of feeding an antioxidant blend of vitamins, minerals and carotenoids to a mixed adult dog population (n = 40, mean 4.4 +/- 1.85 y) for a 16-wk period. Compared to the control group of dogs (n = 20), the antioxidant (AOX)-supplemented group of dogs (n = 20) demonstrated significant increases in plasma levels of vitamin E and taurine by 4 wk of supplementation (P < 0.01) and total antioxidant activity (as measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) by 8 wk of supplementation (P < 0.05). Following 8 wk of supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also showed significant reductions in both endogenous and exogenous DNA damage (P < 0.005) compared to that of the control dogs, as measured by the comet assay. Over an 8-wk rabies vaccination course that started at 8 wk supplementation, the AOX-supplemented dogs also demonstrated significantly higher vaccine-specific virus-neutralizing antibody levels at 2, 4 and 6 wk postvaccination (P < 0.05) and a tendency toward establishing a vaccine-specific antibody response quicker than did the control group of dogs. These findings in dogs suggest that antioxidant supplementation can achieve sustained increases in circulating levels of antioxidants that exert a protective effect by a decrease in DNA damage, leading to improved immunological performance. These findings also have implications in a wider context where free-radical damage has been associated with a variety of degenerative disorders and the aging process in general.

  13. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency combined with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a challenge in clinical and dietary management.

    PubMed

    Grünert, Sarah C; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Wermuth, Bendicht; Lehnert, Willy; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Schwab, K Otfried

    2013-07-05

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common urea cycle defect. The clinical presentation in female manifesting carriers varies both in onset and severity. We report on a female with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and recurrent episodes of hyperammonemia. Since OTC activity measured in a liver biopsy sample was within normal limits, OTC deficiency was initially excluded from the differential diagnoses of hyperammonemia. Due to moderately elevated homocitrulline excretion, hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome was suggested, but further assays in fibroblasts showed normal ornithine utilization. Later, when mutation analysis of the OTC gene became available, a known pathogenic missense mutation (c.533C>T) in exon 5 leading to an exchange of threonine-178 by methionine (p.Thr178Met) was detected. Skewed X-inactivation was demonstrated in leukocyte DNA. In the further clinical course the girl developed marked obesity. By initiating physical activities twice a week, therapeutic control of both diabetes and OTC deficiency improved, but obesity persisted. In conclusion, our case confirms that normal hepatic OTC enzyme activity measured in a single liver biopsy sample does not exclude a clinical relevant mosaic of OTC deficiency because of skewed X-inactivation. Mutation analysis of the OTC gene in whole blood may be a simple way to establish the diagnosis of OTC deficiency. The joint occurrence of OTC deficiency and diabetes in a patient has not been reported before.

  14. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  15. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P < 0.05). Contrary to glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and triiodothyronine, plasma cortisol content increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 22.4%, and then levelled off. The hepatic total antioxidative capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase levels reached the peak at the fish fed diet with 16.8% carbohydrate (P < 0.05). This also held true for hepatic superoxide dismutase activities, whereas the hepatic malondialdehyde content of fish fed dietary starch level of 16.8% was significantly lower than that of fish fed no CHO diet, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P < 0.05). However, survival rate showed little difference among 0%, 5.6%, 22.4% and 28% CHO groups (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano.

  16. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A

    1999-02-01

    The immune system is highly reliant on accurate cell-cell communication for optimal function, and any damage to the signalling systems involved will result in an impaired immune responsiveness. Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is a particular hazard to the immune system, since phagocytic cells produce reactive oxygen species as part of the body's defence against infection. Adequate amounts of neutralizing antioxidants are required, therefore, to prevent damage to the immune cells themselves. Many antioxidants can be obtained directly from the diet (e.g. ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and polyphenolic flavonoids) or require micronutrients as integral components (e.g. Se in the metalloenzyme glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9)). Numerous epidemiological studies have found strong associations between diets rich in antioxidant nutrients and a reduced incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that a boost to the body's immune system by antioxidants might, at least in part, account for this. Although more striking effects have been observed in the elderly, there is also evidence that antioxidant nutrients can modify cell-mediated immune responses in younger individuals. Indeed, it might be essential to have an adequate intake of antioxidant nutrients from an early age in order to help prevent the development of, or at least delay the onset of, several degenerative disorders. The present paper will review the effects of specific nutrients on immune function in young to middle-aged human subjects, focusing on the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and on Se. A further review, dealing more specifically with the effects of carotenoids on human immune function, will be presented at a forthcoming meeting of the Nutrition Society.

  17. Further studies on the effects of dietary copper deficiency on rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Mylroie, A.A.; Boseman, A.; Kyle, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain further information on the effect of Cu deficiency on the pancreas and on pancreatic SOD activity. In a series of experiments, groups of male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a Cu sufficient Cu or Cu deficient purified AIN-'76 diet. Cu levels were determined in blood and selected organs by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were determined. Aliquots of homogenized pancreas were assayed for CuSOD, MnSOD and other pancreatic enzyme activities. Although the experimental conditions appeared to be identical to those used in previous experiments, the results were different. In the experiments reported here, even though pancreatic weights decreased by week 7 relative to controls, there was no evidence of pancreatic atrophy. There was no significant decrease in CuSOD, but an unexpected increase in MnSOD activity by week 9 in rats fed Cu-deficient diet. An examination of all data indicates that the difference in results between previous experiments and those reported here was due to the varying degree of Cu deficiency produced: Cu deficiency was less pronounced in the present study.

  18. Increased folate uptake prevents dietary development of folate deficiency in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    McMartin, K.E.; Collins, T.D.; Eisenga, B.H.; Bhandari, S.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Folic acid and folate deficiency have been implicated in disorders of the central nervous system. In a study of the mechanism for the effects of chronic ethanol on folate homeostasis, the uptake of {sup 3}H-folic acid by the rat brain has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed sulfonamide-supplemented folate-sufficient and folate-deficient liquid diets containing either ethanol or isoenergic carbohydrate as a control. After 16 weeks, severe folate depletion occurred in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung intestine, testes), but not in the brain. Tissue retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was increased four-fold in the brain of folate-deficient rats. A smaller increase in uptake was observed in the other tissues, except for the liver, in which the retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was slightly decreased. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased hepatic folate uptake, but not that by the increase the uptake of folate from the plasma of folate-deficient rats, thereby inhibiting the development of brain folate deficiency.

  19. Antioxidant balance and free radical generation in vitamin e-deficient mice after dermal exposure to cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, A A; Kisin, E R; Murray, A R; Kommineni, C; Castranova, V; Mason, R P; Kadiiska, M B; Gunther, M R

    2002-11-01

    Organic peroxides are widely used in the chemical industry as initiators of oxidation for the production of polymers and fiber-reinforced plastics, in the manufacture of polyester resin coatings, and pharmaceuticals. Free radical production is considered to be one of the key factors contributing to skin tumor promotion by organic peroxides. In vitro experiments have demonstrated metal-catalyzed formation of alkoxyl, alkyl, and aryl radicals in keratinocytes incubated with cumene hydroperoxide. The present study investigated in vivo free radical generation in lipid extracts of mouse skin exposed to cumene hydroperoxide. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique was used to detect the formation of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) radical adducts, following intradermal injection of 180 mg/kg PBN. It was found that 30 min after topical exposure, cumene hydroperoxide (12 mmol/kg) induced free radical generation in the skin of female Balb/c mice kept for 10 weeks on vitamin E-deficient diets. In contrast, hardly discernible radical adducts were detected when cumene hydroperoxide was applied to the skin of mice fed a vitamin E-sufficient diet. Importantly, total antioxidant reserve and levels of GSH, ascorbate, and vitamin E decreased 34%, 46.5%. 27%, and 98%, respectively, after mice were kept for 10 weeks on vitamin E-deficient diet. PBN adducts detected by ESR in vitamin E-deficient mice provide direct evidence for in vivo free radical generation in the skin after exposure to cumene hydroperoxide.

  20. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  1. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  2. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-18

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis.

  3. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    David R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  4. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a reactive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Zinc (Zn) deficiency affects approximately 30% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient and is important for the body’s ability to function. To date, accurate biological markers of the Zn subject’s status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chicken mod...

  5. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P < 0.05). These data suggested that folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P < 0.05). These data indicated

  6. The effects of dietary flax oil and antioxidants on ascites and pulmonary hypertension in broilers using a low temperature model.

    PubMed

    Walton, J P; Julian, R J; Squires, E J

    2001-03-01

    1. Three experiments were conducted using a low temperature model to induce pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ascites in broiler chickens. Diets containing 25 g or 50 g flax oil/kg food and control diets with an equivalent amount of animal/vegetable (A/V) blend oil, with and without supplemental antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) were used. The amount of PH was assessed by the ratio of right ventricle weight to total ventricle weight (RV/TV ratio). Birds were considered to suffer from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) if the RV/TV ratio was greater than 0.299. 2. In experiment 1, the test diets contained 50 g oil/kg food and were given during the grower period only. Birds fed on the flax oil diet tended to have a lower incidence of PHS, ascites and lower RV/TV ratios than birds fed on the control diet. However, when the flax oil diet was supplemented with antioxidants, the incidence of ascites, PHS, haematocrit and whole blood and plasma viscosity increased compared with birds fed on the flax oil diet without antioxidants. These effects were not seen in experiment 2, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food (25 g flax oil plus 5 g A/V blend oil/kg food compared to 30 g A/V blend oil/kg food) were given during the grower period. However, in experiment 3, when the test diets containing 30 g oil/kg food were given from day 1 to week 8, birds fed on the control diet supplemented with antioxidants had a higher incidence of PHS than those fed on the control diet alone. 3. In all 3 experiments, there was no significant effect of dietary fat source or supplemental antioxidants on total food intake or food conversion. 4. We conclude that diets containing 50 g flax oil/kg food tend to reduce the incidence of PHS and ascites in broilers using a low temperature model but the results were not statistically significant. In some cases, supplementing diets with a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C increased the incidence of ascites and PHS.

  7. Smoking, antioxidant supplementation and dietary intakes among older adults with age-related macular degeneration over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD.

  8. Dietary Fat Interacts with PCBs to Induce Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Mice Deficient in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V.; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (LDL-R−/−) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil–fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil–enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil–diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil–fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil–fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of vitamins D(3) and E on quality characteristics of pigs and longissimus muscle antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Lahucky, Rudolf; Bahelka, Ivan; Kuechenmeister, Ulrich; Vasickova, Katarina; Nuernberg, Karin; Ender, Klaus; Nuernberg, Gerd

    2007-10-01

    The effects of addition of vitamin D(3) and vitamin E to pig diets on blood plasma calcium concentration, meat quality (longissimus muscle) and antioxidative capacity were investigated. Two treatments consisted of supplementation with vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days separately (group D) and a combination of vitamin E (500mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for 30 days and vitamin D(3) (500,000IU/d) for 5 days (group D+E) to growing-finishing pigs before slaughter. Pigs fed with vitamin D(3) had higher (P<0.01) plasma calcium concentration compared with control pigs. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat (longissimus muscle). Vitamin D(3) supplementation resulted in higher (P=0.07) a(∗) values of loin chops at 5 days of storage. Vitamin D(3) and vitamin E supplementation did not affect other meat quality characteristics or tenderness (quantified by Warner-Bratzler shear force). Antioxidative capacity (measured as MDA production after incubation of longissimus muscle homogenates with Fe(2+)/ascorbate) was improved by vitamin E and partly by vitamin D(3) supplementation.

  10. Dietary palm olein oil augments cardiac antioxidant enzymes and protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Narang, D; Sood, S; Thomas, M; Dinda, A K; Maulik, S K

    2005-11-01

    Wistar rats, 150-200 g, of either sex, were fed daily with commercial rat diet supplemented with palm olein oil in two doses (5% v/w (n = 16) and 10% v/w (n = 16) of diet) for 30 days. Control rats (n = 16) were fed with normal diet. On the 29(th) and 30(th) days, 8 rats from each group were administred isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, s.c., 24-h interval). On the 31(st) day, all rats were sacrificed and myocardial tissues were studied for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant enzymes and light microscopic changes, along with the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). A significant rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and FRAP level were observed in rats fed with palm olein oil. Isoproterenol caused an increase in myocardial oxidative stress in control rats, as evidenced by an increase in myocardial TBARS level, reduction in FRAP and myocardial SOD, catalase and GPx activity, along with focal necrosis of cardiac muscle fibres on light microscopy. The rise in myocardial TBARS and depletion of SOD and catalase activity following isoproterenol administration were prevented in palm-olein-oil-supplemented diet-fed rats at both doses. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial light-microscopic changes were also prevented in the treated groups. The results suggest that dietary palm olein oil caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidant enzymes and protected against isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis and associated oxidative stress.

  11. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  12. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  13. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  14. Effects of dietary antioxidant on performance and physiological responses following heat stress in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative damage, increasing mortality and reducing productivity in chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in laying hens during HS. Eighty 32-wk-old W-36 White Leghorn hens were used in this study. Hens were randoml...

  15. Dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers through maintaining muscle energy metabolism and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Wang, L; Zhao, X H; Chen, X Y; Yang, L; Geng, Z Y

    2017-03-02

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate. All birds in the 3 crates were transported according to the following protocols: 0-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (control group), 3-hour transport of birds in the Res-free group (T group), and 3-hour transport of birds in the Res group (T + Res group). The results showed that Res not only improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) but also tended to improve birds' final body weight (P < 0.10). In the Res-free group, a 3-hour transport increased serum corticosterone concentration, muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate contents, and muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while it decreased muscle glycogen content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities (P < 0.05), which induced decreased breast meat quality (lower pH24h and higher drip loss and L*24 h, P < 0.05). Nevertheless, compared with the T group, Res increased muscle glycogen content and T-SOD and GSH-PX activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10), while it decreased muscle MDA content and LDH activity (P < 0.05), which is beneficial to the meat quality maintenance of transported broilers (lower drip loss, L*24 h, and higher pH24h, P < 0.05 or P < 0.10). This study provides the first evidence that dietary resveratrol supplementation prevents transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers

  16. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses modulate skeletal muscle heat shock protein and inflammatory gene expression in sheep exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Fahri, F T; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the expression of heat shock proteins and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were allocated to either a control (10 IU vitamin E and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high-antioxidant (VitE+Se; 100 IU vitamin E and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet and were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18°C-21°C and 26%-30% relative humidity; heat stress [HS]: 28°C-40°C and 40%-50% relative humidity) for 1 wk. Physiological parameters were recorded daily, and muscle biopsies were conducted at the end of thermal treatments. Total RNA was extracted from muscle samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA for real-time PCR analysis. Respiration rates and rectal temperature were increased in response to HS (84.2 vs. 161 breaths per minute and 39.52°C vs. 40.06°C for TN and HS conditions, respectively; P < 0.001). There were interactions between dietary and thermal treatments, indicating that dietary antioxidant supplementation reduced respiration rate (P = 0.097) and rectal temperature (P = 0.086) of sheep during HS but not TN conditions. Skeletal muscle heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) mRNA abundance was increased by HS (1.3-fold; P < 0.050) but was not changed (P = 0.77) by dietary antioxidant supplementation. The expression of skeletal muscle heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA was increased (P < 0.001) 3.5-fold by HS and tended (P = 0.08) to be increased by dietary antioxidant supplementation. Although there were no main effects of diet (P = 0.42) or HS (P = 0.47) on skeletal muscle HSP90 mRNA expression, there was an interaction (P = 0.040) such that HSP90 mRNA expression was increased (P = 0.010) in antioxidant-supplemented sheep under HS compared to TN conditions. Skeletal muscle nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tissue necrosis factor α (TNF-α) m

  17. Effects of dietary fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Yang, Rui; Li, Ming; Zhou, Qicun; Liang, Xiongpei; Elmada, Zacharia Cassian

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Totally 420 individuals of juvenile yellow catfish were randomly allocated to 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fishes per replicate. The same experimental fish were randomly subjected to one of the following 7 treatments for 12 weeks: The basal diet was applied as control group, the experimental groups were fed on fucoidan extracted from Sargassum horneri (SF) and commodity fucoidan purchased from the market (MF), and the effective dosages were 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% per kilogram feed (the groups were respectively marked as SF1, SF2, SF3, MF1, MF2 and MF3). The capabilities of anti-oxidation and innate immunity were detected by the blood characters, serum enzyme activities, serum MDA content, respiratory burst activity and phagocytic index of head-kidney macrophages. Challenge test was conducted also. The results indicated that the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) values of the yellow catfish were significantly decreased when dietary with SF and MF, while there was no significant difference between the MF1 and the control group. Fish fed on SF and MF diets had a lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level than those fed on basal diet except SF2 group. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose (GUL) levels of the fish were significantly decreased at the 0.2% dietary fucoidan level, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased when the fish fed dietary SF and MF. The CAT activities of SF groups were higher than that of control groups, while these values were not significantly changed in MF1 and MF3 groups. The maximum of catalase (CAT) activities of the fish fed on two kind

  18. Pre- and postnatal dietary protein deficiency influences anxiety, memory and social behaviour in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Neville; Rimbach, Rebecca; Rymer, Tasmin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein deficiency influences the behavioural phenotypes of mammals. We studied whether protein deficiency during gestation and/or post-weaning heightened anxiety, reduced memory recall and influenced competitive ability in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. Mice were subjected to five protein diet treatments, which they received continuously, or were raised on one diet to weaning and switched to an alternate diet post-weaning (Day 16): 1) HP-HP: high protein (24%); first letter pair indicates maternal diet and the second pair indicates offspring diet post-weaning; 2) BP-BP: baseline protein (19%); 3) LP-LP: low protein (10%); 4) HP-LP: switched from high to low protein diet; and 5) LP-HP: switched from low protein to high protein diet. From Day 70, when mice were sexually mature, 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females) per treatment were subjected to three successive experiments, in which we tested their anxiety responses in: 1) an open field arena (time spent in the centre of the open field); 2) novel object recognition (time spent exploring a novel object); and 3) social interactions (excluding BP-BP) in age-matched same-sex dyadic encounters (aggressive, amicable and avoidance behaviours). LP-LP and LP-HP treatment mice spent the least amount of time in the centre of the open field, did not demonstrate object preference compared to the other treatments, and were the most aggressive in dyadic encounters. Our study shows that the systemic effects of protein-deficient diets during early life shapes the behavioural phenotype in R. d. chakae, possibly through early organisation of neuro-biological pathways or competition among littermates.

  19. Use of Sodium Butyrate as an Alternative to Dietary Fiber: Effects on the Embryonic Development and Anti-Oxidative Capacity of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets—(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)—intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF. PMID:24852604

  20. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  1. Selenium deficiency decreases antioxidative capacity and is detrimental to bone microarchitecture in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se), a chemical component of selenoproteins (such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductase), plays a major role in cellular redox status and may have beneficial effects on bone health. The deficiency of Se has been linked to increased oxidative stress with increased levels of r...

  2. Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, S A; Mathot, J N; de Fouw, N J; Tijburg, L B

    1996-02-01

    Consumption of a range of dietary antioxidants may be beneficial in protecting low density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidative modification, as studies have demonstrated that antioxidants other than vitamin E may also function against oxidation of LDL in vitro. In the present study, the effect of polyphenol antioxidants on the susceptibility of LDL to copper-mediated oxidation was investigated after feeding semi-purified diets to 3 groups of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. All diets comprised 40% energy as fat with 17% energy as oleic acid. Dietary fatty acid compositions were identical. Oils with different polyphenol contents were used to provide the dietary source of oleic acid-refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and Trisun high oleic sunflower seed oil. Polyphenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and p-tyrosol) could only be detected in the extra virgin olive oil. Vitamin E was equalised in all diets. LDL oxidizability in vitro was determined by continuously monitoring the copper-induced formation of conjugated dienes after 6 weeks of experimental diet feeding. The lag phase before demonstrable oxidation occurred was significantly increased in the high polyphenol, extra virgin olive oil group (P < 0.05) when compared with combined results from the low polyphenol group (refined olive oil and Trisun), even though the LDL vitamin E concentration in the high polyphenol group was significantly lower. The rate of conjugated diene formation was not influenced by the presence of dietary polyphenols. Results demonstrate that antioxidants, possibly phenolic compounds which are present only in extra virgin olive oil, may contribute to the endogenous antioxidant capacity of LDL, resulting in an increased resistance to oxidation as determined in vitro.

  3. Effect of selected dietary antioxidants on fatty liver-haemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Diaz, G J; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-09-01

    1. Single comb White Leghorn hens of an inbred line highly susceptible to fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) were fed supplemented dietary ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg), alpha-tocopherol (75 mg/kg), or L-cysteine (3 g/kg, and 6 g/kg) for 28 d in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of these compounds against the disease. 2. Supplementation of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or a low level of L-cysteine (3 g/kg) did not significantly affect any of the hepatic variables evaluated. Hepatic glutathione was not increased by the supplementation of dietary L-cysteine. 3. L-cysteine supplemented at a level of 6 g/kg decreased hepatic dry matter and fat contents without affecting the hepatic malondialdehyde or the liver haemorrhagic score. 4. Because one of the predisposing factors of FLHS is a high hepatic fat content it was concluded that dietary supplementation of L-cysteine (6 g/kg) may be useful in the prevention of the disease.

  4. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  5. Effects of dietary vitamin E type on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed broilers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Song, Z H; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-09-24

    Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play multiple roles in some immune-pathological events. Vitamin E, as a very potent antioxidant, perhaps deceases the potentially negative effects of such oxidative stress to prevent immune-pathological damage to broilers. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of dietary natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance and antioxidant capacity in cyclophosphamide (CY) immunosuppressed broilers. 192 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broilers were randomly distributed into 4 groups: 1) non-CY-challenged control; 2) CY-challenged control; 3) CY-challenged group+20 IU DL-α-tocopherol acetate per kg feed; and 4) CY-challenged group+20 IU D-α-tocopherol per kg feed. The maize-soybean basal diet in the control group contained α-tocopherol (7.12 mg/kg). Broilers were intramuscularly injected with 80 mg/kg body weight of CY or sterile saline at 16, 17, and 18 d of age. CY decreased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain and average daily feed intake, but vitamin E did not alter the growth performance of broilers before or after CY injection (P > 0.05). The decreased absolute weight of the spleen, thymus and bursa, serum interleukin 2 (IL-2), and interleukin 6 (IL-2) concentrations in CY-treated broilers were alleviated by vitamin E (P < 0.05). The decreased relative weight (g/kg body weight) of the bursa in the CY-treated broilers was increased by natural vitamin E (P < 0.05). The CY-induced increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreases in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione, vitamin C, and α-tocopherol levels, and total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in both serum and the liver were attenuated by vitamin E (P < 0.05). Additionally, natural vitamin E increased α-tocopherol and T-AOC levels and decreased MDA content in the liver of CY-treated broilers (P < 0.05) when compared to the synthetic form. In

  6. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Takahashi, Hideaki; Giral-Arnal, Hector; Wang, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Tao; Verlander, Jill W; Wilson, Paul; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Sutherland, Eileen; Caldas, Yupanqui; Blaine, Judith T; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Barry, Nicholas P; Levi, Moshe

    2009-08-01

    Dietary potassium (K) deficiency is accompanied by phosphaturia and decreased renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle sodium (Na)-dependent phosphate (P(i)) transport activity. Our laboratory previously showed that K deficiency in rats leads to increased abundance in the proximal tubule BBM of the apical Na-P(i) cotransporter NaPi-IIa, but that the activity, diffusion, and clustering of NaPi-IIa could be modulated by the altered lipid composition of the K-deficient BBM (Zajicek HK, Wang H, Puttaparthi K, Halaihel N, Markovich D, Shayman J, Beliveau R, Wilson P, Rogers T, Levi M. Kidney Int 60: 694-704, 2001; Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng M, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M. J Biol Chem 279: 49160-49171, 2004). Here we investigated the role of the renal Na-P(i) cotransporters NaPi-IIc and PiT-2 in K deficiency. Using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, we found that, in rats and in mice, K deficiency is associated with a dramatic decrease in the NaPi-IIc protein abundance in proximal tubular BBM and in NaPi-IIc mRNA. In addition, we documented the presence of a third Na-coupled P(i) transporter in the renal BBM, PiT-2, whose abundance is also decreased by dietary K deficiency in rats and in mice. Finally, electron microscopy showed subcellular redistribution of NaPi-IIc in K deficiency: in control rats, NaPi-IIc immunolabel was primarily in BBM microvilli, whereas, in K-deficient rats, NaPi-IIc BBM label was reduced, and immunolabel was prevalent in cytoplasmic vesicles. In summary, our results demonstrate that decreases in BBM abundance of the phosphate transporter NaPi-IIc and also PiT-2 might contribute to the phosphaturia of dietary K deficiency, and that the three renal BBM phosphate transporters characterized so far can be differentially regulated by dietary perturbations.

  7. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activity in burned mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huey-Fang; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on specific antibody production and antioxidant enzyme activities in burned mice vaccinated with detoxified Pseudomonas exotoxin A linked with the outer membrane proteins I and F, named PEIF. Also, the survival rate of burned mice complicated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Experiment 1: Thirty BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, while the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The mice were immunized twice with PEIF, and the production of specific antibodies against PEIF was measured every week. After 8 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. Mice were sacrificed 24h after the burn. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues as well as the specific antibody production were analyzed. Experiment 2: Twenty-eight mice were divided into two groups and vaccinated as described in experiment 1. After the burn the mice were infected with P. aeruginosa, and the survival rate was observed for 8 days. The results demonstrated that antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in tissues were significantly lower in the Arg group than in the control group after the burn. The production of specific antibodies against P. aeruginosa significantly increased in the Arg group at 4 and 7 weeks after immunization, and 24h after the burn. The survival rates of vaccinated burned mice after bacterial infection did not significantly differ between the two groups. These results suggest that vaccinating mice with Arg supplementation may enhance humoral immunity and attenuate the oxidative stress induced by burn injury. However, Arg supplementation did not improve survival in vaccinated mice complicated with P. aeruginosa infection.

  8. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  9. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented ginkgo leaves on antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Sun, Z Y; Cao, F L; Ahmad, H; Yang, X H; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with three types of fermented Ginkgo-leaves (FGL) on growth, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks. 2. A total of 300 d-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replications of 10 birds each. Birds were fed on basal diets (Control) or basal diets supplemented with 0.5% FGL with Candida utilis (CF group), Aspergillus niger (AF group) or their combined fermentation (CAF group), respectively, for a 42 d feeding trial. 3. AF and CAF supplementation improved body weight gain (BWG) (22-42 d) and feed conversion ratio (22-42 d and 1-42 d). Concentrations of serum α-tocopherol in CAF group, as well as hepatic α-tocopherol in the three FGL groups were increased, while hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly decreased in group AF and CAF. Chickens in AF and CAF groups had decreased hepatic protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as jejunal and ileal protein carbonyls. The total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) of both jejunum and ileum of the CAF group were higher than the other groups. 4. Duodenal and jejunal villous height of birds fed on the AF and CAF diets were increased, while jejunal crypt depth (CD) was decreased. Furthermore, birds fed on AF and CAF supplemented diets had increased ileal lactobacilli populations. Decreased ileal and caecal Escherichia coli and Salmonellas populations was found for the birds fed on CAF supplemented diets. 5. The present study may indicate that the improved feed efficiency and intestinal functions in the group supplemented with AF and CAF are directly connected with the improved antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbial ecology.

  11. Effects of dietary boron and phytase supplementation on growth performance and mineral profile of broiler chickens fed on diets adequate or deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Çinar, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Bozkurt, M; Çatli, A U; Bintaş, E; Akşit, H; Konak, R; Yamaner, Ç; Seyrek, K

    2015-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to determine the effect of dietary boron (B) in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) (adequate or deficient) and supplemental B (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg diet). In Experiment 2, B, at 20 mg/kg, and phytase (PHY) (500 FTU/kg diet) were incorporated into a basal diet deficient in Ca and aP, either alone or in combination. 2. The parameters that were measured were growth performance indices, serum biochemical activity as well as ash and mineral (i.e. Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) content of tibia, breast muscle and liver. 3. Results indicated that both supplemental B and dietary Ca and aP had marginal effects on performance indices of chickens grown for 42 d. 4. There were positive correlations (linear effect) between B concentrations of serum, bone, breast muscle and liver and the amount of B consumed. 5. Serum T3 and T4 activities increased linearly with higher B supplementation. 6. Increasing supplemental B had significant implications on breast muscle and liver mineral composition. Lowering dietary Ca and aP level increased Cu content in liver and both Fe and Zn retention in breast muscle. Tibia ash content and mineral composition did not respond to dietary modifications with either Ca-aP or B. 7. The results also suggested that dietary contents of Ca and aP do not affect the response to B regarding tissue mineral profile. Dietary combination with B and PHY did not create a synergism with regard to growth performance and bioavailability of the minerals.

  12. Complex carbohydrates in the dietary management of patients with glycogenosis caused by glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Smit, G P; Ververs, M T; Belderok, B; Van Rijn, M; Berger, R; Fernandes, J

    1988-07-01

    Carbohydrates with digestion characteristics between those of lente uncooked starches and rapidly digestible oligosaccharides were administered in a dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight to five patients with glycogenosis from glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. Postprandial duration of normoglycemia and concentrations of blood insulin and lactate were determined. Uncooked barley groats in water, or incorporated in a meal turned out to behave as lente carbohydrates. Uncooked couscous in water, couscous incorporated in a meal, and partially cooked macaroni given as a meal behaved as semilente carbohydrates as compared with uncooked cornstarch and glucose. The in vitro determination of the digestibility index along with the in vivo tolerance test enables us to choose and incorporate semilente carbohydrates in the day-time treatment of patients.

  13. Influence of dietary phosphorus deficiency with or without addition of fumaric acid to a diet in pigs on bone parameters.

    PubMed

    Liesegang, A; Ursprung, R; Gasser, J; Sassi, M-L; Risteli, J; Riond, J-L; Wanner, M

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if substantial bone loss occurs in weaned pigs by feeding a phosphorus-deficient diet with or without fumaric acid. Eighteen weaned pigs were used. The animals were assigned to three groups: group C (control; 0.65% P on DM basis), group LP (low phosphorus; 0.37% P on DM basis) and group LPF (low phosphorus plus fumaric acid; 0.35% P on DM basis plus 2% fumaric acid). These three diets were fed to the groups for a period of four weeks after a two-week adaptation period. Blood samples were collected once a week. Carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in serum was used as a bone resorption marker. Osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were used as bone formation markers. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were determined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography. BAP activities significantly increased (24%) in group LPF, and at the last sampling day group LPF had significantly increased activities in comparison to group C. In contrast, ICTP concentrations significantly increased with time in group LP and LPF, and at the last sampling day group LPF had significantly increased activities in comparison to group C. BMD and BMC in femur and tibia significantly decreased in group LP and LPF. The results show that P-deficient diets induce a bone loss. Fumaric acid did not influence the degree of bone loss. With a better understanding of its effect on bone, dietary phosphorus requirements in pigs could be more precisely defined.

  14. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    PubMed

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  15. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-07-16

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency.

  16. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Felipe C. G.; Branquinho, Jéssica L. O.; Brandão, Bruna B.; Guerra, Beatriz A.; Silva, Ismael D.; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Festuccia, William T.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mori, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  17. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates symptoms of premature aging associated with the deficiency of the circadian protein BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Kondratova, Anna A.; Antoch, Marina P.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the circadian clock protein BMAL1 leads to premature aging and increased levels of reactivate oxygen species in several tissues of mice. In order to investigate the role of oxidative stress in accelerated aging and development of age-related pathologies, we continuously administered the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine toBmal1-deficient mice through their entire lifespan by supplementing drinking water. We found that the life long treatment with antioxidant significantly increased average and maximal lifespan and reduced the rate of age-dependent weight loss and development of cataracts. At the same time, it had no effect on time of onset and severity of other age-related pathologies characteristic of Bmal1-/- mice, such as joint ossification, reduced hair regrowth and sarcopenia. We conclude that chronic oxidative stress affects longevity and contributes to the development of at least some age-associated pathology, although ROS-independent mechanisms may also play a role. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the presence of a conservative E box element in the promoter regions of several genes encoding major antioxidant enzymes. We speculate that BMAL1 controls antioxidant defense by regulating the expression of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20157581

  18. Antiatherosclerotic and antioxidative effects of captopril in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hayek, T; Attias, J; Smith, J; Breslow, J L; Keidar, S

    1998-04-01

    The effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, on the development of atherosclerosis was determined in the apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. These mice develop severe hypercholesterolemia and extensive atherosclerotic lesions on chow diet, similar to those found in humans. Furthermore, in these mice, accelerated atherosclerosis is associated with increased plasma lipid peroxidation, a phenomenon that may play a crucial role in the buildup of the atherosclerotic lesions. Mice received either placebo or 50 mg/kg/day of captopril. After 12 weeks of treatment, captopril reduced the aortic-lesion area by 70% compared with that of the placebo-treated group. Captopril also increased the resistance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to CuSO4-induced oxidative stress, as shown by a significant reduction in the LDL content of malondialdehyde (MDA) by 30%, as well as by the prolongation of the lag time required for LDL oxidation from 55 min in the placebo-treated mice to 70 min in the captopril-treated mice, and reduction of the maximum LDL oxidation at 150 min by 35%. In vitro studies demonstrated that preincubation of LDL with captopril, inhibited the onset of CuSO4-induced LDL peroxidation up to 120 min, and reduced the LDL content of MDA by 90%. We conclude that captopril attenuates atherosclerosis in the apo E-deficient mice, and this phenomenon may be related to its inhibitory effect on the plasma LDL oxidation.

  19. Dietary Intake of Carotenoids and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Cardiovascular Care

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Carbonara, Santa; Ricci, Gabriella; De Pascalis, Francesca; Riccioni, Graziano

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis represents nowadays the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis, several studies had been conducted in order to search for substances with anti-inflammatory activity on arterial walls, able to exert beneficial roles on health. Researches investigated the role of dietary carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular disease, due to their free radicals scavenger properties and their skills in improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol resistance to oxidation. Nevertheless, literature data are conflicting: although some studies found a positive relationship between carotenoids supplementation and cardiovascular risk reduction, others did not find any positive effects or even prooxidant actions. This paper aimed at defining the role of carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular risk profile by reviewing literature data, paying attention to those carotenoids more present in our diet (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin). PMID:24489447

  20. A calcitonin receptor (CALCR) single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with growth performance and bone integrity in response to dietary phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L S; Qu, A; Cutler, S A; Mahajan, A; Rothschild, M F; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C; Stahl, C H

    2010-03-01

    Although concerns over the environmental impact of excess P in the excreta from pig production and governmental regulations have driven research toward reducing dietary supplementation of P to swine diets for over a decade, recent dramatic increases in feed costs have further motivated researchers to identify means to further reduce dietary P supplementation. We have demonstrated that genetic background impacts P utilization in young pigs and have identified genetic polymorphisms in several target genes related to mineral utilization. In this study, we examined the impact of a SNP in the calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) on P utilization in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 36 gilts representing the 3 genotypes identified by this CALCR SNP (11, 12, and 22) were fed a P-adequate (PA) or a marginally P-deficient (approximately 20% less available P; PD) diet for 14 wk. As expected, P deficiency reduced plasma P concentration, bone strength, and mineral content (P < 0.05). However, the dietary P deficiency was mild enough to not affect the growth performance of these pigs. A genotype x dietary P interaction (P < 0.05) was observed in measures of bone integrity and mineral content, with the greatest reduction in bone strength and mineral content due to dietary P deficiency being associated with the allele 1. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs from a control line and low residual feed intake (RFI) line were genotyped for the CALCR SNP and fed a PA diet. As expected, pigs from the low RFI line consumed less feed but also gained less BW when compared with the control line (P < 0.05). Although ADFI did not differ between genotypes, pigs having the 11 genotype gained less BW (P < 0.05) than pigs having the 12 or 22 genotypes. Pigs of the 11 and 12 genotypes had bones that tolerated greater load when compared with animals having the 22 genotype (P < 0.05). A similar trend was observed in bone modulus and ash % (P < 0.10). These data are supportive of the association of this CALCR SNP with bone

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The EP 15 % treated fishes showed a significant higher (P < 0.05) in the activities of SOD after 60 days, but we could not observe significant changes (P > 0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot.

  2. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  3. Dietary zinc deficiency induces oxidative stress and promotes tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin-1β-induced RANKL expression in rat bone.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takako; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency on oxidative stress and bone metabolism. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups for 4 weeks: a zinc-adequate group (30 ppm); a zinc-deficient group (1 ppm); and a pair-fed group (30 ppm) that was pair-fed to the zinc-deficient group. The iron content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in bone were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. The mRNA expression level of osteoblastogenesis-related genes such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 was lower in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. These findings suggested that dietary zinc deficiency reduced osteoblastogenesis via a decrease in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and increased osteoclastogenesis via enhancement of the expression of receptor for activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand induced by oxidative stress-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β.

  4. Effect of Oral Iron on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Children with Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Moiz; Islam, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting reports are available on the relationship of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) and iron therapy with oxidative stress. Aim To study the levels of markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in children with IDA and to assess the effect of iron therapy on the same. Materials and Methods This prospective, single centre, hospital based study was a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry (of the same institution) between October 2009 to February 2011. The sub-study was conducted in two parts: in the first part, levels of a biomarker of oxidative stress {Malondialdehyde (MDA)} and anti-oxidant enzymes {Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)} were assessed and compared between 67 children with IDA and 31 non-anaemic controls; in the second part, the effect of oral iron (6mg/kg/day) for eight weeks on these markers was studied in a subset of 35 children with IDA. The Bivariate correlations procedure was used to compute pair wise associations for a set of variables. T-tests (Independent samples t-test/Paired sample t-test) and Non-parametric tests (Mann–Whitney test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test) were applied as applicable for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Results Levels of anti-oxidant enzymes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in children with IDA as compared to controls, viz., SOD {median, 8.63 (IQR, 8.60-8.66) vs. 9.46 (IQR, 9.14-9.62) units/mg protein}, CAT {median, 8.49 (IQR, 8.46-8.50) vs. 9.10 (IQR, 9.04-9.14) μmol H2O2/min/mg protein} and GPx {median, 49.19 (IQR, 48.99-49.60) vs. 56.94(IQR, 56.80-57.14) mol NADPH oxidized /min/ mg protein}. Whereas, levels of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.001) in IDA group {median, 1.50 (IQR, 1.48-1.52) vs. 1.24 (IQR, 1.20-1.27) moles/ml of serum}. Levels

  5. Dietary Composition Influences Incidence of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Iron Deficiency Anemia and Gastric Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Amber C; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Noto, Jennifer M; Peek, Richard M; Washington, M Kay; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting data regarding an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans. Here, a Mongolian gerbil model was used to investigate a potential role of H. pylori infection, as well as a possible role of diet, in H. pylori-associated IDA. Mongolian gerbils (either H. pylori infected or uninfected) received a normal diet or one of three diets associated with increased H. pylori virulence: high-salt, low-iron, or a combination of a high-salt and low-iron diet. In an analysis of all infected animals compared to uninfected animals (independent of diet), H. pylori-infected gerbils had significantly lower hemoglobin values than their uninfected counterparts at 16 weeks postinfection (P < 0.0001). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum ferritin values were significantly lower in H. pylori-infected gerbils than in uninfected gerbils, consistent with IDA. Leukocytosis and thrombocytosis were also detected in infected gerbils, indicating the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. In comparison to uninfected gerbils, H. pylori-infected gerbils had a higher gastric pH, a higher incidence of gastric ulcers, and a higher incidence of fecal occult blood loss. Anemia was associated with the presence of gastric ulceration but not gastric cancer. Infected gerbils consuming diets with a high salt content developed gastric ulcers significantly more frequently than gerbils consuming a normal-salt diet, and the lowest hemoglobin levels were in infected gerbils consuming a high-salt/low-iron diet. These data indicate that H. pylori infection can cause IDA and that the composition of the diet influences the incidence and severity of H. pylori-induced IDA.

  6. Prolonged Dietary Selenium Deficiency or Excess Does Not Globally Affect Selenoprotein Gene Expression and/or Protein Production in Various Tissues of Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Qiaoshan; Tang, Jiayong; Li, Ke; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Li, Kui; Lei, Xin Gen

    2012-01-01

    We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans. PMID:22739382

  7. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  8. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  9. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with unprocessed and ethanol-extracted apple pomaces on caecal fermentation, antioxidant and blood biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jarosławska, Julia; Jurgoński, Adam

    2012-04-01

    The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats.

  11. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

    PubMed

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties.

  12. Gene and noncoding RNA regulation underlying photoreceptor protection: microarray study of dietary antioxidant saffron and photobiomodulation in rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan; Valter, Krisztina; Bisti, Silvia; Eells, Janis; Stone, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genes and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) involved in the neuroprotective actions of a dietary antioxidant (saffron) and of photobiomodulation (PBM). Methods We used a previously published assay of photoreceptor damage, in which albino Sprague Dawley rats raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h 5 lux, 12 h darkness) were challenged by 24 h exposure to bright (1,000 lux) light. Experimental groups were protected against light damage by pretreatment with dietary saffron (1 mg/kg/day for 21 days) or PBM (9 J/cm2 at the eye, daily for 5 days). RNA from one eye of four animals in each of the six experimental groups (control, light damage [LD], saffron, PBM, saffronLD, and PBMLD) was hybridized to Affymetrix rat genome ST arrays. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of 14 selected genes was used to validate the microarray results. Results LD caused the regulation of 175 entities (genes and ncRNAs) beyond criterion levels (p<0.05 in comparison with controls, fold-change >2). PBM pretreatment reduced the expression of 126 of these 175 LD-regulated entities below criterion; saffron pretreatment reduced the expression of 53 entities (50 in common with PBM). In addition, PBM pretreatment regulated the expression of 67 entities not regulated by LD, while saffron pretreatment regulated 122 entities not regulated by LD (48 in common with PBM). PBM and saffron, given without LD, regulated genes and ncRNAs beyond criterion levels, but in lesser numbers than during their protective action. A high proportion of the entities regulated by LD (>90%) were known genes. By contrast, ncRNAs were prominent among the entities regulated by PBM and saffron in their neuroprotective roles (73% and 62%, respectively). Conclusions Given alone, saffron and (more prominently) PBM both regulated significant numbers of genes and ncRNAs. Given before retinal exposure to damaging light, thus while exerting their neuroprotective action, they regulated much larger numbers of entities

  13. Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, deficiencies in dietary folic acid and uracil-DNA glycosylase impair learning in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, Nafisa M; Farr, Tracy D; Lips, Janet; Khalil, Ahmed A; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Foddis, Marco; Harms, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2015-04-15

    Dietary deficiencies in folic acid result in elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, which has been associated with the development of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Previously, we have shown that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine in mice deficient for a DNA repair enzyme, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), result in neurodegeneration. The goal of this study was to evaluate how deficiencies in folic acid and UNG along with elevated levels of homocysteine affect vascular cognitive impairment, via chronic hypoperfursion in an animal model. Ung(+/+) and Ung(-/-) mice were placed on either control (CD) or folic acid deficient (FADD) diets. Six weeks later, the mice either underwent implantation of microcoils around both common carotid arteries. Post-operatively, behavioral tests began at 3-weeks, angiography was measured after 5-weeks using MRI to assess vasculature and at completion of study plasma and brain tissue was collected for analysis. Learning impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) were observed only in hypoperfused Ung(-/-) FADD mice and these mice had significantly higher plasma homocysteine concentrations. Interestingly, Ung(+/+) FADD produced significant remodeling of the basilar artery and arterial vasculature. Increased expression of GFAP was observed in the dentate gyrus of Ung(-/-) hypoperfused and FADD sham mice. Chronic hypoperfusion resulted in increased cortical MMP-9 protein levels of FADD hypoperfused mice regardless of genotypes. These results suggest that elevated levels of homocysteine only, as a result of dietary folic acid deficiency, don't lead to memory impairments and neurobiochemical changes. Rather a combination of either chronic hypoperfusion or UNG deficiency is required.

  14. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Pankratova, Maria S; Baizhumanov, Adil A; Yusipovich, Alexander I; Faassen, Maria; Shiryaeva, Tatyana Yu; Peterkova, Valentina A; Kovalenko, Svetlana S; Kazakova, Tatiana A; Maksimov, Georgy V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH) on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma); activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT) and ceruloplasmin (CP) levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively). The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396) exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205), exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  15. Changes in integrity of the gill during histidine deficiency or excess due to depression of cellular anti-oxidative ability, induction of apoptosis, inflammation and impair of cell-cell tight junctions related to Nrf2, TOR and NF-κB signaling in fish.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Qu, Biao; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    This study firstly explored the possible effects of dietary histidine on structural integrity and the related signaling factor gene expression in the gills of fish. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed with six diets containing gradual levels of histidine for 8 weeks. The results firstly demonstrated that histidine deficiency caused increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in the gills of fish, which was partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. Further investigations indicated that histidine deficiency caused depressions of those antioxidant enzyme activities are related to the down-regulation of corresponding antioxidant enzyme genes and the related signaling factor Nrf2 mRNA levels. Meanwhile, histidine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions that referring to the down-regulation of TOR and S6K mRNA levels. Furthermore, His deficiency down-regulated claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-3, claudin-12, claudin-15, occludin and ZO-1 transcription in fish gills. These effects were partially related to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and related signaling factor nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) mRNA levels, and the down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and related signaling factor IκBα mRNA levels. Excessive histidine exhibited negative effects that were similar to histidine deficiency, whereas the optimal histidine levels reversed those negative effects. Taken together, our results showed that histidine deficiency or excess impaired the structural

  16. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  17. Lipid peroxidation, proteins modifications, anti-oxidant enzymes activities and selenium deficiency in the plasma of hashitoxicosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mseddi, Malek; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Mnif, Fatma; Gargouri, Bochra; Abid, Mohamed; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi; Lassoued, Saloua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress profile in hashitoxicosis (HTX) and to compare it with that of healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluate the oxidative stress markers. The selenium level was investigated by atomic absorption. Results: High levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and conjugated dienes were found in HTX patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.043, respectively) compared with healthy controls. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased, whereas that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, p = 0.000, respectively) compared with controls. A reduction in the level of selenium (p = 0.029) and thiol groups (p = 0.008) were shown in patients; however, levels of carbonyl group and malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts decreased (p = 0.000) compared with controls. Positive correlation was shown between levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and TBARS (r = 0.711, p = 0.048) and between FT4 level and SOD activity (r = 0.713, p = 0.047). Conversely, GPx activity presented a negative correlation with FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels (r = –0.934, p = 0.001; r = –0.993, p = 0.000, respectively). In addition, GPx activity showed positive correlation with selenium level (r = 0.981, p = 0.019) and the FT3 level correlated negatively with the level of thiol groups (r = –0.892, p = 0.017). Conclusions: This study shows the presence of an oxidative stress and selenium deficiency in HTX patients and suggests that the hyperthyroid state is strongly implicated in the establishment of this disturbed oxidative profile. PMID:26445640

  18. Effects of dietary sialic acid in n-3 fatty acid-deficient dams during pregnancy and lactation on the learning abilities of their pups after weaning.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Honma, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Yoichi; Yasuda, Yuki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary sialic acid in dams on the learning abilities of their pups after weaning were investigated using rats deficient in n-3 fatty acids. Nine-week-old female Wistar rats were fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet for 3 wk and were mated at 12 wk of age. During pregnancy and lactation, the female rats were fed the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet, and were given water or water containing 1% N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) ad libitum. After weaning, the learning abilities of the pups were evaluated using a novel object recognition test. The recognition index of pups nursed by dams fed on water containing 1% NANA (NANA-intake dams) was significantly higher than that of pups nursed by dams fed only on water (NANA non-intake dams). There were no significant differences in the total sialic acid or docosahexaenoic acid contents in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus of pups nursed by dams fed on either type of water. The total dimethylacetal (DMA, from plasmalogen) level in the cerebral cortex of pups nursed by NANA-intake dams was significantly higher than that of pups nursed by NANA non-intake dams. These results suggest that dietary sialic acid in dams during pregnancy and lactation might be beneficial for the learning abilities of pups after weaning, which may be related to the plasmalogen level in the brain of pups.

  19. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P < 0.05), and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and the amounts of Lactobacillus and Bacillus in the intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that relative mRNA expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), CAT, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) in the intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P < 0.05). Conversely, the relative mRNA expression of occludin, claudin-3, claudin-7, TNF-α, IL-10, Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 (Keap1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in the intestine showed a downward trend (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Ile improves intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp.

  20. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  1. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  2. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation.

  3. Effects of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on mouse oesophageal mucosa changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency and deoxycholic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zapaterini, Joyce R; de Moura, Nelci A; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F

    2012-08-01

    The noxious effects of dietary zinc deficiency (ZD) and deoxycholic bile acid (DCA) supplementation in the oesophagus were investigated. The additional influence of cigarette smoke and ethanol intake on the changes in the oesophageal mucosa induced by dietary ZD plus DCA was also assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Group 1 was fed control diet and groups 2-4 were fed ZD plus DCA diet. After 5 weeks, groups 3 and 4 were exposed to 10% ethanol intake or cigarette smoke for 15 weeks, respectively. All animals were euthanized at the end of week 20, and the oesophagus, lung, liver and colon were collected and analysed by conventional morphology. Cell proliferation was assessed in the oesophageal mucosa by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein by Western blotting. Dietary ZD plus DCA treatment induced mild hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia, increased cell proliferation index and COX-2 protein expression in the oesophagus, and intranuclear inclusion, karyocytomegaly and microvesicular fatty change in the liver. Cigarette smoke increased COX-2 protein expression in oesophageal mucosa and irregular enlargement of alveolus and alveolar ductal air spaces, while ethanol enhanced liver damage induced by ZD plus DCA diet. These findings indicate that dietary ZD plus DCA treatment during 20 weeks induces a pattern of chemical oesophageal injury but not Barrett's-like lesions.

  4. Genotypic Variation under Fe Deficiency Results in Rapid Changes in Protein Expressions and Genes Involved in Fe Metabolism and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Tomato Seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Fe deficiency tolerance in tomato cultivars, quantification of proteins and genes involved in Fe metabolism and antioxidant mechanisms were performed in “Roggusanmaru” and “Super Doterang”. Fe deficiency (Moderate, low and –Fe) significantly decreased the biomass, total, and apoplastic Fe concentration of “Roggusanmaru”, while a slight variation was observed in “Super Doterang” cultivar. The quantity of important photosynthetic pigments such as total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly decreased in “Roggusanmaru” than “Super Doterang” cultivar. The total protein profile in leaves and roots determines that “Super Doterang” exhibited an optimal tolerance to Fe deficiency compared to “Roggusanmaru” cultivar. A reduction in expression of PSI (photosystem I), PSII (photosystem II) super-complexes and related thylakoid protein contents were detected in “Roggusanmaru” than “Super Doterang” cultivar. Moreover, the relative gene expression of SlPSI and SlPSII were well maintained in “Super Doterang” than “Roggusanmaru” cultivar. The relative expression of genes involved in Fe-transport (SlIRT1 and SlIRT2) and Fe(III) chelates reductase oxidase (SlFRO1) were relatively reduced in “Roggusanmaru”, while increased in “Super Doterang” cultivar under Fe deficient conditions. The H+-ATPase relative gene expression (SlAHA1) in roots were maintained in “Super Doterang” compared to “Roggusanmaru”. Furthermore, the gene expressions involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms (SlSOD, SlAPX and SlCAT) in leaves and roots showed that these genes were highly increased in “Super Doterang”, whereas decreased in “Roggusanmaru” cultivar under Fe deficiency. The present study suggested that “Super Doterang” is better tomato cultivar than “Roggusanmaru” for calcareous soils. PMID:26602920

  5. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ling-Fang; Qian, Yi-Song; Deng, Ke-Yu; Ji, Guangju; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27547294

  6. Changes in rubisco, cysteine-rich proteins and antioxidant system of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) due to sulphur deficiency, cadmium stress and their combination.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Bashir, Humayra; Iqbal, Muhammad; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-03-01

    Sulphur (S) deficiency, cadmium (Cd) toxicity and their combinations are of wide occurrence throughout agricultural lands. We assessed the impact of short-term (2 days) and long-term (4 days) applications of cadmium (40 μg/g soil) on spinach plants grown on sulphur-sufficient (300 μM SO4(2-)) and sulphur-deficient (30 μM SO4(2-)) soils. Compared with the control (+S and -Cd), oxidative stress was increased by S deficiency (-S and -Cd), cadmium (+S and +Cd) and their combination stress (-S and +Cd) in the order of (S deficiency) < (Cd stress) < (S deficiency and +Cd stress). SDS-PAGE profile of leaf proteins showed a high vulnerability of rubisco large subunit (RbcL) to S deficiency. Rubisco small subunit (RbcS) was particularly sensitive to Cd as well as dual stress (+Cd and -S) but increased with Cd in the presence of S. Cysteine content in low molecular weight proteins/peptide was also affected, showing a significant increase under cadmium treatment. Components of ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system altered their levels, showing the maximum decline in ascorbate (ASA), dehydroascorbate (DHA), total ascorbate (ASA + DHA, hereafter TA), glutathione (GSH) and total glutathione (GSH + GSSG, hereafter TG) under S deficiency. However, total ascorbate and total glutathione increased, besides a marginal increase in their reduced and oxidized forms, when Cd was applied in the presence of sufficient S. Sulphur supply also helped in increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) under Cd stress. However, their activity suffered by S deficiency and by Cd stress during S deficiency. Each stress declined the contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments; the highest decline in contents of protein and pigments occurred under S deficiency and dual stress respectively. The fresh and dry weights, although affected adversely by every stress, declined most under dual stress. It

  7. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( < 0.05) and fat digestibility ( < 0.01) and tended to improve G:F ( = 0.09). The ADFI, however, was not affected by dietary Cu ( > 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes.

  8. A critical reappraisal of dietary practices in methylmalonic acidemia raises concerns about the safety of medical foods. Part 2: Cobalamin C deficiency (cblC).¶

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Irini; Myles, Jennifer G.; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Morava, Eva; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, Holmes; Venditti, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency impairs the biosynthesis of adenosyl- and methylcobalamin resulting in methylmalonic acidemia combined with hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia. However, some patients with cblC deficiency are treated with medical foods, devoid of methionine and high in leucine content, that are formulated for patients with isolated propionate oxidative defects. We examined the effects of imbalanced branched-chain amino acid intake on growth outcomes in cblC patients. METHODS Dietary intake was correlated with biochemical, anthropometric, body composition measurements and other disease parameters in a cohort of 28 early-onset cblC patients. RESULTS Protein restricted diets were followed by 21% of the patients, while 32% received medical foods. Patients on protein-restricted diets had lower height-for-age Z-score (P=0.034), while patients consuming medical foods had lower head-circumference Z-scores (P=0.037), plasma methionine concentrations (P=0.001) and predicted methionine influx through the blood brain barrier Z-score (−1.29 vs. −0.0617, P=0.007). The combination of age of diagnosis, a history of seizures and the leucine/valine dietary intake ratio best predicted head circumference Z-score based on multiple regression modeling (R2= 0.945). CONCLUSIONS Patients with cblC deficiency treated with medical foods designed for isolated methylmalonic acidemia are at risk for iatrogenic methionine deficiency that could adversely affect brain growth and development. TRIAL REGISTRATION This clinical study is registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov with the ID: NCT00078078. Study URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00078078 PMID:26270766

  9. Acai Juice Attenuates Atherosclerosis Through Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in ApoE Deficient Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been shown to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of acai pulp or acai juices have been studied in human, animal and cell culture models. However, their potential effects on atheroscl...

  10. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of major dietary polyphenols and their protective effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hatia, S; Septembre-Malaterre, A; Le Sage, F; Badiou-Bénéteau, A; Baret, P; Payet, B; Lefebvre d'hellencourt, C; Gonthier, M P

    2014-04-01

    Obesity has been associated with a marked risk of metabolic diseases and requires therapeutic strategies. Changes in redox status with increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue have been linked with obesity-related disorders. Thus, the biological effect of antioxidants such as polyphenols is of high interest. We aimed to measure antioxidant capacities of 28 polyphenols representative of main dietary phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids. Then, 14 molecules were selected for the evaluation of their effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress. Analysis of reducing and free radical-scavenging capacities of compounds revealed antioxidant properties related to their structure, with higher activities for flavonoids such as quercetin and epicatechin. Their effects on preadipocytes' viability also depended on their structure, dose and time of exposure. Interestingly, most of the compounds exhibited a protective effect on preadipocytes exposed to oxidative stress, by reversing H₂O₂-induced anti-proliferative action and reactive oxygen species production. Polyphenols also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on preadipocytes exposed to H₂O₂ by reducing IL-6 secretion. Importantly, such antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed in co-exposition (polyphenol and prooxidant during 24 h) or pretreatment (polyphenol during 24 h, then prooxidant for 24 h) conditions. Moreover, compounds protected erythrocytes from AAPH radical-induced lysis. Finally, these results led to demonstrate that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols may depend on structure, dose, time of exposure and cell conditioning with oxidative stress. Such findings should be considered for a better understanding of polyphenols' benefits in strategies aiming to prevent obesity-related diseases.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, caecal coliform population and some oxidant/antioxidant parameters of broilers.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Z; Erdoğan, S; Aslantaş, Ö; Çelik, S

    2010-10-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, small intestine weight, pH and caecal coliform counts of broilers. The influences of synbiotics and phytobiotics on oxidant/antioxidant status in the blood of broilers were also assessed. A total of 200 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, either fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 1 g/kg synbiotic, 1 g/kg phytobiotic or 1 g/kg synbiotic plus 1 g/kg phytobiotic. The diet supplemented with both synbiotic and phytobiotic had no effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of broilers at the end of the study (p > 0.05). Neither small intestine weight nor pH was affected by any of the treatments. Supplementation of both synbiotic and phytobiotic to diet decreased the caecal coliform count (p < 0.01). Addition of synbiotics and phytobiotics in combination significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p ≤ 0.05), whereasphytobiotic addition alone showed only a slight increase. Similarly, elevated nitric oxide (NO) level was recorded in the synbiotic- and phytobiotic-fed group and in the phytobiotic-fed group (p ≤ 0.001). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of synbiotic and phytobiotic improved the gut health by decreasing the caecal total coliform count, but growth performance was not affected by the supplementations. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of phytobiotics on oxidative/antioxidative metabolism as regards their compositional analysis.

  13. Effects of maternal dietary manganese and incubation temperature on hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Lu, L; Li, W X; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether supplementing manganese (Mn) to the maternal diet could reduce the deleterious effect of heat stress on the developing embryo, the hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) were evaluated in chick embryos under normal and high incubation temperatures. A completely randomized design ( = 6) with 2 maternal dietary Mn treatments (unsupplemented control basal diet versus the basal diet + 120 mg Mn/kg as inorganic Mn) × 2 incubation temperatures (normal, 37.8°C, versus high, 39.0°C) was used. High incubation temperature did not affect ( > 0.19) hatchability and embryo mortality and development but did increase ( < 0.05) activities of heart manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and liver copper zinc superoxide dismutase and liver MnSOD mRNA and protein levels in embryos. High incubation temperature also decreased ( < 0.003) HSP70 protein level in the heart but had no effects ( > 0.07) in the liver of embryos. Maternal diet with Mn supplementation not only increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and Mn content ( < 0.001) in the yolk and embryonic tissues and the activity of MnSOD in the heart ( < 0.004) as well as relative liver weight ( < 0.05) under normal incubation temperature but also decreased ( ≤ 0.05) embryo mortality and HSP90 mRNA level in the liver and heart of embryos. Furthermore, under high incubation temperature, maternal diet Mn supplementation increased ( < 0.002) MnSOD protein expression in the liver of embryos but had no effect ( > 0.43) under normal incubation temperature. These results indicated that high incubation temperature induced self-protective responses of chick embryos with a modification of antioxidant status and a depression of HSP70 protein level. Maternal dietary supplementation of Mn could improve the hatchability as well as antioxidant ability to protect against heat challenge in embryos during incubation.

  14. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate (FR) and survival rate were not significantly different among treatments. Fish fed a diet with 40 mg kg(-1) SI showed significant increase in plasma total protein content, complement 3 content, lysozyme activity as well as respiratory burst activity, but decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (P < 0.05). Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the lowest hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed SI at 40 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the relative level of HSP70 mRNA in fish fed SI at 40-80 mg kg(-1) were significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed diets with 40-80 mg kg(-1) SI supplement than that in control group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression.

  15. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    PubMed

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  16. Induced Susceptibility of Host Is Associated with an Impaired Antioxidant System Following Infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in Se-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengmin; Wu, Yanyun; Qin, Jianhua; Sun, Haoxue; He, Hongxuan

    2009-01-01

    Background Susceptibility or resistance to infection with Cryptosporidium parvum (C.parvum) correlates with Selenium (Se) deficiency in response to infection. Both adult Se-adequate and Se-deficient mouse models of cryptosporidiosis were used to study the cell-mediated immune response during the course of C. parvum infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples from mouse models were used for Se status. The concentration of MDA, SOD, GPx and CAT in blood has revealed that lower Se level exist in Se-deficient mice. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from both mouse models were proliferated after ex vivo re-stimulation with C. parvum sporozoite antigen. The study of the cytokine profiles from the supernatant of proliferated MLN cells revealed that Se-adequate mice produced higher levels of Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) and moderate amounts of Th2 (IL-4) cytokines throughout the course of infection. Whereas, MLN cells from Se-deficient mice produced lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines. The counts of total white cell and CD3, CD4, CD8 cell in Se-adequate were higher than that in Se-deficient mice. Significance These results suggest that Cell immunity is affected by Se status after infection with C.parvum from kinetic changes of different white cells and cytokine. In conclusion, induced susceptibility of host is associated with an impaired antioxidant system following infection with C.parvum in C57BL/6 Selenium deficient mice. PMID:19247447

  17. LDL oxidation, antioxidant capacity and growth of cultured grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) fed dietary sorghum distillery residue pretreated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Mei; Cheng, Hui Ling; Pan, Bonnie Sun

    2009-09-09

    Dietary sorghum distillery residue (SDR) showed antioxidant and blood thinning effects on grey mullet during winter, but inhibited their growth. The objective of this study was to establish a preliminary treatment of the dietary SDR with polyethylene glycol (PEG), a tannin-binding agent, to enhance growth and blood antioxidant capacity of grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ) feed. The feeding trial was carried out from June to November. The water temperature was between 25 and 30 degrees C; the specific growth rate of mullet was reduced significantly by feeding diet containing 20% SDR in comparison to fish fed the control diet or diet containing 20% SDR and PEG. In the period of October-November, the water temperature decreased to 19-25 degrees C; the specific growth rates of the 20% SDR-PEG group and the 20% SDR group were 0.13 and 0.19% day(-1), respectively, significantly higher than those fed the control diet (0.07% day(-1)). Feeding with 20% SDR or 20% SDR-PEG diets resulted in prolonged lag phase of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation compared to fish fed the control diet. The total antioxidant capacity of the plasma of the grey mullet fed 20% SDR-PEG was 1.24 mmol/L, significantly higher than those in the fish fed 20% SDR diet (0.84 mmol/L) or the control (0.72 mmol/L). In vivo observations found that preliminary treatment of SDR with PEG eliminated the endogenous undesirable growth inhibitory factors but maintained its protective effects against LDL oxidation in blood and improved the total antioxidant capacity and cold adaptation of grey mullet. The ethanol extract of SDR contained 31.9 +/- 7.8 mg/g gallic acids equivalent. The concentration needed to scavenge 50% of the DPPH radicals (IC(50)) was 0.86 mg/mL. Increased gallic acid equivalent and decreased IC(50) of DPPH scavenging activity of SDR fed to fish increased the total antioxidant capacity in blood plasma of grey mullet significantly.

  18. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  19. Beyond the flavour: a de-flavoured polyphenol rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L) as a novel dietary antioxidant ingredient.

    PubMed

    NM, Johannah; RM, Renny; G, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Balu; D, Sureshkumar; IM, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    Though kitchen spices constitute an important source of dietary antioxidants, their consumption at a physiologically relevant dose is very often hampered by their unpleasant flavour characteristics. The present paper describes a novel approach to derive stable de-flavoured spice extracts with minimised taste and odour profiles which are suitable for impregnation into a variety of food and beverage matrices at physiologically relevant doses. A popular kitchen spice, clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum L), having strong flavour and pungency characteristics was selected in the present study to derive a de-flavoured extract with a standardised polyphenolic profile (Clovinol) and was incorporated into various foods. The antioxidant efficacy of Clovinol on healthy human volunteers who check and answer official emails involving responsibility was investigated by analysing their endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the extent of lipid peroxidation upon consumption of Clovinol either as capsules or in a different food/beverage at 250 mg per serving per day for 30 days. It was observed that Clovinol can be conveniently incorporated in various food matrices without flavour issues and the consumption of such food/beverage items may support an effective detoxification process with an average elevation of 33 ± 3% in catalase, 66 ± 8% in SOD, 56 ± 5% in GPx and 167 ± 21% in GSH levels, and 81 ± 11% attenuation in membrane lipid peroxidation level.

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya–Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk–eif2α and the ire1–xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress–related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-08-13

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk-eif2α and the ire1-xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress-related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish.

  2. High dietary folate in pregnant mice leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency and altered methyl metabolism, with embryonic growth delay and short-term memory impairment in offspring.

    PubMed

    Bahous, Renata H; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Deng, Liyuan; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Lu, Jessica; Malysheva, Olga; Leung, Kit-Yi; Ho, Ming-Kai; Pallàs, Mercè; Kaliman, Perla; Greene, Nicholas DE; Bedell, Barry J; Caudill, Marie A; Rozen, Rima

    2017-01-09

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring. Female mice were placed on control diet (CD) or folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD) throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation. Three-week-old male pups were evaluated for motor and cognitive function. Tissues from E17.5 embryos, pups and dams were collected for choline/methyl metabolite measurements, immunoblotting or gene expression of relevant enzymes. Brains were examined for morphology of hippocampus and cortex.Pups of FASD mothers displayed short-term memory impairment, decreased hippocampal size and decreased thickness of the dentate gyrus. MTHFR protein levels were reduced in FASD pup livers, with lower concentrations of phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in liver and hippocampus, respectively. FASD pup brains showed evidence of altered acetylcholine availability and Dnmt3a mRNA was reduced in cortex and hippocampus. E17.5 embryos and placentas from FASD dams were smaller. MTHFR protein and mRNA were reduced in embryonic liver, with lower concentrations of choline, betaine and phosphocholine. Embryonic brain displayed altered development of cortical layers. In summary, high folate intake during pregnancy leads to pseudo-MTHFR 3 deficiency, disturbed choline/methyl metabolism, embryonic growth delay and memory impairment in offspring. These findings highlight the unintended negative consequences of supplemental folic acid.

  3. Development of a beetroot-based nutritional gel containing high content of bioaccessible dietary nitrate and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Marina; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Vasconcellos, Julia; Monteiro, Maria Lucia; Conte-Junior, Carlos; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Beetroot, a food rich in nitrate and antioxidants has gained attention because of its potential effect on improving cardiovascular health and exercise performance. This work had the purpose of developing a beetroot-based nutritional gel (BG) and estimating the in vitro bioaccessibility of the nitrate, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic (TP) and potassium content, as compared to beetroot juice (BJ). Nitrate was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, TAC was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and TP was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method before and after an in vitro digestion. Significantly higher values of nitrate, TEAC, TP and potassium before and after digestion were observed in BG as compared to BJ. The results suggest a new nutritional strategy to give high contents of bioaccessible nutrients (nitrate, antioxidants and potassium) that are potentially relevant to improve cardiovascular health and exercise performance.

  4. Antioxidant activity of a Lachnum YM226 melanin-iron complex and its influence on cytokine production in mice with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Sheng; Yang, Liu; Ye, Ming; Chen, Xue; Shi, Fang; Shaikh, Farnaz

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of an orally administered Lachnum YM226 melanin-iron complex (LM-Fe) against iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in mice. The IDA mouse model was established by feeding mice with iron-deficient food. Different doses of LM-Fe were given to the anaemic mice via intragastric administration, with FeCl3 and FeSO4 used as positive controls. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that LM-Fe could significantly improve the decreased haemoglobin (Hb) level, and normalize the serum iron (SI) level, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin (SF) of the anaemic mice in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with LM-Fe significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in plasma to normal or better. Furthermore, the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were obviously decreased in the LM-Fe supplemented groups compared with the model group, while the level of interleukin-2 (IL-2) was significantly increased. In conclusion, LM-Fe was efficient at ameliorating the anemia symptoms, improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and adjusting the immune dysfunction of anaemic mice. Thus, these results demonstrated that LM-Fe might be exploited as an efficient and multifunctional iron supplement.

  5. Influence of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Lei, K; Li, Y L; Yu, D Y; Rajput, I R; Li, W F

    2013-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Bacillus licheniformis on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (n = 540; 28 wk of age) were randomized into 6 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet formulated with maize and soybean meal. The treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09% Bacillus licheniformis powder (2 × 10(10) cfu/g) for an 8-wk trial. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 0.01 and 0.03% B. licheniformis significantly increased egg production and egg mass. However, no significant differences were observed in egg weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency among the 6 groups. Supplementation with different levels of B. licheniformis was found to be effective in improvement of egg quality by increasing egg shell thickness and strength. Compared with control, d-lactate content, diamine oxidase activity, and adrenocorticotropic hormone level in serum decreased significantly, and the level of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone increased significantly in plasma of all the experimental groups. Dietary supplementation with B. licheniformis increased the intestinal villus height and reduced the crypt depth. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis could improve laying performance and egg quality significantly in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing the stress response, upregulating the growth hormone, and improving intestinal health.

  6. Protective effects of moderate exercise with dietary vitamin C and E on blood antioxidative defense mechanism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Butterworth, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    Daily moderate exercise and supplementation of vitamins C and E (VCE) can be beneficial in diabetes by ameliorating the effects of free radical production. The present study sought to analyze the effect of moderate exercise accompanying VCE supplementation on lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidative systems in the blood of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided 4 groups. The 1st and 2nd groups served as the control and diabetic groups, respectively. The 3rd group was the diabetic-exercise group. The 4th group, also diabetic-exercise rats, received VCE-supplemented feed. Animals in the exercised groups were moderately exercised on a treadmill 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Diabetes was induced on Day 0 of the exercise. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples were taken from all animals on Day 20. Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels in plasma and RBCs, and vitamins A, E, and beta-carotene in plasma were lower in diabetic rats than in control animals, whereas there was a significant increase in platelet counts in both plasma and RBC LP levels. The decreased antioxidant enzymes and vitamins, and the increased LP levels and WBC counts, did improve through exercise only, although their levels were mostly increased by exercise + VCE supplementation. There were no significant changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit values in the 4 groups. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an increase in LP in the blood of diabetic animals whereas there was a decrease in the antioxidant vitamins and enzymes. However, dietary VCE with moderate exercise may strengthen the antioxidant defense system by decreasing reactive oxygen species.

  7. True deficiency of antioxidant vitamins E and A in dialysis patients. Relationship with clinical patterns of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Diez, Juan J; Codoceo, Rosa; Rebollo, Francisco; Mariano, Mario; Selgas, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of uremic atherosclerosis. Although antioxidant substances (vitamins A and E) are elevated in the plasma of dialysis patients, intracellular and clinical signs of hypovitaminosis are frequently found. Recently, the importance of vitamin/carrier complexes as a marker of vitamin bioavailability has been demonstrated. In the present study, we analyzed vitamin A and E bioavailability, measured as vitamin/carrier complexes, and the relationship of those measurements with clinical atherosclerosis status in PD patients. We studied 45 patients (15 men, 30 women), who were divided into four groups according to clinical atherosclerotic score (CAS). Five cases were scored as CAS grade 1 (low CAS); 9 as CAS-2; 18 as CAS-3; and 13 as CAS-4. Vitamins A and E and their carriers [prealbumin and retinol binding protein (vitamin A), and cholesterol and triglycerides (vitamin E)] were determined. Plasma levels of vitamin A were low in 5 patients, normal in 7 patients, and high in 33 patients. By correcting the values for the carrier levels, we created three groups: 24 patients showed low vitamin A/carrier complex (5 from the low plasma vitamin A group, 6 from the normal-value group, and 13 from the high-value group); 11 patients were in the group with normal vitamin A/carrier (1 from the normal plasma vitamin A group, and 10 from the high-value group); and 10 patients were in the group with high vitamin A/carrier. The vitamin A/carrier complex showed a statistically significant, negative linear correlation with CAS and with serum iron. Low vitamin E plasma levels were found in 1 patient, normal levels in 28 patients, and high levels in 16 patients. When those values were corrected using the carrier values, three groups were also created. The group with low vitamin E/carrier complex contained 24 patients (1 from the low-value group

  8. Intestinal immune function, antioxidant status and tight junction proteins mRNA expression in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed riboflavin deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of riboflavin on intestinal immunity, tight junctions and antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and contents of complement component 3 and reduced glutathione in the intestine of fish (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, riboflavin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents and catalase activity (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to investigate mRNA expression patterns and found that the mRNA levels of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1, Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-b and Claudin-c, inhibitor protein κBα, target of rapamycin, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, nuclear factor kappa B p65, Ikappa B kinase β, Ikappa B kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and Claudin-12 were increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased immunity and structural integrity of fish intestine. The optimum riboflavin level for intestinal acid phosphatase activity of young grass carp was estimated to be 6.65 mg/kg diet.

  9. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Wei-Na; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5 ± 0.5 g). Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1 × 10(7), 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)) according to a 3 × 3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. The results showed that leucocyte counts, alternative complement activity as well as total serum protein and globulin contents all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as dietary B. licheniformis levels increased from 0 to 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1), while little difference (P > 0.05) was observed in these parameters in terms of dietary FOS levels. Both plasma alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) affected only by dietary FOS levels with the highest values observed in fish fed 0.6 and 0.3% FOS, respectively. Both immunoglobulin M content and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly affected (P > 0.05) by both FOS and B. licheniformis. Liver catalase, glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma SOD activities of fish fed 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis were all significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the other groups, whereas the opposite was true for malondialdehyde content. After A. hydrophila challenge, survival rate was not affected (P > 0.05) by either FOS levels or B. licheniformis contents, whereas a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between these two substances was observed with the highest value observed in fish fed 0.3% FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. The results of this study indicated that dietary FOS and B. licheniformis could

  10. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity.

  11. Effects of low ambient temperatures and dietary vitamin C supplement on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant capacity of 21-day-old broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Luo, Y H; Zeng, Q F; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Wang, J P

    2014-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of low ambient temperature (LAT) and a vitamin C (VC) dietary supplement on the growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant capacity of 21-d-old broilers. A total of 400 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments as follows: 1) LAT and a basal diet; 2) LAT and a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg of VC/kg (LAT + VC); 3) normal ambient temperature (NAT) and a basal diet; 4) NAT and a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg of VC/kg (NAT + VC). All birds were fed to 21 d of age. Broilers in groups 1 and 2 were raised at 24 to 26°C during 1 to 7 d, and at 9 to 11°C during 8 to 21 d, whereas groups 3 and 4 were raised at 29 to 31°C during 1 to 7 d and at 24 to 26°C during 8 to 21 d. The LAT increased the feed conversion ratio during the whole experimental period (P < 0.01), whereas it increased heart index at 21 d (P < 0.05) and hematocrit and hemoglobin level at 14 d (P < 0.05). Supplementing the diet with VC increased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count at 21 d (P < 0.05). At 21 d, LAT conditions decreased total antioxidant capacity in the serum, liver, and lungs (P < 0.05), and it also increased the levels of VC in the serum and liver, the amount of protein carbonylation in liver and lungs, and the malondialdehyde level in the lungs (P < 0.05). The addition of VC tended to increase the total antioxidant capacity level in serum (P < 0.1). Low ambient temperature resulted in oxidative stress for broilers that were fed from 1 to 21 d of age, whereas no significant effect was found on the antioxidant activity by dietary VC supplementation.

  12. Prospective association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and mortality: modulation by antioxidant supplementation in the SU.VI.MAX randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Graffouillère, Laurie; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Mariotti, François; Neufcourt, Lola; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Wirth, Michael D; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation is a central mechanism involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases, 4 leading causes of mortality. Diet is a major source of pro- and anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was designed to estimate the overall inflammatory potential of the diet. Objective: Our aim was to study the prospective association between the DII and mortality, as well as assess whether antioxidant supplementation could modulate this association. Design: The Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which participants received low-dose antioxidants or a placebo from 1994 to 2002. In this observational prospective analysis, 8089 participants (mean ± SD age at baseline: 49.0 ± 6.3 y) were followed between 1994 and 2007 (median: 12.4 y). The DII was calculated from repeated 24-h dietary records; higher scores correspond to more proinflammatory diets. A total of 207 deaths occurred during follow-up, including 123 due to cancer and 41 due to cardiovascular events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were computed. Results: Sex-specific tertiles of the DII were positively associated with cardiovascular + cancer mortality (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.32; P-trend = 0.05) and specific cancer mortality (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.99; P-trend = 0.02). The corresponding P value was 0.07 for all-cause mortality. The DII was statistically significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality in the placebo group (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.84; P-trend = 0.02) but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend = 0.8; P-interaction = 0.098). Conclusion: These results suggest that a proinflammatory diet is associated with increased all-cause and cancer mortality and antioxidants may

  13. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  14. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Apak, Resat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Karademir, Saliha Esin

    2004-12-29

    The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C.; Georgieff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA. PMID:28355210

  17. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  18. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  19. Effect of dietary leucine on the growth parameters and expression of antioxidant, immune, and inflammatory genes in the head kidney of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Chi, Cheng; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2015-09-15

    The present investigation evaluated the effects of dietary leucine (Leu) on growth performance, head kidney antioxidant status, and gene expression in Labeo rohita juveniles. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Leu at 0.75 (control), 1.7, 3.2, 4.6, 6.3, and 7.6 g Leu kg(-1) of feed for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, appropriate Leu supplementation significantly enhanced the percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake (FI), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P<0.05) but decreased the plasma ammonia content (PAC) (P<0.05). Similarly, optimal Leu supplementation stimulated head kidney glutathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as compared to the control group; however, a reverse trend was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Further, relative gene-expression levels of lysozyme, complement C3, β-microglobulin, immunoglobulin-M, SOD, GPx, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), natural killer-cell enhancing factor β (NKEF-β), and toll-like receptor-22 (TLR22) in the head kidney were enhanced (P<0.05) at leucine levels of 4.6 g kg(-1) of feed. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in head kidney were down-regulated by Leu supplementation. Collectively, our results revealed that appropriate Leu supplementation improved fish growth and antioxidant capacity, and regulated the mRNA levels of related signalling molecules in L. rohita juveniles. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG, PER, and PAC, the optimum dietary leucine requirements of L. rohita juveniles were estimated to be 4.7, 4.5, and 4.8 g kg(-1) of feed.

  20. Effects of different levels of dietary selenium on the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and antioxidant status in testis of roosters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Ren, Youshe; Yao, Xiaolei; Song, Ruigao; Yue, Wenbin

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different levels of dietary Se (from sodium selenite) on the proliferation of SSCs (spermatogonial stem cells) in testis of roosters. Also, the antioxidant status and Se content in blood plasma and testis were evaluated. A total of eighty 12-week-old Hy-Line Variety white roosters at an averaged body weight of 1.38 ± 0.2 kg were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups. They were fed with the basal diet (0.044 mgSe/kg DM) supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mgSe/kg DM (from sodium selenite). After the feeding experiment, blood and testis samples were collected for analysis of the antioxidant status and Se concentration. The testis samples were also used to examine the Thy-1 and β1-integrin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and detect the population of SSCs by immunofluorescence analysis. The results show that Se concentration in blood and testis of the animals was progressively increased with the increasing Se level in diet. The highest GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) activity and lowest MDA content in blood and testis was obtained in the treatment of 0.5mg/kg. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of SSCs markers were significantly lower in the control and 1.0mg/kg groups when compared with that in the treatment of 0.5mg/kg. A similar trend was observed in the population of SSCs analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. These data suggest that dietary Se can influence the population of SSCs of roosters during spermatogenesis and that oxidative stress can modulate SSCs behavior through regulating some key factors during spermatogenesis.

  1. Extracellular norepinephrine, norepinephrine receptor and transporter protein and mRNA levels are differentially altered in the developing rat brain due to dietary iron deficiency and manganese exposure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel G; Fordahl, Steven C; Cooney, Paula T; Weaver, Tara L; Colyer, Christa L; Erikson, Keith M

    2009-07-24

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, but overexposure is characterized by Parkinson's like symptoms in extreme cases. Previous studies have shown that Mn accumulation is exacerbated by dietary iron deficiency (ID) and disturbances in norepinephrine (NE) have been reported. Because behaviors associated with Mn neurotoxicity are complex, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of Mn exposure and ID-associated Mn accumulation on NE uptake in synaptosomes, extracellular NE concentrations, and expression of NE transport and receptor proteins. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four dietary groups: control (CN; 35 mg Fe/kg diet), iron-deficient (ID; 6 mg Fe/kg diet), CN with Mn exposure (via the drinking water; 1 g Mn/L) (CNMn), and ID with Mn (IDMn). (3)H-NE uptake decreased significantly (R=-0.753, p=0.001) with increased Mn concentration in the locus coeruleus, while decreased Fe was associated with decreased uptake of (3)H-NE in the caudate putamen (R=0.436, p=0.033) and locus coeruleus (R=0.86; p<0.001). Extracellular concentrations of NE in the caudate putamen were significantly decreased in response to Mn exposure and ID (p<0.001). A diverse response of Mn exposure and ID was observed on mRNA and protein expression of NE transporter (NET) and alpha(2) adrenergic receptor. For example, elevated brain Mn and decreased Fe caused an approximate 50% decrease in NET and alpha(2) adrenergic receptor protein expression in several brain regions, with reductions in mRNA expression also observed. These data suggest that Mn exposure results in a decrease in NE uptake and extracellular NE concentrations via altered expression of transport and receptor proteins.

  2. Using natural dietary sources of antioxidants to protect against ultraviolet and visible radiation-induced DNA damage: an investigation of human green tea ingestion.

    PubMed

    Malhomme de la Roche, Helena; Seagrove, Susan; Mehta, Anisha; Divekar, Preshita; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2010-11-03

    Oral ingestion of green tea is a potent dietary source of antioxidant polyphenols. These compounds are of interest as they may be able to provide additional protection to the body to help prevent the deleterious effects of ultraviolet A and visible radiation (UVA/VIS) produced indirectly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sunlight exposed skin. A small clinical study was conducted in ten healthy adult volunteers. Samples of whole blood were obtained from each before and 30, 60 and 90 min following ingestion of three breakfast cups of green tea (540 ml in total) prepared in a standardised manner. Peripheral leucocytes were isolated from each blood sample and exposed to increasing periods of UVA/VIS irradiation in the laboratory (0, 9, 12 or 18 min). Alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) was then conducted to determine the level of DNA damage in each sample from each individual. The findings support those of our previous pilot study and indicate that drinking green tea did significantly reduce the genotoxic effects observed in peripheral blood cells 60 min following ingestion when artificially exposed to 12 min of UVA/VIS irradiation in the laboratory. It is postulated that this protection is afforded by the polyphenol compounds (known to be contained within green tea) via scavenging or quenching of the damaging ROS induced by this form of light exposure. Further investigation should consider whether this dietary-induced protection could be extended to cells of the skin.

  3. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05) increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH) content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  4. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  5. Nutrigenomics analysis reveals that copper deficiency and dietary sucrose up-regulate inflammation, fibrosis and lipogenic pathways in a mature rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tallino, Savannah; Duffy, Megan; Ralle, Martina; Cortés, María Paz; Latorre, Mauricio; Burkhead, Jason L

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence is increasing worldwide, with the affected US population estimated near 30%. Diet is a recognized risk factor in the NAFLD spectrum, which includes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Low hepatic copper (Cu) was recently linked to clinical NAFLD/NASH severity. Simple sugar consumption including sucrose and fructose is implicated in NAFLD, while consumption of these macronutrients also decreases liver Cu levels. Though dietary sugar and low Cu are implicated in NAFLD, transcript-level responses that connect diet and pathology are not established. We have developed a mature rat model of NAFLD induced by dietary Cu deficiency, human-relevant high sucrose intake (30% w/w) or both factors in combination. Compared to the control diet with adequate Cu and 10% (w/w) sucrose, rats fed either high-sucrose or low-Cu diet had increased hepatic expression of genes involved in inflammation and fibrogenesis, including hepatic stellate cell activation, while the combination of diet factors also increased ATP citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase gene transcription (fold change > 2, P < 0.02). Low dietary Cu decreased hepatic and serum Cu (P ≤ 0.05), promoted lipid peroxidation and induced NAFLD-like histopathology, while the combined factors also induced fasting hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage. Neither low Cu nor 30% sucrose in the diet led to enhanced weight gain. Taken together, transcript profiles, histological and biochemical data indicate that low Cu and high sucrose promote hepatic gene expression and physiological responses associated with NAFLD and NASH, even in the absence of obesity or severe steatosis.

  6. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  7. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  8. Lipid peroxidation by "free" iron ions and myoglobin as affected by dietary antioxidants in simulated gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tair; Granit, Rina; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-04

    Grilled red turkey muscle (Doner Kabab) is a real "fast food" containing approximately 200 microM hydroperoxides, homogenized in simulated gastric fluid and oxidized more rapidly at pH 3.0 than at pH 5.0, after 180 min, producing 1200 and 600 microM hydroperoxides, respectively. The effects of "free" iron ions and metmyoglobin, two potential catalyzers of lipid peroxidation in muscle foods, were evaluated for linoleic acid peroxidation at pH 3.0 of simulated gastric fluid. The prooxidant effects of free iron ions on linoleic acid peroxidation in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated in the presence of ascorbic acid. At low concentrations of ascorbic acid, the effects were prooxidative, which was reversed at high concentrations. In the presence of metmyoglobin, ascorbic acid with or without free iron enhanced the antioxidative effect. Lipid peroxidation by an iron-ascorbic acid system was inhibited totally by 250-500 microM catechin at pH 3.0. The catechin antioxidant effect was determined also in the iron-ascorbic acid system containing metmyoglobin. In this system, catechin totally inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration 20-fold lower than without metmyoglobin. The ability of catechin to inhibit lipid peroxidation was also determined at a low pH with beta-carotene as a sensitive target molecule for oxidation. The results show that a significant protection was achieved only with almost 100-fold higher antioxidant concentration. Polyphenols from different groups were determined for the antioxidant activity at pH 3.0. The results show a high antioxidant activity of polyphenols with orthodihydroxylated groups at the B ring, unsaturation, and the presence of a 4-oxo group in the heterocyclic ring, as demonstrated by quercetin.

  9. Dietary protein enhances non-specific immunity, anti-oxidative capability and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings pre-exposed to short feed deprivation stress.

    PubMed

    Yengkokpam, Sona; Debnath, Dipesh; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Jain, K K; Baruah, Kartik

    2016-12-01

    Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary protein levels on growth, immunity and anti-oxidative status of Labeo rohita fingerlings during feed deprivation followed by refeeding. Fish (5.44 ± 0.10 g) were deprived of feed for 3 weeks and then re-fed to satiation for 5 weeks with one of the diets containing 25 (25P), 30 (30P), 35 (35P) or 40 (40P) percent crude protein (CP) level. In addition to these groups, a control group (C) was also maintained by feeding to satiation level twice daily with a diet containing 30% CP throughout the experimental period. At the end of 8-weeks' trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and survival was recorded for the next 7 days. Complete recovery of growth in terms of weight gain percentage was achieved in the fish fed 35 and 40% protein during refeeding. The body indices (condition factor and hepatosomatic index), haematological parameters and serum protein contents at the end of the experimental trial were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among different groups suggesting that the overall health of the fish was not compromised. However, respiratory burst activity and serum lysozyme activity were indicative of a better immune function in the higher protein fed groups (35P and 40P) than the lower protein groups (25P and 30P). Following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, survival rate, blood monocyte%, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity, serum protein and globulin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 35P and 40P groups compared to the other groups. Further, fish fed lower dietary protein were not able to restore the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the liver. Conclusively, an improved disease resistance capability and immune status was observed in the fish fed a higher dietary protein (35-40%), even out-performing the daily-fed fish.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, sIgA content and antioxidant capacities of broilers.

    PubMed

    Min, Y N; Yang, H L; Xu, Y X; Gao, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Today, several strategies are being used to decrease the serious effects of antibiotics abuse on broilers industry and public health, among which synbiotics are one of the most promising antibiotic alternative. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of synbiotics, which composed of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis) and prebiotics (xylooligosaccharide and mannanoligosaccharide), on growth performance, intestinal morphology, sIgA content and antioxidant parameters of broilers. Four hundred and fifty one-day-old commercial Cobb48 broilers were assigned to five treatments consisting of six replicates of 15 birds each pen. Five dietary treatments include basal diets (control), basal diets plus antibiotics (4 mg/kg Xanthomycin), basal diets plus 1 g of probiotics B. subtilis product/kg of diets (4 × 10(8)  cfu/kg), basal diets plus 150 mg/kg xylooligosaccharide (35%) and 1 g/kg mannanoligosaccharide (75%), and basal diets plus synbiotics (1 g of probiotics B. subtilis product/kg of diets (4 × 10(8)  cfu/kg), 150 mg/kg xylooligosaccharide (35%) and 1 g/kg mannanoligosaccharide (75%). The results demonstrated that on 21 and 42 days, dietary supplementation of the synbiotics significantly increased daily weight gain (p < 0.05), feed efficiency (p < 0.05), the villus height and villus:crypt ratio in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05), as well as intestinal mucosa sIgA content (p < 0.05), serum T-SOD activity (p < 0.05) and lysozyme content (p < 0.05), comparing with control group. In conclusion, synbiotics (B. subtilis and xylooligosaccharide and mannanoligosaccharide) is one of the safe and ideal dietary supplementations to increase broilers' growth performance by improving small intestinal morphology, sIgA content and antioxidant capabilities.

  11. α-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682–699. PMID:24295217

  12. Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Rachel; Siyame, Edwin W P; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Joy, Edward J M; Black, Colin R; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Chilima, Benson; Gondwe, Jellita; Kang'ombe, Dalitso; Stein, Alexander J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Gibson, Rosalind S; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Broadley, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults consuming food from contrasting soil types. These data are consistent with food balance sheets and composition tables revealing that >80% of the Malawi population is at risk of dietary Se inadequacy. Risk of dietary Se inadequacy is >60% in seven other countries in Southern Africa, and 22% across Africa as a whole. Given that most Malawi soils cannot supply sufficient Se to crops for adequate human nutrition, the cost and benefits of interventions to alleviate Se deficiency should be determined; for example, Se-enriched nitrogen fertilisers could be adopted as in Finland.

  13. Soil-type influences human selenium status and underlies widespread selenium deficiency risks in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Rachel; Siyame, Edwin W. P.; Young, Scott D.; Chilimba, Allan D. C.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Black, Colin R.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Chilima, Benson; Gondwe, Jellita; Kang'ombe, Dalitso; Stein, Alexander J.; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Kalimbira, Alexander A.; Broadley, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential human micronutrient with critical roles in immune functioning and antioxidant defence. Estimates of dietary Se intakes and status are scarce for Africa although crop surveys indicate deficiency is probably widespread in Malawi. Here we show that Se deficiency is likely endemic in Malawi based on the Se status of adults consuming food from contrasting soil types. These data are consistent with food balance sheets and composition tables revealing that >80% of the Malawi population is at risk of dietary Se inadequacy. Risk of dietary Se inadequacy is >60% in seven other countries in Southern Africa, and 22% across Africa as a whole. Given that most Malawi soils cannot supply sufficient Se to crops for adequate human nutrition, the cost and benefits of interventions to alleviate Se deficiency should be determined; for example, Se-enriched nitrogen fertilisers could be adopted as in Finland. PMID:23478344

  14. Attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress by Brassica juncea annexin-3 counteracts thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA1) deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Ahan; Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Gudla, Triveni; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti; Padmasree, Kollipara; Viehhauser, Andrea; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-02-14

    Brassica juncea annexin-3 (BjAnn3) was functionally characterized for its ability to modulate H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BjAnn3 showed a significant protective role in cellular-defense against oxidative stress and partially alleviated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in presence of exogenously applied H2O2. Heterologous expression of BjAnn3 protected membranes from oxidative stress-mediated damage and positively regulated antioxidant gene expression for ROS detoxification. We conclude that, BjAnn3 partially counteracts the effects of thioredoxin peroxidase 1 (TSA1) deficiency and aids in cellular-protection across kingdoms. Despite partial compensation of TSA1 by BjAnn3 in cell-viability tests, the over-complementation in ROS-related features suggests the existence of both redundant (e.g. ROS detoxification) and distinct features (e.g. membrane protection versus proximity-based redox regulator) of both proteins.

  15. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD) predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9) μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl). About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7%) of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67) times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34) and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63) times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74) time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23) times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were not associated to

  16. Dietary habits and selenium, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary habits and adequate dietary intake of antioxidants in the diet may be one of the most important environmental factors for the prevention of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with MS and the influence of dietary habits on the status. Methods 101 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (aged 18-58 years), as well as control group of 63 healthy people (aged 19-65 years) were studied. Food-frequency questionnaires were implemented to collect the dietary data. Se concentration in the serum samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. GSH-Px activity and TAS in examined serum was measured using the ready-made sets of tests by Randox Laboratories Ltd., UK. Results Serum Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in the serum of patients with MS (55.2±16.2 μg/L, 6676.1±2386.4 U/L; respectively) were significantly decreased (p<0.01, p<0.05; respectively) compared with control group (79.2±20.6 μg/L, 8029.9±2650.1 U/L; respectively). A significant correlation (r=0.39, p<0.01) was observed between Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in the serum of examined patients. TAS value in the serum of patients with MS (1.03±0.37 mmol/L) was also significantly lower (p<0.01) than in healthy volunteers (1.48±0.41 mmol/L). Frequent consumption of poultry, bakery products, pulses and fish seemed to increase serum Se concentration in the group of patients; whereas frequent consumption of butter, wholegrain bread, sweet beverages and sugar was found to accompany with lower values of Se in the serum. We have observed significant decrease TAS (p<0.05, p<0.01; respectively) in the serum of smokers and those patients who received immunomodulatory drugs (0.95±0.39 mmol/L, 0.92±0.34 mmol/L; respectively) compared with no-smoking patients and not taking immunomodulators (1.14±0.33 mmol/L, 1.31±0

  17. Modulation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in murine salivary gland by dietary fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Avula, C P; Fernandes, G

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of n-9, n-6, and n-3 dietary fatty acid ethyl esters on basal (uninduced) and Fe2+/ascorbate (induced) lipid peroxidation (LPO) in salivary gland (SG) of mice. Feeding n-3 ethyl ester polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased the uninduced and induced LPO in SG homogenates. In contrast, feeding olive oil ethyl esters (n-9) significantly lowered the induced and uninduced LPO in SG tissue. Salivary gland susceptibility to LPO increased in the order of: olive oil < corn oil < safflower oil < n-3 ethyl esters. Olive oil esters in the diet increased primarily the 18:1 levels in SG tissue. Whereas feeding n-3 PUFA notably increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in SG homogenates, no significant changes were seen between n-9 and n-6 PUFA-fed mice. Lower levels of Vitamin E (Vit E) in the tissues of n-3 PUFA-fed mice indicate that the higher the dietary lipid unsaturation, the higher the requirement for Vit E in the diet. Our results indicate that, similar to other organs, salivary gland susceptibility to uninduced or induced oxidation depends on the source of dietary PUFA. In conclusion, feeding olive oil increases the resistance of SGs to induced and uninduced LPO.

  18. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  19. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain.

  20. Antioxidant and antitumor efficacy of Luteolin, a dietary flavone on benzo(a)pyrene-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Barua, Chandana C; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-08-01

    The present study is designed to assess the antioxidant and antitumor potential of luteolin against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Here, we reported that oral administration of B(a)P (50mg/kg body weight) to mice resulted in raised lipid peroxides (LPO), lung specific tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) with concomitant decrease in the levels of both enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E and vitamin C. Luteolin treatment (15mg/kg body weight, p.o) significantly counteracted all these alterations and maintained cellular normalcy. Moreover, assessment of protein expression levels by western blot analysis revealed that luteolin treatment effectively negates B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Furthermore, histopathology of lung tissue and immunohistochemistry of CYP1A1 were carried out to substantiate the anti- lung cancer effect of luteolin. Overall, these findings confirm the chemopreventive potential of luteolin against B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  1. Animal Models for the Study of the Relationships between Diet and Obesity: A Focus on Dietary Protein and Estrogen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Blais, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing major public health concern asking for dietary strategies to limit weight gain and associated comorbidities. In this review, we present animal models, particularly rats and mice, which have been extensively used by scientists to understand the consequences of diet quality on weight gain and health. Notably, modulation of dietary protein quantity and/or quality has been shown to exert huge effects on body composition homeostasis through the modulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, the perinatal window appears to represent a critical period during which the protein intake of the dam can impact the offspring's weight gain and feeding behavior. Animal models are also widely used to understand the processes and mechanisms that contribute to obesity at different physiological and pathophysiological stages. An interesting example of such aspect is the situation of decreased estrogen level occurring at menopause, which is linked to weight gain and decreased energy expenditure. To study metabolic disorders associated with such situation, estrogen withdrawal in ovariectomized animal models to mimic menopause are frequently used. According to many studies, clear species-specific differences exist between rats and mice that need to be taken into account when results are extrapolated to humans.

  2. Animal Models for the Study of the Relationships between Diet and Obesity: A Focus on Dietary Protein and Estrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Blais, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing major public health concern asking for dietary strategies to limit weight gain and associated comorbidities. In this review, we present animal models, particularly rats and mice, which have been extensively used by scientists to understand the consequences of diet quality on weight gain and health. Notably, modulation of dietary protein quantity and/or quality has been shown to exert huge effects on body composition homeostasis through the modulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, the perinatal window appears to represent a critical period during which the protein intake of the dam can impact the offspring’s weight gain and feeding behavior. Animal models are also widely used to understand the processes and mechanisms that contribute to obesity at different physiological and pathophysiological stages. An interesting example of such aspect is the situation of decreased estrogen level occurring at menopause, which is linked to weight gain and decreased energy expenditure. To study metabolic disorders associated with such situation, estrogen withdrawal in ovariectomized animal models to mimic menopause are frequently used. According to many studies, clear species-specific differences exist between rats and mice that need to be taken into account when results are extrapolated to humans. PMID:28373974

  3. Dietary protection against free radicals: a case for multiple testing to establish structure-activity relationships for antioxidant potential of anthocyanic plant species.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Martin; Lim, Chiara Cheng; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2009-03-01

    DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl-radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh) using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC), and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0 degrees C, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37 degrees C, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the

  4. Developmental cell death in the liver and newborn lethality of Ku86 deficient mice suppressed by antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Reliene, Ramune; Goad, Marry E P; Schiestl, Robert H

    2006-11-08

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for genome integrity and cell survival. Ku86 is involved in the repair of DNA DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Mice deficient in Ku86 show growth retardation, dwarfism, premature aging, and immunodeficiency. In this study, we observed severely compromised survival of Ku86(-/-) mice, such that most Ku86(-/-) mice died within the first postnatal weeks and only 1.5% of the expected 25% from heterozygous crosses survived for 1 month. Since post-mortem analysis was not possible due to parental cannibalism, histopathological examination was performed on Ku86(-/-) fetuses to assess possible causes of newborn death. Eighty percent and 75% of Ku86(-/-) fetuses exhibited apoptosis and necrosis in the liver, while only 20% and 10% of Ku86(+/+) littermates had apoptosis and necrosis, respectively. In addition, the severity of liver damage was significantly higher in Ku86(-/-) fetuses. Developmental liver damage may have led to postnatal lethality because the fetal liver with pre-existing injury may not be able to undergo transformation from a lymphohematopoietic to an indispensable metabolic organ. Free radicals can cause chromosomal breaks and lead to cell death. We postulated that endogenous oxidative stress might be involved in the resulting liver damage and animal lethality in Ku86(-/-) mice deficient in DNA DSB repair. This hypothesis was tested by treating Ku86(-/-) mice with the well known free radical scavenger, thiol antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), during embryonic development. We found that a significantly higher percentage, 7.7% of NAC treated Ku86(-/-) offspring versus 1.5% untreated Ku86(-/-) mice were alive at 1 month of age. In addition, the incidence of liver necrosis decreased by 21% and the severity of necrosis significantly reduced. Thus, Ku86 deficiency results in severe developmental liver damage and newborn lethality associated with oxidative stress.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Fresh Pineapple Juice Decreases Inflammation and Colonic Neoplasia in IL-10-deficient Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P.; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T.; Greer, Paula K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Results Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 16 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (p = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% vs. 66%; p< 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (p = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:20848493

  6. Attenuation of Chondrogenic Transformation in Vascular Smooth Muscle by Dietary Quercetin in the MGP-Deficient Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Borras, Teresa; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cartilaginous metaplasia of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is characteristic for arterial calcification in diabetes and uremia and in the background of genetic alterations in matrix Gla protein (MGP). A better understanding of the molecular details of this process is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to VSM transformation and arterial calcification. Objective This study aimed to identify the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on chondrogenic transformation and calcification of VSM in the MGP-null mouse model and upon TGF-β3 stimulation in vitro, and to characterize the associated alterations in cell signaling. Methods and Results Molecular analysis revealed activation of β-catenin signaling in cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- aortae in vivo and during chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs in vitro. Quercetin intercepted chondrogenic transformation of VSM and blocked activation of β-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. Although dietary quercetin drastically attenuated calcifying cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- animals, approximately one-half of total vascular calcium mineral remained as depositions along elastic lamellae. Conclusion Quercetin is potent in preventing VSM chondrogenic transformation caused by diverse stimuli. Combined with the demonstrated efficiency of dietary quercetin in preventing ectopic chondrogenesis in the MGP-null vasculature, these findings indicate a potentially broad therapeutic applicability of this safe for human consumption bioflavonoid in the therapy of cardiovascular conditions linked to cartilaginous metaplasia of VSM. Elastocalcinosis is a major component of MGP-null vascular disease and is controlled by a mechanism different from chondrogenic transformation of VSM and not sensitive to quercetin. PMID:24098781

  7. High dietary salt decreases antioxidant defenses in the liver of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Waleska Claudia; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Silva, Maísa; Souza e Silva, Lorena; Diniz, Mirla Fiuza; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio

    2013-12-01

    In this study we investigated the hypothesis that a high-salt diet to hyperinsulinemic rats might impair antioxidant defense owing to its involvement in the activation of sodium reabsorption to lead to higher oxidative stress. Rats were fed a standard (CON), a high-salt (HS), or a high-fructose (HF) diet for 10 weeks after which, 50% of the animals belonging to the HF group were switched to a regimen of high-fructose and high-salt diet (HFS) for 10 more weeks, while the other groups were fed with their respective diets. Animals were then euthanized and their blood and liver were examined. Fasting plasma glucose was found to be significantly higher (approximately 50%) in fructose-fed rats than in the control and HS rats, whereas fat liver also differed in these animals, producing steatosis. Feeding fructose-fed rats with the high-salt diet triggered hyperinsulinemia and lowered insulin sensitivity, which led to increased levels of serum sodium compared to the HS group. This resulted in membrane perturbation, which in the presence of steatosis potentially enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, thereby decreasing the level of antioxidant defenses, as shown by GSH/GSSG ratio (HFS rats, 7.098±2.1 versus CON rats, 13.2±6.1) and superoxide dismutase (HFS rats, 2.1±0.05 versus CON rats, 2.3±0.1%), and catalase (HFS rats, 526.6±88.6 versus CON rats, 745.8±228.7 U/mg ptn) activities. Our results indicate that consumption of a salt-rich diet by insulin-resistant rats may lead to regulation of sodium reabsorption, worsening hepatic lipid peroxidation associated with impaired antioxidant defenses.

  8. Individualized long-term outcomes in blood phenylalanine concentrations and dietary phenylalanine tolerance in 11 patients with primary phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency treated with Sapropterin-dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Yuskiv, Nataliya; Salvarinova, Ramona; Apatean, Delia; Ho, Gloria; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Lillquist, Yolanda; Ueda, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-term sustainability of improved blood Phenylalanine (Phe) control and changes to dietary Phe tolerance in 11 patients (1 month to 16 years), with various forms of primary PAH deficiency (classic, moderate, severe phenylketonuria [PKU], mild hyperphenylalaninemia [HPA]), who were treated with 15-20mg/kg/d Sapropterin-dihydrochloride during a period of 13-44 months. 7/11 patients had a sustainable, significant reduction of baseline blood Phe concentrations and 6 of them also had an increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. In 2 patients with mild HPA, blood Phe concentrations remained in the physiologic range even after a 22 and 36% increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance and an achieved Phe intake at 105% and 268% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein. 2 of these responders had classic PKU. 1 patient with mild HPA who started treatment at 2 months of life, had a significant and sustainable reduction in pretreatment blood Phe concentrations, but no increase in the mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. An increase in Phe tolerance could only be demonstrated when expressing the patient's daily Phe tolerance with the DRI for protein showing an increase from 58% at baseline to 78% of normal DRI at the end of the observation. Long-term follow-up of patients with an initial response to treatment with Sapropterin is essential to determine clinically meaningful outcomes. Phenylalanine tolerance should be expressed in mg/kg/day and/or % of normal DRI to differentiate medical therapy related from physiologic growth related increase in daily Phe intake.

  9. The effects of dietary phosphorus deficiency on surface pH and membrane composition of the mucosa epithelium in caprine jejunum.

    PubMed

    Busche, R; Schröder, B; Huber, K; Sallmann, H P; Breves, G

    2007-01-01

    In ruminants, the uptake of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) across the intestinal mucosa epithelium by Na-dependent and Na-independent mechanisms is a main regulatory factor in P homeostasis. The aim of the study was to elucidate to which extent Na-independent mechanisms, including pH effects or composition of mucosal brush-border membranes, could be involved in positive stimulation of P(i) absorptive processes seen under the P deficient condition. Therefore, luminal, surface and intracellular pH of the jejunal epithelial cells in control and P depleted goats were compared and biochemical analyses of membrane phospholipids in the apical membrane of the jejunal epithelium were performed. Dietary P depletion resulted in decreased plasma P(i) levels. While pH in jejunal ingesta was not significantly changed, P depletion resulted in a significantly lower surface pH in the crypt region compared to control animals (7.62 +/- 0.02 vs. 7.77 +/- 0.04, n = 4, P < 0.01). Inhibition of apical Na(+)/H(+)-exchange resulted in an increase of the jejunal surface pH in P depleted animals by 0.07 +/- 0.01 (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 0.05 +/- 0.01 (n = 6, P < 0.01) for the villus and the crypt region, respectively. This increase were inversely correlated with the initial surface pH prior to inhibition. In contrast to surface pH, intracellular pH of the jejunal epithelium and the phospholipid composition of the apical jejunal membrane were not affected by P depletion. Although the data suggest the existence of a Na(+)/H(+)-exchange mechanism at the luminal surface of goat jejunum they do not support the hypothesis that adaptational processes of active P(i) absorption from goat jejunum in response to low dietary P could be based on "non P(i) transporter events".

  10. Effects of dietary sodium selenite and selenium yeast on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hussain; Tian, Jinke; Wang, Jianjun; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2012-07-25

    The effects of sodium selenite (SS) and selenium yeast (SY) alone and in combination (MS) on the selenium (Se) content, antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat were investigated. The results showed that the highest (p < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was found in the SS-supplemented chicken breast meat; however, SY and MS treatments significantly increased (p < 0.05) the Se content and the activities of catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and TAC, but decreased (p < 0.05) the malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 42 days of age. Twelve days of storage at 4 °C decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of the GSH-Px, but CAT, T-SOD, and TAC remained stable. SY decreased the lipid oxidation more effectively in chicken breast meat. It was concluded that SY and MS are more effective than SS in increasing the AEA, TAC, and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat.

  11. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  12. Dual functionality of triticale as a novel dietary source of prebiotics with antioxidant activity in fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Agil, Rania; Hosseinian, Farah

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) define the optimum concentration of triticale bran (TB) that can be incorporated in yogurt, (ii) evaluate the prebiotic effects of TB on microbial viability, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) in yogurt across 28 days of cold storage, and (iii) measure the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of water-extractable polysaccharides (WEP) in TB. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis were used as probiotics. A concentration of 4% TB in yogurt was determined to be the maximum amount that could be added without causing synersis. By day 7, the number of bacteria greatly increased in yogurt samples containing TB and maintained higher viable bacteria counts at the end of the cold storage period, in comparison to controls (P ≤ 0.05). Confirming this data was the lower pH levels and higher TTA values of TB yogurt samples exhibited throughout 28 days (P ≤ 0.05). Polysaccharide extracts of TB exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 33.86 ± 2.30 μmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of bran. Results of this study suggest that TB may serve as a new prebiotic and antioxidant source for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  13. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  14. Effects of dietary α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jia, R; Bao, Y H; Zhang, Y; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-lipoic acid (LA), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers. A total of 972 one-day-old broilers with equal sex were randomly assigned in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design using 3 LA, 3 ALC levels, and 2 sexes (6 replications, 9 birds/replication). The LA and ALC levels were 0, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that increased LA or ALC resulted in increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased levels of malondialdehyde in serum and liver of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, with increasing addition of LA or ALC, an increased (P < 0.01) level of insulin (Ins), as well as decreased (P < 0.05) levels of glucose and glucagon (Glu), were observed in serum of broilers. Total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acid, lipoprotein lipase, and lipase levels increased (P < 0.05) in serum with increased administration of LA or ALC. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.05) interaction of LA × ALC was observed for serum and liver SOD, serum GSH-Px, glucose, and TG levels. Birds fed diets containing 50 mg/kg of LA and 50 mg/kg of ALC had higher serum and liver SOD activities and lower serum glucose and TG levels than those fed diets containing 100 mg/kg of LA or ALC alone. The main effect of sex and all interactions among main effects (except LA × ALC) were not significant (P > 0.05) for all of the above parameters. Overall, the present data indicate that LA or ALC supplementation, or both, at low levels (50 or 100 mg/kg) improved antioxidative ability, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism in broilers, and synergistic effects by the combined supplementation of LA and ALC were indicated by serum and liver SOD activities and serum glucose and TG levels.

  15. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  16. Prevalence of overweight in adolescents with intellectual deficiency. Differences in socio-educative context, physical activity and dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Mikulovic, Jacques; Marcellini, Anne; Compte, Roy; Duchateau, Guillaume; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuan, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    The study investigates the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents. An observational study was conducted on a group of 410 ID children, living in France. Overweight and obesity, defined according to international standards, were analyzed and related to demographic and sociological parameters, educational care, physical activity and dietary habits. The study highlighted a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (19.0%) in ID adolescents and 22.5% in oldest teenagers, age 15-20 y. This observation was more likely in medico-educative institutes (25.1%) than in general schools (12.3%). Average time spent in physical activity was 4.5 h/week, compared with 3.5 h/week in obese subjects. Time spent in sedentary behavior was 26.6 h/week for the whole population, compared with 18.6 h/week in obese adolescents. Meals were ingested regularly, and adherence to eating breakfast was good. However, snacks and soft drinks were consumed between and during meals by 66.5% of subjects. Overweight in young ID appeared to be related to parental overweight. Even though ID adolescents receive a balanced diet and practice sport regularly, they exhibit a high prevalence for overweight and obesity. In subjects more than 15 years of age, enrollment in medico-educative institutes and parental overweight were contributory factors to poor weight status.

  17. Effects of dietary tin on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry, antioxidant status, and tin retention in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Zhai, Qin-Hui; Gao, Xin; Li, Chong; Zheng, Qiang; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, DeSheng

    2014-12-01

    Tin (Sn) is widely used in daily life and distributed in many tissues and nutrients. Although over-ingestion of Sn can cause health problems, relatively little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sn in livestock health and productivity. This study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of prolonged high intake of dietary Sn on broilers. 150 one-day-old Avian broilers were randomly divided into five treatment groups, with five replicates of six birds. For 6 weeks, each group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (BD) or BD + Sn (as SnCl2) at 120, 240, 480, or 720 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the control, hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased when supplemented with Sn up to 480 mg/kg, while malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased until Sn supplementation at 720 mg/kg. Moreover, dietary Sn supplementation at 720 mg/kg decreased BW gain, feed intake, and impaired feed conversion ratio. The 720 mg Sn/kg group also increased activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), while decreased hemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC), and hematocrit (HCT) in the blood. Furthermore, the accumulation of Sn in various tissues was dose dependent on Sn ingestion. It was found that the tibia and feather are the two main tissues for Sn accumulation, followed by the liver, kidney, and other tissues in broilers. In conclusion, the adverse effects on broilers were induced when diets supplemented with Sn up to 480 mg/kg. Sn levels also managed to accumulate in the tibia and feather of broilers.

  18. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  19. Galangin, a dietary flavonol inhibits tumor initiation during experimental pulmonary tumorigenesis by modulating xenobiotic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Dinesh; Ramar, Manikandan; Chinnasamy, Arulvasu

    2014-02-05

    The aim of present study was to elucidate anti-initiating efficacy of galangin against benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Therefore, the activities of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes such as phase I and II were examined in lung as well as liver tissues (to compare the effects between target and non-target organs). Besides, the activities/levels of tissue marker enzymes, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expressions and histological observation of lungs were also analyzed. B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) to experimentally induce lung cancer. B(a)P-induced animals showed increased activity of phase I (Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, NADPH Cytochrome P450 redcutase and NADH Cytochrome b5 reductase) drug metabolic enzymes, LPO levels, tissue marker enzymes and decreased activity of phase II metabolic enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase) as well as antioxidant levels. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B(a)P-induced mice. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of CYP1A1 increased significantly in lung tissues of B(a)P-induced animals. Treatment with galangin (20 mg/kg body weight) efficiently counteracted all the above anomalies and restored cellular homeostasis. Our results demonstrate that galangin can modify xenobiotic enzymes in murine model of pulmonary tumorigenesis.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive.

  1. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  2. Differential effects of dietary Oenothera, Zizyphus mistol, and corn oils, and essential fatty acid deficiency on the progression of a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Piegari, M; Guzmán, C A; Eynard, A R

    1999-03-01

    The modulating effect of dietary enrichment in mistol seed oil (MO) containing 25% of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), evening primrose oil (EPO) enriched in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and corn oil (CO) as sources of omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on the growth parameters of one transplantable mammary tumor were compared. Mice fed on different lipid formulae were inoculated with a mammary gland adenocarcinoma and different growth development tumor parameters were recorded. Results showed that corn oil feeding slowed down most of the tumor growth parameters, as did the EPO diet. MO also showed antitumor activity. Olein feeding, which induces an essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD), increased the incidence and the multiplicity of metastases when compared with the controls. It may be concluded that a diet enriched in omega-6 fatty acids did not behave as a tumor promoter in this mammary gland tumor model. The antitumor activities of EPO and MO are corroborated in present experiments, suggesting that both oils may be of value in nutritional approaches of mammary gland tumor therapies. In addition, present data add further experimental proof about the proposed protumorigenic proneness induced by the EFAD state.

  3. Alleviation of chronic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of betaine and turmeric rhizome powder: dynamics of performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Akhavan-Salamat, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. THeat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. The treatment groups were as follows: thermoneutral control (TN-CON), HS-CON, HS-Bet, HS-TRP, and HS-BT (fed Bet and TRP). The results showed that decreases in body weight gain, feed intake, and increases in feed-to-gain ratio and mortality induced by HS were partially restored by dietary supplementation of Bet and TRP. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total, and IgG antibody titers against sheep red blood cell for secondary responses in the HS-TRP and HS-BT groups were also similar to those of the broilers in the TN

  4. Effects of dietary selenium of organic form against lead toxicity on the antioxidant system in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Özkan-Yilmaz, Ferbal; Özlüer-Hunt, Arzu; Gündüz, Suna Gül; Berköz, Mehmet; Yalin, Serap

    2014-04-01

    In this study was evaluated potential protective effect of organic selenium (Se) on heavy metal stress induced by lead (Pb) in Cyprinus carpio. For this reason, C. carpio was exposed to sublethal concentration of Pb (1.5 mg/L Pb(NO3)2) for 14 days. The fish were fed a basal (control; measured 0.55 mg/kg Se) diet or a basal diet supplemented with 2.50 mg/kg (measured 2.92 mg/kg Se) organic Se (Sel-Plex(®)) during the experiment period. The variations in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) with malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver and brain tissues of C. carpio were investigated in experimental groups. GSH levels in liver and brain tissues were significantly decreased by exposure to Pb. GST activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in liver tissue, but decreased in brain of treated fish by exposure to Pb. Also, GSH-Px activity was significantly increased in liver tissue, but decreased in brain of Pb-treated fish. Levels of MDA were increased in liver and brain of Pb-treated fish. The organic Se treatment for Pb-intoxicated animals improved activities of GSH-Px, GST and levels of MDA within normal limits. Supplemented Se could be able to improve Pb-induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and regulating antioxidant defense system in tissues.

  5. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV) activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation. PMID:27698953

  6. SIRT5 Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Kainate-Induced Seizures and Exacerbates Hippocampal Neurodegeneration not through Mitochondrial Antioxidant Enzyme SOD2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common and serious neurological disorder characterized by occurrence of recurrent spontaneous seizures, and emerging evidences support the association of mitochondrial dysfunction with epilepsy. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), localized in mitochondrial matrix, has been considered as an important functional modulator of mitochondria that contributes to ageing and neurological diseases. Our data shows that SIRT5 deficiency strikingly increased mortality rate and severity of response to epileptic seizures, dramatically exacerbated hippocampal neuronal loss and degeneration in mice exposed to Kainate (KA), and triggered more severe reactive astrogliosis. We found that the expression of mitochondrial SIRT5 of injured hippocampus was relatively up-regulated, indicating its potential contribution to the comparably increased survival of these cells and its possible neuroprotective role. Unexpectedly, SIRT5 seems not to apparently alter the decline of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in hippocampus caused by KA exposure in our paradigm, which indicates the protective role of SIRT5 on seizures and cellular degeneration might through different regulatory mechanism that would be explored in the future. In the present study, we provided strong evidences for the first time to demonstrate the association between SIRT5 and epilepsy, which offers a new understanding of the roles of SIRT5 in mitochondrial functional regulation. The neuroprotection of SIRT5 in KA-induced epileptic seizure and neurodegeneration will improve our current knowledge of the nature of SIRT5 in central nervous system (CNS) and neurological diseases. PMID:27445698

  7. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor β2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp.

  8. A Dietary Supplementation with Leucine and Antioxidants Is Capable to Accelerate Muscle Mass Recovery after Immobilization in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Magne, Hugues; Migné, Carole; Oberli, Marion; Breuillé, Denis; Faure, Magali; Vidal, Karine; Perrot, Marie; Rémond, Didier; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged inactivity induces muscle loss due to an activation of proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis; the latter is also involved in the recovery of muscle mass. The aim of the present work was to explore the evolution of muscle mass and protein metabolism during immobilization and recovery and assess the effect of a nutritional strategy for counteracting muscle loss and facilitating recovery. Adult rats (6–8 months) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I0–I8) and then permitted to recover for 10 to 40 days (R10–R40). They were fed a Control or Experimental diet supplemented with antioxidants/polyphenols (AOX) (I0 to I8), AOX and leucine (AOX + LEU) (I8 to R15) and LEU alone (R15 to R40). Muscle mass, absolute protein synthesis rate and proteasome activities were measured in gastrocnemius muscle in casted and non-casted legs in post prandial (PP) and post absorptive (PA) states at each time point. Immobilized gastrocnemius protein content was similarly reduced (-37%) in both diets compared to the non-casted leg. Muscle mass recovery was accelerated by the AOX and LEU supplementation (+6% AOX+LEU vs. Control, P<0.05 at R40) due to a higher protein synthesis both in PA and PP states (+23% and 31% respectively, Experimental vs. Control diets, P<0.05, R40) without difference in trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities between diets. Thus, this nutritional supplementation accelerated the recovery of muscle mass via a stimulation of protein synthesis throughout the entire day (in the PP and PA states) and could be a promising strategy to be tested during recovery from bed rest in humans. PMID:24312309

  9. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  10. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  11. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  12. Dietary choline deficiency and excess induced intestinal inflammation and alteration of intestinal tight junction protein transcription potentially by modulating NF-κB, STAT and p38 MAPK signaling molecules in juvenile Jian carp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of choline on intestinal mucosal immune and the possible mechanisms in fish by feeding juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with graded levels of dietary choline (165-1820 mg/kg diet) for 65 days. The results firstly showed that choline deficiency induced inflammatory infiltration in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) of fish. Meanwhile, compared with the optimal choline group, choline deficiency decreased the activities of lysozyme and acid phosphatase, contents of complement 3 and IgM in the intestine, downregulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A and defensin-3 in the PI and MI, LEAP-2B and hepcidin in the PI, MI and DI), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL) 10 and transforming growth factor β2 in the PI, MI and DI), and signaling molecule IκB in the PI, MI and DI; while upregulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6a and tumor necrosis factor α in the MI and DI, interferon γ2b in the PI and MI, IL-1β and IL-6b in the PI, MI and DI), and signaling molecules (Toll-like receptor 4 in the MI, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 in the PI and MI, Janus kinase 3 and tyrosine kinase 2 in the MI and DI, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 4 and STAT5 in the PI, MI and DI) of juvenile Jian carp, further indicating that choline deficiency caused inflammation and immunity depression in the intestine of fish. But choline deficiency decreased the PI IL-6a mRNA level, and increased the DI LEAP-2A and defensin-3 mRNA levels with unknown reasons. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins (claudin 3c in the PI and MI, claudin 7, claudin 11 and occludin in the PI, MI and DI) and signaling molecule mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 in the PI, MI and DI of juvenile Jian carp, whereas

  13. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  15. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects.

  16. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  17. Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  19. Food labeling: health claims and labeling statements; dietary fiber and cancer; antioxidant vitamins and cancer; omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease; folate and neural tube defects; revocation. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-10-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking its regulations codifying the agency's decision not to authorize the use of health claims for four substance-disease relationships in the labeling of foods, including dietary supplements: Dietary fiber and cancer, antioxidant vitamins and cancer, omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease, and the claim that 0.8 milligram (mg) of folate in dietary supplement form is more effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects than a lower amount in conventional food. This action is being taken in response to a decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit invalidating these regulations and directing FDA to reconsider whether to authorize the four health claims. This action will result in the removal of the regulations but does not constitute FDA authorization of the four claims. FDA is completing its reconsideration of the claims and expects to issue decisions on all four claims by October 10, 2000.

  20. Role of zinc in regulating the testicular function. Part 3. Histopathological changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency in testes of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hafiez, A A; el-Kirdassy, Z H; el-Malkh, N M; el-Zayat, E M

    1990-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects the testicular tissues adversely. The testes of zinc-deficient rats showed variable degrees of degeneration compared to both control and zinc-supplemented ones. Initially, there was an early pronounced spermatic arrest followed by a series of degeneration of the cellular layers constituting the seminiferous tubules in the zinc-deficient rats. Degenerative changes were additionally demonstrated in the interstitial tissue cells of the zinc-deficient rats. These histopathological observations in testes of zinc-deficient rats run in parallel provide an additional support to our previous publications in which we recorded a significant reduction in both serum and testicular levels of testosterone in the same group of animals, since spermatogenesis in rodents appeared to depend primarily on testosterone level.

  1. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-06-26

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon γ-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase I in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in

  2. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  3. Effects of Dietary Pantothenic Acid on Growth, Intestinal Function, Anti-Oxidative Status and Fatty Acids Synthesis of Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01), up to 31.04 mg kg-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01) docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA

  4. Selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies induce widespread pyogranuloma formation in mice, while high levels of dietary selenium decrease liver tumor size driven by TGFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying l...

  5. Dietary selenium deficiency as well as excess supplementation induces multiple defects in mouse epididymal spermatozoa: understanding the role of selenium in male fertility.

    PubMed

    Shalini, Sonia; Bansal, M P

    2008-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is essential for male fertility. The present study was carried out to observe the defects associated with Se deficiency as well as excess Se supplementation by analyzing the sperm ultrastructure and chromatin organization. Different Se status mice were generated viz. Se deficient (group I), Se adequate (group II) and Se excess (group III) by feeding the respective diets for a period of 4 (group Ia, IIa and IIIa) and 8 weeks (group Ib, IIb and IIIb). Reduction in sperm concentration, motility and percentage fertility was observed in Se deficient and Se excess groups. Electron microscopy revealed mitochondrial swelling and gaps between adjacent mitochondria in mice fed Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, several abnormalities such as loose contact of the mitochondrial helix with the plasma membrane, loss of mitochondria, retention of cytoplasmic droplet, fracturing of outer dense fibres and presence of both the midpiece and the principal piece cross-sections in a common plasma membrane were observed. In Se excess group, the predominant defect was the frequent presence of equidistant, cross-sectioned midpieces of the tail embedded in a common cytoplasm. These defects are indicative of loss of sperm motility. Spermatozoa from Se-deficient mice had incompletely condensed chromatin and indicated an increase in occurrence of DNA strand breaks. The animals fed Se excess diet also indicated increase in DNA breaks but this was significantly less than the deficient diet fed groups. Our study reveals the defects associated with Se deficiency that result in loss of reproductive ability and also reflects its possible harmful effects on spermatozoa after prolonged consumption at supranutritional level.

  6. Occurrence of cleft-palate and alteration of Tgf-β(3) expression and the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion in mice following dietary folic-acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Estela; Murillo, Jorge; Barrio, Carmen; del Río, Aurora; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Partearroyo, Teresa; Paradas, Irene; Maestro, Carmen; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is essential for numerous bodily functions. Its decrease during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations in the progeny. The relationship between FA deficiency and the appearance of cleft palate (CP) is controversial, and little information exists on a possible effect of FA on palate development. We investigated the effect of a 2-8 weeks' induced FA deficiency in female mice on the development of CP in their progeny as well as the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion, i.e. cell proliferation, cell death, and palatal-shelf adhesion and fusion. We showed that an 8 weeks' maternal FA deficiency caused complete CP in the fetuses although a 2 weeks' maternal FA deficiency was enough to alter all the mechanisms analyzed. Since transforming growth factor-β(3) (TGF-β(3)) is crucial for palatal fusion and since most of the mechanisms impaired by FA deficiency were also observed in the palates of Tgf-β(3)null mutant mice, we investigated the presence of TGF-β(3) mRNA, its protein and phospho-SMAD2 in FA-deficient (FAD) mouse palates. Our results evidenced a large reduction in Tgf-β(3) expression in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 8 weeks; Tgf-β(3) expression was less reduced in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks. Addition of TGF-β(3) to palatal-shelf cultures of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks normalized all the altered mechanisms. Thus, an insufficient folate status may be a risk factor for the development of CP in mice, and exogenous TGF-β(3) compensates this deficit in vitro.

  7. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  8. Dietary Glucosinolates Sulforaphane, Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Indole-3-Carbinol/3,3'-Diindolylmethane: Anti-Oxidative Stress/Inflammation, Nrf2, Epigenetics/Epigenomics and In Vivo Cancer Chemopreventive Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Francisco; Paredes-Gonzalez, Ximena; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2015-05-01

    Glucosinolates are a group of sulfur-containing glycosides found in many plant species, including cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. Accumulating evidence increasingly supports the beneficial effects of dietary glucosinolates on overall health, including as potential anti-cancer agents, because of their role in the prevention of the initiation of carcinogenesis via the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and their epigenetic mechanisms, including modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes, histone modification regulation and changes in the expression of miRNAs. In this context, the defense mechanism mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against oxidative stress and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In this review, we summarize the cancer chemopreventive role of naturally occurring glucosinolate derivatives as inhibitors of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo human cancer animal models.

  9. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    PubMed

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  10. The influence of dietary antioxidant on ovarian eggs and levels of vitamin E, C, A, astaxanthin, β-carotene and oxidative stres in tissues of Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz) during reproduction.

    PubMed

    Barim-Oz, O; Sahin, H

    2016-12-30

    The experiment was conducted to determine the most effective antioxidant (among the vitamin E (VE), vitamin C (VC), vitamin A (VA), astaxanthine (AX), β-carotene (βC)) on the ovarian egg number and size, level of VE, VC, VA, AX, βC and oxidative stress (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) in the hepatopancreas, ovarian, gills and muscle tissue during ovarian development of Astacus leptodactylus. One control (C) and five experimental diets (EE, EC, EA, EAX and EβC) were prepared. The EE, EC, EA, EAX and EβC groups were formed by added 150 mg kg-1 VE, 200 mg kg-1 VC, 240 mg kg-1 VA, 200 mg kg-1 AX and 200 mg kg-1 βC to diet C, respectively. At the end of the experiment found that the dietary antioxidants increased ovarian egg number and size and reduced the level of MDA in the tissues. Ovarian egg number and size were highest in the EE and EAX diet groups in the comparison to control (p<0.001). The level of MDA in the tissues was lowest in the EAX diet group in the comparison to control (p<0.001). The highest levels of VE, VC, VA, AX and βC were found in the hepatopancreas and ovarian compared with muscle and gills. The highest level of MDA also was determined in the ovarian according to other tissues. In conclusion, the VE and AX in broodstock diets were the most effective antioxidants on the ovarian egg number and size of A. leptodactylus.

  11. Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Wen; Lu, Lin; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Yang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xu-Gang

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of Mn on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins/factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders subjected to heat challenge, we used a completely randomised design (n 6) with a factorial arrangement of 2 environmental temperatures (normal, 21 (sem 1)°C and high, 32 (sem 1)°C)×3 dietary Mn treatments (an Mn-unsupplemented basal diet (CON), or a basal diet supplemented with 120 mg Mn/kg diet as inorganic Mn sulphate (iMn) or organic Mn proteinate (oMn)). There were no interactions (P>0·10) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in all of the measured indices. High temperature decreased (P<0·003) Mn content, and also tended (P=0·07) to decrease copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity in the liver and heart. However, an increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity (P<0·05) and a slight increase of malondialdehyde level (P=0·06) were detected in breast muscle. Up-regulated (P<0·05) expression levels of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF3 mRNA and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA and protein were found in all three tissues. Broiler breeders fed either iMn or oMn had higher tissue Mn content (P<0·0001), heart MnSOD and CuZnSOD activities (P<0·01) and breast muscle MnSOD protein levels (P<0·05), and lower (P<0·05) breast muscle HSP70 mRNA and protein levels than those fed CON. Broiler breeders fed oMn had higher (P<0·03) bone Mn content than those fed iMn. These results indicate that high temperature decreases Mn retention and increases HSP70 and HSF1, HSF3 expression levels in tissues of laying broiler breeders. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Mn in either source may enhance heart antioxidant ability and inhibit the expression of HSP70 in breast muscle. Finally, the organic Mn appears to be more available than inorganic Mn for bone in laying broiler breeders regardless of environmental temperatures.

  12. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahijri, Suhad M; Lamb, David J; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2004-10-01

    It has previously been shown that dietary copper can modulate the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The metabolism of copper and zinc are closely related, and it has been hypothesized that the balance of dietary copper to zinc may be important in determining coronary risk. Hence, we have investigated the interaction between dietary copper and zinc in atherogenesis in the New Zealand White rabbit. Juvenile male rabbits were randomly allocated to eight groups. Four groups were fed a normal chow diet with zinc (0.5%, w/w), copper (0.2%, w/w), copper plus zinc or neither in their drinking water for 12 weeks. Four other groups were fed a diet containing 0.25-1% (w/w) cholesterol plus zinc, copper, both or neither. Serum cholesterol of individual animals was maintained at approximately 20 mmol/l. Integrated plasma cholesterol levels were similar for all groups receiving cholesterol and significantly higher than those in the chow-fed groups (P < 0.001). Aortic copper concentrations were higher in the animals receiving cholesterol diets with copper compared to rabbits receiving normal chow and copper (P < 0.001). Aortic zinc content was significantly higher in cholesterol-fed rabbits supplemented with zinc alone or with copper than in those fed cholesterol alone (P < 0.001). Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were significantly higher in groups receiving cholesterol, irrespective of their trace element supplementation (P < 0.001). However, trace element supplementation increased the level significantly (P < 0.05). Trace element supplements did not appear to affect erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in the cholesterol-fed animals; however, zinc supplementation was associated with a significant increase in the enzyme in chow-fed animals (P < 0.05). The activity of the enzyme per mg of protein in aortic tissue was higher in animals receiving copper in the presence of cholesterol (P < 0.05) but not significantly so in its absence

  13. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the Δ(3)Δ (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on Δ(3)Δ(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P < 0.05). It is concluded that diets enriched with safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver.

  14. Growth inhibition and antioxidative status induced by selenium-enriched broccoli extract and selenocompounds in DNA mismatch repair-deficient human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Ou, Bor-Rung; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yeh, Jan-Ying

    2013-08-15

    The effects of enzymatic-digested Se-enriched broccoli extracts (SeB) and selenocompounds on growth and antioxidative status in human colon cancer cells was investigated in this study. HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cells were treated with selenocompounds (sodium selenite, sodium selenate, Se-Met, MeSeCys) or SeB [high-Se (H-SeB) or low-Se (L-SeB)]. The cytotoxicity induced by selenocompounds in HCT116 cells was not associated with cellular H2O2 level, while the differential cytotoxicity observed by sodium selenite between HCT116 and HCT116+Chr.3 cell lines was related to cellular H2O2 production with the change in antioxidative enzyme activity, and the restoration of chromosome 3. H-SeB was found to reduce the cellular H2O2 content in HCT116+Chr.3 cells. The results in this study indicate that regardless of Se content, the cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells of both SeB forms appeared to be H2O2-independent, whereas the cytotoxicity in HCT116+Chr.3 of either SeB form appeared to be H2O2-dependent with an increase in antioxidative ability for H-SeB.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C on production performance, immune responses and antioxidant status of White Leghorn layers under tropical summer conditions.

    PubMed

    Panda, A K; Ramarao, S V; Raju, M V L N; Chatterjee, R N

    2008-09-01

    1. The effects of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) supplementation on performance, some immune variables and antioxidant status of White Leghorn layers (aged 44-56 weeks) exposed to tropical summer conditions were investigated. 2. Both vitamins E and C significantly improved the egg production, food conversion efficiency, antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen and activities of antioxidant enzymes red blood cell catalase (RBCC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in layers. Vitamin C increased the inflammatory response to phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) inoculation. 3. Supplemental vitamin C at 200 mg/kg diet significantly increased eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, and shell breaking strength. However, no effect of supplemental vitamin E on eggshell quality was observed. 4. Vitamins E and C, as well as interactions between them, significantly influenced the activities of glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidase. A combination of vitamin E at 125 IU/kg with vitamin C at 200 mg/kg diet had an additive effect on reducing the activity of oxidative enzyme lipid peroxidase (LP) and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzyme glutathione reductase (GSHR). 5. It is concluded that vitamin E (125 IU/kg) and vitamin C (200 mg/kg) could independently alleviate the effects of heat stress on production performance and immunological variables of layers. However, combination of both the vitamins at the above-mentioned concentrations is beneficial in eliciting higher antioxidant status in laying hens exposed to tropical summer conditions.

  16. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency.

  17. Spontaneous liver fibrosis induced by long term dietary vitamin D deficiency in adult mice is related to chronic inflammation and enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Longdong; Kong, Ming; Han, Yuan-Ping; Bai, Li; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Sujun; Yuan, Hong; Duan, Zhongping

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed an association between vitamin D deficiency and various chronic liver diseases. However, it is not known whether lack of vitamin D can induce spontaneous liver fibrosis in an animal model. To study this, mice were fed either a control diet or a vitamin D deficient diet (VDD diet). For the positive control, liver fibrosis was induced with carbon tetrachloride. Here we show, for the first time, that liver fibrosis spontaneously developed in mice fed the VDD diet. Long-term administration of a VDD diet resulted in necro-inflammation and liver fibrosis. Inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleulin-1, interleukin-6, Toll-like-receptor 4, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were up-regulated in the livers of the mice fed the VDD diet. Conversely, the expression of Th2/M2 markers such as IL-10, IL-13, arginase 1, and heme oxygenase-1 were down-regulated in the livers of mice fed the VDD diet. Transforming growth factor-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13, which are important for fibrosis, were induced in the livers of mice fed the VDD diet. Moreover, the VDD diet triggered apoptosis in the parenchymal cells, in agreement with the increased levels of Fas and FasL, and decreased Bcl2 and Bclx. Thus, long-term vitamin D deficiency can provoke chronic inflammation that can induce liver apoptosis, which consequently activates hepatic stellate cells to initiate liver fibrosis.

  18. New insights into the effects of formulation type and compositional mixtures on the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of dietary supplements based-on hepatoprotective plants.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-09-01

    Artichoke (A), borututu (B) and milk thistle (M) are included in several supplements to provide beneficial effects. Different formulations (infusions, pills and syrups), with different proportions of A, B and M (1 : 1 : 1, 2 : 1 : 1, 1 : 2: 1, 1 : 1 : 2) within each formulation, were assayed to optimize the desired benefits. The antioxidant activity, anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activity, hepatotoxicity and bioactive compound contents were evaluated. Syrups tended to be the formulation with highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content; otherwise, pills were the worst formulation. In what concerns A : B : M ratios, the results did not reveal so pronounced differences. None of the assayed mixtures resulted to be toxic (up to the maximum assayed dose) for liver primary cells (PLP2), but some samples, especially infusions, showed toxicity for the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). With no exception, the mixtures for all formulations showed synergistic effects on antioxidant activity, when compared to the activity of single plants.

  19. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  20. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed.

  1. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. PMID:26881023

  2. Lycopene Deficiency in Ageing and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed.

  3. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide levels and feeding modes on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Tian, Hong-Yan; Li, Jun-Yi; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) levels and its feeding modes on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (12.5 ± 0.5 g) were subjected to three FOS levels (0, 0.4% and 0.8%) and two feeding modes (supplementing FOS continuously and supplementing FOS two days interval 5 days) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila with concentration of 1 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) and mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. Fish fed 0.4% FOS continuously (D2) and fish fed the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days (D5) showed admirable growth performance. The highest plasma lysozyme, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities as well as complement component 3, total protein and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were all observed in fish fed D5. They were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group and/or fish fed 0.8% FOS continuously, but exhibited no statistical difference (P > 0.05) with that of fish fed D2. A similar trend was also observed in antioxidant capability as well as the expression of Leap-I and Leap-Ⅱ. Mortality showed an opposite trend with the immune response with the lowest rate observed in fish fed D5. The results indicated that diet supplementing FOS in appropriate levels and feeding modes could improve the growth, immune response and antioxidant capability of fish, as might consequently lead to enhanced disease resistance. It can be speculated that the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days was most suitable for blunt snout bream.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P < 0.05). The levels of -OH and MDA increased under exposure time extending and nitrite concentration increasing, whereas T-AOC level decreased. SOD and CAT activities increased at 4 h and 8 h and decreased at 12 h. During the days in which the animal consumed experimental diets, the levels of -OH and MDA decreased and that of T-AOC increased. This result suggests that diets containing vitamin C could reduce the nitrite stress response in the animals and increase their antioxidant capacity. The multifactor regression equation of growth performance, ROS indices, and duration of feeding results suggest that vitamin C supplementation of 1 400-2 000 mg/kg diet for 29-35 days could reduce effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  5. Antioxidant therapies in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Irfan

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important feature in the pathogenesis of COPD. Targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. Antioxidant agents such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn), dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, catechins/quercetin), erdosteine, and carbocysteine lysine salt, all have been reported to control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κ B) activation, regulation of glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling, and hence inflammatory gene expression. Specific spin traps such as α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419 have also been reported to inhibit cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. Since a variety of oxidants, free radicals, and aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, it is possible that therapeutic administration of multiple antioxidants will be effective in the treatment of COPD. Various approaches to enhance lung antioxidant capacity and clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in COPD are discussed. PMID:18046899

  6. Elevated carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and its normalization on dietary treatment as a useful biochemical test for hereditary fructose intolerance and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Pronicka, Ewa; Adamowicz, Maciej; Kowalik, Agnieszka; Płoski, Rafał; Radomyska, Barbara; Rogaszewska, Małgorzata; Rokicki, Dariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta

    2007-07-01

    Abnormalities in protein glycosylation are reported in fructosemia (HFI) and galactosemia, although, particularly in HFI, the published data are limited to single cases. The purpose was to investigate the usefulness of the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) profile for identification and monitoring of these disorders. First we analyzed CDT values before and shortly after the diagnosis in 10 cases of HFI and 17 cases of galactosemia. In all patients, elevated CDT levels were found that significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased with the therapeutic diet (27.3 +/- 11.5% versus 9.3 +/- 5.1% for HFI and 43.8 +/- 14.1% versus 11.2 +/- 4.0% for galactosemia). To evaluate the use of CDT test in monitoring compliance, the test was performed in 25 HFI patients on fructose-restricted diet. We found an elevated CDT level on 104 from 134 tests (mean 11.3 +/- 5.5%, control 1.5%-6.2%). The fructose intake was found to be 90 +/- 70 mg/kg/d, and the diet was unbalanced. A number of patients presented lower height, elevated urinary uric acid excretion, and hypercalciuria. In conclusion, abnormal percentage of CDT (%CDT) values may allow prompt detection of HFI (or galactosemia). Persistence of some abnormalities in HFI on treatment may be caused by trace amounts of fructose ingestion and/or a deficient diet. Regular %CDT measurements are suggested for HFI treatment monitoring.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  8. Transcriptional activation of antioxidants may compensate for selenoprotein deficiencies in Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) injected with selK- or selM-dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven; Browning, Rebecca; Singh, Parul; Nobles, Sarah; Villarreal, Ashley; Karim, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf-Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, possesses an elaborate set of selenoprotein, which prevent the deleterious effects from oxidative stress that occur during feeding. In the current work, we examined the role of Selenoprotein K (SelK) and Selenoprotein M (SelM) in feeding A. maculatum by bioinformatics, transcriptional gene expression, RNA interference and antioxidant assays. The transcriptional expression of SelK does not vary significantly in salivary glands or midguts throughout the blood meal. However, there is a 58-fold increase in transcript levels of SelM in tick midguts. Ticks injected with selK-dsRNA or selM-dsRNA did not reveal any observable differences in egg viability but oviposition was reduced. Surprisingly, salivary antioxidant activity was higher in selenoprotein knockouts compared to controls, which is likely due to compensatory transcriptional expression of genes involved in combating reactive oxygen species. In fact, RT-qPCR data suggest the transcriptional expression of catalase increased in ticks injected with selM-dsRNA. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of selN decreased ~90% in both SelK/SelM knockdowns. PMID:24698418

  9. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Oleñik, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms. Methods A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years) with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe) included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision. Results The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9) for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9) for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8) for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001). The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8) at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5) after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001). There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%). A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001). A total of 634 patients (70.1%) did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants was an effective treatment for dry eye. PMID:24421636

  10. Dietary modifiers of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, L; Simonsen, N; Mottus, K

    1995-01-01

    Dietary components express a wide range of activities that can affect carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring substances in foods have been shown in laboratory experiments to serve as dietary antimutagens, either as bioantimutagens or as desmutagens. Dietary desmutagens may function as chemical inactivaters, enzymatic inducers, scavengers, or antioxidants. Dietary components may also act later in the carcinogenic process as tumor growth suppressors. Examples of dietary factors acting in each of these stages of carcinogenesis are presented, and potential anticarcinogens such as the carotenoids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, metal-binding proteins, phytoestrogens, and conjugated linoleic acid are discussed. Individual foods typically contain multiple potential anticarcinogens. Many of these substances can influence carcinogenesis through more than one mechanism. Some substances exhibit both anticarcinogenic and carcinogenic activity in vitro, depending on conditions. Epidemiologic research indicates that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with lower cancer risk. Little research has focused on the effects of single substances or single foods in man. Realization of the potential of foodborne substances to reduce the human burden of cancer will only be achieved with better measurement of dietary exposures and funding of multidisciplinary research in this area commensurate with its importance. PMID:8741780

  11. Dietary incorporation of feedstuffs naturally high in organic selenium for racing pigeons (Columba livia): effects on plasma antioxidant markers after a standardised simulation of a flying effort.

    PubMed

    Schoonheere, N; Dotreppe, O; Pincemail, J; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2009-06-01

    Selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. It is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. A muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. Two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. The pigeons were submitted to a standardised simulation of a flying effort during 2 h. Blood was taken before and after the effort to measure antioxidant markers and blood parameters related to muscle metabolism. Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly higher in the selenium group. There were no significant differences for the other measured parameters. As a consequence of the effort, the pigeons of the selenium group showed a higher increase of glutathione peroxidase activity and a smaller increase of plasma lactate concentration. Variations because of the effort in the other markers were not significantly different between the two groups. It is concluded that the selenium status was improved with the feeding of feedstuffs high in Selenium.

  12. Dietary constituents as novel therapies for pain.

    PubMed

    Tall, Jill M; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2004-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine has dramatically increased in the United States. The effects of select dietary constituents in animal models and clinical pain states are reviewed. Specifically, the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of soybeans, sucrose, and tart cherries are discussed. The potential actions of dietary constituents as antiinflammatory and antioxidant agents are presented.

  13. Chronic transgenerational vitamin B12 deficiency of severe and moderate magnitudes modulates adiposity-probable underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Muralikrishna, Bojanapalli; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2017-02-10

    We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males. The offspring of control and severely deficient dams continued on the respective diets of their mothers. Few moderately deficient dams were rehabilitated to control diet from parturition and their pups were weaned to control diet. Also, some offspring born to moderately B12 deficient dams were weaned to control diet, while others continued on the same diet as their mothers. Various parameters were determined in the F1 offspring after 12 and 36 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that both severe and moderate maternal vitamin B12 restrictions were associated with accelerated catch-up growth, increased body fat percentage, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in the F1 offspring. Inflammation, increased glucocorticoid and oxidative stress and poor antioxidant defence probably underlie these adverse effects. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning was beneficial in delaying the onset of the adverse outcomes in the offspring. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.

  14. Non-invasive in-vivo Raman spectroscopic measurement of the dynamics of the antioxidant substance lycopene in the human skin after a dietary supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Gersonde, I.; Albrecht, H.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2007-05-01

    A non-invasive optical method based on resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the in vivo detection of the concentration of the carotenoid antioxidant substance lycopene in the human skin. The physiological variation of the level of lycopene in the skin during a 6 month period was measured daily in 7 volunteers. It was shown that all volunteers had a different individual level of lycopene in the skin, depending on the lifestyle of volunteers. It was shown that the supplementation of the foodstuffs containing lycopene, such as tomato products and some fruits, increases the level of lycopene in the skin. The increase in the lycopene level can be usually observed on the next day after the supplementation. The present results demonstrate that a diet rich in products containing a high amount of carotenoids, such as lycopene, can be an efficient strategy to increase the carotenoid level of the skin.

  15. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil and its fractions on antioxidant status and DNA damage in the heart of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Khemakhem, Mouna; Boudawara, Ons; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ben Amar, Raja; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba; Grati Kamoun, Naziha

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress generated by an excessive production of free radicals has been linked to the development of several health problems such as cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the protective efficacy of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and its lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) against the cardiotoxicity and DNA damage induced by co-exposure to aluminum (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR). Rats were divided into eight groups of six each: controls, AlCl3 (50 mg per kg body weight) administered via drinking water and ACR (20 mg per kg body weight) given by gavage, combined group plus EVOO (300 μl); combined group plus the hydrophilic fraction (1 ml); combined group plus the lipophilic fraction (300 μl); extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its fractions were administered daily by gavage for 21 days. Three other groups, considered as positive controls, received either EVOO, OOLF or OOLH. Exposure of rats to both AlCl3 and ACR provoked oxidative stress objectified by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT, GPx and SOD were also decreased. EVOO and its OOLF fraction exhibited a pronounced enhancement of antioxidant status while a partial recovery in the antioxidant status was obtained with the OOHF fraction. Plasma LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with both AlCl3 and ACR. Co-administration of EVOO, OOLF or OOHF to treated rats restored cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile to near-normal values. Histological studies and DNA damage confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO and its two fractions. Our results suggest that extra virgin olive oil and its two fractions can decrease the frequency of cardiac complications and genotoxicity.

  16. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. Recent Advances: The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Critical Issues: Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Future Directions: Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1130–1143. PMID:26154592

  17. Antioxidant-rich oral supplements attenuate the effects of oral iron on in situ oxidation susceptibility of human feces.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Mónica N; Solomons, Noel W; Schümann, Klaus; Friel, James K; de Montenegro, Ana Luisa Mendizábal

    2010-06-01

    Prophylactic doses of 120 mg of iron (Fe) are commonly used to prevent Fe-deficiency anemia in vulnerable populations, especially in developing countries. Evidence shows that residual Fe in the large bowel may alter the normal antioxidant capacity of the fecal stream. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary antioxidants from the Carotino Tocotrienol-Carotene Mixed Concentrate (CTCMC) on the depletion of fecal antioxidant capacity by oral Fe supplementation. In total, 17 healthy male adults participated in the 2 phases of the study, 5 in the pilot study and 12 in the definitive intervention trial. Participants received different treatments, separated by washout periods. These included: 120 mg Fe; 120 mg Fe and refined palm oil (FeOil); and 120 mg Fe in refined palm oil combined with 1 of 2 dosages (0.4 g and 0.8 g) of CTCMC/5 mL of refined palm oil (CTCB and CTCA treatments, respectively). Fecal samples were collected and analyzed to quantify the products of hydroxyl radical attack on salicylic acid (2,5 dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid, and catechol) at baseline and after active supplementation. Fe supplementation in either form (Fe or FeOil treatments) increased the concentrations of hydroxylated compounds in fecal samples. The production of hydroxylated compounds was significantly lower in treatments CTCB and CTCA than in the FeOil reference. Baseline antioxidant capacity state was virtually restored with dietary carotenoids and tocotrienols from the CTCMC. In conclusion, dietary antioxidants can reverse the depletion of fecal antioxidant capacity induced by oral Fe supplements.

  18. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part II--vitamin D, vitamin A, iron, zinc, iodine, essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Part II of this review considers additional micronutrients. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin found in foods of animal origins (fatty fish, liver oil) or fortified products (milk, cheese). Vitamin D deficiency is common in African-American women living in northern latitudes. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed to reach desired 25-(OH)D3 concentrations of >50 nmol/L. In foods of animal origin, preformed Vitamin A is present; in plants (fruits and vegetables) vitamin A precursors (β-carotenoids) are present. Vitamin A supplementation is usually not warranted, and in developing countries should not exceed 3000 μg (10,000 IU)/day. Iron in the form of haem-iron is found in meat, fish and poultry; non-haem (inorganic) iron is found in vegetables, fruits and grains. Iron supplementation may be necessary in the third trimester, earlier in pregnancy or in non-pregnant states if serum ferritin is <20 μg/L or haemoglobin <10.9 g/dL. Zinc is available in red meat, seafood including oysters and unpolished grains; supplementation is not necessary. To assure adequate iodine, food is fortified worldwide with iodated salt. If urinary iodine levels are low, supplementation is needed. Essential fatty acids requirements can be met by one to two portions of fish per week.