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Sample records for antioxidant dietary deficiency

  1. Effect of dietary antioxidants on the cytostatic effect of acrylamide during copper-deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kommuguri, Upendra Nadh; Satyaprasad Pallem, Poorna Venkata; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide exposure increases oxidative stress and causes cytotoxicity. In order to understand the role of oxidative stress in acrylamide toxicity, we utilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism grown in Yeast Peptone Dextrose (YPD) or Copper-Deficient Medium (CDM). Although the growth curves of yeast were comparable in these media, acrylamide treatment resulted in significant growth inhibition and colony formation only in the CDM. Copper-deficiency induced a decrease in the intracellular metallothionein levels, along with reduced Cu, Zn-SOD activity that appeared to increase the sensitivity of the yeast to the cytostatic effect of acrylamide. Increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence, enhanced formation of para-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (PBN)-hydroxyethyl adducts and a lowered reduced glutathione (GSH) content were observed under copper-deficient conditions, when challenged with acrylamide. The cytostatic effects and intracellular redox changes in response to acrylamide were ameliorated by antioxidant molecules viz. a viz. curcumin, β-carotene, vanillin and caffeic acid, which effectively decreased the oxidative stress and improved the growth recovery.

  2. Flesh Quality Loss in Response to Dietary Isoleucine Deficiency and Excess in Fish: A Link to Impaired Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Defense in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the impact of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on fish growth and flesh quality and revealed a possible role of muscle antioxidant defense in flesh quality in relation to dietary Ile. Grass carp (weighing 256.8±3.5 g) were fed diets containing six graded levels of Ile (3.8, 6.6, 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.5 g/kg) for eight weeks. The results indicated that compared with Ile deficiency (3.8 g/kg diets) and excess (18.5 g/kg diets) groups, 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations promoted fish growth and muscle fat deposition, whereas 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diets supplementation enhanced muscle nutrients (protein and total EAAs) deposition. Furthermore, muscle shear force, pH value, and hydroxyproline concentration were improved by 9.3–12.5, 9.3 and 9.3 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. However, muscle cooking loss, lactate content, and activities of cathepsin B and L were decreased by 6.6–15.2, 9.3–12.5, 9.3–12.5 and 9.3–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Additionally, 6.6–15.2 and 6.6–12.5 g Ile/kg diet supplementations attenuated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, respectively. The activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione content were enhanced by 6.6–9.3, 6.6–12.5 and 6.6–15.2 g Ile/kg diet supplementations, respectively. Moreover, the relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes, including Cu/Zn-SOD (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets) and GPx (12.5 g/kg diets), as well as antioxidant-related signaling molecules, including NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), target of rapamycin (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (9.3–12.5 g/kg diets) and casein kinase 2 (6.6–12.5 g/kg diets), were up-regulated when Ile diet supplementations were administered at these levels, respectively, whereas the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 was down-regulated with 9.3 g Ile/kg diet

  3. Dietary antioxidants and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Fraine, E; Hunt, L P; Acheson, D W; Braganza, J M

    1986-03-01

    Fifteen patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (aged 17-78 years), who had not altered their diet since their first symptoms, completed 7-d weighed dietary records at home. The computed information was compared with that from 15 age- and sex-matched volunteers. Attention was focussed on the intakes of antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids. The patients ingested less selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C and riboflavin than did controls (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.02, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 respectively, using paired t-tests): selenium was by far the best discriminator on step-wise analysis. When the selenium intakes were examined alongside the results of theophylline tests--which reflect cytochromes P450 activities and, thereby, provide an index of antioxidant demand--a line of discrimination separated the majority of patients (with faster drug clearances and lower selenium intakes) and controls. There were no differences in the intakes of individual unsaturated fatty acids, C14:1 through to C24:6, between the two groups. However, amongst six subjects in the overlap zone, three with chronic pancreatitis habitually ate greater amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids C20:4 to C24:6 inclusive (1970, 1049, 750 mg/d) than did three controls (329, 320, 82 mg/d). Animal experiments show that suboptimal intakes of dietary antioxidants and/or excessive intakes of highly unsaturated fatty acids and/or induction of cytochromes P450 facilitate peroxidation of cellular lipid membranes by free radicals. Our dietary data, taken in conjunction with pharmacokinetic data, thus suggest that a similar situation--favouring lipid peroxidation--may underlie human chronic pancreatitis.

  4. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  5. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-15 and -3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in fish gills fed niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling

  6. Dietary antioxidants enhance immunocompetence in larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Szuroczki, Dorina; Koprivnikar, Janet; Baker, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants have been shown to confer a variety of benefits through their ability to counter oxidative stress, including increased immunocompetence and reduced susceptibility to both infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, little is known about the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune function in larval amphibians, a group experiencing worldwide declines driven by factors that likely involve altered immunocompetence. We investigated the effects of dietary antioxidants (quercetin, vitamin E, and β-carotene) on two components of the immune system, as well as development and growth. Lithobates pipiens tadpoles fed diets with supplemental β-carotene or vitamin E exhibited an enhanced swelling response as measured with a phytohemagglutinin assay (PHA), but there was no induced antibody response. Effects were often dose-dependent, with higher antioxidant levels generally conferring stronger swelling that possibly corresponds to the innate immune response. Our results indicate that the antioxidant content of the larval amphibian diets not only had a detectable effect on their immune response capability, but also promoted tadpole growth (mass gain), although developmental stage was not affected. Given that many environmental perturbations may cause oxidative stress or reduce immunocompetence, it is critical to understand how nutrition may counter these effects. PMID:27475300

  7. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerates ethanol-induced liver injury in mice: involvement of intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency.

  8. Dietary antioxidants and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J

    2004-11-01

    Air is one of our most important natural resources; however, it is also in the front line for receiving environmental pollution. Air quality decreased markedly following the industrial revolution, but it was not until the great London Smog in 1952 that air quality made it onto the political agenda. The introduction of the Clean Air Act in 1956 led to dramatic decreases in black smoke and SO2 concentrations over the next two decades, as domestic and industrial coal-burning activities ceased. However, as these improvements progressed, a new threat to public health was being released into the air in ever-increasing quantities. Rapid motorisation of society from the 1960s onwards has led to the increased release of atmospheric pollutants such as tiny particles (particulate matter of <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and oxides of N, and the generation of the secondary pollutant O3. These primary and secondary traffic-related pollutants have all proved to be major risks factors to public health. Recently, oxidative stress has been identified as a unifying feature underlying the toxic actions of these pollutants. Fortunately, the surface of the lung is covered with a thin layer of fluid containing a range of antioxidants that appear to provide the first line of defence against oxidant pollutants. As diet is the only source of antioxidant micronutrients, a plausible link now exists between the sensitivity to air pollution and the quality of the food eaten. However, many questions remain unanswered in relation to inter-individual sensitivity to ambient air pollution, and extent to which this sensitivity is modified by airway antioxidant defences. PMID:15831130

  9. Dietary antioxidants and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J

    2004-11-01

    Air is one of our most important natural resources; however, it is also in the front line for receiving environmental pollution. Air quality decreased markedly following the industrial revolution, but it was not until the great London Smog in 1952 that air quality made it onto the political agenda. The introduction of the Clean Air Act in 1956 led to dramatic decreases in black smoke and SO2 concentrations over the next two decades, as domestic and industrial coal-burning activities ceased. However, as these improvements progressed, a new threat to public health was being released into the air in ever-increasing quantities. Rapid motorisation of society from the 1960s onwards has led to the increased release of atmospheric pollutants such as tiny particles (particulate matter of <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and oxides of N, and the generation of the secondary pollutant O3. These primary and secondary traffic-related pollutants have all proved to be major risks factors to public health. Recently, oxidative stress has been identified as a unifying feature underlying the toxic actions of these pollutants. Fortunately, the surface of the lung is covered with a thin layer of fluid containing a range of antioxidants that appear to provide the first line of defence against oxidant pollutants. As diet is the only source of antioxidant micronutrients, a plausible link now exists between the sensitivity to air pollution and the quality of the food eaten. However, many questions remain unanswered in relation to inter-individual sensitivity to ambient air pollution, and extent to which this sensitivity is modified by airway antioxidant defences.

  10. Dietary antioxidants: immunity and host defense.

    PubMed

    Puertollano, María A; Puertollano, Elena; de Cienfuegos, Gerardo Álvarez; de Pablo, Manuel A

    2011-01-01

    Natural antioxidants may be defined as molecules that prevent cell damage against free radicals and are critical for maintaining optimum health in both animals and humans. In all living systems, cells require adequate levels of antioxidant defenses in order to avoid the harmful effect of an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to prevent damage to the immune cells. During the inflammatory processes, the activation of phagocytes and/or the action of bacterial products with specific receptors are capable of promoting the assembly of the multicomponent flavoprotein NADPH oxidase, which catalyzes the production of high amounts of the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)). Under these particular circumstances, neutrophils and macrophages are recognized to produce superoxide free radicals and H(2)O(2), which are essential for defence against phagocytized or invading microbes. In this state, antioxidants are absolutely necessary to regulate the reactions that release free radicals. Antioxidant nutrients commonly included in the diet such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene, selenium, copper, iron and zinc improve different immune function exhibiting an important protective role in infections caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. As a result, dietary antioxidants have been related to modulate the host susceptibility or resistance to infectious pathogens. Overall, numerous studies have suggested that the development of tolerance, and control of inflammation are strongly correlated with specific immune mechanisms that may be altered by an inadequate supply of either macronutrients or micronutrients. Therefore, the present paper will review the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune cell function and the impact on protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:21506934

  11. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency.

  12. Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Terrence M.; Su, Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Several studies have examined the relationship between prostate cancer and antioxidants; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent. This article provides a systematic review of studies on prostate cancer and antioxidant intake from diet and supplements. Tea and coffee appear to offer protection against advanced prostate cancer. Different forms of vitamin E appear to exert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha-tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma-tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease. There is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin C, or beta-carotene, while lycopene appears to be negatively associated with risk of the disease. The effect of dietary antioxidants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive, with different antioxidants affecting prostate cancer risk differentially. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between antioxidants and prostate cancer risk and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23909722

  13. Contribution of Macromolecular Antioxidants to Dietary Antioxidant Capacity: A Study in the Spanish Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61% to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.

  14. Dietary sources and antioxidant effects of ergothioneine.

    PubMed

    Ey, Janine; Schömig, Edgar; Taubert, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    Ergothioneine is a native membrane-impermeable thiol compound that is specifically accumulated in cells via the organic cation transporter OCTN1. In humans, OCTN1 and ergothioneine have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. However, available evidence about dietary sources and the functional role of ergothioneine in human physiology is scarce. Here, we analyzed the ergothioneine content in common foods using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Additionally, we assessed the protective potency of ergothioneine against various oxidative stressors in OCTN1-expressing cells in comparison with the main intracellular thiol antioxidant glutathione by evaluating cell viability with the MTT reduction assay. Only some food contained ergothioneine with highest concentrations detected in specialty mushrooms, kidney, liver, black and red beans, and oat bran. Ergothioneine exhibited cell protection only against copper(II)-induced toxicity but was far less potent than glutathione, indicting that ergothioneine is not involved in the intracellular antioxidant thiol defense system. PMID:17616140

  15. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  16. Improving asthma during pregnancy with dietary antioxidants: the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wood, Lisa G; Clifton, Vicki L

    2013-08-14

    The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health.

  17. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  18. Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitive functioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitive function or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitive functioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern.

  19. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency.

  20. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  1. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model.

  2. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  3. Biology of Ageing and Role of Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Interest in relationship between diet and ageing is growing. Research has shown that dietary calorie restriction and some antioxidants extend lifespan in various ageing models. On the one hand, oxygen is essential to aerobic organisms because it is a final electron acceptor in mitochondria. On the other hand, oxygen is harmful because it can continuously generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are believed to be the factors causing ageing of an organism. To remove these ROS in cells, aerobic organisms possess an antioxidant defense system which consists of a series of enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). In addition, dietary antioxidants including ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and plant flavonoids are also able to scavenge ROS in cells and therefore theoretically can extend the lifespan of organisms. In this connection, various antioxidants including tea catechins, theaflavins, apple polyphenols, black rice anthocyanins, and blueberry polyphenols have been shown to be capable of extending the lifespan of fruit flies. The purpose of this review is to brief the literature on modern biological theories of ageing and role of dietary antioxidants in ageing as well as underlying mechanisms by which antioxidants can prolong the lifespan with focus on fruit flies as an model. PMID:24804252

  4. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.

  5. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  6. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect.

  7. Dietary zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the development of preneoplastic lesions in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Goto, Renata Leme; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Cogliati, Bruno; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Although there is a concomitance of zinc deficiency and high incidence/mortality for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain human populations, there are no experimental studies investigating the modifying effects of zinc on hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation alter the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL). Therefore, neonatal male Balb/C mice were submitted to a diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminefluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Moreover, mice were fed adequate (35 mg/kg diet), deficient (3 mg/kg) or supplemented (180 mg/kg) zinc diets. Mice were euthanized at 12 (early time-point) or 24 weeks (late time-point) after introducing the diets. At the early time-point, zinc deficiency decreased Nrf2 protein expression and GSH levels while increased p65 and p53 protein expression and the number of PNL/area. At the late time-point, zinc deficiency also decreased GSH levels while increased liver genotoxicity, cell proliferation into PNL and PNL size. In contrast, zinc supplementation increased antioxidant defense at both time-points but not altered PNL development. Our findings are the first to suggest that zinc deficiency predisposes mice to the PNL development in chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. The decrease of Nrf2/GSH pathway and increase of liver genotoxicity, as well as the increase of p65/cell proliferation, are potential mechanisms to this zinc deficiency-mediated effect. PMID:27544374

  8. Dietary nutrient intake and antioxidant status in preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    Sheykhi, Mahdiye; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is the most common cause of maternal death in the world. Some studies showed that inadequate intake of foods rich in antioxidant leads to increase oxidative stress and adverting obstetrical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and dietary nutrient intake in pregnant women with PE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 55 pregnant women with PE admitted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were interviewed about demographic data and dietary intakes by using a 168-items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of this serum was measured by using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Nonparametric correlation statistics were used to meet assumptions of normality and equal variances. Results: Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in comparison with healthy pregnant women (which measured as pilot). Intake of vitamin E was below the dietary reference intakes, and was positively associated with serum TAC (r = 0.367, P = 0.003), but this correlation was significantly negative about dietary selenium. There wasn’t any significant correlation between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, copper and serum TAC. Conclusion: Our findings showed that intake of vitamin E was positively associated with serum TAC. Little support was found on a relationship between dietary intakes of other micronutrients and serum TAC. Further research is required to explore the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and antioxidant status in women with PE. PMID:26605222

  9. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs.

  10. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Mrigen Kr.; Malhotra, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Rashmi; Gupta, Shubhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents are considered to be a nutritionally vulnerable segment of the population. There is a greater need to look into the nutritional status of adolescents but unfortunately, precise estimates of their dietary intake, dietary practices as well as nutritional deficiencies have been the least explored area. The general objective for conducting this study was to assess the dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in schools and colleges in the urban areas of Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh. The study sample consisted of 400 school children in the age group of 10-19 years. Food consumption of the subjects was assessed using a 3-day food intake recall method. Results: Mean age of the adolescents was 14.16 years. More than half of the children studied had malnutrition (53.5%). Mean intake of calorie, protein, fat, iron, and vitamins A and C were lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The habitual dietary pattern indicated poor consumption of milk, liver, and leafy vegetables. In comparison to boys (31.5%), more girls (46%) were underweight. On seeing the association, nutritional status of these adolescents within the normal limits were found to be significantly higher in those from nuclear families (P < 0.001), those with better educated parents (P < 0.000), and those from families of higher socioeconomic status (P < 0.000). Conclusion: Overall, among the participants, there were both macro- and micronutrients deficiencies. Therefore, there is a need to encourage people to adopt small family norms, and a need for the sensitization of both adolescents and their parents through health and nutrition education (HNE) to improve the health and nutritional status of the adolescents. PMID:26288775

  11. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  12. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  13. Brain damage in infancy and dietary vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wighton, M C; Manson, J I; Speed, I; Robertson, E; Chapman, E

    1979-07-14

    A case of the exclusively breast-fed infant of a vegetarian mother is reported. Neurological deterioration commenced between three and six months of age, and progressed to a comatose premoribund state by the age of nine months. Investigations revealed a mild nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in the mother, and a very severe nutritional B12 deficiency in the infant, with severe megaloblastic anaemia. Treatment of the infant with vitamin B12 resulted in a rapid clinical and haematological improvement, but neurological recovery was incomplete. Evidence is presented that dietary B12 deficiency was the sole cause of the infant's deterioration, and the literature relating to the condition is reviewed. It is recommended that all strict vegetarians (vegans), especially women in the child-bearing age group, take vitamin B12 supplements.

  14. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  15. Ventilatory function in young adults and dietary antioxidant intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J

    2015-04-15

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22-28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function.

  16. Effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa - dietary supplements vs. local diet.

    PubMed

    Nkengfack, Germaine N; Torimiro, Judith N; Englert, Heike

    2012-02-01

    In sub-Sahara Africa, micronutrient deficiency, especially of antioxidant micronutrients including vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols is very common in HIV-positive patients. Amongst adults, women are the most vulnerable. Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the immune system, reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is induced by excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to the HIV infection. Such damage may be prevented or moderated through adequate oral intake of antioxidants, scavenging ROS, as well as protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can be provided to the body through locally available antioxidant rich-diets such as fruit-and-vegetable-based diets and/or dietary supplements. Provision of antioxidants through local diets or dietary supplements exercise beneficial effects on biological markers of the immune system (CD4 and viral load). However, while dietary supplements represent a costly and short-term strategy to limiting antioxidant deficiency, local diets, combined with adequate nutritional education, can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV disease progression. The former can be applicable in countries around the West, Central, and South coast of Africa, which are rich in natural food resources. In contrast with significant evidence that dietary supplements confer benefits in HIV patients, fewer data are available relating to the benefits of local diets. Thus the need to do more research in this area arises. This review compares available data on effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-positive women noneligible for antiretroviral therapy. Intake of antioxidants though dietary supplements and local diet, associated with nutritional education, is compared. Studies conducted in sub-Sahara Africa are considered.

  17. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity. PMID:23875901

  18. Pharmacological and dietary antioxidant therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Hwang, J W; Kirkham, P A; Rahman, I

    2013-01-01

    The progression and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are intimately associated with tobacco smoke/biomass fuel-induced oxidative and aldehyde/carbonyl stress. Alterations in redox signaling proinflammatory kinases and transcription factors, steroid resistance, unfolded protein response, mucus hypersecretion, extracellular matrix remodeling, autophagy/apoptosis, epigenetic changes, cellular senescence/aging, endothelial dysfunction, autoimmunity, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are some of the pathological hallmarks of COPD. In light of the above it would be prudent to target systemic and local oxidative stress with agents that can modulate the antioxidants/ redox system or by boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants for the treatment and management of COPD. Identification of various antioxidant agents, such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, N-acystelyn, erdosteine, fudosteine, ergothioneine, and carbocysteine lysine salt), dietary natural product-derived polyphenols and other compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea catechins, quercetin sulforaphane, lycopene, acai, alpha-lipoic acid, tocotrienols, and apocynin) have made it possible to modulate various biochemical aspects of COPD. Various researches and clinical trials have revealed that these antioxidants can detoxify free radicals and oxidants, control expression of redox and glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling, and ultimately inflammatory gene expression. In addition, modulation of cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and related cellular changes have also been reported to be effected by synthetic molecules. This includes specific spin traps like α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation blockers/inhibitors, such as edaravone and lazaroids

  19. Vitagenes, dietary antioxidants and neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Mancuso, Cesare; Barone, Eugenio; Calafato, Stella; Bates, Timothy; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Kostova, Albena T Dinkova

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a cell to counteract stressful conditions, known as cellular stress response, requires the activation of pro-survival pathways and the production of molecules with anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic activities. Among the cellular pathways conferring protection against oxidative stress, a key role is played by vitagenes, which include heat shock proteins (Hsps) heme oxygenase-1 and Hsp70, as well as the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system. Heat shock response contributes to establish a cytoprotective state in a wide variety of human diseases, including inflammation, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing stress responses. Dietary antioxidants, such as curcumin, L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine and carnosine have recently been demonstrated in vitro to be neuroprotective through the activation of hormetic pathways, including vitagenes. In the present review we discuss the importance of vitagenes in the cellular stress response and analyse, from a pharmacological point of view, the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in humans.

  20. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins. PMID:21761455

  1. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

  2. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health. PMID:20716914

  3. Dietary antioxidants and magnesium in type 1 brittle asthma: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J; Tunnicliffe, W; Duncanson, R; Ayres, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Type 1 brittle asthma is a rare form of asthma. Atopy, psychosocial factors and diet may contribute to this condition. As increased dietary magnesium has a beneficial effect on lung function and selenium, vitamins A, C and E have antioxidant properties, a study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that patients with brittle asthma have diets deficient in these nutrients compared with subjects with non-brittle asthma and healthy adults.
METHODS—A case control study of the dietary intakes of 20 subjects with brittle asthma, 20 with non-brittle asthma, and 20 healthy adults was performed using five day weighed dietary records. Intake of magnesium was the primary outcome measure with selenium and vitamins A, C and E as secondary outcomes. Serum levels were measured at the same time as the dietary assessment.
RESULTS—Sixty subjects (27 men) of mean age 49.5 years were recruited and completed the study. Subjects with brittle asthma had statistically lower median dietary intakes of vitamins A and E than the other groups (vitamin A: brittle asthma 522.5 µg/day, non-brittle asthma 869.5 µg/day, healthy adults 806.5 µg/day; vitamin E: brittle asthma 4.3 mg/day, non-brittle asthma 4.6 mg/day, healthy adults 4.5 mg/day). Median dietary intakes for the other nutrients were not significantly different between groups. Serum levels were within normal ranges for each nutrient in all subjects. Intakes less than the reference nutrient intake (RNI) for magnesium and vitamins A and C, and less than the safe intake (SI) for vitamin E were more likely in patients with brittle asthma than in those with non-brittle asthma.
CONCLUSION—Nutrient deficiency and reduced antioxidant activity may contribute to disease activity in type 1 brittle asthma, although a prospective study of replacement therapy will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

 PMID:10325914

  4. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED MICRONUCLEUS FORMATION IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Dietary folate deficiency enhances arsenic-induced micronucleus formation in mice.

    Folate deficiency increases background levels ofDNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary...

  5. Role of dietary antioxidants in human metapneumovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P; Garofalo, Matteo P; Wu, Haotian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2015-03-16

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation.

  6. ROLE OF DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P.; Garofalo, Matteo P.; Wu, Hoatian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation. PMID:25645280

  7. Vitamin D/dietary calcium deficiency rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Francis H; Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and biochemical perturbations found in privational (nutritional) rickets and pseudo-vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), an autosomal recessive condition with loss of function mutations in CYP27B1. It may seem strange to combine a discussion on privational rickets and PDDR as a single topic, but privational rickets and PDDR present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and with similar perturbations in bone and mineral metabolism. Of interest is the characteristic lack of features of rickets at birth in infants with PDDR, a finding which has also been reported in infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers. This highlights the independence of the fetus and neonate from the need for vitamin D to maintain calcium homeostasis during this period. The variable roles of vitamin D deficiency and dietary calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of privational rickets are discussed and the associated alterations in vitamin D metabolism highlighted. Although PDDR is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, results of long-term follow-up are now available on the effect of treatment with calcitriol, and these are discussed. Areas of uncertainty, such as should affected mothers breastfeed their infants, are emphasized.

  8. Commercial dietary antioxidant supplements assayed for their antioxidant activity by different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2003-04-23

    Seven commercial dietary antioxidant supplements were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant capacity by different methodologies: antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.), inhibition of methyl linoleate (MeLo) autoxidation, and resistance to ion-dependent oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Great variability in antioxidant activity was seen among the supplements, as well as different patterns of antioxidant capacity depending on the method used. The same orders of activity were found for the MeLo autoxidation and LDL-induced oxidation methods, but the differences recorded by the former were wider. "Food/compound intake equivalents" of the doses recommended by the manufacturers were calculated in terms of quercetin, strawberries, and red wine for each of the supplements studied. Food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7.9 and 190 mg of quercetin according to the DPPH. scavenging method, between 0.20 and 98 mg according to the MeLo autoxidation method, and between 3.4 and 83 mg according to LDL-induced oxidation. In equivalent terms of red wine, the food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7 and 159 mL, between 3 and 1354 mL, and between 4 and 89 mL for the same three methods. In terms of equivalents of strawberry, they varied between 14 and 343 mg according to the DPPH. scavenging method and between 57 g and 26 kg according to the MeLo autoxidation method. These results show the need to standardize dietary supplements in terms of their antioxidant capacity to match required doses to the oxidative status of consumers. PMID:12696929

  9. Impact of Dietary Antioxidants on Sport Performance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-07-01

    Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance. Acute intake of vitamin E is worthy of further consideration, if plasma levels can be elevated sufficiently. Quercetin has a small beneficial effect for exercise of longer duration (>100 min), but it is unclear whether this benefits athletes. Resveratrol benefits trained rodents; more research is needed in athletes. Meta-analysis of beetroot juice studies has revealed that the nitrate component of beetroot juice had a substantial but unclear effect on performance when averaged across athletes, non-athletes and modes of exercise (single dose 1.4 ± 2.0%, double dose 0.5 ± 1.9%). The effect of addition of polyphenols and other components to beetroot juice was trivial but unclear (single dose 0.4 ± 3.2%, double dose -0.5 ± 3.3%). Other food-derived polyphenols indicate a range of performance outcomes from a large improvement to moderate impairment. Limited evidence suggests spirulina enhances endurance performance. Intravenous NAC improved endurance cycling performance and reduced muscle fatigue. On the basis of vitamin E and NAC studies, acute intake of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial. However, chronic intakes of most antioxidants have a harmful effect on performance.

  10. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Embaby, Mohamed A.; Doleib, Nada M.; Taha, Mona M.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes. PMID:27536197

  11. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  12. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.001), in addition to improving immune functions by decreasing total IgE approaching to the normal control level. Also, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF) levels, as well as total blood count decreased in diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Thus, cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes. PMID:27536197

  13. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  14. Maternal dietary choline deficiency alters angiogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mehedint, Mihai G; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-07-20

    We examined whether maternal dietary choline modulates angiogenesis in fetal brain. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were fed either a choline-deficient (CD), control (CT), or choline-supplemented diet (CS) from days 12 to 17 (E12-17) of pregnancy and then fetal brains were studied. In CD fetal hippocampus, proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS) while differentiated EC clusters (expressing factor VIII related antigen (RA)) increased by 25% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS). These changes were associated with > 25% decrease in the number of blood vessels in CD fetal hippocampus (p < 0.01 vs. CT and CS), with no change in total cross-sectional area of these blood vessels. Expression of genes for the angiogenic signals derived from both endothelial and neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) was increased in CD fetal hippocampus VEGF C (Vegfc), 2.0-fold, p < 0.01 vs. CT and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), 2.1-fold, (p < 0.01 vs. CT)). Similar increased expression was observed in NPC isolated from E14 fetal mouse brains and exposed to low (5 microM), CT (70 microM), or high choline (280 microM) media for 72 h (low choline caused a 9.7-fold increase in relative gene expression of Vegfc (p < 0.001 vs. CT and high) and a 3.4-fold increase in expression of Angpt2, (p < 0.05 vs. CT and high). ANGPT2 protein was increased 42.2% (p < 0.01). Cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide islands in the proximity of the promoter areas of Vegfc and Angpt2 were hypomethylated in low choline NPC compared to CT NPC (p < 0.01). We conclude that maternal dietary choline intake alters angiogenesis in the developing fetal hippocampus. PMID:20624989

  15. Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mary A.; Schliep, Karen C.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Radin, Rose G.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Kalwerisky, Robyn A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are prospectively assessed dietary factors, including overall diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients, associated with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) in healthy reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), fiber and isoflavone intake were positively associated with LPD while selenium was negatively associated with LPD after adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY LPD may increase the risk of infertility and early miscarriage. Prior research has shown positive associations between LPD and low energy availability, either through high dietary restraint alone or in conjunction with high energy expenditure via exercise, but few studies with adequate sample sizes have been conducted investigating dietary factors and LPD among healthy, eumenorrheic women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study (2005–2007) prospectively enrolled 259 women from Western New York state, USA, and followed them for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women aged 18–44 years, with self-reported BMI between 18 and 35 kg/m2 and cycle lengths between 21 and 35 days, were included in the study. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle and daily diaries capturing vigorous exercise, perceived stress and sleep; they also provided up to eight fasting serum samples during clinic visits timed to specific phases of the menstrual cycle using a fertility monitor. Cycles were included for this analysis if the peak serum luteal progesterone was >1 ng/ml and a urine or serum LH surge was detected. Associations between prospectively assessed diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients and LPD (defined as luteal duration <10 days) were evaluated using generalized linear models adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE LPD

  16. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  17. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  18. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Nam, Da-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Baek, Sun Jung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of a dietary supplement of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient mice were investigated. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg), purple sweet potato water extract (PSPWE) (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of PSPE 300 mg/kg), PSP10EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 10% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg), and PSP80EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 80% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of PSPE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and attenuated the suppression of T- and B-cell proliferation and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Dietary supplement of PSPE increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The data suggest that PSPE may ameliorate immune dysfunction due to LP-BM5 MuLV infection by modulating antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26076116

  19. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with plasmatic antioxidant capacity, nutrient intake and lipid and DNA damage in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Stedile, Natalia; Canuto, Raquel; Col, Camila Dallavechia de; Sene, Juliane Souza de; Stolfo, Adriana; Wisintainer, Gabrielle Nunes de Souza; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-06-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) seems to be associated with reducing risk of diseases. However, data about the influence of the DTAC on oxidative stress parameters are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the DTAC and its influence on plasma total antioxidant capacity (PTAC), and damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in healthy women. It was found a positive correlation between DTAC and PTAC in young and healthy subjects, where presumably the endogenous defenses are fully functional. DTAC and PTAC were positively correlated with the intake of known antioxidants, including vitamin C and polyphenols. The DTAC exhibited a negative correlation with lipid oxidative damage, while PTAC showed a negative correlation with DNA damage. This data contributes to better understanding of the recommended dietary antioxidant intake for promoting health.

  20. DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEI BY ARSENIC IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the genotoxicity of chemical agents. Arsenic, a known human carcinogen present in drinking water supplies around the world, induces chromosomal and DNA damage. The effect of dietary folate deficiency on...

  1. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients. PMID:26868559

  2. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients.

  3. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  4. Antioxidant and antiglycation activity of selected dietary polyphenols in a cookie model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2014-02-19

    Dietary polyphenols have been proposed to be promising functional food additives for their potent antioxidant capacity and other health-beneficial bioactivities. The current study prepared cookies fortified with five selected dietary polyphenols (naringenin, quercetin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid). Results indicated that the enhancement of the antioxidant capacity was not as obvious as expected because the phenolics' antioxidant activity was seriously lowered by the baking process due to thermal degradation and transformation. Meanwhile, the tested polyphenols, especially quercetin, showed inhibition against formation of both reactive carbonyl species and total fluorescent advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Polyphenol fortification could also induce colorimetric changes and alterations in selected quality attributes. Overall, the findings support dietary polyphenols as functional food ingredients in the purpose of health benefits associated with a higher intake of antioxidants and a lower load of reactive carbonyls and AGEs. The polyphenols' stability and reactivity during thermal processing should be an important consideration.

  5. Neuroprotection by Cocktails of Dietary Antioxidants under Conditions of Nerve Growth Factor Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Amara, Flavio; Berbenni, Miluscia; Fragni, Martina; Leoni, Giampaolo; Viggiani, Sandra; Ippolito, Vita Maria; Larocca, Marilena; Rossano, Rocco; Alberghina, Lilia; Riccio, Paolo; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may be useful in counteracting the chronic inflammatory status in neurodegenerative diseases by reducing oxidative stress due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we newly described the efficacy of a number of dietary antioxidants (polyphenols, carotenoids, thiolic compounds, and oligoelements) on viability of neuronal PC12 cells following Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) deprivation, a model of age-related decrease of neurotrophic support that triggers neuronal loss. Neuroprotection by antioxidants during NGF deprivation for 24 h was largely dependent on their concentrations: all dietary antioxidants were able to efficiently support cell viability by reducing ROS levels and restoring mitochondrial function, while preserving the neuronal morphology. Moreover, ROS reduction and neuroprotection during NGF withdrawal were also achieved with defined cocktails of 3-6 different antioxidants at concentrations 5-60 times lower than those used in single treatments, suggesting that their antioxidant activity was preserved also at very low concentrations. Overall, these data indicate the beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by decreased NGF availability and suggest that defined cocktails of dietary factors at low concentrations might be a suitable strategy to reduce oxidative damage in neurodegenerative diseases, while limiting possible side effects.

  6. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  7. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  8. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  9. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent.

    PubMed

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Young, Scott D; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  10. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita−1 d−1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  11. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  12. Assessment of antioxidant nutrient intake of a population of southern US African-American and Caucasian women of various ages when compared to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S M; Mayhugh, M A; Freni, S C; Thorn, B; Cardoso, S; Buffington, C; Jairaj, K; Feuers, R J

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrient intervention strategies to ameliorate negative health factors are of notable research interest. Central to the thesis that antioxidant nutrients improve biological defense systems and provide health benefits is an accurate indication of daily antioxidant nutrient intake. Little information is available concerning these nutrient intakes among non-affluent women of the southern U.S. This study examines the 24-h intake of vitamins: A, E, C, -carotene, a-tocopherol, riboflavin, and minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, and molybdenum among 259 Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) women from small urban communities. Women were non-pregnant females, 19-93 y of age. Statistical comparisons of nutrient intake were made by least squares means within age groups. Intakes were compared to various Dietary Reference Intakes including Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) and Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) values as established by the U.S. National Research Council. Numerous dietary deficiencies in important antioxidant nutrients associated with metabolic antioxidant systems were identified. Few race-related differences were detected. Intake of vitamin A was generally within recommended levels while vitamin E intake was below the EAR. The vitamin precursors, -carotene and a-tocopherol, were significantly (P<0.05) below customary intakes at all ages. More than 60% of this population reported dietary copper, zinc, and selenium intakes below recommended levels. A lack of race differences for most nutrient intakes suggests similar socioeconomic or endogeneous regional factors. All women in this population reported dietary intakes of antioxidant vitamins and minerals below recommended values, conditions that could contribute to subsequent health risks unless nutrient-dense food choices and antioxidant supplementation are considered in their overall nutritional support. PMID:12679833

  13. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; de Vos, C H Ric

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of ripeness, cultivar, storage and processing techniques, and the bioavailability of raspberry antioxidants in humans after eating the fruit. It is clear that raspberry, like several other fruits and vegetables such as tomato, strawberry, kiwi and broccoli, represents a valuable contrasting source of potentially healthy compounds and can represent an important component of a balanced diet.

  14. Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; da Silva, Diego Carrilho; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; de Souza Mota, Carina; Krolow, Rachel; Weis, Simone Nardin; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats. There were no effects of diet, neonatal intervention or interactions on superoxide dismutase or catalase enzymatic activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes. Rats fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, higher free radicals production and higher thiol content compared to rats fed n-3 PUFAs adequate diet. There were interactions among diets and neonatal stress, since glutathione peroxidase, free radicals production and thiol content were increased in groups that were subjected to neonatal interventions fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet. Additionally, reduced mitochondrial potential was observed in handled animals. Total thiol revealed a neonatal stress effect, since animals subjected to neonatal interventions displayed lower thiol content. In conclusion, we observed that a chronic treatment with deficient n-3 PUFAs diet, from the puberty period on, increased free radicals production and imbalanced antioxidant enzymes activities, and these increases were higher in animals subjected to neonatal interventions.

  15. Carrots, tomatoes and cocoa: Research on dietary antioxidants in Düsseldorf.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Dietary antioxidants, their biological effects and underlying mechanisms of action are key topics of research at the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I at the Heinrich-Heine University in Düsseldorf where Helmut Sies is active now since more than 35 years. In the present article his research activity on carotenoids is summarized including studies on their bioavailability, antioxidant properties, cellular signaling and dermatological effects. Additionally, comparable studies on cocoa polyphenols are described. PMID:27095228

  16. Carrots, tomatoes and cocoa: Research on dietary antioxidants in Düsseldorf.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Dietary antioxidants, their biological effects and underlying mechanisms of action are key topics of research at the Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I at the Heinrich-Heine University in Düsseldorf where Helmut Sies is active now since more than 35 years. In the present article his research activity on carotenoids is summarized including studies on their bioavailability, antioxidant properties, cellular signaling and dermatological effects. Additionally, comparable studies on cocoa polyphenols are described.

  17. Disruption of brain redox homeostasis in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice treated with high dietary lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Seminotti, Bianca; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; da Rosa, Mateus Struecker; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Barbeito, Luis; Ribeiro, César Augusto J; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Woontner, Michael; Goodman, Stephen I; Koeller, David M; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) activity or glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by predominant accumulation of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid in the brain and other tissues. Affected patients usually present acute striatum necrosis during encephalopathic crises triggered by metabolic stress situations, as well as chronic leukodystrophy and delayed myelination. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the brain injury in this disease are not yet fully established, in the present study we investigated important parameters of oxidative stress in the brain (cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus), liver and heart of 30-day-old GCDH deficient knockout (Gcdh(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice submitted to a normal lysine (Lys) (0.9% Lys), or high Lys diets (2.8% or 4.7% Lys) for 60 h. It was observed that the dietary supplementation of 2.8% and 4.7% Lys elicited noticeable oxidative stress, as verified by an increase of malondialdehyde concentrations (lipid oxidative damage) and 2-7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation (free radical production), as well as a decrease of reduced glutathione levels and alteration of various antioxidant enzyme activities (antioxidant defenses) in the cerebral cortex and the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, the liver and the heart of Gcdh(-/-) mice, as compared to WT mice receiving the same diets. Furthermore, alterations of oxidative stress parameters in the cerebral cortex and striatum were more accentuated in symptomatic, as compared to asymptomatic Gcdh(-/-) mice exposed to 4.7% Lys overload. Histopathological studies performed in the cerebral cortex and striatum of these animals exposed to high dietary Lys revealed increased expression of oxidative stress markers despite the absence of significant structural damage. The results indicate that a disruption of redox homeostasis in the cerebral cortex and striatum of young Gcdh(-/-) mice

  18. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin and capsaicin in induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-12-01

    Health beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of dietary spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin alone and in combination included in the diet for 8 weeks were evaluated in induced hypercholesterolemic rats, in order to verify if there is any additive or synergistic effect of these two bioactive compounds. Dietary curcumin (0.2%), capsaicin (0.015%) or their combination significantly countered the hypercholesterolemia brought about by high cholesterol feeding. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary spice principles only in normal rats. Liver triglyceride levels were lowered in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rats by capsaicin. Curcumin and capsaicin lowered hepatic and blood lipid peroxides in hypercholesterolemic rats, while the effect in blood was additive with their combination. Hepatic ascorbic acid was enhanced by dietary spice principles in normal rats; glutathione was enhanced by their combination only in hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of serum glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and catalase and hepatic glutathione reductase in normal rats and serum glutathione peroxidase in hypercholesterolemic rats were enhanced by dietary spice principles. While dietary curcumin and capsaicin normalized the changes in the levels of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes to a significant extent, this effect was not generally additive when given in combination, and was higher than the individual effects only in a few instances.

  19. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  20. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Abbas; Javadi, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Context: Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. Results: It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Conclusions: Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes. PMID:25883776

  1. Dietary Deficiency of Cobalamin Presented Solely as Schizoaffective Disorder in a Lacto-Vegetarian Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Somashekarappa; Manjunatha, Narayana; Manjunatha, Rajashekaaiah; Kumar, Seetharamarao Udaya

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.

  2. Dietary Deficiency of Cobalamin Presented Solely as Schizoaffective Disorder in a Lacto-Vegetarian Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Somashekarappa; Manjunatha, Narayana; Manjunatha, Rajashekaaiah; Kumar, Seetharamarao Udaya

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations. PMID:26664085

  3. Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Rodents: Effects on T-Cell Development, Maturation and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Heather J.; Taylor, Carla G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. PMID:22822446

  4. EFFECT OF DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY ON ARSENIC GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, a human carcinogen found in drinking water supplies throughout the world, is clastogenic in human and rodent cells. An estimated ten percent of Americans are deficient in folate, a methyl donor necessary for normal nucleotide metabolism, DNA synthesis, and DNA methylatio...

  5. The influence of dietary folate supplementation on the incidence of teratogenesis in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Quinn, P B; Cremin, F M; O'Sullivan, V R; Hewedi, F M; Bond, R J

    1990-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the possibility that pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplementation would alleviate teratogenesis in zinc-deficient rats. Pregnant rats of the Wistar strain were fed on Zn-deficient (less than 0.5 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-supplemented (75 or 95 mg Zn/kg) diets from mating until day 18.5 of gestation. The basal level of pteroylmonoglutamic acid added to all diets (0.56 mg/kg) was supplemented with 30-200 mg/kg in selected diets. Dietary Zn deprivation resulted in fetal resorption, fetal growth retardation and reduced concentrations of Zn in fetuses and maternal plasma and tibia. Low maternal body-weight at conception emerged as an important determinant of risk of resorption in Zn-deficient rats. Dietary Zn deficiency resulted in reduced maternal plasma folate concentrations and these values were inversely correlated with litter size or weight in Zn-deficient rats. Pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplementation increased maternal plasma folate concentrations, but did not reduce the high incidence of teratogenesis which occurred in Zn-deficient rats. Supplementation of Zn-deficient rats with pteroylmonoglutamic acid significantly increased the incidence of clubbed foot and tended to increase the incidence of brain or meningeal abnormalities, or both, and cleft palate, but did not reduce maternal or fetal Zn status. Pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplementation also increased the weights of Zn-supplemented control fetuses. PMID:2400764

  6. Dimethylthiourea inhibits heart weight and hematocrit changes caused by dietary copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, J.T. )

    1991-03-11

    Feeding antioxidants to rats in a copper (Cu)-deficient diet can partially inhibit the cardiac enlargement and anemia caused by Cu deficiency. This study was done to determine whether an antioxidant which bypassed the gastrointestinal tract was also protective and whether an agent more potent than previously used was more effective in this inhibition. Male, weanling rats were fed diets deficient or sufficient in Cu for 4 wks. Dimethylthiourea (DMTU) or saline was injected (ip) 4 times a week; minimum amount of DMTU retained during the experiment was estimated to be 250 mg/kg. Unlike other antioxidants, DMTU completely prevented the increase in heart wt/body wt ratio; like the other agents, it only partially inhibited the anemia of Cu deficiency. DMTU did not affect plasma or liver Cu content of CuD rats; however, heart copper of CuD rats was significantly increased by DMTU. The effects of DMTU on heart size and hematocrit (Hct) may be attributed to its antioxidant function, but the possibility of altered mineral status must also be considered.

  7. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  8. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  9. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background.

  10. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  11. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  12. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-01

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  13. Adolescent behavior and dopamine availability are uniquely sensitive to dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Corina O.; Taha, Ameer Y.; Tock, Jody L.; Totah, Nelson K.; Cheon, Yewon; Torres, Gonzalo E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioral health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at-risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition, in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), has increasingly been implicated in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which typically occurs during adolescence to early adulthood. Thus, adolescence may be the critical age range for the negative impact of diet as an environmental insult. Methods A rat model involving consecutive generations of n-3 PUFA deficiency was developed based on the assumption that dietary trends toward decreased consumption of these fats began four-five decades ago when the parents of current adolescents were born. Behavioral performance in a wide range of tasks, as well as markers of dopamine-related neurotransmission was compared in adolescents and adults fed n-3 PUFA adequate and deficient diets. Results In adolescents, dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency across consecutive generations produced a modality-selective and task-dependent impairment in cognitive and motivated behavior distinct from the deficits observed in adults. While this dietary deficiency affected expression of dopamine-related proteins in both age groups, in adolescents, but not adults, there was an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was selective to the dorsal striatum. Conclusions These data support a nutritional contribution to optimal cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents. Furthermore, they suggest that n-3 PUFA deficiency disrupts adolescent behaviors through enhanced dorsal striatal dopamine availability. PMID:23890734

  14. Effects of dietary menadione on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jinghua; Xu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Feng, Xiuni; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    A 240-day growth experiment in a re-circulating water system was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary menadione on the growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone (initial weight: 1.19 ± 0.01 g; shell length: 19.23 ± 0.01 mm) were fed to satiation with 3 semi-purified diets containing 0, 10, and 1 000 mg menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)/kg, respectively. Results show that there were no significant differences in the rate of weight gain or in the daily increment in shell length of abalone among different treatments. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in viscera were significantly decreased with dietary menadione. However, activities of these enzymes except for GPX in muscle were increased. Therefore, antioxidant responses of abalone were increased in muscle and decreased in viscera by dietary menadione.

  15. Dietary Antioxidants and Melanoma: Evidence from Cohort and Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450

  16. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of dietary total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Salvatore, Sara; Valtueña, Silvia; Bedogni, Giorgio; Porrini, Marisa; Pala, Valeria; Del Rio, Daniele; Sieri, Sabina; Miglio, Cristiana; Krogh, Vittorio; Zavaroni, Ivana; Brighenti, Furio

    2007-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may be an important tool to monitor the protective effect of plant foods in epidemiological studies. We developed a semi-quantitative FFQ for the assessment of dietary TAC by 3 different assays, i.e., Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). The FFQ consists of 53 questions about the major sources of dietary TAC in Northern Italy and was validated against a 3-d weighed food record (3D-WR) in 285 individuals (159 males and 126 females) aged 35-88 y and living in the province of Parma (Italy). Plasma TAC was also evaluated in a subgroup of subjects using the TEAC and FRAP assays. The FFQ was associated with 3D-WR (quadratic-weighted kappa = 0.49 for TEAC, 0.53 for TRAP, and 0.49 for FRAP; P < 0.0001) and proved reasonably accurate to classify individuals into quartiles of TAC intake. The FFQ had a good repeatability when readministered after 1 y in 55 subjects (quadratic-weighted kappa for intertertile agreement = 0.66 for TEAC, 0.70 for TRAP and 0.68 for FRAP; P < 0.0001). With both dietary instruments, the main contributors to TAC intake were coffee and tea in women and alcoholic beverages in men, followed by fruits and vegetables in both sexes. Plasma TAC and dietary TAC were not associated. In conclusion, our FFQ has the potential for being used to rank subjects on the basis of their antioxidant intake as determined by dietary TAC in large epidemiological studies. The FFQ should be validated in external populations before being used for research purposes. PMID:17182807

  17. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    PubMed

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion.

  18. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Combs, G.F. Jr.; Whitacre, M.E.; Dietert, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.

  19. Contrasting effects of a dietary copper deficiency in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S M; Klevay, L M

    1994-02-01

    Female rats are protected from the lethal effects of a dietary copper (Cu) deficiency, but female mice fed a Cu-deficient diet develop atrial thromboses and die. To further investigate the effect of sex on Cu status in mice (n = 16), male and female adult Swiss-Webster mice were fed Cu-supplemented (8.4 mg Cu/kg) or Cu-deficient (0.3 mg Cu/kg) diets with deionized water for 43-49 days. Six female mice, but only one male mouse, fed the Cu-deficient diet died during the experiment. Both male and female mice fed the Cu-deficient diet exhibited typical features of deficiency. The severity of anemia and the values observed for several indicators of Cu status (plasma ceruloplasmin [EC 1.16.3.1.] and erythrocyte copper-zinc superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1.] activities, cardiac Cu) were similar in both male and female Cu-deficient mice. However, cardiac enlargement (0.97 vs 0.73 g/100 g body wt, P < 0.05), cardiac edema (79.9% vs 78.2% cardiac water, P < 0.05) and depletion of renal Cu (10.4 vs 12.5 micrograms/g dry weight, P < 0.05) were more severe in female compared with male, Cu-deficient mice. Furthermore, although hepatic Cu was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in female Cu-deficient compared with Cu-supplemented mice, it was not significantly decreased by deficiency in male mice. These data indicate that the female mice experienced a more extreme form of Cu deficiency than the males.

  20. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Powder as an Antioxidant Dietary Fibre in Sheep Meat Nuggets.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun K; Rajkumar, V; Banerjee, Rituparna; Biswas, S; Das, Arun K

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore the antioxidant potential and functional value of guava (Psidium guajava L.) powder in muscle foods. Guava powder was used as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre in sheep meat nuggets at two different levels i.e., 0.5% (Treatment I) and 1.0% (Treatment II) and its effect was evaluated against control. Guava powder is rich in dietary fibre (43.21%), phenolics (44.04 mg GAE/g) and possesses good radical scavenging activity as well as reducing power. Incorporation of guava powder resulted in significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH of emulsion and nuggets, emulsion stability, cooking yield and moisture content of nuggets while ash and moisture content of emulsion were increased. Total phenolics, total dietary fibre (TDF) and ash content significantly increased (p<0.05) in nuggets with added guava powder. Product redness value was significantly improved (p<0.05) due to guava powder. Textural properties did not differ significantly except, springiness and shear force values. Guava powder was found to retard lipid peroxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets as measured by TBARS number during refrigerated storage. Guava powder did not affect sensory characteristics of the products and can be used as source of antioxidant dietary fibre in meat foods.

  1. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  2. Changes in circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 induced by short-term dietary magnesium deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Shinichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Kajita, Yasutaka

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a potent regulator of phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism. Long-term dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency increases circulating levels of FGF23, whereas the effects of short-term dietary Mg deficiency are unclear. Thus, the present study investigated whether short-term dietary Mg deficiency affects circulating levels of FGF23. We also assessed changes in renal mRNA expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and type II sodium-phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporters, since these are regulated by FGF23. Rats were fed a control diet (control group) or an Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) for 2, 4 or 7 days. Serum Mg levels were significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at all time points. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24(OH)ase) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7 . No significant differences in types IIa and IIc Na/Pi cotransporter mRNA levels were observed between the control and Mg-deficient groups. These results suggest that dietary Mg deficiency causes a rapid increase in circulating levels of FGF23 and renal 24(OH)ase mRNA levels. PMID:27624533

  3. Antioxidative and proteolytic systems protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in S-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Rychter, Anna M; Juszczuk, Izabela M

    2015-08-15

    We examined the functioning of the antioxidative defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana under sulphur (S) deficiency with an emphasis on the role of mitochondria. In tissue extracts and in isolated mitochondria from S-deficient plants, the concentration of non-protein thiols declined but protein thiols did not change. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in leaf blades and the generation of superoxide anion by isolated mitochondria was higher. Lower abundance of reduced (GSH) plus oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the leaf and root tissues, and leaf mitochondria from S-deficient plants was accompanied by a decrease in the level of GSH and the changes in the GSH/GSSG ratios. In the chloroplasts, the total level of glutathione decreased. Lower levels of reduced (AsA) and oxidized (DHA) ascorbate were reflected in much higher ratios of AsA/DHA. Sulphur deficiency led to an increase in the activity of cytosolic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic antioxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases. The protein carbonyl level was higher in the leaves of S-deficient plants and in the chloroplasts, while in the roots, leaf and root mitochondria it remained unchanged. Protease activity in leaf extracts of S-deficient plants was higher, but in root extracts it did not differ. The proteolytic system reflected subcellular specificity. In leaf and root mitochondria the protease activity was higher, whereas in the chloroplasts it did not change. We propose that the preferential incorporation of S to protein thiols and activation of antioxidative and proteolytic systems are likely important for the survival of S-deficient plants and that the mitochondria maintain redox homeostasis. PMID:26339750

  4. Antioxidative and proteolytic systems protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in S-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ostaszewska-Bugajska, Monika; Rychter, Anna M; Juszczuk, Izabela M

    2015-08-15

    We examined the functioning of the antioxidative defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana under sulphur (S) deficiency with an emphasis on the role of mitochondria. In tissue extracts and in isolated mitochondria from S-deficient plants, the concentration of non-protein thiols declined but protein thiols did not change. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in leaf blades and the generation of superoxide anion by isolated mitochondria was higher. Lower abundance of reduced (GSH) plus oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the leaf and root tissues, and leaf mitochondria from S-deficient plants was accompanied by a decrease in the level of GSH and the changes in the GSH/GSSG ratios. In the chloroplasts, the total level of glutathione decreased. Lower levels of reduced (AsA) and oxidized (DHA) ascorbate were reflected in much higher ratios of AsA/DHA. Sulphur deficiency led to an increase in the activity of cytosolic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic antioxidative enzymes, peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases. The protein carbonyl level was higher in the leaves of S-deficient plants and in the chloroplasts, while in the roots, leaf and root mitochondria it remained unchanged. Protease activity in leaf extracts of S-deficient plants was higher, but in root extracts it did not differ. The proteolytic system reflected subcellular specificity. In leaf and root mitochondria the protease activity was higher, whereas in the chloroplasts it did not change. We propose that the preferential incorporation of S to protein thiols and activation of antioxidative and proteolytic systems are likely important for the survival of S-deficient plants and that the mitochondria maintain redox homeostasis.

  5. Roles of selenoprotein antioxidant protection in zebrafish, Danio rerio, subjected to dietary oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Almaida-Pagán, P F; Sprague, M; Hernández, A; Tocher, D R

    2015-06-01

    In vertebrates, selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for vertebrates that is involved in antioxidant protection and thyroid hormone regulation among other roles and functions through its incorporation into proteins, the selenoproteins. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential nutrients for fish although high dietary levels may lead to increased oxidative stress due to the high degree of unsaturation. The present study investigated the effects of Se supplementation on zebrafish, Danio rerio, oxidative status together with selenoprotein expression profiles when subjected to a high-DHA diet. Fish were fed for 8 weeks with one of the four experimental diets, containing high or low DHA in combination with or without organic Se (7 mg/kg). Fish performance, Se content, fatty acid composition and TBARS of zebrafish were determined, as well as gene expression of selected selenoproteins in liver and muscle. The Se levels in whole fish reflected dietary content. High dietary DHA increased oxidative stress as indicated by reduced growth and high TBARS content, although Se supplementation reduced oxidation. The expression patterns of selenoproteins varied between liver and muscle with only deiodinase type II displaying a transcriptional response when high dietary Se was supplied. High dietary DHA decreased selenoprotein W expression in muscle and sps2 expression in liver regardless of the dietary Se content. These data suggest that oxidative stress protection associated with a high dietary intake of Se may not be solely mediated by transcriptional changes in teleost selenoprotein expression.

  6. Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Mankowski, Robert T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Buford, Thomas W.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive responses to exercise training (ET) are crucial in maintaining physiological homeostasis and health span. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), where excess of ROS can be scavenged by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants to protect against deleterious oxidative stress. Free radicals, however, have recently been recognized as crucial signaling agents that promote adaptive mechanisms to ET, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant (AO) enzyme activity defense system upregulation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Commonly used non-enzymatic AO supplements, such as vitamins C and E, a-lipoic acid, and polyphenols, in combination with ET, have been proposed as ways to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and hence improve adaptation responses to endurance training. Preclinical and clinical studies to date have shown inconsistent results indicating either positive or negative effects of endurance training combined with different blends of AO supplements (mostly vitamins C and E and a-lipoic acid) on redox status, mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, and insulin sensitivity. Preclinical reports on ET combined with resveratrol, however, have shown consistent positive effects on exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity, with clinical trials reporting mixed effects. Relevant clinical studies have been few and have used inconsistent results and methodology (types of compounds, combinations, and supplementation time). The future studies would investigate the effects of specific antioxidants and other popular supplements, such as a-lipoic acid and resveratrol, on training effects in humans. Of particular importance are older adults who may be at higher risk of age-related increased oxidative stress, an impaired AO enzyme defense system, and comorbidities such as hypertension, insulin resistance, and

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases and gastrointestinal cancers: Impacts of dietary antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sugreev; Kesh, Kousik; Ganguly, Nilanjan; Jana, Sayantan; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2014-01-01

    The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK (reversion including cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2, -9 and -14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is

  8. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30 d (Diab + Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  9. Effect of general dietary deficiency and protein malnutrition on the fibrogenesis caused by silica dust in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, S. H.; Kaw, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Zaidi, S. H., and Kaw, J. L. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 250-259. Effect of general dietary deficiency and protein malnutrition on the fibrogenesis caused by silica dust in rats. In order to determine whether the dietary deficiency, which may occur in miners in India, is likely to influence their response to silica dust, two experiments were carried out on rats. In both experiments rats were exposed to silica dust by intratracheal inoculation of saline suspension, the dose being sufficient to cause marked fibrosis in normal rats. In the first experiment rats were fed on a multiple deficient diet and in the second on a diet grossly deficient in protein but otherwise adequate. Although these diets caused other evidence of dietary deficiency, in neither group was there any difference in the extent of silicotic fibrosis as assessed by histological or biochemical methods. Images PMID:4317610

  10. Fatty liver produced by dietary deficiencies: its pathogenesis and potentiation by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S; Spritz, N; DeCarli, L M

    1969-05-01

    In a study of the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under experimental conditions mimicking chronic alcoholism, rats were fed a low-fat diet, deficient in amino acids and choline, containing either ethanol or isocaloric amounts of carbohydrate. Dietary deficiencies alone produced a moderately fatty liver after 24 days. The combination of ethanol and dietary deficiencies resulted in enhanced lipid accumulation, which was apparent after only 11 days. In an investigation of the origin of hepatic triglyceride fatty acids, the experiment was repeated after the adipose lipids had been marked by the feeding of oils containing characteristic fatty acids (linseed oil, containing linolenate, or coconut oil, containing laurate and myristate). In all animals, the fatty acid composition of the hepatic triglycerides differed markedly from that of adipose tissue; it had a larger percentage of endogenously synthesized fatty acids and a five times smaller percentage of the marker fatty acids. In addition, ethanol feeding resulted in a greater retention of the marker fatty acids in the adipose tissue. Thus, the deposition of hepatic triglycerides produced by the feeding of deficient diets is markedly potentiated by ethanol; the triglyceride fatty acids accumulated under these conditions appear to originate, for the most part, not from mobilization of depot fat, but from endogenous synthesis.

  11. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  12. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  15. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  16. Influence of dietary iron level and form on biochemical, hematological, and immunological changes in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, H.; Gallaher, D.D.; Kramer, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of Cu, and adequate (50 ..mu..g/g) or high (300 ..mu..g/g) levels of Fe/sup +2/ or Fe/sup +3/. Cu-deficient rats, regardless of Fe level or form, exhibited depressed (p < 0.05) serum Cu, Fe and ceruloplasmin activity, and hemoglobin levels; and elevated (p < 0.05) unsaturated serum Fe binding capacity. Except for high Fe/sup +3/ fed rats, Cu-deficient rats showed decreased hematocrits. Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated spleen lymphoid cells (SLC) of Cu-deficient rats fed adequate dietary Fe, but not by SLC of Cu-deficient rats fed high dietary Fe. High Fe fed rats exhibited reduced proliferation and increased variability in proliferation by Con-A stimulated SLC, which apparently caused a lack of difference in proliferation by SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats fed high Fe. Thus, high dietary Fe did not correct biochemical and hematological parameters in Cu-deficient rats, but because of lowered proliferation and increased variability of SLC proliferation, high dietary Fe did alleviate suppressed Con-A stimulated SLC proliferation in Cu-deficiency.

  17. Root antioxidant responses of two Pisum sativum cultivars to direct and induced Fe deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jelali, N; Donnini, S; Dell'Orto, M; Abdelly, C; Gharsalli, M; Zocchi, G

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of antioxidant defence systems in different tolerance to direct and bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency was evaluated in two pea cultivars (Kelvedon, tolerant and Lincoln, susceptible). Fe deficiency enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 concentration in roots of both cultivars, particularly in the sensitive one grown under bicarbonate supply. The results obtained on antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, POD) suggest that H2 O2 accumulation could be due to an overproduction of this ROS and, at the same time, to a poor capacity to detoxify it. Moreover, under bicarbonate supply the activity of POD isoforms was reduced only in the sensitive cultivar, while in the tolerant one a new isoform was detected, suggesting that POD activity might be an important contributor to pea tolerance to Fe deficiency. The presence of bicarbonate also resulted in stimulation of GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities, part of the ASC-GSH pathway, which was higher in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive one. Overall, while in the absence of Fe only slight differences were reported between the two cultivars, the adaptation of Kelvedon to the presence of bicarbonate seems to be related to its greater ability to enhance the antioxidant response at the root level.

  18. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency. PMID:25939715

  19. Effects of dietary magnesium deficiency on thallium-201 kinetics and distribution in rat myocardium: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Llaurado, J.G.; Madden, J.A.; Smith, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    Kinetics and distribution of TI-201 were studied in myocardium of rats with chronic dietary induced Mg deficiency. Rats were fed the Mg-deficient diet for 30 days and were then injected intravenously with 0.2 mCi of TI-201. Comparable control animals were fed a standard laboratory diet. One-half hour after injection, rats were killed and a segment of myocardium was washed with nonradioactive Krebs solution in a special chamber. Radioactivity in the tissue was recorded continuously for 1 hr. A three-compartment model (extracellular, main intracellular, and subcellular) was found to describe adequately the kinetics of TI-201. In myocardium of Mg-deficient animals, significant changes in values of transport rate constants and compartment sizes for TI-201 indicated a moderate decrease in extracellular compartment and a threefold enlargement in subcellular compartment (presumably mitochondrial) at the expense of the main intracellular compartment, which underwent a marked reduction. Bulk TI-201 uptake in myocardium of Mg-deficient rats was unchanged. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with mitochondrial alterations reported in Mg-deficient animals. Clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  1. Mate and Tea Intake, Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela; Sanchez, Gustavo; Rosa, Alejandro De

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an inverse association between high 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South America) and breast cancer (BC) risk. Stronger inverse associations were found in high strata of tea, vegetable, fruit and energy intakes, and in overweight/obese women, suggesting possible roles for 'mate' mainly from its antioxidant contribution. The present study attempted to thoroughly explore possible associations among 'mate' and tea intake, dietary antioxidants and BC risk. Combining two databases of previous studies, 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls were interviewed with a specific questionnaire featuring socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire (64 items), focusing on 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit). Food-derived nutrients were calculated from available databases. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest 'mate' intake was significantly inversely associated with BC risk for both low and high carotenoids (OR=0.40 vs. 0.41), vitamin C (OR=0.33 vs. 0.50), vitamin E (OR=0.37 vs. 0.45), flavonols (OR=0.38 vs. 0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.48 vs. 0.46) strata. High tea intake showed significant inverse risk associations only with high carotenoids (OR=0.41), vitamin E (OR=0.48) and reduced glutathione (OR=0.43) strata. In conclusion, a strong and inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC was found, independent of dietary antioxidant levels. Also strong inverse associations with tea intake were more evident only at high levels of certain dietary antioxidants. PMID:27356713

  2. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  3. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  4. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  5. Role of the Immune System in Hypertension: Modulation by Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Sudesh; Stuckless, Jennifer; Richardson, Vernon

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, lifestyle factors such as diet play an important role. Insulin resistance is a common feature of hypertension in both humans and animal models affecting glucose and lipid metabolism producing excess aldehydes including methylglyoxal. These aldehydes react with proteins to form conjugates called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This alters protein structure and function and can affect vascular and immune cells leading to their activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. AGEs also act via receptors for advanced glycation end products on these cells altering the function of antioxidant and metabolic enzymes, and ion channels. This results in an increase in cytosolic free calcium, decrease in nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, peripheral vascular resistance, and infiltration of vascular and kidney tissue with inflammatory cells leading to hypertension. Supplementation with dietary antioxidants including vitamins C, E, or B6, thiols such as cysteine and lipoic acid, have been shown to lower blood pressure and plasma inflammatory cytokines in animal models and humans with essential hypertension. A well-balanced diet rich in antioxidants that includes vegetables, fruits, low fat dairy products, low salt, and includes whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts, lowers blood pressure and vascular inflammation. These antioxidants may achieve their antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects by reducing AGEs and improving insulin resistance and associated alterations. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants may be a beneficial, inexpensive, front-line alterative treatment modality for hypertension. PMID:23204821

  6. Optimal management of iron deficiency anemia due to poor dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Aspuru, Kattalin; Villa, Carlos; Bermejo, Fernando; Herrero, Pilar; López, Santiago García

    2011-01-01

    Iron is necessary for the normal development of multiple vital processes. Iron deficiency (ID) may be caused by several diseases, even by physiological situations that increase requirements for this mineral. One of its possible causes is a poor dietary iron intake, which is infrequent in developed countries, but quite common in developing areas. In these countries, dietary ID is highly prevalent and comprises a real public health problem and a challenge for health authorities. ID, with or without anemia, can cause important symptoms that are not only physical, but can also include a decreased intellectual performance. All this, together with a high prevalence, can even have negative implications for a community’s economic and social development. Treatment consists of iron supplements. Prevention of ID obviously lies in increasing the dietary intake of iron, which can be difficult in developing countries. In these regions, foods with greater iron content are scarce, and attempts are made to compensate this by fortifying staple foods with iron. The effectiveness of this strategy is endorsed by multiple studies. On the other hand, in developed countries, ID with or without anemia is nearly always associated with diseases that trigger a negative balance between iron absorption and loss. Its management will be based on the treatment of underlying diseases, as well as on oral iron supplements, although these latter are limited by their tolerance and low potency, which on occasions may compel a change to intravenous administration. Iron deficiency has a series of peculiarities in pediatric patients, in the elderly, in pregnant women, and in patients with dietary restrictions, such as celiac disease. PMID:22114518

  7. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    PubMed

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. PMID:26233864

  8. The effects of dietary thiamin on oxidative damage and antioxidant defence of juvenile fish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Huang, Hui-Hua; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of thiamin on antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In a 60-day feeding trial, a total of 1,050 juvenile Jian carp (8.20 ± 0.02 g) were fed graded levels of thiamin at 0.25, 0.48, 0.79, 1.06, 1.37, 1.63 and 2.65 mg thiamin kg(-1) diets. The results showed that malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were significantly decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, the anti-superoxide anion capacity and anti-hydroxyl radical capacity in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were the lowest in fish fed the thiamin-unsupplemented diet. Meanwhile, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the contents of glutathione in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were enhanced with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum, hepatopancreas and intestine followed a similar trend as CAT (P < 0.05). However, SOD activity in muscle was not affected by dietary thiamin level (P > 0.05). The results indicated that thiamin could improve antioxidant defence and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp.

  9. Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Trenga, C A; Koenig, J Q; Williams, P V

    2001-01-01

    Ozone exposure aggravates asthma, as has been demonstrated in both controlled exposures and epidemiologic studies. In the current double-blind crossover study, the authors evaluated the effects of dietary antioxidants (i.e., 400 IU vitamin E/500 mg vitamin C) on ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult subjects with asthma. Seventeen subjects were exposed to 0.12 ppm of ozone or to air for 45 min during intermittent moderate exercise. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed with 10-min sulfur dioxide (i.e., 0.10 ppm and 0.25 ppm) inhalation challenges. Subjects who were given dietary antioxidants responded less severely to sulfur dioxide challenge than subjects given a placebo (i.e., forced expiratory volume in the 1st sec: -1.2% vs. 4.4%, respectively; peak flow: +2.2% vs. -3.0%, respectively; and mid-forced expiratory flow: +2.0% vs. -4.3%, respectively). Effects were more pronounced when subjects were grouped by response to sulfur dioxide at the screening visit. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C benefits asthmatic adults who are exposed to air pollutants. PMID:11480500

  10. Effect of dietary manganese on tissue antioxidants in STZ diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.H.; Lee, M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Mn deficiency on tissue antioxidant levels under conditions of STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetes. Weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 groups: (1) Mn+ (manganese-sufficient), nondiabetic; (2) Mn{minus} (manganese-deficient), nondiabetic; (3) Mn+, diabetic for 4 weeks; (4) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 4 weeks; (5) Mn+, diabetic for 8 weeks; and (6) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 8 weeks. Decreased Mn levels in all tissues of Mn{minus} rats were accompanied by decreased MnSOD activity in kidney and heart, but not in liver or pancreas. Hepatic vitamin E was progressively increased in 4 and 8-week diabetic rats. Overall, diabetogenic effects of STZ were not amplified by manganese deficiency.

  11. Dietary n-3 PUFAs Deficiency Increases Vulnerability to Inflammation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Thomazeau, Aurore; Madore, Charlotte; Bosch-Bouju, Clementine; Larrieu, Thomas; Lacabanne, Chloe; Remus-Borel, Julie; Aubert, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical components of inflammatory response and memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensitizing effects of low n-3 PUFAs in the brain for the development of memory impairment following inflammation are still poorly understood. In this study, we examined how a 2-month n-3 PUFAs deficiency from pre-puberty to adulthood could increase vulnerability to the effect of inflammatory event on spatial memory in mice. Mice were given diets balanced or deficient in n-3 PUFAs for a 2-month period starting at post-natal day 21, followed by a peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, at adulthood. We first showed that spatial memory performance was altered after LPS challenge only in n-3 PUFA-deficient mice that displayed lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the hippocampus. Importantly, long-term depression (LTD), but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-3 PUFA-deficient mice. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in the plasma of both n-3 PUFA-deficient and n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. However, only n-3 PUFA-balanced mice showed an increase in cytokine expression in the hippocampus in response to LPS. In addition, n-3 PUFA-deficient mice displayed higher glucocorticoid levels in response to LPS as compared with n-3 PUFA-balanced mice. These results indicate a role for n-3 PUFA imbalance in the sensitization of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity to inflammatory stimuli, which is likely to contribute to spatial memory impairment.

  12. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on testes of Wistar rats: Morphometric and cell quantification studies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepa; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of dietary zinc deficiency on testes of Wistar rats. Pre-pubertal rats (40-50g) were divided into three groups of 10 each viz. zinc control (ZC) and pair fed (PF) [100ppm zinc diet] and zinc deficient (ZD) [1ppm zinc diet]. Experiments were set for 2- and 4-weeks. Pre-pubertal rats fed zinc deficient diet for 2- and 4-weeks exhibited significant (P<0.05) decrease in diet consumption when compared with their respective control groups. Parallel to the reduced diet consumption, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in body and testicular weight of ZD animals was also observed. These observations indicate that the zinc deficiency reduces diet consumption and growth of the animals. Histological studies revealed degeneration in testes of ZD rats as evident by decreased seminiferous tubular diameter and Leydig cell nuclear diameter. Decreased Leydig cell nuclear diameter is responsible for disruption of the biochemical function of Leydig cell. Testicular atrophy (viz. wavy tunica propria, karyolysis, pyknosis, karyorhexis, apoptotic bodies, multinucleated giant cells, few sperms in the lumen, atrophied Leydig cells and accumulation of oedematous fluid in the interstitium) accompanied by significant loss of germ/somatic cells (viz. Type A and Type B spermatogonia, leptotene, zygotene, pachytene spermatocytes, Golgi, cap and acrosome spermatids, Sertoli and Leydig cell) was evident in ZD groups. The degeneration was severe after 4-weeks of zinc deficiency. These observations provide evidence that the functional and morphological changes in testes are probably due to zinc deficiency. Further, the increased oedematous fluid in the interstitial region is due to the cellular death. Impairment of spermatogenesis can be attributed to the direct action of zinc on testes or indirectly from Leydig cell degeneration indicating that zinc is a critical component for maintenance of both mitotic and meiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

  13. Dietary Determinants of and Possible Solutions to Iron Deficiency for Young Women Living in Industrialized Countries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kathryn L.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne; Coad, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized) countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry) enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration). In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively) been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations. The enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and meat on iron absorption may be negated by the simultaneous consumption of foods and nutrients which are inhibitory. Recent cross-sectional studies have considered the combination and timing of foods consumed; with mixed results. Dietary interventions using a range of focused dietary measures to improve iron status appear to be more effective than dietary approaches that focus on single nutrients or foods. Further research is needed to determine optimal dietary recommendations for both the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency. PMID:25244367

  14. Dietary phosphate supplementation delays the onset of iron deficiency anemia and affects iron status in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Mari; Yamamoto, Hironori; Nakahashi, Otoki; Ikeda, Shoko; Abe, Kotaro; Masuda, Masashi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Iwano, Masayuki; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays critical roles in bone metabolism and is an essential component of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). It has been reported that animals fed a low-iron diet modulate Pi metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary Pi on iron metabolism, particularly in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), is not fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized the presence of a link between Pi and iron metabolism and tested the hypothesis by investigating the effects of dietary Pi on iron status and IDA. Wistar rats aged 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental dietary groups: normal iron content (Con Fe)+0.5% Pi, low-iron (Low Fe)+0.5% Pi, Con Fe+1.5% Pi, and Low Fe+1.5% Pi. Rats fed the 1.5% Pi diet for 14 days, but not for 28 days, maintained their anemia state and plasma erythropoietin concentrations within the reference range, even under conditions of low iron. In addition, plasma concentrations of 2,3-DPG were significantly increased by the 1.5% Pi diets and were positively correlated with plasma Pi concentration (r=0.779; P<.001). Dietary Pi regulated the messenger RNA expression of iron-regulated genes, including divalent metal transporter 1, duodenal cytochrome B, and hepcidin. Furthermore, iron concentration in liver tissues was increased by the 1.5% Pi in Con Fe diet. These results suggest that dietary Pi supplementation delays the onset of IDA and increases plasma 2,3-DPG concentration, followed by modulation of the expression of iron-regulated genes.

  15. In vitro studies of polyphenols, antioxidants and other dietary indices in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Seo; Jung, Soon-Teck; Kang, Seong-Gook; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Namiesnik, Jacek; Haruenkit, Ratiporn; Barasch, Dinorah; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was the evaluation of proteins and antioxidant potential in ethylene-treated kiwifruit during the first 10 days of ripening. Kiwifruit samples were randomly divided into two groups: treated and untreated. Flesh firmness, sensory value, visual score, free sugars, soluble solids, ethylene biosynthesis, proteins, dietary fibers, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential were determined in both groups. Ethylene (100 ppm) at 20 degrees C for 24 h was used in the treated group. The flesh firmness and acidity in treated samples decreased significantly in the early stage of ripening simultaneously with significant increase in the contents of free sugars, soluble solids, endogenous ethylene production, sensory value, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities, total polyphenols and related antioxidant potential, and was significantly higher than in untreated samples (P < 0.05). Proteins were extracted from kiwifruit and separated by modified sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The separation was resolved into 14 protein bands. Some minor quality changes were found only in the 32 kDa band, which was more pronounced in the treated samples. In conclusion, ethylene treatment of kiwifruits leads to positive changes in most of the studied kiwifruit compounds and to an increase in the fruit antioxidant potential. It shortens the ripening time and improves fruit quality by decreasing its flesh firmness and acidity. Some minor changes in the protein profile did not affect the fruit taste and quality.

  16. Mutant p53 protein expression and antioxidant status deficiency in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Zorka; Kasapovic, Jelena; Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Milovanovic, Zorka; Bajic, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that cancers develop and grow as a result of disordered function of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, which may be exploited for screening purposes. Extensive evidence indicated tumor suppressor protein p53 as candidate marker for mutation identification. We have investigated mutant p53 protein expression in human breast tumors in relation to antioxidant status deficiency. The study included 100 breast cancer patients. p53 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot assay and immunostaining using a CM-1, DO-7 and Pab240 antibodies. Antioxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation were estimated by biochemical analyses. Western blotting with epitopespecific monoclonal antibody Pab240 strongly suggests that nuclear extracts from breast cancer cells express mutant forms of p53. It is of interest that the mutant forms of p53 overexpression in conjunction with the appearance of nuclear bodies are observed in highly aggressive carcinomas. Expression of isoform Δp53 (45 kDa) and isoform of ~ 29 kDa were more common in cases with LN metastasis. These studies point out the molecular consequences of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, LP, p<0.001) and antioxidant status deficiency (copper, zinc superoxid dismutase, SOD, p<0.001; catalase, CAT, p<0.01; glutathione reductase, GR, p<0.001; glutathione, GSH, p<0.05) and indicate the importance of p53 mutation as the commonest genetic alteration detected in breast cancer cells. The expression of mutant p53 is correlated to increased lipid peroxides (0.346, p<0.05 ) and lowered antioxidant activity of CAT (- 0.437, p<0.01) in the breast cancer patients. PMID:26417293

  17. MicroRNA dysregulation and esophageal cancer development depend on the extent of zinc dietary deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Louise Y.; Taccioli, Cristian; Jing, Ruiyan; Smalley, Karl J.; Alder, Hansjuerg; Jiang, Yubao; Fadda, Paolo; Farber, John L.; Croce, Carlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and marginal ZD is prevalent in humans. In rats, marked-ZD (3 mg Zn/kg diet) induces a proliferative esophagus with a 5-microRNA signature (miR-31, -223, -21, -146b, -146a) and promotes ESCC. Here we report that moderate and mild-ZD (6 and 12 mg Zn/kg diet) also induced esophageal hyperplasia, albeit less pronounced than induced by marked-ZD, with a 2-microRNA signature (miR-31, -146a). On exposure to an environmental carcinogen, ∼16% of moderate/mild-ZD rats developed ESCC, a cancer incidence significantly greater than for Zn-sufficient rats (0%) (P ≤ 0.05), but lower than marked-ZD rats (68%) (P < 0.001). Importantly, the high ESCC, marked-ZD esophagus had a 15-microRNA signature, resembling the human ESCC miRNAome, with miR-223, miR-21, and miR-31 as the top-up-regulated species. This signature discriminated it from the low ESCC, moderate/mild-ZD esophagus, with a 2-microRNA signature (miR-31, miR-223). Additionally, Fbxw7, Pdcd4, and Stk40 (tumor-suppressor targets of miR-223, -21, and -31) were downregulated in marked-ZD cohort. Bioinformatics analysis predicted functional relationships of the 3 tumor-suppressors with other cancer-related genes. Thus, microRNA dysregulation and ESCC progression depend on the extent of dietary Zn deficiency. Our findings suggest that even moderate ZD may promote esophageal cancer and dietary Zn has preventive properties against ESCC. Additionally, the deficiency-associated miR-223, miR-21, and miR-31 may be useful therapeutic targets in ESCC. PMID:26918602

  18. Blood lead level modifies the association between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Ho; Leem, Jong-Han; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2013-01-14

    Oxidative stress may be affected by lead exposure as well as antioxidants, yet little is known about the interaction between dietary antioxidants and blood lead levels (BLL) on oxidative stress level. We investigated the interaction between dietary antioxidants and BLL on oxidative stress level. As part of the Biomarker Monitoring for Environmental Health conducted in Seoul and Incheon, Korea, between April and December 2005, we analysed data from 683 adults (female = 47·4 %, mean age 51·4 (sd 8·4) years) who had complete measures on BLL, dietary intakes and oxidative stress marker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)). Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, BLL was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 8-OHdG by ELISA. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the association between dietary antioxidants and 8-OHdG. Geometric means of BLL and 8-OHdG concentrations were 4·1 (sd 1·5) μg/dl and 5·4 (sd 1·9) μg/g creatinine, respectively. Increases of vitamins C and E were significantly associated with the decrease of log10 8-OHdG in the adults from the lowest quartile of the BLL group (≤ 3·18 μg/dl, geometric mean = 2·36 μg/dl) than those of the highest quartile BLL group (>5·36 μg/dl, geometric mean = 6·78 μg/dl). Regarding antioxidant-related foods, vegetables excluding kimchi showed a higher inverse relationship with 8-OHdG in the lowest quartile BLL group than the highest group. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the BLL and increasing the intake of dietary antioxidants in the urban population in Korea.

  19. DIETARY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY AS A MODIFIER OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether low dietary intake of the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E may act as a modifier of chronic air pollution's associations with respiratory outcomes among adolescents due to an increased respiratory response to the oxidative effects of air pol...

  20. Dietary iron-deficiency up-regulates hephaestin mRNA level in small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Shoji; Aoyama, Yoritaka

    2002-05-17

    Hephaestin is a protein, recently found from the study of sla (sex-linked anemia) mouse. Hephaestin is suggested to transport iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulation. Iron is essential for living and for humans to maintain a constant total iron concentration in whole body. In this study, it was found that dietary iron-deficiency up-regulated hephaestin mRNA level in the proximal small intestine of rats. Therefore, it is suggested that in dietary iron-deficiency, hephaestin gene expression in proximal small intestine is up-regulated to absorb more iron from diet.

  1. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity. PMID:22953888

  2. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  3. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  4. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses

    PubMed Central

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8 J/cm2) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  5. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  6. Variation of antioxidants and secondary metabolites in nitrogen-deficient barley plants.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Babula, Petr; Jarošová, Markéta

    2014-02-15

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Bojos) plants cultured in low nitrogen (N) containing Hoagland solution (20 mg/l) were exposed to N deficiency (-N) over 15 days. Plants revealed relatively high tolerance to total N deficit because shoot length was not altered and dry biomass was depleted by ca. 30% while root length increased by ca. 50% and dry biomass remained unaffected. Soluble proteins and free amino acids decreased more pronouncedly in the roots. Antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) decreased in the shoots but increased or were not affected in the roots. Ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were depleted in shoots and/or roots while guaiacol peroxidase activity was stimulated in the shoots. In accordance, fluorescence signal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide was elevated in shoots but no extensive changes were observed in roots if +N and -N treatments are compared. At the level of phenolic metabolites, slight increase in soluble phenols and some phenolic acids and strong elevation of flavonoid homoorientin was found in the shoots but not in the roots. Fluorescence microscopy in terms of detection of phenols is also discussed. We also briefly discussed accuracy of quantification of some parameters owing to discrepancies in the literature. It is concluded that N deficiency induces increase in shoot phenolics but also elevates symptoms of oxidative stress while increase in root antioxidants probably contributes to ROS homeostasis aimed to maintain root development.

  7. Female dietary antioxidant intake and time to pregnancy among couples treated for unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Reindollar, Richard H.; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increased antioxidant intake in women is associated with shorter time to pregnancy (TTP) among a cohort of couples being treated for unexplained infertility. Design Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting Academic medical center associated with a private infertility center. Patients Females with unexplained infertility. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The time it took to establish a pregnancy that led to a live birth. Results Mean nutrient intake exceeded the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins C and E. No differences in mean intake of any of the antioxidants were noted between women who delivered a live-born infant during the study period versus those who did not. In multivariable models, intake of ß-carotene from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (HR= 1.29, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.53) and women < 35 y (HR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41). Intake of vitamin C from dietary supplements was associated with shorter TTP among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (HR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15) and women < 35 y (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18). Intake of vitamin E from dietary supplements among women ≥ 35 y was also associated with shorter TTP (HR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13). Conclusions Shorter TTP was observed among women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 with increasing vitamin C, women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 with increasing β-carotene, women < 35 y with increasing β-carotene and vitamin C, and women ≥ 35y with increasing vitamin E. PMID:24355050

  8. Blood donation, being Asian, and a history of iron deficiency are stronger predictors of iron deficiency than dietary patterns in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; Kruger, Rozanne; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Matthys, Christophe; Coad, Jane; Jones, Beatrix; Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L) in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82); P < 0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20); P < 0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13); P = 0.016], a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93); P = 0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68); P = 0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50); P = 0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a "milk and yoghurt" dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a "meat and vegetable" dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  9. Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Wathelet, Bernard; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    The dried powdered fruit peels of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) (PomP) from 12 cultivars were used to extract and characterise their dietary fibre (DF) and to assess their functional and antioxidant properties. The total DF content varied between 33.10 and 62/100 g. The cellulose, Klason lignin, uronic acid and total neutral sugars (NS) composition of DF was: 16.53-22.71, 20.59-41.86, 13.98-23.31 and 16.88-19.66/100g, respectively. Arabinose and xylose were the most present NS with more than 60% of total NS content. The ratio of insoluble to soluble DF was around 1, reflecting the balanced composition of PomP's DF. Besides, PomP powder showed intermediate values for water- and oil-holding capacities: 2.31-3.53 and 2.80-4.05 mL/g, respectively, and strong retardation effect on the dialysis of glucose, reaching ∼60%. Also, it has been shown that most of the antioxidants can be extracted, based on the strong soluble antioxidant activity (2018-2649 μmol Trolox/g) compared to the insoluble one (13-23 μmol Trolox/g). PMID:24799227

  10. Influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipemic effect of vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bergami, R; Maranesi, M; Marchetti, M; Sangiorgi, Z; Tolomelli, B

    1999-09-01

    Since many connections exist between vitamin B6 and lipid metabolism, we aim to investigate the lipemic effect of different dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet. Diets were either vitamin B6 deficient (-B6) or vitamin B6 sufficient, pair-fed to the deficient group (PF) and ad libitum (N). The diets were combined with normal lipid (LC: soya bean-coconut-palm oils) and fish oil (FO: soya bean-fish oil). The fish oil diet with sufficient vitamin B6 content caused an increase in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in arachidonic acid. In the -B6 group fed a normal lipid diet, the arachidonic acid percentage decreased and the linoleic acid percentage increased; in the -B6 group fed fish oil these changes in fatty acid composition, already consequent upon dietary intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not show further variations. In the dietary condition of vitamin B6 deficiency, plasma cholesterol content increased in rats fed a lipid control diet, whereas no hypocholesterolemic effect was observed in those fed a fish oil diet. Plasma triglyceride contents were not influenced by dietary lipid quality because, in all conditions, the lower food intake of the PF groups caused a decrease and vitamin B6 deficiency caused an elevation in triglyceride contents which reached those of the ad libitum groups. The study highlights the interaction between vitamin B6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and the opportunity of dietary intake of fish oil to counterbalance some effects of vitamin B6 deficiency.

  11. Cross-sectional dietary deficiencies among a prison population in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the dietary adequacy of prisoners of Beon Prison, Madang, Papua New Guinea in response to a report of possible nutritional deficiency. Methods We undertook an observational, cross-sectional study. All 254 male inmates (May 2010) were eligible to answer a validated interview-based questionnaire; to have a comprehensive dietary assessment; and to provide blood for biochemical analysis (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, homocysteine, zinc, ferritin, and vitamins A, B12 and C). Prison guards were invited to participate as a comparison group. Results 148 male prisoners (58.3%) and 13 male prison guards participated. Prison rations consisted of white rice fortified with thiamin, niacin, and iron, tinned tuna, tinned corned beef, water crackers, and black tea, with occasional intakes of fruit and vegetables. Some prisoners received supplementary food from weekend visitors. From assessment of the prisoners dietary data, median intakes of calcium (137 mg), potassium (677 mg), magnesium (182 mg), riboflavin (0.308 mg), vitamin A (54.1 μg), vitamin E (1.68 mg), vitamin C (5.7 mg) and folate (76.4 μg) were found to be below estimated average requirements (EAR). Following are the prisoners median (P25, P75) concentration of circulating nutrients and the percentage of prisoners with levels below normal reference ranges or recognized cut-off values: serum retinol 0.73 (0.40, 1.21) μmol/L, 46% below 0.7 μmol/L; plasma folate 2.0 (1.4, 2.6) nmol/L, 98% below 6.8 nmol/L; plasma vitamin C 6.3 (1.0, 19.3) μmol/L, 64% below 11.4 μmol/L; serum zinc 9.9 (8.8, 11.1) μmol/L, 66% below 10.7 μmol/L. Guards had diets with a higher dietary diversity that were associated with greater intakes of nutrients and biomarker concentrations. Conclusions The prisoners diets are likely lacking in several micronutrients and recommendations for dietary change have been made to the prison authorities. Ongoing vigilance is

  12. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Th1/ Th2 paradigm has become an important issue in the pathogenesis of asthma, characterized by normal Th-1 and elevated Th-2 cytokine expression, resulting in a Th2 predominance. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) produces a significant Th1 bias, while high-level dietary vitamin A supplementation promo...

  13. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  14. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  15. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  16. The prooxidant action of dietary antioxidants leading to cellular DNA breakage and anticancer effects: implications for chemotherapeutic action against cancer.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M F; Ahmad, Aamir; Khan, Husain Y; Zubair, H; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Hadi, S M

    2013-11-01

    Plant-derived dietary antioxidants have attracted considerable interest in recent past for their ability to induce apoptosis and regression of tumors in animal models. While it is believed that the antioxidant properties of these agents may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer induction by impeding oxidative injury to DNA, it could not account for apoptosis induction and chemotherapeutic observations. In this article, we show that dietary antioxidants can alternatively switch to a prooxidant action in the presence of transition metals such as copper. Such a prooxidant action leads to strand breaks in cellular DNA and growth inhibition in cancer cells. Further, the cellular DNA breakage and anticancer effects were found to be significantly enhanced in the presence of copper ions. Moreover, inhibition of antioxidant-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidative stress by Cu(I)-specific chelators bathocuproine and neocuproine demonstrated the role of endogenous copper in the induction of the prooxidant mechanism. Since it is well established that tissue, cellular, and serum copper levels are considerably elevated in various malignancies, such a prooxidant cytotoxic mechanism better explains the anticancer activity of dietary antioxidants against cancer cells.

  17. Parameters of dietary selenium and vitamin E deficiency in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Muller, Andreas S; Pallauf, Josef; Most, Erika

    2002-01-01

    of Se deficiency in rabbits. The loss of GPx1 activity indicates the selenium depletion in various rabbit organs. Both selenium and vitamin E are essential and highly efficient antioxidants which protect rabbits against lipid and protein oxidation.

  18. Type 2 diabetes diminishes the benefits of dietary antioxidants: Evidence from the different free radical scavenging potential.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xie, Yixi; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes. Herein, taking advantage of several radical scavenging, the impact of plasma proteins in diabetes on the benefits of dietary polyphenols was investigated. It illustrated that plasma proteins masked the dietary polyphenols, thus reducing their radical scavenging potential. The plasma proteins from type 2 diabetics bind and protect (i.e., mask) the polyphenol antioxidants less effectively than the non-glycosylated ones in healthy blood do. In the blood of diabetics the less-protected (non-masked) antioxidants react with free radicals before being delivered to the tissues that need them. We should pay more attention to in vivo benefits of dietary polyphenols for type 2 diabetics.

  19. Sodium nitroprusside-mediated alleviation of iron deficiency and modulation of antioxidant responses in maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to alleviate Fe-deficiency effects, possibly by enhancing the functional Fe status of plants. This study examines changes in tissue Fe status and oxidative metabolism in Fe-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) plants enriched with NO using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source. Methodology Measurements included changes in concentrations of H2O2, non-protein thiols, levels of lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and of the Fe-requiring antioxidant haem enzymes catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Internal NO in Fe-deficient maize plants was manipulated with SNP and the NO scavenger, methylene blue (MB). A key control was treatment with sodium ferrocyanide (SF), a non-NO-supplying analogue of SNP. Principal results SNP but not SF caused re-greening of leaves in Fe-deficient maize plants over 10–20 days, increased in vivo NO content, raised chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, promoted growth in dry weight, increased the activities of H2O2-scavenging haem enzymes and enhanced lipid peroxidation, while decreasing SOD activity and H2O2 concentrations. The NO scavenger, MB, blocked the effects of the SNP. Although SNP and SF each donated Fe and increased active Fe, only SNP increased leaf chlorophyll. Conclusions NO plays a role in Fe nutrition, independently of its effect on total or active Fe status. The most probable mechanism of NO involvement is to increase the intracellular availability of Fe by means of modulating redox. This is likely to be achieved by enhancing the chemical reduction of foliar Fe(III) to Fe(II). PMID:22476060

  20. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and <20-540 mg/kg fresh wet weight respectively, for FRAP and AA, which comprised < 1-73 % and < 1-59 % total antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables respectively. We estimate that 100 mg AA is contained in one orange, a few strawberries, one kiwi fruit, 1-2 slices of pineapple, several florets of raw cauliflower or a handful of uncooked spinach leaves. Apples, bananas, pears and plums, the most commonly consumed fruits in the UK, contain very little AA. Results indicate also that the antioxidant capacity of vegetables decreases rapidly and significantly after fragmentation. Results of this, and future studies, using FRASC as a biomonitoring tool will be useful in food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  1. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P < 0.001). Decrease (P < 0.001) was recorded in serum FSH and testosterone after 2 and 4 weeks of zinc deficiency. The changes were more prominent after 4 weeks of synthetic zinc deficient diet. The results indicate that zinc deficiency during prepubertal period affects the prostate structure, total protein concentration, enhanced protein carbonyl concentration, nitric oxide as well as acid phosphatase activities and impaired hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Evidently these changes could be attributed to dysfunction of dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity. PMID

  2. Raman microspectroscopy for probing the impact of a dietary antioxidant on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, P S C; Batista de Carvalho, A L M; Ruano, C; Otero, J C; Marques, M P M

    2016-06-15

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and the most frequent among women, being the fifth cause of death from neoplastic disease. Since this is an oxidative-stress related neoplasia, it is largely preventable. A dietary isoflavone abundant in soybean - daidzein - is currently being investigated owing to its chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic properties towards the human MDA-MB-231 (metastatic, estrogen-unresponsive) and MCF-7 (estrogen-responsive) breast cancer cell lines. Biological assays for evaluation of antitumour and anti-invasive activities were combined with state-of-the-art vibrational microspectroscopy techniques. At 50 and 100 μM concentrations and 48 h incubation time, daidzein was found to induce a marked decrease in cell viability (ca. 50%) for MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (respectively ca. 50% and 42%) and 40% inhibition of cell migration. MicroRaman analysis of fixed cells upon exposure to this isoflavone unveiled its metabolic impact on both cell lines. Multivariate data analysis (unsupervised PCA) led to a clear discrimination between the control and DAID-exposed cells, with distinctive effects on their biochemical profile, particularly regarding DNA, lipids and protein components, in a cell-dependent way. This is the first reported study on the impact of dietary antioxidants on cancer cells by microRaman techniques. PMID:27227510

  3. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity. PMID:25323508

  4. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity.

  5. Dietary habits are major determinants of the plasma antioxidant status in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Anlasik, Timur; Sies, Helmut; Griffiths, Helen R; Mecocci, Patrizia; Stahl, Wilhelm; Polidori, M Cristina

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that regular consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk for age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the often-reported age-related decrease of plasma antioxidants in man depends on differences in dietary intake or on other age- and gender-related factors. In this observational case-control study, thirty-nine community-dwelling healthy subjects aged 65 years and older consuming high intakes of fruits and vegetables daily (HI) and forty-eight healthy subjects aged 65 and older consuming low intakes of fruit and vegetables daily (LI) were enrolled. Plasma levels of retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as content of protein carbonyls in Ig G were measured. Plasma levels of retinol, tocopherols and carotenoids were significantly higher in group HI than in group LI subjects independent of age and gender. MDA levels were inversely correlated with vitamin A and alpha-carotene. Protein carbonyls were inversely correlated with gamma-tocopherol. In the elderly, a higher daily intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with an improved antioxidant status in comparison to subjects consuming diets poor in fruits and vegetables. Modification of nutritional habits among other lifestyle changes should be encouraged to lower prevalence of disease risk factors in later life.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  7. Dietary supplementation with carnosine improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ma, X Y; Jiang, Z Y; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhou, G L

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) supplementation on antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. 72 pigs approximately 60 kg were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg carnosine per kg diet for 8 weeks. Carnosine supplementation did not affect growth performance and carcass traits of pigs. However, the addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased pH value of muscle at 45 min, 24 h and 48 h postmortem. It also decreased drip loss at 48 h postmortem and increased redness value of muscle at 45 min postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet enhanced glycogen concentration and Ca-ATPase activity at 24 and 48 h postmortem, and reduced malondialdehyde and carbonyl protein complexes concentrations in muscle at 24 h postmortem (p < 0.05). The addition of 100 mg carnosine per kg diet increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in plasma, liver or muscle, as well as SOD and GSH-Px genes expression in muscle (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings indicate that carnosine supplementation improves antioxidant capacity and meat quality of pigs. PMID:20626506

  8. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF. PMID:26396380

  9. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  10. Dietary influences of evening primrose and fish oil on the skin of essential fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chapkin, R S; Ziboh, V A; McCullough, J L

    1987-08-01

    There have been reports that certain dietary lipids are capable of regulating cellular inflammation and hyperproliferation. To investigate further the role of dietary manipulation involving gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hyperproliferative cellular components, the effects of orally administered primrose oil (containing 18:3n-6) and menhaden fish oil (containing 20:5n-3) were tested in a cutaneous system using the essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient guinea pig fed a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) diet. The effects of the dietary crossover regimen were determined on epidermal 1) morphology, 2) DNA synthesis, 3) delta 6- and delta 5-desaturase activities and 4) fatty acid composition of skin and liver lipids. Our results demonstrated that dietary fish oil lacked the capacity to reverse the signs of epidermal hyperproliferation, acanthosis and hypergranulosis that are characteristic of EFA deficiency. In contrast, primrose oil feeding reversed the histological and biochemical signs of hyperproliferation. These results suggest that dietary fish oil, which contains largely the 20:5n-3 fatty acid, lacks EFA-functional properties in the skin. In addition, substitution of HCO with primrose or fish oil after 6 wk revealed incorporation of 18:3n-6 and 20:5n-3 into epidermal lipids, respectively. The significance of these altered epidermal fatty acid profiles is discussed.

  11. Effects of dietary deficiency of selective amino acids on the function of the cornea and lens in rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Golubnitschaja, O; Breipohl, W; Schild, H H; Vrensen, G F J M

    2002-01-01

    Effects of dietary deficiencies of tryptophan and methionin on the transparency of cornea and lens were investigated in young rats (Brown-Norway, BN; Sprague-Dawley, SD) over 3 months. Transparency of the cornea and lens were evaluated in weekly intervals using a photo-slitlamp microscope. After sacrifice and lens fresh weight determination the lenses were prepared for histopathology. Methionin deficiency had no effect on the parameters investigated. Tryptophan deficiency caused severe loss of body weight in both strains, with additional loss of hair in SD rats. These developed corneal neovascularisations and cataracts. BN rats showed an enhanced zone of discontinuity in the lens. Diet intermission arrested the pathological processes in the eye which restarted when feeding the diet again. This observation is supported by lens fresh weight data. DNA staining evidenced that tryptophan deficiency arrested lens fiber maturation in both strains but stimulated corneal neovascularisation only in SD rats.

  12. Selenium deficiency decreases antioxidative capacity and is detrimental to bone microarchitecture in mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R; Zeng, Huawei

    2012-08-01

    Selenium (Se), an essential mineral, plays a major role in cellular redox status and may have beneficial effects on bone health. The objective of this study was to determine whether Se deficiency affects redox status and bone microarchitecture in a mouse model. Thirty-three male C57BL/6J mice, 18 wk old, were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Mice were fed either a purified, Se-deficient diet (SeDef) containing ∼0.9 μg Se/kg diet, or Se-adequate diets containing ∼100 μg Se/kg diet from either selenomethionine (SeMet) or pinto beans (SeBean) for 4 mo. The Se concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity, and GPx1 mRNA in liver were lower in the SeDef group than in the SeMet or SeBean group. The femoral trabecular bone volume/total volume and trabecular number were less, whereas trabecular separation was greater, in the SeDef group than in either the SeMet or SeBean group (P < 0.05). Bone structural parameters between the SeMet and SeBean groups did not differ. Furthermore, Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and intact parathyroid hormone were higher in the SeDef group than in the other 2 groups. These findings demonstrate that Se deficiency is detrimental to bone microarchitecture by increasing bone resorption, possibly through decreasing antioxidative potential. PMID:22739365

  13. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

  14. Protective effect of dietary potassium against cardiovascular damage in salt-sensitive hypertension: possible role of its antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Megumi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high salt intake induces hypertension and cardiovascular damage, while dietary potassium supplementation counteracts these harmful effects. Actually, the protective effect of potassium is strengthened with excess salt as compared with salt depletion. Although the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in our previous reports, the antihypertensive effect of dietary potassium was accompanied by sympathetic nerve inhibition in salt-sensitive hypertension. Also, potassium supplement suppressed salt-induced insulin resistance. These effects of dietary potassium can explain its cardio- and vasculo-protective action in addition to the potassium supplementation induced decreased salt-induced rise in blood pressure. On the other hand, salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Moreover, sympathoexcitation can be induced by central ROS upregulation and insulin resistance can be caused by ROS excess in the target organs of insulin, such as skeletal muscle. Conversely, the seemingly different actions of potassium can be explained by the antioxidant effect of dietary potassium; in our recent studies, potassium supplementation inhibits salt-induced progress of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and vascular neointima formation by cuff placement around arteries, associated with the inhibition of regional ROS overproduction, in salt-sensitive hypertension. Thus, it is possible that dietary potassium protects against salt-induced cardiovascular damage by the reduction of ROS generation and by central sympatholytic action and amelioration of insulin resistance induced through its antioxidant effect.

  15. Relative roles of genetic factors, dietary deficiency, and infection in anaemia in Vanuatu, South-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bowden, D K; Hill, A V; Higgs, D R; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B

    1985-11-01

    Hypochromic anaemia is very common among the island populations of Vanuatu in the South-West Pacific. Results of a large-scale survey show that, unexpectedly, this form of anaemia is seldom due to iron deficiency or coexistent parasitic disease. Rather, it results from a previously unsuspected high incidence of alpha-thalassaemia which has been identified only by application of DNA analysis to the populations studied. These findings suggest that hypochromic anaemia in tropical or subtropical populations should not necessarily be attributed to iron deficiency; detailed studies of iron status should be carried out before major dietary changes or fortification of food with iron are implemented.

  16. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  17. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  18. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  19. Suppression of muscle protein turnover and amino acid degradation by dietary protein deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    To define the adaptations that conserve amino acids and muscle protein when dietary protein intake is inadequate, rats (60-70 g final wt) were fed a normal or protein-deficient (PD) diet (18 or 1% lactalbumin), and their muscles were studied in vitro. After 7 days on the PD diet, both protein degradation and synthesis fell 30-40% in skeletal muscles and atria. This fall in proteolysis did not result from reduced amino acid supply to the muscle and preceded any clear decrease in plasma amino acids. Oxidation of branched-chain amino acids, glutamine and alanine synthesis, and uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyrate also fell by 30-50% in muscles and adipose tissue of PD rats. After 1 day on the PD diet, muscle protein synthesis and amino acid uptake decreased by 25-40%, and after 3 days proteolysis and leucine oxidation fell 30-45%. Upon refeeding with the normal diet, protein synthesis also rose more rapidly (+30% by 1 day) than proteolysis, which increased significantly after 3 days (+60%). These different time courses suggest distinct endocrine signals for these responses. The high rate of protein synthesis and low rate of proteolysis during the first 3 days of refeeding a normal diet to PD rats contributes to the rapid weight gain ("catch-up growth") of such animals.

  20. Dietary xenosterols lead to infertility and loss of abdominal adipose tissue in sterolin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Solca, Curzio; Tint, G Stephen; Patel, Shailendra B

    2013-02-01

    The investigation of the human disease sitosterolemia (MIM 210250) has shed light not only on the pathways by which dietary sterols may traffic but also on how the mammalian body rids itself of cholesterol and defends against xenosterols. Two genes, ABCG5 and ABCG8, located at the sitosterolemia locus, each encodes a membrane-bound ABC half-transporter and constitutes a functional unit whose activity has now been shown to account for biliary and intestinal sterol excretion. Knockout mice deficient in Abcg5 or Abcg8 recapitulate many of the phenotypic features of sitosterolemia. During the course of our studies to characterize these knockout mice, we noted that these mice, raised on normal rodent chow, exhibited infertility as well as loss of abdominal fat. We show that, although sitosterolemia does not lead to any structural defects or to any overt endocrine defects, fertility could be restored if xenosterols are specifically blocked from entry and that the loss of fat is also reversed by a variety of maneuvers that limit xenosterol accumulation. These studies show that xenosterols may have a significant biological impact on normal mammalian physiology and that the Abcg5 or Abcg8 knockout mouse model may prove useful in investigating the role of xenosterols on mammalian physiology.

  1. Osteocyte-derived RANKL is a critical mediator of the increased bone resorption caused by dietary calcium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinhu; Piemontese, Marilina; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) excess stimulates bone resorption. This effect is associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor кB ligand (RANKL) in bone. However, several different cell types, including bone marrow stromal cells, osteocytes, and T lymphocytes, express both RANKL and the PTH receptor and it is unclear whether RANKL expression by any of these cell types is required for PTH-induced bone loss. Here we have used mice lacking the RANKL gene in osteocytes to determine whether RANKL produced by this cell type is required for the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary calcium deficiency in adult mice. Thirty days of dietary calcium deficiency caused bone loss in control mice, but this effect was blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. The increase in RANKL expression in bone and the increase in osteoclast number caused by dietary calcium deficiency were also blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that RANKL produced by osteocytes contributes to the increased bone resorption and the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, strengthening the evidence that osteocytes are an important target cell for hormonal control of bone remodeling. PMID:24933342

  2. Dietary Supplement Enriched in Antioxidants and Omega-3 Protects from Progressive Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration. PMID:26042773

  3. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  4. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the 500mg Cd/kg treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of

  5. Effects of dietary cadmium on growth, antioxidants and bioaccumulation of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and influence of dietary vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Fuqiang; Han, Yuzhe; Liao, Mingling; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Haiying

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) supplementation on growth, antioxidant capacity and accumulation of Cd in tissues (body wall, digestive tracts, and respiratory tree) of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, and 500mg Cd/kg dry weight) of Cd were investigated. In addition, the potential protective effects of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, AsA) against the effects of Cd on sea cucumbers were investigated. Sea cucumbers were exposed to dietary Cd for 30 days, after which another group of healthy sea cucumbers was supplied diet supplemented with mixed Cd and AsA for another 30 days. Cd exposure for 30 days resulted in increased Cd accumulation in tissues of sea cucumbers with exposure time and concentration. The order of Cd accumulation in organs was digestive tracts>respiratory tree>body wall. On day 30, the body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the 500mg Cd/kg treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and catalase (CAT) activity in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers decreased with increasing dietary Cd concentration, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the coelomic fluid increased. Providing diet supplemented with Cd and AsA indicated that although sea cucumbers exhibited signs of Cd toxicity, no death occurred in response to 50mg Cd/kg for 30 days. Based on these findings, five treatments were provided: 50mg Cd/kg+0mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 3000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+ 5000mg AsA/kg, 50mg Cd/kg+10,000mg AsA/kg, and 50mg Cd/kg+15,000mg AsA/kg. The BWG and SGR of sea cucumbers fed the AsA supplemented diet mixed with Cd increased. Additionally, MDA levels in coelomic fluid were negatively correlated with dietary AsA levels, while antioxidant capacities (SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) were positively correlated with dietary AsA levels. Moreover, Cd accumulation in tissues decreased in response to dietary AsA supplementation of

  6. Influence of a dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the cerebral catecholamine contents, EEG and learning ability in rat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Fukumoto, Yutaka; Harada, Etsumori

    2002-04-01

    Female rats were fed on a diet deficient in (n-3) fatty acid or enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet from mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups fed on the same diet as their dams were used for experiments. The effects of dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency on cerebral catecholamine contents and electroencephalogram (EEG) in rat pups during the postnatal development were investigated. The (n-3) deficient rat pups showed significantly lower levels of noradrenaline (NA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, compared with those in the DHA adequate rats. Dopamine (DA) contents were significantly lower in the (n-3) deficient rats until the 7th day of age. These results were consistent with observations in the EEG analysis, relative powers of fast activities in the EEG recorded from the (n-3) deficient rats were significantly lower than those in the DHA adequate rats. The effect of supplementation with DHA in (n-3) deficient rats on learning ability was also studied in a model of learning, active avoidance test and three-panel run way test, after weaning. Although the percentages of avoidance in the (n-3) deficient rats (saline group) were constantly 20% or less until the 3rd session, the percentage of avoidance in the DHA supplemented rats rapidly increased to 53% following the first administration. While in the three-panel runway test, there were no significant differences between two groups. These results suggest that chronic consumption of a (n-3) fatty acid deficient diet could modify the biosynthesis of catecholamine in the brain, and might induce the behavioral disturbances. Furthermore, the decreased learning ability induced by (n-3) deficiency in the active avoidance test is a reversible following a supplementing DHA after the weaning.

  7. METABOLIC CONVERSION OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS ALTERS THEIR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES

    PubMed Central

    Lotito, Silvina B.; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Yang, Chung S.; Crozier, Alan; Frei, Balz

    2011-01-01

    The notion that dietary flavonoids exert beneficial health effects in humans is often based on in vitro studies using the glycoside or aglycone forms of these flavonoids. However, flavonoids are extensively metabolized in humans, resulting in formation of glucuronide, methyl and sulphate derivatives, which may have different properties than their parent compounds. The goal of this study was to investigate whether different chemical modifications of the same flavonoid molecule affect its biological and antioxidant activities. Hence, we studied the anti-inflammatory effects of several major human metabolites of quercetin and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) by assessing their inhibitory effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced protein expression of cellular adhesion molecules in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC were incubated with 1–30 μM quercetin, 3′- or 4′-O-methyl-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3′-sulphate; or 20–100 μM EGCG, 4″-O-methyl-EGCG and 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG, prior to co-incubation with 100 U/ml of TNFα. 3′-O-Methyl-quercetin, 4′-O-methyl-quercetin and their parent aglycone compound, quercetin, all effectively inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) with IC50 values (concentration required for 50% inhibition) of 8.0, 5.0 and 4.4 μM, respectively; E-selectin expression was suppressed to a somewhat lesser but still significant degree by all three compounds, whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was not affected. In contrast, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (20–100 μM), quercetin-3′-O-sulphate (10–30 μM) and phenolic acid metabolites of quercetin (20–100 μM) did not inhibit adhesion molecule expression. 4′,4″-di-O-methyl-EGCG selectively inhibited ICAM-1 expression with an IC50 value of 94 μM, whereas EGCG (20–60 μM) and 4″-O-methyl-EGCG (20–100 μM) had no effect. The inhibitory effects of 3′-O-methyl-quercetin and 4′,4

  8. Dietary boron modified the effects of magnesium and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C D

    1989-11-01

    The metabolic effects of dietary boron, magnesium, and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick, with emphasis on growth cartilage histology, were studied. One-day-old cockerel chicks were assigned to groups in a fully-crossed, three factor, 2 x 2 x 2 design. The basal diet was based on ground corn, high-protein casein, and corn oil and contained 125 IU cholecalciferol (inadequate), 0.465 mg B, 2.500 mg Mg, and 0.420 mg Mo/kg. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal diet with B at O or 3; Mg at 300 (inadequate) or 500 (adequate); and Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg. At d 25, B depressed mortality, alleviated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced distortion of the marrow sprouts (MS) of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, and elevated the numbers of osteoclasts within the MS. Adequate Mg exacerbated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced bone lesions. Mo widened the MS markedly. In Mg-deficient chicks, B elevated plasma Ca and Mg concentrations and growth, but inhibited initiation of cartilage calcification; B had the opposite effect in Mg-adequate chicks. An interaction among B, Mg, and Mo affected plasma uric acid and glucose concentrations. B may function to modify mineral metabolism in cholecalciferol deficiency, suppressing bone anabolism in concurrent Mg deficiency and bone catabolism in concurrent Mg adequacy.

  9. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency alters intestinal mucosal defense and increases susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ryz, Natasha R; Lochner, Arion; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Ma, Caixia; Huang, Tina; Bhinder, Ganive; Bosman, Else; Wu, Xiujuan; Innis, Sheila M; Jacobson, Kevan; Vallance, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects more that 1 billion people worldwide. Although thought to increase risk of bacterial infections, the importance of vitamin D on host defense against intestinal bacterial pathogens is currently unclear since injection of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, increased susceptibility to the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium by suppressing key immune/inflammatory factors. To further characterize the role of vitamin D during bacteria-induced colitis, we fed weanling mice either vitamin D3-deficient or vitamin D3-sufficient diets for 5 wk and then challenged them with C. rodentium. Vitamin D3-deficient mice lost significantly more body weight, carried higher C. rodentium burdens, and developed worsened histological damage. Vitamin D3-deficient mice also suffered greater bacterial translocation to extra-intestinal tissues, including mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Intestinal tissues of infected vitamin D3-deficient mice displayed increased inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as significantly higher gene transcript levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F as well as the antimicrobial peptide REG3γ. Notably, these exaggerated inflammatory responses accelerated the loss of commensal microbes and were associated with an impaired ability to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Overall, these studies show that dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency exacerbates intestinal inflammatory responses to infection, also impairing host defense.

  10. The stomach as a bioreactor: dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric fluid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kanner, J; Lapidot, T

    2001-12-01

    Atherosclerosis may result partly from processes that occur following food consumption and that involve oxidized lipids in chylomicrons. We investigated reactions that could occur in the acidic pH of the stomach and accelerate the generation of lipid hydroperoxides and co-oxidation of dietary constituents. The ability of dietary polyphenols to invert catalysis from pro-oxidation to antioxidation was examined. The acidic pH of gastric fluid amplified lipid peroxidation catalyzed by metmyoglobin or iron ions. Metmyoglobin catalyzed peroxidation of edible oil, resulting in 8-fold increase of hydroperoxide concentration. The incubation of heated muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid for 2 h enhanced hydroperoxides accumulation by 6-fold to 1200 microM. In the presence of catechin or red wine polyphenols, metmyoglobin catalyzed the breakdown of hydroperoxides to zero, totally preventing lipid peroxidation and beta-carotene cooxidation. We suggest that human gastric fluid may be an excellent medium for enhancing the oxidation of lipids and other dietary constituents. The results indicate the potentially harmful effects of oxidized fats intake in the presence of endogenous catalysts found in foods, and the major benefit of including in the meal plant dietary antioxidants. PMID:11728810

  11. The stomach as a bioreactor: dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric fluid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kanner, J; Lapidot, T

    2001-12-01

    Atherosclerosis may result partly from processes that occur following food consumption and that involve oxidized lipids in chylomicrons. We investigated reactions that could occur in the acidic pH of the stomach and accelerate the generation of lipid hydroperoxides and co-oxidation of dietary constituents. The ability of dietary polyphenols to invert catalysis from pro-oxidation to antioxidation was examined. The acidic pH of gastric fluid amplified lipid peroxidation catalyzed by metmyoglobin or iron ions. Metmyoglobin catalyzed peroxidation of edible oil, resulting in 8-fold increase of hydroperoxide concentration. The incubation of heated muscle tissue in simulated gastric fluid for 2 h enhanced hydroperoxides accumulation by 6-fold to 1200 microM. In the presence of catechin or red wine polyphenols, metmyoglobin catalyzed the breakdown of hydroperoxides to zero, totally preventing lipid peroxidation and beta-carotene cooxidation. We suggest that human gastric fluid may be an excellent medium for enhancing the oxidation of lipids and other dietary constituents. The results indicate the potentially harmful effects of oxidized fats intake in the presence of endogenous catalysts found in foods, and the major benefit of including in the meal plant dietary antioxidants.

  12. Polymorphisms in Metabolism/Antioxidant Genes May Mediate the Effect of Dietary Intake on Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Rick J.; Robinson, Dennis P.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Bamlet, William R.; Tan, XiangLin; Cunningham, Julie M.; Li, Ying; Rider, David N.; Oberg, Ann L.; Rabe, Kari G.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Sinha, Rashmi; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A source of variation for inconsistent dietary-pancreatic cancer associations may be individuals carrying constitutional metabolism/antioxidant gene variants differentially benefit compared to homozygous individuals. Seventy-six tag SNPs were genotyped in thirteen candidate genes to test differential associations with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods A clinic-based case-control design was used to rapidly ascertain 251 cases and 970 frequency matched controls who provided blood samples and completed a 144-item food frequency questionnaire. SNPs were evaluated using a dominant genetic model and dietary categories split on controls’ median intake. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Significant increased associations (Bonferroni corrected P ≤ 0.0007) were observed for carriers of ≥ 1 minor allele for rs3816257 (glucosidase, alpha; acid [GAA]) and lower intake of deep-yellow vegetables (1.90[1.28,2.83]); and carriers of no minor allele for rs12807961 (catalyase [CAT]) and high total grains intake (2.48[1.50,4.09]) while those with ≥ 1 minor allele had a decreasing slope (across grains). The reference group was no minor alleles with low dietary intake. Conclusions Inter-individual variation in metabolism/antioxidant genes could interact with dietary intake to influence pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:24051964

  13. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  14. The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic browning reactions proceed with the starting reactants of sugar and/or protein during thermal processing and storage of food. In addition to food color formation, the process also contributes to the loss of essential nutrients, generation of beneficial antioxidants, and production of toxicants, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and heterocyclic amines (HAs). Recent research has demonstrated that dietary polyphenols can actively participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions, contributing to the generation of new colorants and antioxidants. More importantly, polyphenol addition has been found to be an effective approach to mitigate heat-induced formation of toxicants, mainly through inhibiting oxidative pathways and trapping reactive intermediates. In the matrix of polyphenol-fortified foods, a complex array of chemical interactions happen among polyphenols, traditional nutritional components, and neo-formed compounds they are thermally converted to. These reactions play a significant role in the colorants, antioxidants as well as toxicants production. Our findings support the potential of dietary polyphenols for increasing the antioxidant content and for reducing the level of toxicants when they participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions in fortified food products. PMID:25468403

  15. The colorants, antioxidants, and toxicants from nonenzymatic browning reactions and the impacts of dietary polyphenols on their thermal formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Tao, Ningping; Wang, Xichang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic browning reactions proceed with the starting reactants of sugar and/or protein during thermal processing and storage of food. In addition to food color formation, the process also contributes to the loss of essential nutrients, generation of beneficial antioxidants, and production of toxicants, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and heterocyclic amines (HAs). Recent research has demonstrated that dietary polyphenols can actively participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions, contributing to the generation of new colorants and antioxidants. More importantly, polyphenol addition has been found to be an effective approach to mitigate heat-induced formation of toxicants, mainly through inhibiting oxidative pathways and trapping reactive intermediates. In the matrix of polyphenol-fortified foods, a complex array of chemical interactions happen among polyphenols, traditional nutritional components, and neo-formed compounds they are thermally converted to. These reactions play a significant role in the colorants, antioxidants as well as toxicants production. Our findings support the potential of dietary polyphenols for increasing the antioxidant content and for reducing the level of toxicants when they participate in nonenzymatic browning reactions in fortified food products.

  16. Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Elevation of Dietary and Endogenous Antioxidant Chemicals for Cancer Prevention in Humans.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kedar N

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies in cancer prevention, the incidence of cancer is increasing. We review studies that have identified several biochemical and genetic defects as well as potential carcinogens in the diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle-related habits. Two of the biochemical abnormalities increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, and chronic exposure to carcinogens and mutagens play a significant role in the initiation of multistage carcinogenesis. Therefore, attenuation of these biochemical defects may be useful in reducing the incidence of cancer. Activation of the transcriptional factor called nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which enhances the levels of antioxidant enzymes and phase-2-detoxifying enzymes by complex mechanisms, may be one of the ways to reduce oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Antioxidant enzymes destroy free radicals by catalysis, whereas phase-2-detoxifying enzymes remove potential carcinogens by converting them to harmless compounds for elimination from the body. However, increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2 may not be sufficient to decrease oxidative stress and chronic inflammation optimally, because antioxidant chemicals, which are decreased in a high oxidative environment, must also be elevated. This review discusses the regulation of activation of Nrf2 and proposes a hypothesis that an elevation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and dietary and endogenous antioxidant chemicals simultaneously may reduce the incidence of cancer by decreasing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The levels of antioxidant chemicals can be increased by supplementation, but increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes requires activation of Nrf2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and-independent mechanisms. Several phytochemicals and antioxidant chemicals that activate Nrf2 have been identified. This review also describes clinical studies on antioxidants in cancer

  17. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    PubMed

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges.

  18. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    PubMed

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges. PMID:27582563

  19. Decreased blood antioxidant capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in young cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers: Impact of dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Background Blood of cigarette smokers routinely displays decreased antioxidant capacity and increased oxidized lipids compared to nonsmokers. This is thought to be due to both chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in addition to low intake of dietary antioxidants, and is a routine finding in veteran smokers. No study to date has determined the independent and combined impact of dietary intake and cigarette smoking on blood antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in a sample of young, novice smokers. Methods We compared resting plasma antioxidant reducing capacity (ARC; expressed in uric acid equivalents), serum trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), whole blood total glutathione, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) between 15 young (24 ± 4 years), novice smokers (pack-year history: 3 ± 2) and 13 nonsmokers of similar age (24 ± 5 years). Detailed dietary records were maintained during a seven-day period for analysis of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intake. Results ARC (0.0676 ± 0.0352 vs. 0.1257 ± 0.0542 mmol·L-1; mean ± SD, p = 0.019), TEAC (0.721 ± 0.120 vs. 0.765 ± 0.130 mmol·L-1, p = 0.24) and glutathione (835 ± 143 vs. 898 ± 168 μmol·L-1, p = 0.28) were lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, with only the former being statistically significant. MDA (0.919 ± 0.32 vs. 0.647 ± 0.16 μmol·L-1, p = 0.05) and oxLDL were both higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers (229 ± 94 vs. 110 ± 62 ng·mL-1, p = 0.12), although only the MDA comparison was of statistical significance. Interestingly, these findings existed despite no differences in dietary intake, including antioxidant micronutrient consumption, between both smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion These data, with specificity to young, novice cigarette smokers, underscore the importance of smoking abstinence. Future studies with larger sample sizes, inclusive of smokers of different ages and smoking histories, are needed to extend

  20. Pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory in the cognitive holeboard task in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Scholz, Gabi; Berg, Brian M.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in humans, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Early-life iron deficiency can lead to irreversible deficits in learning and memory. The pig represents a promising model animal for studying such deficits, because of its similarities to humans during early development. We investigated the effects of pre-weaning dietary iron deficiency in piglets on growth, blood parameters, cognitive performance, and brain histology later in life. Four to six days after birth, 10 male sibling pairs of piglets were taken from 10 different sows. One piglet of each pair was given a 200 mg iron dextran injection and fed a control milk diet for 28 days (88 mg Fe/kg), whereas the other sibling was given a saline injection and fed an iron deficient (ID) milk diet (21 mg Fe/kg). Due to severely retarded growth of two of the ID piglets, only eight ID piglets were tested behaviorally. After dietary treatment, all piglets were fed a balanced commercial pig diet (190–240 mg Fe/kg). Starting at 7.5 weeks of age, piglets were tested in a spatial cognitive holeboard task. In this task, 4 of 16 holes contain a hidden food reward, allowing measurement of working (short-term) memory and reference (long-term) memory (RM) simultaneously. All piglets received 40–60 acquisition trials, followed by a 16-trial reversal phase. ID piglets showed permanently retarded growth and a strong decrease in blood iron parameters during dietary treatment. After treatment, ID piglets' blood iron values restored to normal levels. In the holeboard task, ID piglets showed impaired RM learning during acquisition and reversal. Iron staining at necropsy at 12 weeks of age showed that ID piglets had fewer iron-containing cells in hippocampal regions CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG). The number of iron-containing cells in CA3 correlated positively with the average RM score during acquisition across all animals. Our results support the hypothesis that early

  1. Thiamin deficiency induces impaired fish gill immune responses, tight junction protein expression and antioxidant capacity: Roles of the NF-κB, TOR, p38 MAPK and Nrf2 signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ling-Mei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of dietary thiamin deficiency on immune responses, tight junctions, antioxidant capacity and related signaling molecules in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets that contained 0.12-2.04 mg thiamin kg(-1) for 8 weeks. We found that dietary thiamin deficiency resulted in reduced complement 3 content, lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, mRNA levels of hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides 2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα), ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and target of rapamycin (TOR) and increased expression of interferon-γ2, tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β2, IL-1β, IL-8, IκB kinases (IKKβ and IKKγ) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65). Our findings showed that thiamin deficiency reduced the immune status of fish gills. Furthermore, thiamin deficiency resulted in reduced mRNA transcript levels of claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and occludin and increased mRNA transcript levels of claudin 15a, myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in fish gill tissues. These data suggested that thiamin deficiency disrupted tight junction-mediated fish gill barrier function. Additionally, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and both the activities and expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferases and glutathione reductase, as well as NF-E2-related factor 2 gene expression in fish gills, were lower in fish fed a thiamin-deficient diet. By contrast, thiamin deficiency increased levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b mRNA transcript expression in fish gills. Taken together, our findings indicated that thiamin deficiency impaired fish gill health by effects on the expression of genes encoding cytokines, tight junction proteins

  2. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  3. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  4. Vitamin A-Deficient Diet Accelerated Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice and Dietary β-Carotene Prevents This Consequence

    PubMed Central

    Relevy, Noa Zolberg; Harats, Dror; Harari, Ayelet; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Bitzur, Rafael; Rühl, Ralph; Shaish, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A is involved in regulation of glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, which are major risk factors for atherogenesis. However, the effect of vitamin A deficiency on atherogenesis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine whether vitamin A deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/−). ApoE−/− mice were allocated into the following groups: control, fed vitamin A-containing chow diet; BC, fed chow diet fortified with Dunaliella powder containing βc isomers; VAD, fed vitamin A-deficient diet; and VAD-BC group, fed vitamin A-deficient diet fortified with a Dunaliella powder. Following 15 weeks of treatment, liver retinol concentration had decreased significantly in the VAD group to about 30% that of control group. Vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased both plasma cholesterol concentrations and the atherosclerotic lesion area at the aortic sinus (+61%) compared to the control group. Dietary βc fortification inhibited the elevation in plasma cholesterol and retarded atherogenesis in mice fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. The results imply that dietary vitamin A deficiency should be examined as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and that dietary βc, as a sole source of retinoids, can compensate for vitamin A deficiency. PMID:25802864

  5. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  6. Dietary antioxidant intake and its association with cognitive function in an ethnically diverse sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706

  7. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  8. Educational status and dietary fat and anti-oxidant intake in urban subjects.

    PubMed

    Singhal, S; Gupta, P; Mathur, B; Banda, S; Dandia, R; Gupta, R

    1998-08-01

    To assess correlation of dietary atherogenic and anti-atherogenic factors with socio-economic status (SES) we performed nutritional survey among 182 (122 men, 60 women) randomly selected individuals using 24 hour diet recall and a food-frequency questionnaire. SES was assessed by educational level which strongly correlated with occupational class (r = 0.55) and income levels (r = 0.88). There was significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation (r values) of educational level with intake of calories (0.55), proteins (0.19), fat (0.45), fat derived energy (en%) (0.14), saturated fat en% (0.45), linoleic acid (0.17), vitamin A (0.14), vitamin C (0.16), vitamin E (0.44), fruits and vegetables (0.34) and fibre (0.24) and negative correlation with intake of linolenic acid (-0.35), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) en% (-0.15), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA)/saturated fat (SFA) (-0.33) and MUFA/SFA (-0.42). In persons of highest educational level (> 15 years education) vs illiterates, the daily intake of SFA (29.1 +/- 15 vs 7.8 +/- 6), SFA en% (13.2 +/- 5 vs 6.7 +/- 4), linoleic acid en% (5.4 +/- 3 vs 3.9 +/- 2) and n6/n3 (24.0 +/- 58 vs 4.5 +/- 5) was more and intake of linolenic acid en% (0.7 +/- 1 vs 1.6 +/- 1), MUFA en% (8.6 +/- 7 vs 15.6 +/- 9), PUFA/SFA (0.6 +/- 1 vs 1.0 +/- 1) and MUFA/SFA (0.7 +/- 1 vs 4.0 +/- 5) was less. Intake of antioxidant vitamins A, C and E and fruits and vegetables was significantly more in better educated.

  9. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Antiaging effect of dietary chitosan supplementation on glutathione-dependent antioxidant system in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Anandan, R; Ganesan, B; Obulesu, T; Mathew, S; Asha, K K; Lakshmanan, P T; Zynudheen, A A

    2013-01-01

    Aging has been defined as the changes that occur in living organisms with the passage of time that lead to functional impairment and ultimately to death. Free radical-induced oxidative damage has long been thought to be the most important consequence of the aging process. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense system in young and aged rats. The dietary supplementation of chitosan significantly reduced the age-associated dyslipidemic abnormalities noted in the levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in plasma and heart tissue. Its administration significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the oxidative stress in the heart tissue of aged rats through the counteraction of free radical formation by maintaining the enzymatic [glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)] and non-enzymatic [reduced glutathione (GSH)] status at levels comparable to that of normal young rats. Our results conclude that dietary intake of chitosan restores the depleted myocardial antioxidant status and suggest that it could be an effective therapeutic agent in treatment of age-associated disorders where hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the major causative factors.

  11. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  12. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    PubMed

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  13. Evaluation of tolerable levels of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect in high cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Keiko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Terao, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The tolerable level of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was evaluated in high cholesterol-fed rats, using quercetin-containing diets (31-1260 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day) and onion diets (19-94 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day), from the viewpoint of a safety assessment. After feeding for 4 weeks, the urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels of the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day were higher than the group fed a quercetin-free diet, although the plasma quercetin metabolite levels and plasma antioxidative activity were elevated depending on the amounts of quercetin or onion diet intake. No significant effect on body weight gain by quercetin-containing diets or onion diets was observed. However, ratios of the liver and kidney weights to the body weight were significantly increased in the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 314 mg and 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day, respectively, and in the onion diet groups fed more than 47 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day. These results indicated that the tolerable level for dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was between 126 and 157 mg/kg/day for the quercetin diet and between 19 and 34 mg/kg/day for the onion diet. PMID:20138950

  14. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  15. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  16. Dietary choline reverses some, but not all, effects of folate deficiency on neurogenesis and apoptosis in fetal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Johnson, Amy R; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-06-01

    In mice, maternal dietary folate, a cofactor in 1-carbon metabolism, modulates neurogenesis and apoptosis in the fetal brain. Similarly, maternal dietary choline, an important methyl-donor, also influences these processes. Choline and folate are metabolically interrelated, and we determined whether choline supplementation could reverse the effects of folate deficiency on brain development. Timed-pregnant mice were fed control (CT), folate-deficient (FD), or folate-deficient, choline-supplemented (FDCS) AIN-76 diets from d 11 to 17 (E11-17) of pregnancy, and on E17, fetal brains were collected for analysis. Compared with the CT group, the FD group had fewer neural progenitor cells undergoing mitosis in the ventricular zones of the developing mouse brain septum (47%; P < 0.01), hippocampus (29%; P < 0.01), striatum (34%; P < 0.01), and anterior and mid-posterior neocortex (33% in both areas; P < 0.01). In addition, compared with CT, the FD diet almost doubled the rate of apoptosis in the fetal septum and hippocampus (P < 0.01). In the FDCS group, the mitosis rates generally were intermediate between those of the CT and FD groups; mitosis rates in the septum and striatum were significantly greater compared with the FD group and were significantly lower than in the CT group only in the septum and neocortex. In the FDCS group, the hippocampal apoptosis rate was significantly lower than in the FD group (P < 0.01) and was the same as in the CT group. In the septum, the apotosis rate in the FDCS group was intermediate between the CT and FD groups' rates. These results suggest that neural progenitor cells in fetal forebrain are sensitive to maternal dietary folate during late gestation and that choline supplementation can modify some, but not all, of these effects. PMID:20392884

  17. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  18. Dietary myo-inositol modulates immunity through antioxidant activity and the Nrf2 and E2F4/cyclin signalling factors in the head kidney and spleen following infection of juvenile fish with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary vitamin myo-inositol (MI), on the immunity and structural integrity of the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with the major freshwater pathogen bacterial Aeromonas hydrophila. The results demonstrated for the first time that MI deficiency depressed the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents in the head kidney and spleen compared with the optimal MI levels, indicating that MI deficiency decreased the immunity of these important fish immune organs. The depression in immunity due to MI deficiency was partially related to oxidative damage [indicated by increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents] that was in turn partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and the disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities [total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, MnSOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. MI deficiency inhibited the antioxidant-related gene transcription [CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)] in the head kidney and spleen following infection of the fish with A. hydrophila. The oxidative damage due to MI deficiency also resulted in the inhibition of proliferation-associated signalling (cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E and E2F4). Thus, MI deficiency partially inhibited damage repair. Excessive MI exhibited negative effects that were similar to MI deficiency, whereas the optimal MI content reversed those indicators. These observations indicated that an MI deficiency or excess could cause depression of the immune system that might be partially related to oxidative damage, antioxidant disturbances, and the inhibition of the proliferation-associated signalling in the head kidney and spleen following infection of fish with A. hydrophila. Finally, the optimal MI levels were 660.7 (based on ACP) and 736.8 mg kg(-1) diet (based

  19. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    PubMed

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  20. Hepatic lipase- and endothelial lipase-deficiency in mice promotes macrophage-to-feces RCT and HDL antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Chen, Xiangyu; Julve, Josep; Quesada, Helena; Santos, David; Metso, Jari; Tous, Monica; Jauhiainen, Matti; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol (HDLc) levels and presumably could affect two main HDL atheroprotective functions, macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and HDL antioxidant properties. In this study, we assessed the effects of both HL and EL deficiency on macrophage-specific RCT process and HDL ability to protect against LDL oxidation. HL- and EL-deficient and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled mouse macrophages, after which the appearance of [(3)H]cholesterol in plasma, liver, and feces was determined. The degree of HDL oxidation and the protection of oxidative modification of LDL co-incubated with HDL were evaluated by measuring conjugated diene kinetics. Plasma levels of HDLc, HDL phospholipids, apoA-I, and platelet-activated factor acetyl-hydrolase were increased in both HL- and EL-deficient mice. These genetically modified mice displayed increased levels of radiolabeled, HDL-bound [(3)H]cholesterol 48h after the label injection. The magnitude of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol in feces was also increased in both the HL- and EL-deficient mice. HDL from the HL- and EL-deficient mice was less prone to oxidation and had a higher ability to protect LDL from oxidation, compared with the HDL derived from the wild-type mice. These changes were correlated with plasma apoA-I and apoA-I/HDL total protein levels. In conclusion, targeted inactivation of both HL and EL in mice promoted macrophage-to-feces RCT and enhanced HDL antioxidant properties. PMID:23328279

  1. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Astaxanthin on Growth, Muscle Pigmentation and Antioxidant Capacity of Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Khosravi, Sanaz; Chang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets. Muscle astaxanthin content increased with increased astaxanthin in the diet. Deposition of astaxanthin in the flesh resulted in a decrease in lightness and an increase in redness and yellowness. The fillets from trout fed the AX75 diet had significantly lower lightness than trout fed the AX50 and AX100 diets. Fish fed the AX50 and AX75 diets showed significantly lower catalase activity than those fed the control diet. Total antioxidant status increased significantly in all astaxanthin supplemented groups when compared to the control group. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in fish fed the AX50 diet compared to fish fed the AX0 diet. These findings suggest that while fillet pigmentation increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin concentration, indices of fish antioxidant capacity may not be affected in a dose dependent manner. PMID:27752505

  2. Effect of various levels of dietary curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfei; Hu, Zhiping; Lu, Changhui; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-04-22

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers. In experiment 1, birds were fed basal diet with an additional 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg curcumin, respectively. The results showed that dietary curcumin significantly increased the redness values of meat, catalase activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity and decreased drip loss at 48 h. In experiment 2, birds reared under heat stress were assigned to similar treatments as experiment 1. Significant differences in the redox status of breast muscle were observed between the control and heat stress groups. The various levels of curcumin significantly prevented reactive oxygen species overproduction, enhanced the antioxidant defense system, and alleviated the abnormal change of antioxidant-related gene expression of muscle in heat-stressed birds. It was concluded that curcumin, as a potential antioxidant, improved meat quality and oxidant stability of muscle in broilers, whereas the inclusion of 50 and 100 mg/kg would be more efficient. PMID:25823972

  3. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity is Inversely Associated with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness in a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Vance, Terrence M; Wang, Ying; Su, L Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Steck, Susan E; Arab, Lenore; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and supplements and prostate cancer aggressiveness among 855 African Americans (AA) and 945 European Americans (EA) in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Cases were classified as either high aggressive, low aggressive, or intermediate aggressive. TAC was calculated from the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity of 42 antioxidants measured via food frequency questionnaire. EA reported greater dietary TAC from diet and supplements combined (P < 0.0001). In both minimally and fully adjusted logistic regression models, TAC from diet and supplements combined was associated with a reduced odds of high aggressive prostate cancer in all men, AA and EA: odds ratios for highest vs. lowest level (>1500 vs. <500 mg vitamin C equivalent/day): 0.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.67; P-trend < 0.01], 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.96; P-trend < 0.001), and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.86; P-trend = 0.58), respectively. These associations did not appear to differ between AA and EA. These data suggest that greater intake of antioxidants is associated with less aggressive prostate cancer. Additional research is needed to confirm these results and determine the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26847416

  4. [THE EFFECT OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM ENZYMES].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, O G; Koliada, A K; Kukharskyy, V M; Bazhynova, A I; Vaiserman, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study we demonstrated that dietary restriction only at the development stage of Drosophila melanogaster may impact the life span of adult flies. It was important that we didn't use qualitative (restriction of proteins or other macro- or microelements) and not a calorie restriction as well, but quantitative dietary restriction that was the proportional reduction of all food components in the larval medium. In the situations when the larvae were reared in the medium types, that contained protein and carbohydrate components in concentrations of 90-10% of food components compared to the standard one (100%), the males were characterised with the significant increase in the maximum life span. The average life span was also increased, but only in those male individuals that developed in the medium types, that contained 50% and 60% of food components compared to controls. Such an effect we haven't detected in the female flies. To study the biochemical changes associated with the physiological effects we have determined the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the male flies the 50% dietary restriction implemented during the development has led to the significant increase in a SOD and catalase activity. Also the flies of both sexes reared in the medium with the 50% of food components have been characterised with the reduction in the accumulation of glycation end products. According to these results, we suggest that the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the increase of the flies life span caused by the dietary restriction during the development.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.

  6. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, transport also upregulated mRNA expression of avian uncoupling protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 1,200 mg/kg CMH increased the concentrations of Cr and PCr in PM muscle, and Cr in TA muscle than those in the 3-h transport group (P < 0.05). However, contrary to our hypothesis, dietary CMH did not alter the measured parameters in relation to muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity affected by 3-h transport (P > 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH

  7. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, transport also upregulated mRNA expression of avian uncoupling protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 1,200 mg/kg CMH increased the concentrations of Cr and PCr in PM muscle, and Cr in TA muscle than those in the 3-h transport group (P < 0.05). However, contrary to our hypothesis, dietary CMH did not alter the measured parameters in relation to muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity affected by 3-h transport (P > 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH

  8. Neurologic impairment in children associated with maternal dietary deficiency of cobalamin--Georgia, 2001.

    PubMed

    2003-01-31

    During 2001, neurologic impairment resulting from cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency was diagnosed in two children in Georgia. The children were breastfed by mothers who followed vegetarian diets. This report summarizes the two cases and provides guidance for health-care providers on identifying and preventing cobalamin deficiency among breastfed infants of vegetarian mothers.

  9. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  10. Selenium deficiency and detoxication functions in the rat: effect of chronic dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Olsson, U

    1985-01-01

    Male rats from moderately selenium-deficient dams were fed a Torula yeast-based, selenium-deficient diet for 7 weeks, with or without added supplements of sodium selenite (0.2 ppm selenium) and cadmium chloride (50 ppm cadmium) in the drinking water. Cadmium caused about 10% body-weight loss in selenium-deficient, as well as in supplemented rats. Glutathione peroxidase activity in liver 105,000 g supernatant and in erythrocyte hemolysate from selenium-deficient rats was about 1% and 3%, respectively, of that in supplemented rats. A cadmium-induced decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity was found in erythrocyte and liver preparations from selenium-supplemented rats, while cadmium caused an increase of the liver activity in selenium deficiency. Selenium deficiency per se caused a significant decrease of cytochrome P-450 content, while cadmium treatment did not modify further the content of this enzyme. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was not changed by selenium regimen or cadmium treatment, while cytochrome b5 was increased on cadmium treatment of the supplemented rat. The microsomal metabolism of N,N-dimethylaniline showed a decrease of the cytochrome P-450-dependent C-oxygenation in selenium-deficient groups. Cadmium treatment had no further significant effect. The flavin-containing monooxygenase, which performs N-oxygenation of N,N-dimethylaniline, was decreased significantly by cadmium treatment in selenium deficiency. Selenium deficiency seems thus to be connected with higher susceptibility to cadmium-induced impairments of liver detoxication functions, although progressive accumulation of cadmium in the liver appears to produce only modest effects.

  11. Mitochondrial response to the BCKDK-deficiency: Some clues to understand the positive dietary response in this form of autism.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, A; Bravo-Alonso, I; Sánchez-Aragó, M; Rejas, M T; Merinero, B; García-Cazorla, A; Artuch, R; Ugarte, M; Rodríguez-Pombo, P

    2016-04-01

    Mutations on the mitochondrial-expressed Branched Chain α-Keto acid Dehydrogenase Kinase (BCKDK) gene have been recently associated with a novel dietary-treatable form of autism. But, being a mitochondrial metabolism disease, little is known about the impact on mitochondrial performance. Here, we analyze the mitochondrial response to the BCKDK-deficiency in patient's primary fibroblasts by measuring bioenergetics, ultra-structural and dynamic parameters. A two-fold increase in superoxide anion production, together with a reduction in ATP-linked respiration and intracellular ATP levels (down to 60%) detected in mutants fibroblasts point to a general bioenergetics depletion that could affect the mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate. Ultrastructure analysis of BCKDK-deficient fibroblasts shows an increased number of elongated mitochondria, apparently associated with changes in the mediator of inner mitochondria membrane fusion, GTPase OPA1 forms, and in the outer mitochondrial membrane, mitofusin 2/MFN2. Our data support a possible hyperfusion response of BCKDK-deficient mitochondria to stress. Cellular fate also seems to be affected as these fibroblasts show an altered proportion of the cells on G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Knockdown of BCKDK gene in control fibroblasts recapitulates most of these features. Same BCKDK-knockdown in a MSUD patient fibroblasts unmasks the direct involvement of the accelerated BCAAs catabolism in the mitochondrial dysfunction. All these data give us a clue to understand the positive dietary response to an overload of branched-chain amino acids. We hypothesize that a combination of the current therapeutic option with a protocol that considers the oxidative damage and energy expenditure, addressing the patients' individuality, might be useful for the physicians. PMID:26809120

  12. Mitochondrial response to the BCKDK-deficiency: Some clues to understand the positive dietary response in this form of autism.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, A; Bravo-Alonso, I; Sánchez-Aragó, M; Rejas, M T; Merinero, B; García-Cazorla, A; Artuch, R; Ugarte, M; Rodríguez-Pombo, P

    2016-04-01

    Mutations on the mitochondrial-expressed Branched Chain α-Keto acid Dehydrogenase Kinase (BCKDK) gene have been recently associated with a novel dietary-treatable form of autism. But, being a mitochondrial metabolism disease, little is known about the impact on mitochondrial performance. Here, we analyze the mitochondrial response to the BCKDK-deficiency in patient's primary fibroblasts by measuring bioenergetics, ultra-structural and dynamic parameters. A two-fold increase in superoxide anion production, together with a reduction in ATP-linked respiration and intracellular ATP levels (down to 60%) detected in mutants fibroblasts point to a general bioenergetics depletion that could affect the mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate. Ultrastructure analysis of BCKDK-deficient fibroblasts shows an increased number of elongated mitochondria, apparently associated with changes in the mediator of inner mitochondria membrane fusion, GTPase OPA1 forms, and in the outer mitochondrial membrane, mitofusin 2/MFN2. Our data support a possible hyperfusion response of BCKDK-deficient mitochondria to stress. Cellular fate also seems to be affected as these fibroblasts show an altered proportion of the cells on G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Knockdown of BCKDK gene in control fibroblasts recapitulates most of these features. Same BCKDK-knockdown in a MSUD patient fibroblasts unmasks the direct involvement of the accelerated BCAAs catabolism in the mitochondrial dysfunction. All these data give us a clue to understand the positive dietary response to an overload of branched-chain amino acids. We hypothesize that a combination of the current therapeutic option with a protocol that considers the oxidative damage and energy expenditure, addressing the patients' individuality, might be useful for the physicians.

  13. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P < 0.05). These effects were partly due to the down-regulation of interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and IκB α and the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) (P < 0.05). However, valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the up-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) (P < 0.05). Additionally, valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the improvement in ROS levels in the fish gill (P < 0.05). Taken together, the results showed that valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant

  14. Cadmium-induced alterations in the antioxidant defense system of the rat eye in relation to dietary selenium intake

    SciTech Connect

    Sinno, J.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cadmium (Cd)upon enzymatic antioxidant function in the ocular tissues of the albino rat. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Se-independent GSH-Px and catalase, and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione, and the elements Se, Cd and copper (Cu) were determined in ocular tissues from each group. Feeding rats a low Se diet resulted in a significant decrease in GSH-Px activity irrespective of Cd treatment. Activity of Se-independent GSH-Px in rats maintained on the low Se diet decreased when compared to Se-adequate controls. Cd treatment of rats fed low Se resulted in increased activity when compared to low-Se controls. When comparisons were made between ocular TBARS in rats maintained at either level of dietary Se, with or without Cd treatment, decreased ocular TBARS were observed in Cd-treated groups. A significant decrease in the ocular concentration of Se occurred in rats fed 0.05 ppm Se when compared to rats supplemented with 0.10 ppm Se. Administering Cd to the low Se group increased ocular Se levels 100%. A negative correlation between ocular Se concentration and the level of TBARS was observed, suggesting a possible alternate role for Se as an antioxidant in the eye.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohua; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Changzhen; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Dong, Ji; Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao; Qiao, Shanyi; Zhang, Shouguo; Wang, Lin; Wen, Xiaoxue

    2014-09-01

    Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg(-1) and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm(-2) HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of KFL against HPM-induced oxidative stress. In summary, the dietary supplement KFL is a promising natural complex, which ameliorates oxidative stress, with neuroprotective effects against HPM.

  16. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  17. Self-supplementation and effects of dietary antioxidants during acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Haas, Anabel; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-02-01

    Thermal stress leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species. If an organism is not able to simultaneously mount an efficient antioxidant defense system, this may lead to increased oxidative damage, which is potentially deleterious in terms of health and fitness. Exposure to cold or heat is therefore expected to be associated with a high demand for antioxidants. In agreement, several studies have shown that supplementing the diet of thermally stressed organisms with antioxidants leads to a reduction of oxidative damage. However, whether organisms can actively supplement their diet with antioxidants to alleviate temperature-induced oxidative damage is unknown. Here, we show that captive Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) supplement their diet more with seeds rich in antioxidants below than within their thermoneutral zone. Moreover, having access to seeds rich in antioxidants at temperatures below thermoneutrality decreases their oxidative damage. These results indicate that, when facing a thermal challenge, animals are able to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of their food to improve their oxidative balance. Having access to food resources rich in antioxidants may therefore be of primary importance for organisms in their natural habitat, as it may help them to cope with oxidative constraints due to challenging temperature regimes.

  18. An increase in reactive oxygen species by dietary fish oil coupled with the attenuation of antioxidant defenses by dietary pectin enhances rat colonocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa M; Henderson, Cara E; Hong, Mee Young; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C; Wang, Naisyin; Spinka, Christine M; Carroll, Raymond J; Turner, Nancy D; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that the dietary combination of fish oil, rich in (n-3) fatty acids, and the fermentable fiber pectin enhances colonocyte apoptosis in a rat model of experimentally induced colon cancer. In this study, we propose that the mechanism by which this dietary combination heightens apoptosis is via modulation of the colonocyte redox environment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were fed 1 of 2 fats (corn oil or fish oil) and 1 of 2 fibers (cellulose or pectin) for 2 wk before determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and apoptosis in isolated colonocytes. Fish oil enhanced ROS, whereas the combination of fish oil and pectin suppressed SOD and CAT and enhanced the SOD/CAT ratio compared with a corn oil and cellulose diet. Despite this modulation to a seemingly prooxidant environment, oxidative DNA damage was inversely related to ROS in the fish oil and pectin diet, and apoptosis was enhanced relative to other diets. Furthermore, apoptosis increased exponentially as ROS increased. These results suggest that the enhancement of apoptosis associated with fish oil and pectin feeding may be due to a modulation of the redox environment that promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis.

  19. Randomised trial of lipid lowering dietary advice in general practice: the effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Neil, H. A.; Roe, L.; Godlee, R. J.; Moore, J. W.; Clark, G. M.; Brown, J.; Thorogood, M.; Stratton, I. M.; Lancaster, T.; Mant, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relative efficacy in general practice of dietary advice given by a dietitian, a practice nurse, or a diet leaflet alone in reducing total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. DESIGN--Randomised six month parallel trial. SETTING--A general practice in Oxfordshire. SUBJECTS--2004 subjects aged 35-64 years were screened for hypercholesterolaemia; 163 men and 146 women with a repeat total cholesterol concentration of 6.0-8.5 mmol/l entered the trial. INTERVENTIONS--Individual advice provided by a dietitian using a diet history, a practice nurse using a structured food frequency questionnaire, or a detailed diet leaflet sent by post. All three groups were advised to limit the energy provided by fat to 30% or less and to increase carbohydrate and dietary fibre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Concentrations of total cholesterol and low density and high density lipoprotein cholesterol after six months; antioxidant concentration and body mass index. RESULTS--No significant differences were found at the end of the trial between groups in mean concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and antioxidants or body mass index. After data were pooled from the three groups, the mean total cholesterol concentration fell by 1.9% (0.13 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.22, P < 0.001) to 7.00 mmol/l, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol also fell. The total carotenoid concentration increased by 53 nmol/l (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 103, P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS--Dietary advice is equally effective when given by a dietitian, a practice nurse, or a diet leaflet alone but results in only a small reduction in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. To obtain a better response more intensive intervention than is normally available in primary care is probably necessary. PMID:7888933

  20. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    PubMed

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. PMID:26850644

  1. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study.

  2. Dietary quebracho tannins are not absorbed, but increase the antioxidant capacity of liver and plasma in sheep.

    PubMed

    López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-08-01

    A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.

  3. Increased folate uptake prevents dietary development of folate deficiency in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    McMartin, K.E.; Collins, T.D.; Eisenga, B.H.; Bhandari, S.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Folic acid and folate deficiency have been implicated in disorders of the central nervous system. In a study of the mechanism for the effects of chronic ethanol on folate homeostasis, the uptake of {sup 3}H-folic acid by the rat brain has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed sulfonamide-supplemented folate-sufficient and folate-deficient liquid diets containing either ethanol or isoenergic carbohydrate as a control. After 16 weeks, severe folate depletion occurred in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung intestine, testes), but not in the brain. Tissue retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was increased four-fold in the brain of folate-deficient rats. A smaller increase in uptake was observed in the other tissues, except for the liver, in which the retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was slightly decreased. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased hepatic folate uptake, but not that by the increase the uptake of folate from the plasma of folate-deficient rats, thereby inhibiting the development of brain folate deficiency.

  4. Effects of dietary folate deficiency on developmental increase of myelin lipids in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hirono, H; Wada, Y

    1978-05-01

    Rats were fed a folic acid deficient purified diet from day 12 of gestation throughout the lactational period. Offsprings were fed the same diet after weaning. Control rats were given 170 microgram of folic acid per day per rat supplemented to the same diet, which was fed ad libitum or by pair-feeding. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, myelin was isolated from rat brains. It was found that in comparison with the controls, myelin yield was significantly decreased as well as the brain weight in the folic acid deficient rats at 6 weeks of age. There were no differences of gross composition of myelin, protein, ratio of cholesterol, glycolipids, phospholipids, and total lipid with or without folate deficiency either at 3 or 6 weeks of age. The hydroxy fatty acid composition of myelin lipids in brain was not changed with folate deficiency at 3 or 6 weeks of age. The developmental increase of the percentages of 22:6, 22:4, and 20:1 in nonhydroxy fatty acids of myelin lipids from the folic acid deficient rats were significantly lower at 6 weeks of age in comparison with the controls. The n-3:n-6 ratio in myelin fatty acids from the folic acid deficient rat brains was abnormally low at 3 weeks of age and was not increased at even 6 weeks of age. The implications of these findings are that folic acid may play an important role in desaturation or chain elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain of developing rats. PMID:641593

  5. Vulnerability to dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency after exposure to early stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Senter, Gabrielle; Kapczinski, Flávio Pereira; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The exposure to adverse events early in life may affect brain development. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) deficiency has been linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between variations in the early environment (handling or maternal separation) and the chronic exposure to a nutritional n-3 PUFA deficiency on locomotor activity, sucrose preference, forced swimming test and on serum and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Rats were randomized into Non-handled (NH), Neonatal Handled (H) and Maternal Separated (MS) groups. Pups were removed from their dams (incubator at 32°C on postnatal days (PND) 1-10) during 10 min/day (H) or 3h/day (MS). On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFA for 15 weeks. H and MS gained weight differently, and animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet gained less weight. MS displayed a higher food consumption and higher consumption of sucrose solution during the second hour of exposure to the sucrose preference test. No differences were observed in the swimming test. H group had increased locomotion and showed a higher response to amfepramone. No significant effect was observed on serum BDNF levels. BDNF protein levels were decreased in animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. We observed that early life environment and a mild n-3 PUFA deficiency are able to affect several behavioral aspects (food and sucrose consumption and locomotor response), and lead to a differential hippocampal BDNF metabolism in adult life.

  6. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  7. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis. PMID:26775807

  8. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  9. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    David R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  10. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a reactive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Zinc (Zn) deficiency affects approximately 30% of the world’s population. Zinc is a vital micronutrient and is important for the body’s ability to function. To date, accurate biological markers of the Zn subject’s status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chicken mod...

  11. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P < 0.05). Contrary to glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and triiodothyronine, plasma cortisol content increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 22.4%, and then levelled off. The hepatic total antioxidative capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase levels reached the peak at the fish fed diet with 16.8% carbohydrate (P < 0.05). This also held true for hepatic superoxide dismutase activities, whereas the hepatic malondialdehyde content of fish fed dietary starch level of 16.8% was significantly lower than that of fish fed no CHO diet, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P < 0.05). However, survival rate showed little difference among 0%, 5.6%, 22.4% and 28% CHO groups (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano. PMID:25181652

  12. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P < 0.05). Contrary to glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and triiodothyronine, plasma cortisol content increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 22.4%, and then levelled off. The hepatic total antioxidative capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase levels reached the peak at the fish fed diet with 16.8% carbohydrate (P < 0.05). This also held true for hepatic superoxide dismutase activities, whereas the hepatic malondialdehyde content of fish fed dietary starch level of 16.8% was significantly lower than that of fish fed no CHO diet, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P < 0.05). However, survival rate showed little difference among 0%, 5.6%, 22.4% and 28% CHO groups (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano.

  13. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  14. Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (<16 carbon) or preformed (>16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL.

  15. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P < 0.05). These data suggested that folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P < 0.05). These data indicated

  16. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  17. Effects of antioxidant supplements and nutrients on patients with asthma and allergies.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become a worldwide public health concern because of their increased prevalence. Despite decades of research on risk factors, the causes of these disorders are poorly understood. They are thought to develop through complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Because pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress increase inflammatory responses relevant to asthma and allergy, dietary or vitamin supplementation with antioxidants (a broad and varied category) has been proposed as an approach to reducing asthma incidence or morbidity. Meta-analyses of observational epidemiologic studies of variable methodological quality suggest associations of relatively low dietary intake of antioxidants and higher asthma and allergy prevalence. However, there have been few longitudinal studies of maternal or child dietary or vitamin/supplement antioxidant intake and asthma/allergy development. Moreover, there are no clinical trial data to support the use of dietary antioxidants or supplements to prevent asthma or allergy. A few small clinical trials suggest that specific antioxidants from diet or vitamin supplements might improve asthma control or lung function in asthmatic children or adults. Studies suggest that responses to antioxidants might be modified by life stage, genetic susceptibility, and environmental sources of oxidative stress. Large trials of antioxidant vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer suggest an increase in overall mortality with antioxidant vitamin supplementation, at least in populations with sufficient dietary antioxidant intake. This cautionary experience suggests that future trials to assess whether antioxidants reduce asthma incidence or improve asthma control should focus on supplementation of dietary sources of antioxidants. The potential benefits and risks of trials of vitamin supplements might be considered in special situations in which vulnerable populations have marked deficiency in dietary

  18. Pre- and postnatal dietary protein deficiency influences anxiety, memory and social behaviour in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Neville; Rimbach, Rebecca; Rymer, Tasmin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein deficiency influences the behavioural phenotypes of mammals. We studied whether protein deficiency during gestation and/or post-weaning heightened anxiety, reduced memory recall and influenced competitive ability in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. Mice were subjected to five protein diet treatments, which they received continuously, or were raised on one diet to weaning and switched to an alternate diet post-weaning (Day 16): 1) HP-HP: high protein (24%); first letter pair indicates maternal diet and the second pair indicates offspring diet post-weaning; 2) BP-BP: baseline protein (19%); 3) LP-LP: low protein (10%); 4) HP-LP: switched from high to low protein diet; and 5) LP-HP: switched from low protein to high protein diet. From Day 70, when mice were sexually mature, 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females) per treatment were subjected to three successive experiments, in which we tested their anxiety responses in: 1) an open field arena (time spent in the centre of the open field); 2) novel object recognition (time spent exploring a novel object); and 3) social interactions (excluding BP-BP) in age-matched same-sex dyadic encounters (aggressive, amicable and avoidance behaviours). LP-LP and LP-HP treatment mice spent the least amount of time in the centre of the open field, did not demonstrate object preference compared to the other treatments, and were the most aggressive in dyadic encounters. Our study shows that the systemic effects of protein-deficient diets during early life shapes the behavioural phenotype in R. d. chakae, possibly through early organisation of neuro-biological pathways or competition among littermates. PMID:27080079

  19. Avocado as a Major Dietary Source of Antioxidants and Its Preventive Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Kalandar

    2016-01-01

    Avocados have a high content of phytochemicals especially antioxidants with potential neuroprotective effect. Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. There is evidence for increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, antioxidants have been used for their effectiveness in reducing these deleterious effects and neuronal death in many in vitro and in vivo studies. The critical review results indicate that compounds in avocado are unique antioxidants, preferentially suppressing radical generation, and thus may be promising as effective neuropreventive agents. The diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in avocado plays a pivotal role in the prevention and cure of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27651262

  20. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned. PMID:25008014

  1. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber inhibits intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to cell cycle and immune response.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Lizárraga, Daneida; Miranda, Anibal; Vinardell, Maria P; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Torres, Josep L; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Capellà, Gabriel; Cascante, Marta

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that fiber and phenolic compounds might have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Accordingly, we assessed the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin (PA)-rich dietary fiber [grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF)] on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Mice were fed a standard diet (control group) or a 1% (w/w) GADF-supplemented diet (GADF group) for 6 weeks. GADF supplementation greatly reduced intestinal tumorigenesis, significantly decreasing the total number of polyps by 76%. Moreover, size distribution analysis showed a considerable reduction in all polyp size categories [diameter <1mm (65%), 1-2mm (67%) and >2mm (87%)]. In terms of polyp formation in the proximal, middle and distal portions of the small intestine, a decrease of 76, 81 and 73% was observed, respectively. Putative molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis were investigated by comparison of microarray expression profiles of GADF-treated and non-treated mice. We observed that the effects of GADF are mainly associated with the induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of genes related to the immune response and inflammation. Our findings show for the first time the efficacy and associated mechanisms of action of GADF against intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting its potential for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  2. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Angela; Zhao, Yanyun

    2013-05-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre (ADF) was fortified in yogurt (Y), Italian (I) and Thousand Island (T) salad dressings. During the 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C, viscosity and pH of WGP-Y increased and decreased, respectively, but syneresis and lactic acid percentage of WGP-Y and pH of WGP-I and WGP-T were stable. Adding WGP resulted in 35-65% reduction of peroxide values in all samples. Dried whole pomace powder (WP) fortified products had dietary fibre content of 0.94-3.6% (w/w product), mainly insoluble fractions. Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 958-1340 mg GAE/kg product and 710-936 mg AAE/kg product, respectively. The highest ADF was obtained in 3% WP-Y, 1% WP-I and 2% WP-T, while 1% WP-Y, 0.5% WP-I and 1% WP-T were mostly liked by consumers based on the sensory study. Study demonstrated that WGP may be used as a functional food ingredient for promoting human health and extending shelf-life of food products.

  3. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  4. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture.

    PubMed

    Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  5. Research Advances: Nanoscale Molecular Tweezers; Cinnamon as Pesticide?; Recently Identified Dietary Sources of Antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-12-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that receptors have been designed to act as molecular tweezers; cinnamon has potential in the fight against mosquitoes; and high levels of antioxidants are found in some surprising foods. See Featured Molecules .

  6. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  7. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( < 0.0001) in response to prolonged exercise but was not affected by dietary treatment. Serum lipid hydroperoxides were affected by treatment ( = 0.052) and were higher ( = 0.012) in horses receiving CON than SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P < 0.0001) and decreased in RBC lysate ( = 0.010) after prolonged exercise. A Se treatment × time interaction was observed for RBC GPx activity (P = 0.048). Muscle and expression and GPx activity did not change during the 24-h period after exercise. Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following

  8. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses modulate skeletal muscle heat shock protein and inflammatory gene expression in sheep exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Fahri, F T; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the expression of heat shock proteins and inflammatory genes in the skeletal muscle of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were allocated to either a control (10 IU vitamin E and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high-antioxidant (VitE+Se; 100 IU vitamin E and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet and were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18°C-21°C and 26%-30% relative humidity; heat stress [HS]: 28°C-40°C and 40%-50% relative humidity) for 1 wk. Physiological parameters were recorded daily, and muscle biopsies were conducted at the end of thermal treatments. Total RNA was extracted from muscle samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA for real-time PCR analysis. Respiration rates and rectal temperature were increased in response to HS (84.2 vs. 161 breaths per minute and 39.52°C vs. 40.06°C for TN and HS conditions, respectively; P < 0.001). There were interactions between dietary and thermal treatments, indicating that dietary antioxidant supplementation reduced respiration rate (P = 0.097) and rectal temperature (P = 0.086) of sheep during HS but not TN conditions. Skeletal muscle heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) mRNA abundance was increased by HS (1.3-fold; P < 0.050) but was not changed (P = 0.77) by dietary antioxidant supplementation. The expression of skeletal muscle heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA was increased (P < 0.001) 3.5-fold by HS and tended (P = 0.08) to be increased by dietary antioxidant supplementation. Although there were no main effects of diet (P = 0.42) or HS (P = 0.47) on skeletal muscle HSP90 mRNA expression, there was an interaction (P = 0.040) such that HSP90 mRNA expression was increased (P = 0.010) in antioxidant-supplemented sheep under HS compared to TN conditions. Skeletal muscle nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tissue necrosis factor α (TNF-α) m

  9. Effects of dietary fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Yang, Rui; Li, Ming; Zhou, Qicun; Liang, Xiongpei; Elmada, Zacharia Cassian

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Totally 420 individuals of juvenile yellow catfish were randomly allocated to 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fishes per replicate. The same experimental fish were randomly subjected to one of the following 7 treatments for 12 weeks: The basal diet was applied as control group, the experimental groups were fed on fucoidan extracted from Sargassum horneri (SF) and commodity fucoidan purchased from the market (MF), and the effective dosages were 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% per kilogram feed (the groups were respectively marked as SF1, SF2, SF3, MF1, MF2 and MF3). The capabilities of anti-oxidation and innate immunity were detected by the blood characters, serum enzyme activities, serum MDA content, respiratory burst activity and phagocytic index of head-kidney macrophages. Challenge test was conducted also. The results indicated that the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) values of the yellow catfish were significantly decreased when dietary with SF and MF, while there was no significant difference between the MF1 and the control group. Fish fed on SF and MF diets had a lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level than those fed on basal diet except SF2 group. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose (GUL) levels of the fish were significantly decreased at the 0.2% dietary fucoidan level, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased when the fish fed dietary SF and MF. The CAT activities of SF groups were higher than that of control groups, while these values were not significantly changed in MF1 and MF3 groups. The maximum of catalase (CAT) activities of the fish fed on two kind

  10. Effect of blanching and drying temperatures on the physicochemical characteristics, dietary fiber composition and antioxidant-related parameters of dried persimmons peel powder.

    PubMed

    Akter, Mst Sorifa; Ahmed, Maruf; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2010-11-01

    The effects of blanching with hot water at 90°C for 2 min and hot-air drying temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) on the physicochemical properties, dietary fiber compositions, antioxidant activity and hydration properties of ripe, soft persimmon peels were investigated. Blanching and drying significantly reduced the retention of antioxidant-related parameters. Although there were no significant differences in total phenolics and ß-carotene content at different drying temperatures for both dried unblanched and blanched peels, dried blanched peels had higher dietary fiber compositions and swelling capacity than those of dried unblanched peels at all drying conditions. In addition, blanched peels dried at 50°C had the highest dietary fiber compositions, swelling capacity and antioxidant activity compared with those at high drying temperatures (60°C and 70°C). Therefore, blanched peels dried at 50°C is suggested to obtain better quality dietary fiber powder from persimmon peel for use in food applications or in fiber-fortified foods for health promotion.

  11. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  12. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Takahashi, Hideaki; Giral-Arnal, Hector; Wang, Xiaoxin; Jiang, Tao; Verlander, Jill W; Wilson, Paul; Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Sutherland, Eileen; Caldas, Yupanqui; Blaine, Judith T; Segawa, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Barry, Nicholas P; Levi, Moshe

    2009-08-01

    Dietary potassium (K) deficiency is accompanied by phosphaturia and decreased renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle sodium (Na)-dependent phosphate (P(i)) transport activity. Our laboratory previously showed that K deficiency in rats leads to increased abundance in the proximal tubule BBM of the apical Na-P(i) cotransporter NaPi-IIa, but that the activity, diffusion, and clustering of NaPi-IIa could be modulated by the altered lipid composition of the K-deficient BBM (Zajicek HK, Wang H, Puttaparthi K, Halaihel N, Markovich D, Shayman J, Beliveau R, Wilson P, Rogers T, Levi M. Kidney Int 60: 694-704, 2001; Inoue M, Digman MA, Cheng M, Breusegem SY, Halaihel N, Sorribas V, Mantulin WW, Gratton E, Barry NP, Levi M. J Biol Chem 279: 49160-49171, 2004). Here we investigated the role of the renal Na-P(i) cotransporters NaPi-IIc and PiT-2 in K deficiency. Using Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, we found that, in rats and in mice, K deficiency is associated with a dramatic decrease in the NaPi-IIc protein abundance in proximal tubular BBM and in NaPi-IIc mRNA. In addition, we documented the presence of a third Na-coupled P(i) transporter in the renal BBM, PiT-2, whose abundance is also decreased by dietary K deficiency in rats and in mice. Finally, electron microscopy showed subcellular redistribution of NaPi-IIc in K deficiency: in control rats, NaPi-IIc immunolabel was primarily in BBM microvilli, whereas, in K-deficient rats, NaPi-IIc BBM label was reduced, and immunolabel was prevalent in cytoplasmic vesicles. In summary, our results demonstrate that decreases in BBM abundance of the phosphate transporter NaPi-IIc and also PiT-2 might contribute to the phosphaturia of dietary K deficiency, and that the three renal BBM phosphate transporters characterized so far can be differentially regulated by dietary perturbations.

  13. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (P<0.05) than the 14.4 and 2.2 dietary ratio, and this ratio also enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P<0.05) in seminal plasma more significantly than the other two ratios at week 8. Compared with 200mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 6.6 dietary ratio and 400mg/kg vitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status.

  14. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant defense and sperm quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions.

    PubMed

    Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Özcan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; semen and liver fatty acid compositions; and spermatological values (semen volume and pH, sperm density, percentage and duration of sperm motility) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions. For this purpose, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The control diet did not contain n-3 PUFA. However, the D1 and D2 diets were supplemented with n-3 PUFA concentrated anchovy oil at a 1% and 2% level, respectively. The n-3 PUFA content in the semen and liver, semen volume, initial sperm motility, duration of 50% sperm motility, total duration of sperm motility and sperm density values of the control fish fed the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet were decreased and were accompanied by a reduction of the antioxidant defense (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH) and an elevation of MDA in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney at all of the sampling periods (P<0.01 for each case). However, the effects of the sampling period on the MDA and antioxidant defense values in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney of the control diet fish (with the exception of the GSH and GSH-Px activities) and the D1 and D2 diet fish were not significant (P>0.01). However, supplementation with n-3 PUFA protected the fish from these adverse effects. The modulations were clearly observed in the fish fed the D2 diet because they were under lower oxidative stress, as indicated by MDA. The increased enzyme activity corresponds with the physiological mechanisms combating the elevation of free radicals under oxidative stress. The highest n-3 PUFA levels in the semen and liver and spermatological values were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all of the sampling periods. On the other hand, the effects of the sampling stage on the

  15. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Sosa, Silvio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Tubaro, Aurelia; Menichini, Francesco; Loggia, Roberto Della

    2008-02-28

    Five hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from Calabria region (Italy) used in local traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition of croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice) and in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties (inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bovine brain liposomes peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging). All the extracts showed an anti-inflammatory effect: 300 microg/cm(2) provoked oedema reductions ranging from 21 to 27%. All the extracts exerted also radical scavenging and/or antioxidant properties, the most active plant being Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) which contained the highest amount of phenolics (337 mg/g) and of flavonoids (15.75 mg/g). Moreover, the content and the composition of sterols were assessed by GC-MS in the examined plants Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) contained the highest number of sterols. PMID:18164564

  16. Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, A Venket

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases. A diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has been found to protect against these chronic diseases by mitigating oxidative damage. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a long-term tomato-rich diet, consisting of various processed tomato products, on bioavailability and antioxidant properties of lycopene. Seventeen healthy human subjects (ten men, seven non-pregnant women) participated in the study. Following a two-week washout period during which subjects avoided foods containing lycopene, all subjects consumed test tomato products including tomato juice, tomato sauce, tomato paste, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, and ready-to-serve tomato soup providing 30 mg of lycopene a day for four weeks. At the end of treatment, serum lycopene level increased significantly (p <0.05), from 181.79 +/- 31.25 to 684.7 +/- 113.91 nmol/L. Similarly, total antioxidant potential increased significantly (p <0.05), from 2.26 +/- 0.015 to 2.38 +/- 0.17 mmol/L Trolox equivalent. Lipid and protein oxidation was reduced significantly (p <0.05). The results suggest that a tomato-rich diet containing different sources of lycopene can increase serum lycopene levels and reduce oxidative stress effectively. PMID:15596034

  17. Effects of dietary boron and phytase supplementation on growth performance and mineral profile of broiler chickens fed on diets adequate or deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Çinar, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Bozkurt, M; Çatli, A U; Bintaş, E; Akşit, H; Konak, R; Yamaner, Ç; Seyrek, K

    2015-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to determine the effect of dietary boron (B) in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) (adequate or deficient) and supplemental B (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg diet). In Experiment 2, B, at 20 mg/kg, and phytase (PHY) (500 FTU/kg diet) were incorporated into a basal diet deficient in Ca and aP, either alone or in combination. 2. The parameters that were measured were growth performance indices, serum biochemical activity as well as ash and mineral (i.e. Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) content of tibia, breast muscle and liver. 3. Results indicated that both supplemental B and dietary Ca and aP had marginal effects on performance indices of chickens grown for 42 d. 4. There were positive correlations (linear effect) between B concentrations of serum, bone, breast muscle and liver and the amount of B consumed. 5. Serum T3 and T4 activities increased linearly with higher B supplementation. 6. Increasing supplemental B had significant implications on breast muscle and liver mineral composition. Lowering dietary Ca and aP level increased Cu content in liver and both Fe and Zn retention in breast muscle. Tibia ash content and mineral composition did not respond to dietary modifications with either Ca-aP or B. 7. The results also suggested that dietary contents of Ca and aP do not affect the response to B regarding tissue mineral profile. Dietary combination with B and PHY did not create a synergism with regard to growth performance and bioavailability of the minerals.

  18. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    PubMed

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  19. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Felipe C. G.; Branquinho, Jéssica L. O.; Brandão, Bruna B.; Guerra, Beatriz A.; Silva, Ismael D.; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Festuccia, William T.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mori, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  20. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Reis, Felipe C G; Branquinho, Jéssica L O; Brandão, Bruna B; Guerra, Beatriz A; Silva, Ismael D; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald; Festuccia, William T; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Mori, Marcelo A

    2016-06-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  1. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  2. Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Murakami, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency. PMID:27438830

  3. Fumonisin contamination of a corn sample associated with the induction of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats-role of dietary deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, W C A; Rheeder, J P; Leggott, N; Stockenstrom, S; Humphreys, J; Shephard, G S; Marasas, W F O

    2004-03-01

    A corn sample associated with a field outbreak of equine leukoencephalomalacia in Pennsylvania, USA, during 1983/1984 and induced hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects when fed to male Fischer rats was analyzed mycologically and chemically for the presence of fumonisins (FB), hydrolysed FB derivatives and aflatoxins (AFB). Fusarium verticillioides was found to be the predominant fungal contaminant in the corn sample but Aspergillus flavus was also present. Trace amounts (0.1 microg/kg) of AFB(1) and AFB(2) and a total FB level of 33.5 mg/kg (FB(1):FB(2):FB(3) ratio of 9:2.3:1) were found. No hydrolysed FB derivatives or AFG(1) and AFG(2) were detected. Based on the chemical stability of the fumonisins in different corn cultures of F. verticillioides kept at 4 degrees C over a period of 13-20 years, a level of approximately 55 mg/kg of total FB is estimated in the original corn sample. A possible role of certain dietary constituents such as the high protein content and deficiencies in certain micronutrients is evaluated to address differences in the organ-specific toxicity of FB(1) in rats using commercial, semi-purified, purified and corn-only diets.

  4. Dietary exposure to diesel exhaust particles and oxidatively damaged DNA in young oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Risom, Lotte; Møller, Peter; Dybdahl, Marianne; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Loft, Steffen

    2007-12-10

    Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with high levels of oxidized DNA in lung cells, whereas long-term oral DEP exposure appears to induce the DNA repair system with concomitant unaltered levels of oxidized DNA in the colon and liver of rats. Here we studied the generation of oxidatively damaged DNA in young wild type (WT) and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) deficient mice after dietary exposure to 0mg/kg, 0.8 mg/kg, or 8 mg/kg Standard Reference Material 1650 in the feed for 21 days. The ingestion of DEP did not increase the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and comet assay endpoints in terms of strand break, endonuclease III, and formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) in the colon, liver, and lung tissue of WT or Ogg1(-/-) mice. The level of OGG1 mRNA could only be measured in WT mice and it was not increased by DEP feeding. On the contrary, the level of FPG sites was twofold higher in the liver and lung of Ogg1(-/-) mice compared to the levels in the WT mice tissues. In conclusion, although Ogg1(-/-) mice have high levels of oxidized guanine lesions, they do not appear to be markedly vulnerable to the genotoxicity by oral administration of DEP. PMID:17964092

  5. Dietary calcium deficiency increases Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in chick enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Viviana A; Díaz de Barboza, Gabriela E; Marchionatti, Ana M; Alisio, Arturo E; Dallorso, Maria E; Nasif, Renée; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori G

    2004-10-01

    Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms were studied in enterocytes with different degree of differentiation from chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet as compared to animals fed a normal diet. Chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet presented hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca2+ absorption. Low Ca2+ diet increased the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, independently of the cellular maturation, but it did not alter gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity. Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca2+ exchanger activities and expressions were increased by the mineral-deficient diet either in mature or immature enterocytes. Western blots analysis shows that vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression was much higher in crypt cells than in mature cells. Low Ca2+ diet decreased the number of vitamin D receptor units in both kinds of cells. In conclusion, changes in Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in the enterocytes by a low Ca2+ diet appear to be a result of enhanced serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, which would promote cellular differentiation producing cells more efficient to express vitamin D dependent genes required for Ca2+ absorption. PMID:15528161

  6. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  7. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates symptoms of premature aging associated with the deficiency of the circadian protein BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Vykhovanets, Olena; Kondratova, Anna A.; Antoch, Marina P.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiency of the circadian clock protein BMAL1 leads to premature aging and increased levels of reactivate oxygen species in several tissues of mice. In order to investigate the role of oxidative stress in accelerated aging and development of age-related pathologies, we continuously administered the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine toBmal1-deficient mice through their entire lifespan by supplementing drinking water. We found that the life long treatment with antioxidant significantly increased average and maximal lifespan and reduced the rate of age-dependent weight loss and development of cataracts. At the same time, it had no effect on time of onset and severity of other age-related pathologies characteristic of Bmal1-/- mice, such as joint ossification, reduced hair regrowth and sarcopenia. We conclude that chronic oxidative stress affects longevity and contributes to the development of at least some age-associated pathology, although ROS-independent mechanisms may also play a role. Our bioinformatics analysis identified the presence of a conservative E box element in the promoter regions of several genes encoding major antioxidant enzymes. We speculate that BMAL1 controls antioxidant defense by regulating the expression of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20157581

  8. A calcitonin receptor (CALCR) single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with growth performance and bone integrity in response to dietary phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L S; Qu, A; Cutler, S A; Mahajan, A; Rothschild, M F; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C; Stahl, C H

    2010-03-01

    Although concerns over the environmental impact of excess P in the excreta from pig production and governmental regulations have driven research toward reducing dietary supplementation of P to swine diets for over a decade, recent dramatic increases in feed costs have further motivated researchers to identify means to further reduce dietary P supplementation. We have demonstrated that genetic background impacts P utilization in young pigs and have identified genetic polymorphisms in several target genes related to mineral utilization. In this study, we examined the impact of a SNP in the calcitonin receptor gene (CALCR) on P utilization in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 36 gilts representing the 3 genotypes identified by this CALCR SNP (11, 12, and 22) were fed a P-adequate (PA) or a marginally P-deficient (approximately 20% less available P; PD) diet for 14 wk. As expected, P deficiency reduced plasma P concentration, bone strength, and mineral content (P < 0.05). However, the dietary P deficiency was mild enough to not affect the growth performance of these pigs. A genotype x dietary P interaction (P < 0.05) was observed in measures of bone integrity and mineral content, with the greatest reduction in bone strength and mineral content due to dietary P deficiency being associated with the allele 1. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs from a control line and low residual feed intake (RFI) line were genotyped for the CALCR SNP and fed a PA diet. As expected, pigs from the low RFI line consumed less feed but also gained less BW when compared with the control line (P < 0.05). Although ADFI did not differ between genotypes, pigs having the 11 genotype gained less BW (P < 0.05) than pigs having the 12 or 22 genotypes. Pigs of the 11 and 12 genotypes had bones that tolerated greater load when compared with animals having the 22 genotype (P < 0.05). A similar trend was observed in bone modulus and ash % (P < 0.10). These data are supportive of the association of this CALCR SNP with bone

  9. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  10. Dietary zinc deficiency induces oxidative stress and promotes tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin-1β-induced RANKL expression in rat bone

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takako; Katsumata, Shin-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency on oxidative stress and bone metabolism. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups for 4 weeks: a zinc-adequate group (30 ppm); a zinc-deficient group (1 ppm); and a pair-fed group (30 ppm) that was pair-fed to the zinc-deficient group. The iron content and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level in bone were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. The mRNA expression level of osteoblastogenesis-related genes such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 was lower in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and osteoclastogenesis-related genes such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 were higher in the zinc-deficient group than in the zinc-adequate and pair-fed groups. These findings suggested that dietary zinc deficiency reduced osteoblastogenesis via a decrease in the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and increased osteoclastogenesis via enhancement of the expression of receptor for activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand induced by oxidative stress-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. PMID:27013778

  11. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented ginkgo leaves on antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Sun, Z Y; Cao, F L; Ahmad, H; Yang, X H; Zhao, L G; Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with three types of fermented Ginkgo-leaves (FGL) on growth, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology and microbial ecology in broiler chicks. 2. A total of 300 d-old broilers were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replications of 10 birds each. Birds were fed on basal diets (Control) or basal diets supplemented with 0.5% FGL with Candida utilis (CF group), Aspergillus niger (AF group) or their combined fermentation (CAF group), respectively, for a 42 d feeding trial. 3. AF and CAF supplementation improved body weight gain (BWG) (22-42 d) and feed conversion ratio (22-42 d and 1-42 d). Concentrations of serum α-tocopherol in CAF group, as well as hepatic α-tocopherol in the three FGL groups were increased, while hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were greatly decreased in group AF and CAF. Chickens in AF and CAF groups had decreased hepatic protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as jejunal and ileal protein carbonyls. The total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) of both jejunum and ileum of the CAF group were higher than the other groups. 4. Duodenal and jejunal villous height of birds fed on the AF and CAF diets were increased, while jejunal crypt depth (CD) was decreased. Furthermore, birds fed on AF and CAF supplemented diets had increased ileal lactobacilli populations. Decreased ileal and caecal Escherichia coli and Salmonellas populations was found for the birds fed on CAF supplemented diets. 5. The present study may indicate that the improved feed efficiency and intestinal functions in the group supplemented with AF and CAF are directly connected with the improved antioxidant capacity and intestinal microbial ecology.

  13. The level of elements and antioxidant activity of commercial dietary supplement formulations based on edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Stilinović, Nebojša; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Mrmoš, Nataša; Pavlović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša

    2014-12-01

    Commercial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus mushroom marketed as healthy food supplements in Serbia were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace (GFAAS) for their element content. Antioxidant activity potential and total phenolics of the same mushrooms were determined. The element content of mushroom samples was in the range of 0.130-0.360 mg kg(-1) for lead (Pb), <0.03-0.46 mg kg(-1) for arsenic (As), 0.09-0.39 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 98.14-989.18 mg kg(-1) for iron (Fe), 0.10-101.32 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), 5.06-26.50 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.20-0.70 mg kg(-1) for cobalt (Co), 1.74-136.33 mg kg(-1) for chromium (Cr) and 2.19-21.54 mg kg(-1) for manganese (Mn). In the tests for measuring the antioxidant activity, the methanolic extract of C. sinensis showed the best properties. The same was seen for the analysis of selected phenolic compounds; C. sinensis was found to have the highest content. Commercial preparations of C. sinensis and C. comatus can be considered to be safe and suitable food supplements included in well-balanced diets.

  14. The level of elements and antioxidant activity of commercial dietary supplement formulations based on edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Stilinović, Nebojša; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Mrmoš, Nataša; Pavlović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša

    2014-12-01

    Commercial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus mushroom marketed as healthy food supplements in Serbia were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace (GFAAS) for their element content. Antioxidant activity potential and total phenolics of the same mushrooms were determined. The element content of mushroom samples was in the range of 0.130-0.360 mg kg(-1) for lead (Pb), <0.03-0.46 mg kg(-1) for arsenic (As), 0.09-0.39 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 98.14-989.18 mg kg(-1) for iron (Fe), 0.10-101.32 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), 5.06-26.50 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.20-0.70 mg kg(-1) for cobalt (Co), 1.74-136.33 mg kg(-1) for chromium (Cr) and 2.19-21.54 mg kg(-1) for manganese (Mn). In the tests for measuring the antioxidant activity, the methanolic extract of C. sinensis showed the best properties. The same was seen for the analysis of selected phenolic compounds; C. sinensis was found to have the highest content. Commercial preparations of C. sinensis and C. comatus can be considered to be safe and suitable food supplements included in well-balanced diets. PMID:25294630

  15. Associations between the dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-li; Li, Bao-lin; Xie, Hai-li; Fan, Fan; Yu, Wei-zhong; Wu, Bao-hua; Xue, Wen-qiong; Chen, Yu-ming

    2014-11-28

    The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. This 1:1 matched case-control study involved 726 elderly Chinese with hip fracture and 726 control subjects, recruited between June 2009 and May 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to determine habitual dietary intakes of the above-mentioned seven nutrients based on a seventy-nine-item FFQ and information on various covariates, and an antioxidant score was calculated. After adjustment for potential covariates, dose-dependent inverse associations were observed between the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and Se and antioxidant score and the risk of hip fracture (P for trend ≤ 0·005). The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for β-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51-0·63, P< 0·05). No significant association was observed between dietary Zn or animal-derived vitamin A intake and hip fracture risk (P for trend >0·20). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and Se and a moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents are associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese.

  16. Mitochondrial anti-oxidant protects IEX-1 deficient mice from organ damage during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Haley; Wu, Mei X

    2014-12-01

    Sepsis, a leading cause of mortality in intensive care units worldwide, is often a result of overactive and systemic inflammation following serious infections. We found that mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1) were prone to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced endotoxemia. A nonlethal dose of LPS provoked numerous aberrations in IEX-1 knockout (KO) mice including pancytopenia, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lung neutrophilia, concurrent with liver and kidney damage, followed by death. Given these results, in conjunction with a proven role for IEX-1 in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis during stress, we pre-treated IEX-1 KO mice with Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrion-based antioxidant prior to LPS injection. The treatment significantly reduced ROS formation in circulatory cells and protected against pancytopenia and multiple organ failure, drastically increasing the survival rate of IEX-1 KO mice challenged by this low dose of LPS. This study confirms significant contribution of mitochondrial ROS to the etiology of sepsis. PMID:25466275

  17. Intra-amniotic administration and dietary inulin affect the iron status and intestinal functionality of iron-deficient broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tako, E; Glahn, R P

    2012-06-01

    transporter) and ferroportin in addition to liver ferritin amounts were higher (P < 0.05) in the inulin group versus controls. Results indicate that intra-amniotic administration and dietary inulin improved the iron status of iron-deficient broilers.

  18. Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Status Were Improved by Personalized Dietary Intervention Based on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga-Yi; Lee, Jong Jyun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether personalized dietary intervention could improve clinical measurements such as immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity, serum albumin, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROMS), D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Cancer patients received either a treatment support diet (TD, for those with chemotherapy), or a remission support diet (RD; for those in remission) for at least 3 wk (21-61 days). Both diets were low glycemic, low fat, and high plant protein diets; the diet for the TD group contained an additional 0.5 servings of protein. Based on clinical values, additional amounts of garlic, onion, tomato, shiitake, rice bran, kale, blueberry, pineapples, and/or turmeric powder were provided in regular meals. Estimated daily intake of protein, plant fat, garlic, onion, allicin, and quercetin was greater in the TD compared to the RD. An increased intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium and a reduction in D-dimer were noted compared to baseline diets in both groups. A decrease in D-ROMS in the RD and an increase in albumin and an increased tendency in cytotoxicity in the TD were observed. In conclusion, personalized diets with supplemented functional ingredients improved antioxidant status and/or anticoagulant activity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and in remission.

  19. Effects of dietary yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae on the antioxidant system in the liver of juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Santacroce, Maria Pia; Merra, Elisabetta; Centoducati, Gerardo; Zacchino, Valentina; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this work was to determine the effect of dietary live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the oxidative status of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. Fishes were fed on three diets: the GM group were fed a diet containing lyophilized yeast grown on grape must, the CS group were fed a diet containing lyophilized yeast grown on cornstarch, and the control group were fed a diet without yeast. The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as lipid peroxidation, was measured in the liver of sea bass juveniles 90 days after hatching. Supplementation of the diet with S. cerevisiae significantly reduced the SOD and CAT activity, increased the GST activity, decreased the GSH content, and had no effect on lipid peroxidation. The results support the already reported radical-scavenging properties of yeast and usefulness of its employment as antiperoxidative agent in fish.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The EP 15 % treated fishes showed a significant higher (P < 0.05) in the activities of SOD after 60 days, but we could not observe significant changes (P > 0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot. PMID:27652129

  1. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. The EP 15 % treated fishes showed a significant higher (P < 0.05) in the activities of SOD after 60 days, but we could not observe significant changes (P > 0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot.

  2. Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Status Were Improved by Personalized Dietary Intervention Based on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga-Yi; Lee, Jong Jyun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether personalized dietary intervention could improve clinical measurements such as immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity, serum albumin, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROMS), D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Cancer patients received either a treatment support diet (TD, for those with chemotherapy), or a remission support diet (RD; for those in remission) for at least 3 wk (21-61 days). Both diets were low glycemic, low fat, and high plant protein diets; the diet for the TD group contained an additional 0.5 servings of protein. Based on clinical values, additional amounts of garlic, onion, tomato, shiitake, rice bran, kale, blueberry, pineapples, and/or turmeric powder were provided in regular meals. Estimated daily intake of protein, plant fat, garlic, onion, allicin, and quercetin was greater in the TD compared to the RD. An increased intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium and a reduction in D-dimer were noted compared to baseline diets in both groups. A decrease in D-ROMS in the RD and an increase in albumin and an increased tendency in cytotoxicity in the TD were observed. In conclusion, personalized diets with supplemented functional ingredients improved antioxidant status and/or anticoagulant activity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and in remission. PMID:26333154

  3. Effects of dietary yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae on the antioxidant system in the liver of juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Santacroce, Maria Pia; Merra, Elisabetta; Centoducati, Gerardo; Zacchino, Valentina; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this work was to determine the effect of dietary live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the oxidative status of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. Fishes were fed on three diets: the GM group were fed a diet containing lyophilized yeast grown on grape must, the CS group were fed a diet containing lyophilized yeast grown on cornstarch, and the control group were fed a diet without yeast. The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as lipid peroxidation, was measured in the liver of sea bass juveniles 90 days after hatching. Supplementation of the diet with S. cerevisiae significantly reduced the SOD and CAT activity, increased the GST activity, decreased the GSH content, and had no effect on lipid peroxidation. The results support the already reported radical-scavenging properties of yeast and usefulness of its employment as antiperoxidative agent in fish. PMID:22484599

  4. [A case of a 16.5-year-old boy with myelosis funicularis caused by secondary vitamin B12 deficiency associated with dietary deficiencies - case report].

    PubMed

    Kostka, Ewa; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can manifest with many illness symptoms, among which dominate those of the hematology, digestive and nervous system. The illness symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are often atypical and the early cause diagnosis might be difficult. Hereby it is described a case of a 16.5-year-old boy with myelosis funicularis caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:23700828

  5. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation1234

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjeet G; Guthikonda, Anuradha P; Reid, Marvin; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Taffet, George E; Jahoor, Farook

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aging is associated with oxidative stress, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Objective: We tested whether glutathione deficiency occurs because of diminished synthesis and contributes to oxidative stress in aging and whether stimulating glutathione synthesis with its precursors cysteine and glycine could alleviate oxidative stress. Design: Eight elderly and 8 younger subjects received stable-isotope infusions of [2H2]glycine, after which red blood cell (RBC) glutathione synthesis and concentrations, plasma oxidative stress, and markers of oxidant damage (eg, F2-isoprostanes) were measured. Elderly subjects were restudied after 2 wk of glutathione precursor supplementation. Results: Compared with younger control subjects, elderly subjects had markedly lower RBC concentrations of glycine (486.7 ± 28.3 compared with 218.0 ± 23.7 μmol/L; P < 0.01), cysteine (26.2 ± 1.4 compared with 19.8 ± 1.3 μmol/L; P < 0.05), and glutathione (2.08 ± 0.12 compared with 1.12 ± 0.18 mmol/L RBCs; P < 0.05); lower glutathione fractional (83.14 ± 6.43% compared with 45.80 ± 5.69%/d; P < 0.01) and absolute (1.73 ± 0.16 compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mmol/L RBCs per day; P < 0.01) synthesis rates; and higher plasma oxidative stress (304 ± 16 compared with 346 ± 20 Carratelli units; P < 0.05) and plasma F2-isoprostanes (97.7 ± 8.3 compared with 136.3 ± 11.3 pg/mL; P < 0.05). Precursor supplementation in elderly subjects led to a 94.6% higher glutathione concentration, a 78.8% higher fractional synthesis rate, a 230.9% higher absolute synthesis rate, and significantly lower plasma oxidative stress and F2-isoprostanes. No differences in these measures were observed between younger subjects and supplemented elderly subjects. Conclusions: Glutathione deficiency in elderly humans occurs because of a marked reduction in synthesis. Dietary supplementation with the glutathione precursors cysteine and glycine fully restores glutathione synthesis and

  6. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  7. Dietary ALA, but not LNA, increase growth, reduce inflammatory processes, and increase anti-oxidant capacity in the marine finfish Larimichthys crocea: dietary ALA, but not LNA, increase growth, reduce inflammatory processes, and increase anti-oxidant capacity in the large yellow croaker.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rantao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Turchini, Giovanni M; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    Whilst aquaculture feed is increasingly formulated with the inclusion of plant oils replacing fish oil, and increasing research effort has been invested in understanding the metabolic effects of reduced dietary n-3 long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), relatively little information is available on the potential direct metabolic roles of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and alpha-linolenic acid/linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) ratio in cultured marine finfish species. In this study, four plant oil based diets, with varying ALA/LNA ratio (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) were fed to juvenile large yellow croakers (Larimichthys crocea) and compared to a fish oil-based control diet (CD) to evaluate the resulting effects on growth, nonspecific immunity, anti-oxidant capacity and related gene expression. High dietary LNA negatively impacted fish growth performance, nonspecific immunity and antioxidant capacity, but growth and immunity were maintained to levels comparable to CD by increasing the ratio of dietary ALA/LNA. The over-expression of genes associated with inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-1β) and fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I and acyl CoA oxidase) in croakers fed high concentrations of LNA were reduced to levels comparable to those fed CD by increasing dietary ALA/LNA. This study showed that dietary ALA, by increasing the overall n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio, exerts direct anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those exerted by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA.

  8. Dietary herring improves plasma lipid profiles and reduces atherosclerosis in obese low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Britt G; Wikström, Johannes; Jakubowicz, Robert; Marmon, Sofia K; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Jansson, Nina; Gan, Li-Ming; Undeland, Ingrid; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and high fish intake has been associated with vascular health in population studies. However, intervention studies have been inconclusive. In this study, male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were given 16-week high fat/high sucrose diets, supplemented with either minced herring fillets or minced beef. The diets were matched in total fat and cholesterol content; taurine content and fatty acid composition was analysed. Body weights were recorded throughout the study; plasma lipids were analysed at week 8 and 16. Body composition and adipocyte size were evaluated at study end. Atherosclerosis was evaluated at week 12 (ultrasound) and at termination (en face histology). Herring-fed mice had a higher proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hepatic triacylglycerides (TAG) and phospholipid fractions. The herring-fed mice had increased body weight (P=0.007), and reduced epididymal adipocyte size (P=0.009), despite similar food intake and body composition as the beef-fed mice. The herring-fed mice had lower plasma TAG and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol concentrations throughout the study (TAG; P=0.0012 and 0.004, VLDL-cholesterol; P=0.006 and 0.041, week 8 and 16, respectively). At week 16, the herring-fed had higher plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.004) and less atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch (P=0.007) compared with the beef-fed mice. In conclusion, dietary herring in comparison to beef markedly improved vascular health in this mouse model, suggesting that herring provides an added value beyond its content of macronutrients.

  9. Role of dietary antioxidant (-)-epicatechin in the development of β-lactoglobulin fibrils.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, M; Di Venere, A; Filabozzi, A; Maselli, P; Minicozzi, V; Morante, S; Nicolai, E; Nucara, A; Placidi, E; Stellato, F

    2016-07-01

    Under specific physico-chemical conditions β-lactoglobulin is seen to form fibrils structurally highly similar to those that are formed by the amyloid-like proteins associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. In the present study we provide insights on the possible role that the dietary flavonoid (-)-epicatechin plays on β-lactoglobulin fibril formation. Fibril formation is induced by keeping β-lactoglobulin solutions at pH2.0 and at a temperature of 80°C for 24h. Atomic Force Microscopy measurements suggest that, by adding (-)-epicatechin in the solution, fibrils density is visibly lowered. This last observation is confirmed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy experiments. With the use of Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy we monitored the relative abundances of the secondary structures components during the heating process. We observed that in the presence of (-)-epicatechin the spectral-weight exchange between different secondary structures is partially inhibited. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been able to provide an atomistic explanation of this experimental observation, showing that (-)-epicatechin interacts with β-lactoglobulin mainly via the residues that, normally in the absence of (-)-epicatechin, are involved in β-sheet formation. Unveiling this molecular mechanism is an important step in the process of identifying suitable molecules apt at finely tuning fibril formation like it is desirable to do in food industry applications. PMID:27049464

  10. Changes in integrity of the gill during histidine deficiency or excess due to depression of cellular anti-oxidative ability, induction of apoptosis, inflammation and impair of cell-cell tight junctions related to Nrf2, TOR and NF-κB signaling in fish.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Qu, Biao; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    This study firstly explored the possible effects of dietary histidine on structural integrity and the related signaling factor gene expression in the gills of fish. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed with six diets containing gradual levels of histidine for 8 weeks. The results firstly demonstrated that histidine deficiency caused increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in the gills of fish, which was partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. Further investigations indicated that histidine deficiency caused depressions of those antioxidant enzyme activities are related to the down-regulation of corresponding antioxidant enzyme genes and the related signaling factor Nrf2 mRNA levels. Meanwhile, histidine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions that referring to the down-regulation of TOR and S6K mRNA levels. Furthermore, His deficiency down-regulated claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-3, claudin-12, claudin-15, occludin and ZO-1 transcription in fish gills. These effects were partially related to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and related signaling factor nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) mRNA levels, and the down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and related signaling factor IκBα mRNA levels. Excessive histidine exhibited negative effects that were similar to histidine deficiency, whereas the optimal histidine levels reversed those negative effects. Taken together, our results showed that histidine deficiency or excess impaired the structural

  11. Changes in integrity of the gill during histidine deficiency or excess due to depression of cellular anti-oxidative ability, induction of apoptosis, inflammation and impair of cell-cell tight junctions related to Nrf2, TOR and NF-κB signaling in fish.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Qu, Biao; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    This study firstly explored the possible effects of dietary histidine on structural integrity and the related signaling factor gene expression in the gills of fish. Young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed with six diets containing gradual levels of histidine for 8 weeks. The results firstly demonstrated that histidine deficiency caused increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in the gills of fish, which was partially due to the decreased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR)]. Further investigations indicated that histidine deficiency caused depressions of those antioxidant enzyme activities are related to the down-regulation of corresponding antioxidant enzyme genes and the related signaling factor Nrf2 mRNA levels. Meanwhile, histidine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions that referring to the down-regulation of TOR and S6K mRNA levels. Furthermore, His deficiency down-regulated claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-3, claudin-12, claudin-15, occludin and ZO-1 transcription in fish gills. These effects were partially related to the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and related signaling factor nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) mRNA levels, and the down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and related signaling factor IκBα mRNA levels. Excessive histidine exhibited negative effects that were similar to histidine deficiency, whereas the optimal histidine levels reversed those negative effects. Taken together, our results showed that histidine deficiency or excess impaired the structural

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the Tan sheep testes: Differential expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and proteins in response to dietary vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenchen; Zuo, Zhaoyun; Liu, Kun; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yuwei; Luo, Hailing

    2016-03-15

    Gene-chip technology was employed to study the effect of dietary vitamin E on gene expression in sheep testes based on our previous research. Thirty-five male Tan sheep (20-30 days after weaning) with similar body weight were randomly allocated into five groups and supplemented 0, 20, 100, 200 and 2,000 IU sheep(-1)day(-1) vitamin E (treatments denoted as E0, E20, E100, E200, and E2000, respectively) for 120 days. At the end of the study the sheep were slaughtered and the testis samples were immediately collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. Differences in gene expression between different treated groups were identified. Based on GO enrichment analysis and the KEGG database to evaluate the gene expression data we found that vitamin E might affect genes in the testes by modulating the oxidation level, by affecting the expression of various receptors and transcription factors in biological pathways, and by regulating the expression of metabolism-associated genes. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the expression of oxidative enzyme-related genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The results show that dietary vitamin E, at various doses, can significantly increase (P<0.05) the mRNA and protein expression of Glutathione peroxidase 3 and Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR of the antioxidant enzyme genes were consistent with those obtained using the gene chip microarray analysis. In summary, the dietary vitamin E treatment altered the expression of a number of genes in sheep testes. The increase in the mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, coupled with the elevation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes were primarily responsible for the improved reproductive performance promoted by dietary vitamin E. PMID:26723511

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the Tan sheep testes: Differential expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and proteins in response to dietary vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenchen; Zuo, Zhaoyun; Liu, Kun; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yuwei; Luo, Hailing

    2016-03-15

    Gene-chip technology was employed to study the effect of dietary vitamin E on gene expression in sheep testes based on our previous research. Thirty-five male Tan sheep (20-30 days after weaning) with similar body weight were randomly allocated into five groups and supplemented 0, 20, 100, 200 and 2,000 IU sheep(-1)day(-1) vitamin E (treatments denoted as E0, E20, E100, E200, and E2000, respectively) for 120 days. At the end of the study the sheep were slaughtered and the testis samples were immediately collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. Differences in gene expression between different treated groups were identified. Based on GO enrichment analysis and the KEGG database to evaluate the gene expression data we found that vitamin E might affect genes in the testes by modulating the oxidation level, by affecting the expression of various receptors and transcription factors in biological pathways, and by regulating the expression of metabolism-associated genes. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the expression of oxidative enzyme-related genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The results show that dietary vitamin E, at various doses, can significantly increase (P<0.05) the mRNA and protein expression of Glutathione peroxidase 3 and Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR of the antioxidant enzyme genes were consistent with those obtained using the gene chip microarray analysis. In summary, the dietary vitamin E treatment altered the expression of a number of genes in sheep testes. The increase in the mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, coupled with the elevation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes were primarily responsible for the improved reproductive performance promoted by dietary vitamin E.

  14. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  15. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish. PMID:25990817

  16. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  17. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  18. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

    PubMed

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties. PMID:20234038

  19. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

    PubMed

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties.

  20. Effects of different dietary phospholipid levels on growth performance, fatty acid composition, PPAR gene expressions and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Gao, Jian; Huang, Songqian

    2015-04-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary phospholipid (PL) from soybean lecithin on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression levels and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream fingerlings. Fish (average initial weight 0.35 ± 0.01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing the following inclusion levels of PL: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Results showed that final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as dietary PL level increased from 0 to 6%, meanwhile the survival was not affected by dietary PL supplementation. Increasing dietary PL level significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 20:4n-6 content in neutral lipid of liver, indicating fish had the capacity to convert C18 to C20 and C22 by elongation and desaturation. The expression levels of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in liver were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was decreased with dietary PL supplementation up to 6% compared with the control. Therefore, it was concluded that supplementation of 6% (18.8 g kg(-1), polar lipid of diet) PL could improve growth performance of blunt snout bream fingerlings.

  1. The effect of estrogens and dietary calcium deficiency on the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in Göttingen miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Horst; Hornberger, Frank; Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina; Schünke, Michael; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Kurz, Bodo

    2002-03-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that estrogens are involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA). However, positive and negative associations between the incidence of OA and serum estrogen concentrations have been reported. In contrast to this, osteoporosis is regarded as a disease with a strong estrogen-dependent component. Moreover, there is an interaction between estrogen and calcium deficiency: calcium supplementation potentiates the effect of estrogen therapy. The present study was designed to investigate how estrogen deficiency affects the articular cartilage depending on calcium supply. The distribution of different types of glycosaminoglycans and collagens can be used as an indicator for extracellular matrix changes induced by estrogen deficiency. Different levels of dietary calcium were therefore fed to intact and ovariectomized Göttingen miniature pigs for one year before articular cartilage was harvested. The histochemical staining for heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ovariectomized miniature pigs, especially of those fed with a low calcium diet, was stronger in comparison to intact animals. In intact animals type II-collagen was immunodetected in all zones of unmineralized and mineralized articular cartilage, while immunostaining for this protein was negative to weak in the deep radiated fiber zone of ovariectomized minipigs. These results suggest that the synthesis of heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans and immunohistochemically detectable type II-collagen is possibly influenced by estrogen deficiency. In conclusion, under estrogen deficiency, the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage underwent similar changes to those observed in physiologically aging cartilage where keratan sulfate is increased as a heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycan.

  2. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  3. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation. PMID:27282869

  4. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation.

  5. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4.

    PubMed

    McGeoghegan, L; Muirhead, C R; Almoosawi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in the national diet and nutrition survey (NDNS) rolling programme years 1-4. A total of 1531 survey members provided dietary data. Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma carotenoids were selected as response variables and markers of inflammation and antioxidant status, respectively. Overall, 52 survey members had diabetes. The derived anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was inversely related to CRP and positively to carotenoids. It was associated with lower odds of diabetes (multivariate adjusted OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.73; p for linear trend = 0.013). In conclusion, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern is inversely related to diabetes. Further research is required to understand the overall framework within which foods and nutrients interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk.

  6. Genotypic Variation under Fe Deficiency Results in Rapid Changes in Protein Expressions and Genes Involved in Fe Metabolism and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Tomato Seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Fe deficiency tolerance in tomato cultivars, quantification of proteins and genes involved in Fe metabolism and antioxidant mechanisms were performed in “Roggusanmaru” and “Super Doterang”. Fe deficiency (Moderate, low and –Fe) significantly decreased the biomass, total, and apoplastic Fe concentration of “Roggusanmaru”, while a slight variation was observed in “Super Doterang” cultivar. The quantity of important photosynthetic pigments such as total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly decreased in “Roggusanmaru” than “Super Doterang” cultivar. The total protein profile in leaves and roots determines that “Super Doterang” exhibited an optimal tolerance to Fe deficiency compared to “Roggusanmaru” cultivar. A reduction in expression of PSI (photosystem I), PSII (photosystem II) super-complexes and related thylakoid protein contents were detected in “Roggusanmaru” than “Super Doterang” cultivar. Moreover, the relative gene expression of SlPSI and SlPSII were well maintained in “Super Doterang” than “Roggusanmaru” cultivar. The relative expression of genes involved in Fe-transport (SlIRT1 and SlIRT2) and Fe(III) chelates reductase oxidase (SlFRO1) were relatively reduced in “Roggusanmaru”, while increased in “Super Doterang” cultivar under Fe deficient conditions. The H+-ATPase relative gene expression (SlAHA1) in roots were maintained in “Super Doterang” compared to “Roggusanmaru”. Furthermore, the gene expressions involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms (SlSOD, SlAPX and SlCAT) in leaves and roots showed that these genes were highly increased in “Super Doterang”, whereas decreased in “Roggusanmaru” cultivar under Fe deficiency. The present study suggested that “Super Doterang” is better tomato cultivar than “Roggusanmaru” for calcareous soils. PMID:26602920

  7. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ling-Fang; Qian, Yi-Song; Deng, Ke-Yu; Ji, Guangju; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27547294

  8. CD38 Deficiency Protects the Heart from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Activating SIRT1/FOXOs-Mediated Antioxidative Stress Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ling-Fang; Tang, Ling; Jiang, Kai; Qian, Yi-Song; Deng, Ke-Yu; Ji, Guangju; Fu, Mingui; Xin, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induces irreversible oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle. We previously observed that CD38 deficiency remarkably protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from oxidative stress-induced injury. However, whether CD38 deficiency protects from I/R injury in the heart is not explored. Here, we showed that the hearts of CD38 deficient mice or wild type mice supplied with exogenous NAD were significantly protected from ischemia/reperfusion injury, seen as reduction of the myocardial infarct sizes when the mice were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Consistently, the protection of CD38 deficiency on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was confirmed with a CD38 knockdown H9c2 stable cell line. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of CD38 remarkably inhibited ROS generation and intracellular Ca(2+) overloading induced by H/R in H9c2 cells. The FOXO1 and FOXO3 expressions were significantly elevated by H/R injury in CD38 knockdown cells compared with normal H9c2 cells. The cell immunofluorescence assay showed that FOXO1 nuclear translocation was significantly increased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the increase of FOXO1 nuclear translocation was associated with the increased expressions of antioxidant catalase and SOD2 and the attenuated expression of the ROS generation enzyme NOX4. In conclusion, our results provide new evidence that CD38 deficiency protects the heart from I/R injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. PMID:27547294

  9. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P < 0.05), and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and the amounts of Lactobacillus and Bacillus in the intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that relative mRNA expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), CAT, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) in the intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P < 0.05). Conversely, the relative mRNA expression of occludin, claudin-3, claudin-7, TNF-α, IL-10, Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 (Keap1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in the intestine showed a downward trend (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Ile improves intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp.

  10. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  11. Dietary alpha-ketoglutarate increases cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and enhances protein pool and antioxidant defense in sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lylyk, Maria P; Shmihel, Halyna V; Sorochynska, Oksana M; Manyukh, Oksana V; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in Krebs cycle which bridges the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Its effects as a dietary supplement on cold tolerance were studied in Drosophila melanogaster Canton S. Two-day-old adult flies fed at larval and adult stages with AKG at moderate concentrations (5-10mM) recovered faster from chill coma (0°C for 15min or 3h) than control ones. The beneficial effect of AKG on chill coma recovery was not found at its higher concentrations, which suggests hormetic like action of this keto acid. Time of 50% observed mortality after 2h recovery from continuous cold exposure (-1°C for 3-31h) (LTi50) was higher for flies reared on 10mM AKG compared with control ones, showing that the diet with AKG enhanced insect cold tolerance. In parallel with enhancement of cold tolerance, dietary AKG improved fly locomotor activity. Metabolic effects of AKG differed partly in males and females. In males fed on AKG, there were no differences in total protein and free amino acid levels, but the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity and low molecular mass thiol content were higher than in control animals. In females, dietary AKG promoted higher total antioxidant capacity and higher levels of proteins, total amino acids, proline and low molecular mass thiols. The levels of lipid peroxides were lower in both fly sexes reared on AKG as compared with control ones. We conclude that both enhancement of antioxidant system capacity and synthesis of amino acids can be important for AKG-promoted cold tolerance in D. melanogaster. The involvement of AKG in metabolic pathways of Drosophila males and females is discussed. PMID:27503710

  12. A critical reappraisal of dietary practices in methylmalonic acidemia raises concerns about the safety of medical foods. Part 2: Cobalamin C deficiency (cblC).¶

    PubMed Central

    Manoli, Irini; Myles, Jennifer G.; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Morava, Eva; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, Holmes; Venditti, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency impairs the biosynthesis of adenosyl- and methylcobalamin resulting in methylmalonic acidemia combined with hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia. However, some patients with cblC deficiency are treated with medical foods, devoid of methionine and high in leucine content, that are formulated for patients with isolated propionate oxidative defects. We examined the effects of imbalanced branched-chain amino acid intake on growth outcomes in cblC patients. METHODS Dietary intake was correlated with biochemical, anthropometric, body composition measurements and other disease parameters in a cohort of 28 early-onset cblC patients. RESULTS Protein restricted diets were followed by 21% of the patients, while 32% received medical foods. Patients on protein-restricted diets had lower height-for-age Z-score (P=0.034), while patients consuming medical foods had lower head-circumference Z-scores (P=0.037), plasma methionine concentrations (P=0.001) and predicted methionine influx through the blood brain barrier Z-score (−1.29 vs. −0.0617, P=0.007). The combination of age of diagnosis, a history of seizures and the leucine/valine dietary intake ratio best predicted head circumference Z-score based on multiple regression modeling (R2= 0.945). CONCLUSIONS Patients with cblC deficiency treated with medical foods designed for isolated methylmalonic acidemia are at risk for iatrogenic methionine deficiency that could adversely affect brain growth and development. TRIAL REGISTRATION This clinical study is registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov with the ID: NCT00078078. Study URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00078078 PMID:26270766

  13. The ameliorating effects of vitamin E on hepatic antioxidant system and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate-exposed iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Caglayan, Aydan; Hincal, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin E (VE) on hepatic antioxidant system and drug-metabolizing enzymes in fenvalerate (FEN)-exposed iodine-deficient (ID) Wistar rats. ID was produced by perchlorate containing drinking water. VE was introduced by a loading dose of 100 mg/kg/d, i.g. for the first three days in the last week of feeding period; then with a single maintenance dose of 40 mg/kg on the 4th day. During last week, FEN groups (F) received 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. FEN. VE alone did not significantly affect thyroid hormones and antioxidant parameters; however, significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (38%) and cytochrome b5 levels (36%). In all ID groups, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels increased markedly, but remained at control level in vitamin E plus FEN receiving iodine-deficient group (IDVF) group. Glutathione peroxidase activity showed marked increases in F (19%) and FEN-exposed iodine-deficient group (IDF, 48%) groups. FEN treatment significantly increased total cytochrome P450 (28%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (36%), as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (120%), 7-penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase (139%) and glutathione S-transferase (15%) activities and decreased total glutathione concentrations (28%) versus control. Overall results suggest that vitamin E has ameliorating effects on the measured parameters in ID and/or FEN exposure.

  14. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  15. The immune system is limited by oxidative stress: Dietary selenium promotes optimal antioxidative status and greatest immune defense in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus.

    PubMed

    Biller-Takahashi, Jaqueline D; Takahashi, Leonardo S; Mingatto, Fábio E; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive molecules containing oxygen, that form as byproducts of aerobic metabolism, including immune system processes. Too much ROS may cause oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether it can also limit the production of immune system compounds. To assess the relationship between antioxidant status and immunity we evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with organic selenium, given at various levels for 10 days, on the antioxidant and immune system of the pacu fish (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish fed a diet containing 0.6 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) showed significant improvement in antioxidant status, as well as in hematological and immunological profiles. Specifically, they had the highest counts for catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), red blood cells, and thrombocytes; the highest leukocyte count (particularly for monocytes); and the highest serum lysozyme activity. There was also a positive correlation between GPx and lysozyme in this group of fish. These findings indicate that short-term supplementation with 0.6 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) reestablished the antioxidative status, allowing the production of innate components which can boost immunity without the risk of oxidative stress. This study shows a relationship between oxidative stress and immunity, and, from a practical perspective, shows that improving immunity and health in pacu through the administration of selenium could improve their growth performance. PMID:26370542

  16. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( < 0.05) and fat digestibility ( < 0.01) and tended to improve G:F ( = 0.09). The ADFI, however, was not affected by dietary Cu ( > 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes.

  17. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( < 0.05) and fat digestibility ( < 0.01) and tended to improve G:F ( = 0.09). The ADFI, however, was not affected by dietary Cu ( > 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes. PMID:27065271

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-10-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk-eif2α and the ire1-xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress-related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Genes in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: Molecular Characterization, Tissue Expression, and Expression Responses to Dietary Copper Deficiency and Excess

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Feng; Luo, Zhi; Huang, Chao; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya–Xiong; Xu, Yi-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones [glucose-regulated protein 78 (grp78) and calreticulin (crt)] and three ER stress sensors [PKR-like ER kinase (perk), inositol requiring enzyme (ire)-1α, and activating transcription factor (atf)-6α] cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The predicted amino acid sequences for the yellow catfish grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α revealed that the proteins contained all of the structural features that were characteristic of the five genes in other species, including the KDEL motif, signal peptide, sensor domain, and effector domain. mRNAs of the five genes mentioned above were expressed in various tissues, but their mRNA levels varied among tissues. Dietary Cu excess, but not Cu deficiency, activated the chaperones (grp78 and crt) and folding sensors in ER, and the UPR signaling pathways (i.e., perk–eif2α and the ire1–xbp1) in a tissue-specific manner. For the first time, our study cloned grp78, crt, perk, ire-1α, and atf-6α genes in yellow catfish and demonstrated their differential expression among tissues. Moreover, the present study also indicated differential regulation of these ER stress–related genes by dietary Cu deficiency and excess, which will be beneficial for us to evaluate effects of dietary Cu levels in fish at the molecular level, based on the upstream pathway of lipid metabolism (the ER) and thus provide novel insights regarding the nutrition of Cu in fish. PMID:26276384

  20. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate (FR) and survival rate were not significantly different among treatments. Fish fed a diet with 40 mg kg(-1) SI showed significant increase in plasma total protein content, complement 3 content, lysozyme activity as well as respiratory burst activity, but decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (P < 0.05). Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the lowest hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed SI at 40 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the relative level of HSP70 mRNA in fish fed SI at 40-80 mg kg(-1) were significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed diets with 40-80 mg kg(-1) SI supplement than that in control group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression. PMID:25541076

  2. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), feeding rate (FR) and survival rate were not significantly different among treatments. Fish fed a diet with 40 mg kg(-1) SI showed significant increase in plasma total protein content, complement 3 content, lysozyme activity as well as respiratory burst activity, but decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities (P < 0.05). Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, hepatic total antioxidative capacity, catalase activity and superoxide dismutase activity were also noticed in fish fed SI at 40 or 60 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the lowest hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed in fish fed SI at 40 mg kg(-1) (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the relative level of HSP70 mRNA in fish fed SI at 40-80 mg kg(-1) were significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05). After challenge with V. harveyi, significant higher post-challenge survival was observed in fish fed diets with 40-80 mg kg(-1) SI supplement than that in control group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary intake containing SI could enhance the immune ability of fish and improve its resistance to infection by V. harveyi. Especially supplementation with 40 mg kg(-1) SI to the fish for 8 weeks showed remarkable improvement in the growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression.

  3. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  4. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    PubMed

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  5. Effects of maternal dietary manganese and incubation temperature on hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Lu, L; Li, W X; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether supplementing manganese (Mn) to the maternal diet could reduce the deleterious effect of heat stress on the developing embryo, the hatchability, antioxidant status, and expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) were evaluated in chick embryos under normal and high incubation temperatures. A completely randomized design ( = 6) with 2 maternal dietary Mn treatments (unsupplemented control basal diet versus the basal diet + 120 mg Mn/kg as inorganic Mn) × 2 incubation temperatures (normal, 37.8°C, versus high, 39.0°C) was used. High incubation temperature did not affect ( > 0.19) hatchability and embryo mortality and development but did increase ( < 0.05) activities of heart manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and liver copper zinc superoxide dismutase and liver MnSOD mRNA and protein levels in embryos. High incubation temperature also decreased ( < 0.003) HSP70 protein level in the heart but had no effects ( > 0.07) in the liver of embryos. Maternal diet with Mn supplementation not only increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and Mn content ( < 0.001) in the yolk and embryonic tissues and the activity of MnSOD in the heart ( < 0.004) as well as relative liver weight ( < 0.05) under normal incubation temperature but also decreased ( ≤ 0.05) embryo mortality and HSP90 mRNA level in the liver and heart of embryos. Furthermore, under high incubation temperature, maternal diet Mn supplementation increased ( < 0.002) MnSOD protein expression in the liver of embryos but had no effect ( > 0.43) under normal incubation temperature. These results indicated that high incubation temperature induced self-protective responses of chick embryos with a modification of antioxidant status and a depression of HSP70 protein level. Maternal dietary supplementation of Mn could improve the hatchability as well as antioxidant ability to protect against heat challenge in embryos during incubation.

  6. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  7. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  8. Beyond the flavour: a de-flavoured polyphenol rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L) as a novel dietary antioxidant ingredient.

    PubMed

    NM, Johannah; RM, Renny; G, Gopakumar; Maliakel, Balu; D, Sureshkumar; IM, Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    Though kitchen spices constitute an important source of dietary antioxidants, their consumption at a physiologically relevant dose is very often hampered by their unpleasant flavour characteristics. The present paper describes a novel approach to derive stable de-flavoured spice extracts with minimised taste and odour profiles which are suitable for impregnation into a variety of food and beverage matrices at physiologically relevant doses. A popular kitchen spice, clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum L), having strong flavour and pungency characteristics was selected in the present study to derive a de-flavoured extract with a standardised polyphenolic profile (Clovinol) and was incorporated into various foods. The antioxidant efficacy of Clovinol on healthy human volunteers who check and answer official emails involving responsibility was investigated by analysing their endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the extent of lipid peroxidation upon consumption of Clovinol either as capsules or in a different food/beverage at 250 mg per serving per day for 30 days. It was observed that Clovinol can be conveniently incorporated in various food matrices without flavour issues and the consumption of such food/beverage items may support an effective detoxification process with an average elevation of 33 ± 3% in catalase, 66 ± 8% in SOD, 56 ± 5% in GPx and 167 ± 21% in GSH levels, and 81 ± 11% attenuation in membrane lipid peroxidation level.

  9. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  10. Intestinal immune function, antioxidant status and tight junction proteins mRNA expression in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed riboflavin deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of riboflavin on intestinal immunity, tight junctions and antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and contents of complement component 3 and reduced glutathione in the intestine of fish (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, riboflavin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents and catalase activity (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to investigate mRNA expression patterns and found that the mRNA levels of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1, Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-b and Claudin-c, inhibitor protein κBα, target of rapamycin, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, nuclear factor kappa B p65, Ikappa B kinase β, Ikappa B kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and Claudin-12 were increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased immunity and structural integrity of fish intestine. The optimum riboflavin level for intestinal acid phosphatase activity of young grass carp was estimated to be 6.65 mg/kg diet.

  11. Muricidal suppression by chlorpheniramine and changes in brain levels following dietary-induced thiamine deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Onodera, K

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thiamine deficiency on pharmacological and pharmacokinetic activities of chlorpheniramine were investigated in rats. Chlorpheniramine (5-10 mg/kg) showed a dose-dependent suppressive effect on muricide induced by thiamine deficiency. The ED50 value for muricidal suppression at 1 hr was approximately 7.1 mg/kg (95% confidence limits, 5.4-9.3 mg/kg) after oral administration. Using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, chlorpheniramine was detectable at 10 min in the blood and brain of rats. The present pharmacokinetic data suggest that chlorpheniramine can easily pass through the blood-brain barrier (B.B.B.) and enter the brain. It is stored therein and is later slowly released and excreted. In thiamine deficient rats, chlorpheniramine entered the brain in much higher concentrations than in normal and pair-fed rats, and significantly higher levels were maintained for a period of 1.5 hr. These results suggest that thiamine deficiency affects pharmacological and pharmacokinetic activities in rats, and support the view that there is a malfunction of the B.B.B. in thiamine deficient rats. These factors should be taken into consideration in clinical usage and dosage. PMID:3685155

  12. Development of a beetroot-based nutritional gel containing high content of bioaccessible dietary nitrate and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Marina; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Vasconcellos, Julia; Monteiro, Maria Lucia; Conte-Junior, Carlos; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Beetroot, a food rich in nitrate and antioxidants has gained attention because of its potential effect on improving cardiovascular health and exercise performance. This work had the purpose of developing a beetroot-based nutritional gel (BG) and estimating the in vitro bioaccessibility of the nitrate, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic (TP) and potassium content, as compared to beetroot juice (BJ). Nitrate was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography system, TAC was assessed using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and TP was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method before and after an in vitro digestion. Significantly higher values of nitrate, TEAC, TP and potassium before and after digestion were observed in BG as compared to BJ. The results suggest a new nutritional strategy to give high contents of bioaccessible nutrients (nitrate, antioxidants and potassium) that are potentially relevant to improve cardiovascular health and exercise performance. PMID:26887255

  13. Intake of dietary antioxidants is inversely associated with biomarkers of oxidative stress among men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vance, Terrence M; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pop, Elena A; Lee, Sang Gil; Su, L Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Steck, Susan E; Arab, Lenore; Mohler, James L; Chen, Ming-Hui; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-14

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10% increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1% decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95% CI -1·7, -0·3%; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6% decrease (95% CI -1·4, 0·2%; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.

  14. Dietary soy isoflavone induced increases in antioxidant and eNOS gene expression lead to improved endothelial function and reduced blood pressure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Katharina; Borrás, Consuelo; Knock, Greg A; Taylor, Paul; Khan, Imran Y; Sugden, David; Poston, Lucilla; Ward, Jeremy P T; Sharpe, Richard M; Viña, Jose; Aaronson, Philip I; Mann, Giovanni E

    2005-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that populations consuming large amounts of soy protein have a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease (1-5). The cardiovascular risks associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women (5-7) have precipitated a search for alternative estrogen receptor modulators. Here we report that long-term feeding of rats with a soy protein-rich (SP) diet during gestation and adult life results in decreased oxidative stress, improved endothelial function, and reduced blood pressure in vivo measured by radiotelemetry in aged male offspring. Improved vascular reactivity in animals fed an SP diet was paralleled by increased mitochondrial glutathione and mRNA levels for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c oxidase. Reduced eNOS and antioxidant gene expression, impaired endothelial function, and elevated blood pressure in animals fed a soy-deficient diet was reversed after refeeding them an SP diet for 6 months. Our findings suggest that an SP diet increases eNOS and antioxidant gene expression in the vasculature and other tissues, resulting in reduced oxidative stress and increased NO bioavailability. The improvement in endothelial function, increased gene expression, and reduced blood pressure by soy isoflavones have implications for alternative therapy for postmenopausal women and patients at risk of coronary heart disease.

  15. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lazic, Milos; Inzaugarat, Maria Eugenia; Povero, Davide; Zhao, Iris C; Chen, Mark; Nalbandian, Madlena; Miller, Yury I; Cherñavsky, Alejandra C; Feldstein, Ariel E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH), similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL). Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO) mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet significantly reduces

  16. Dietary zinc deficiency affects blood linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio; a sensitive physiological marker of zinc status in vivo (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P; Tako, Elad

    2014-03-20

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn⁺ (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn⁻ (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn⁺ control versus Zn⁻ group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn⁺ control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ⁶ desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn⁺ group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn⁻ group compared to the Zn⁺ group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation.

  17. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Affects Blood Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio; a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P.; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn(+) (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn(−) (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn(+) control versus Zn(−) group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn(+) control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ6 desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn(+) group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn(−) group compared to the Zn(+) group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  18. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Apak, Resat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Karademir, Saliha Esin

    2004-12-29

    The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant

  19. Dietary choline deficiency alters global and gene-specific DNA methylation in the developing hippocampus of mouse fetal brains.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Mihai D; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Zeisel, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    The availability of choline during critical periods of fetal development alters hippocampal development and affects memory function throughout life. Choline deficiency during fetal development reduces proliferation and migration of neuronal precursor cells in the mouse fetal hippocampus and these changes are associated with modifications in the protein levels of some cell cycle regulators and early differentiation markers. We fed C57 BL/6 mouse dams diets deficient or normal in choline content from days 12 to 17 of pregnancy, and then collected fetal brains on embryonic day 17. Using laser-capture micro-dissection we harvested cells from the ventricular and subventricular zones of Ammon's horn and from the prime germinal zone of the dentate gyrus (hippocampus). In the ventricular and subventricular zones from the choline-deficient group, we observed increased protein levels for kinase-associated phosphatase (Kap) and for p15(INK4b) (two cell cycle inhibitors). In the dentate gyrus, we observed increased levels of calretinin (an early marker of neuronal differentiation). In fetal brain from mothers fed a choline-deficient diet, DNA global methylation was decreased in the ventricular and subventricular zones of Ammon's horn. We also observed decreased gene-specific DNA methylation of the gene (Cdkn3) that encodes for Kap, correlating with increased expression of this protein. This was not the case for p15(INK4b) or calretinin (Cdkn2b and Calb2, respectively). These data suggest that choline deficiency-induced changes in gene methylation could mediate the expression of a cell cycle regulator and thereby alter brain development.

  20. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  1. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  2. Dietary cholesterol and its effect on tau protein: a study in apolipoprotein E-deficient and P301L human tau mice.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Frauke; Meske, Volker; Lütjohann, Dieter; Ohm, Thomas G

    2011-04-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major cholesterol transporter in the brain. There is epidemiological and experimental evidence for involvement of cholesterol metabolism in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease. A dietary effect on tau phosphorylation or aggregation, or a role of apoE in tau metabolism, has been studied experimentally, but the data are ambiguous. To elucidate the relationship between cholesterol and tau, we studied mice expressing P301L mutant human tau but not apoE (htau-ApoE) and P301L mice with wild-type ApoE (htau- ApoE); both genotypes develop neuron cytoskeletal changes similar to those found in Alzheimer disease. Mice were kept on a cholesterol-enriched diet or control diet for 15 weeks. The numbers of neurons with hyperphosphorylated and conformationally changed tau in the cerebral cortex were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and sterol levels were determined. Highly elevated dietary serum cholesterol levels enhanced ongoing tau pathology in htau-ApoE mice; this effect correlated with elevated brain cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein E deficiency promoted significant increases of tau phosphorylation and conformational changes in mice on a control diet. In htau-ApoE mice on the high cholesterol regimen, brain oxysterol levels were less than in htau-ApoE mice, and the numbers of neurons with pathologically altered tau were similar to those in htau-ApoE mice on the high-cholesterol diet.

  3. Nutrigenomics analysis reveals that copper deficiency and dietary sucrose up-regulate inflammation, fibrosis and lipogenic pathways in a mature rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tallino, Savannah; Duffy, Megan; Ralle, Martina; Cortés, María Paz; Latorre, Mauricio; Burkhead, Jason L

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence is increasing worldwide, with the affected US population estimated near 30%. Diet is a recognized risk factor in the NAFLD spectrum, which includes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Low hepatic copper (Cu) was recently linked to clinical NAFLD/NASH severity. Simple sugar consumption including sucrose and fructose is implicated in NAFLD, while consumption of these macronutrients also decreases liver Cu levels. Though dietary sugar and low Cu are implicated in NAFLD, transcript-level responses that connect diet and pathology are not established. We have developed a mature rat model of NAFLD induced by dietary Cu deficiency, human-relevant high sucrose intake (30% w/w) or both factors in combination. Compared to the control diet with adequate Cu and 10% (w/w) sucrose, rats fed either high-sucrose or low-Cu diet had increased hepatic expression of genes involved in inflammation and fibrogenesis, including hepatic stellate cell activation, while the combination of diet factors also increased ATP citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase gene transcription (fold change > 2, P < 0.02). Low dietary Cu decreased hepatic and serum Cu (P ≤ 0.05), promoted lipid peroxidation and induced NAFLD-like histopathology, while the combined factors also induced fasting hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage. Neither low Cu nor 30% sucrose in the diet led to enhanced weight gain. Taken together, transcript profiles, histological and biochemical data indicate that low Cu and high sucrose promote hepatic gene expression and physiological responses associated with NAFLD and NASH, even in the absence of obesity or severe steatosis.

  4. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  5. Nutrigenomics analysis reveals that copper deficiency and dietary sucrose up-regulate inflammation, fibrosis and lipogenic pathways in a mature rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tallino, Savannah; Duffy, Megan; Ralle, Martina; Cortés, María Paz; Latorre, Mauricio; Burkhead, Jason L

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence is increasing worldwide, with the affected US population estimated near 30%. Diet is a recognized risk factor in the NAFLD spectrum, which includes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Low hepatic copper (Cu) was recently linked to clinical NAFLD/NASH severity. Simple sugar consumption including sucrose and fructose is implicated in NAFLD, while consumption of these macronutrients also decreases liver Cu levels. Though dietary sugar and low Cu are implicated in NAFLD, transcript-level responses that connect diet and pathology are not established. We have developed a mature rat model of NAFLD induced by dietary Cu deficiency, human-relevant high sucrose intake (30% w/w) or both factors in combination. Compared to the control diet with adequate Cu and 10% (w/w) sucrose, rats fed either high-sucrose or low-Cu diet had increased hepatic expression of genes involved in inflammation and fibrogenesis, including hepatic stellate cell activation, while the combination of diet factors also increased ATP citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase gene transcription (fold change > 2, P < 0.02). Low dietary Cu decreased hepatic and serum Cu (P ≤ 0.05), promoted lipid peroxidation and induced NAFLD-like histopathology, while the combined factors also induced fasting hepatic insulin resistance and liver damage. Neither low Cu nor 30% sucrose in the diet led to enhanced weight gain. Taken together, transcript profiles, histological and biochemical data indicate that low Cu and high sucrose promote hepatic gene expression and physiological responses associated with NAFLD and NASH, even in the absence of obesity or severe steatosis. PMID:26033743

  6. Dietary Silicon Deficiency Does Not Exacerbate Diet-Induced Fatty Lesions in Female ApoE Knockout Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Kessler, Katharina; Messner, Barbara; Stoiber, Martin; Pedro, Liliana D; Schima, Heinrich; Laufer, Günther; Powell, Jonathan J; Bernhard, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary silicon has been positively linked with vascular health and protection against atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the mechanism of action is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the effect of dietary silicon on 1) serum and aorta silicon concentrations, 2) the development of aortic lesions and serum lipid concentrations, and 3) the structural and biomechanic properties of the aorta. Methods: Two studies, of the same design, were conducted to address the above objectives. Female mice, lacking the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene, and therefore susceptible to atherosclerosis, were separated into 3 groups of 10–15 mice, each exposed to a high-fat diet (21% wt milk fat and 1.5% wt cholesterol) but with differing concentrations of dietary silicon, namely: silicon-deprived (−Si; <3-μg silicon/g feed), silicon-replete in feed (+Si-feed; 100-μg silicon/g feed), and silicon-replete in drinking water (+Si-water; 115-μg silicon/mL) for 15–19 wk. Silicon supplementation was in the form of sodium metasilicate (feed) or monomethylsilanetriol (drinking water). Results: The serum silicon concentration in the −Si group was significantly lower than in the +Si-feed (by up to 78%; P < 0.003) and the +Si-water (by up to 84%; P < 0.006) groups. The aorta silicon concentration was also lower in the −Si group than in the +Si-feed group (by 65%; P = 0.025), but not compared with the +Si-water group. There were no differences in serum and aorta silicon concentrations between the silicon-replete groups. Body weights, tissue wet weights at necropsy, and structural, biomechanic, and morphologic properties of the aorta were not affected by dietary silicon; nor were the development of fatty lesions and serum lipid concentrations. Conclusions: These findings suggest that dietary silicon has no effect on atherosclerosis development and vascular health in the apoE mouse model of diet-induced atherosclerosis, contrary to the reported findings in the cholesterol

  7. Inhibitory effect of dietary iron deficiency on the induction of putative preneoplastic foci in rat liver initiated with diethylnitrosamine and promoted by phenobarbital.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiji, H.; Nakae, D.; Kinugasa, T.; Matsuzaki, M.; Denda, A.; Tsujii, T.; Konishi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of dietary iron deficiency on induction of putative preneoplastic, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-positive hepatocyte focal lesions in the liver of rats treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) followed by phenobarbital (PB) were investigated. Male Fischer 344 rats of 4 weeks old were placed on an iron deficient (ID) diet containing less than 5 p.p.m. of iron or an iron supplemented (IS) diet containing 180 p.p.m. of iron throughout experimental period of 12 weeks. Both groups of rats were administered 200 mg kg-1 body weight of DEN by a single intraperitoneal injection at Week 4 followed by PB mixed into each diet at a concentration of 0.05% from Week 6 to the final sacrifice at Week 12 when induction of GGT-positive foci was quantitatively analysed. On the ID and IS diets, respective numbers of GGT-positive foci were 6.3 and 14.2 cm-2. The sizes of foci were not altered by the iron content of the diet. The present results indicate that iron plays a role in the development of preneoplastic foci in the livers of rats initiated with DEN and promoted by PB especially in the initiation phase. PMID:1681886

  8. Common Bean Leaves as a Source of Dietary Iron: Functional Test in an Iron-Deficient Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zavala, Mauricio; Mora-Avilés, María Alejandra; Anaya-Loyola, Miriam Aracely; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; Aguilera-Barreyro, Araceli; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; García-Gasca, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Recent findings made by our group indicate that the iron content in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves is at least four times greater than in grains therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation with bean leaf (iron content of 275 mg/kg on a dry basis) in iron-deficient rats. Anemia was induced by feeding rats with an iron-deficient diet (IDD) for 11 days and iron-recovery diets were subsequently tested for 14 days using a normal diet, a 10 % bean leaf-supplemented IDD (BLSD) or a ferrous sulfate-supplemented IDD. Decreased levels of leukocytes (64 %), erythrocytes (30 %), lymphocytes (62 %), granulocytes (72 %), hematocrit (34 %), hemoglobin (35 %), and ferritin (34 %) were observed in the iron-deficient rats compared to the control rats. BLSD supplementation showed the highest recovery values relative to those recorded for control rats: leukocytes (40 %), erythrocytes (24 %), lymphocytes (33 %), granulocytes (88 %), hematocrit (17 %), and hemoglobin (18 %), suggesting that common bean leaves could be a good source of bioavailable iron with possible immunomodulatory effects. PMID:27319012

  9. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun-Zhong; Yang, Sheng; Wu, Guoyao

    2002-10-01

    Radiation hazards in outer space present an enormous challenge for the biological safety of astronauts. A deleterious effect of radiation is the production of reactive oxygen species, which result in damage to biomolecules (e.g., lipid, protein, amino acids, and DNA). Understanding free radical biology is necessary for designing an optimal nutritional countermeasure against space radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Free radicals (e.g., superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and other reactive species (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and hypochlorous acid) are produced in the body, primarily as a result of aerobic metabolism. Antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, arginine, citrulline, taurine, creatine, selenium, zinc, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A, and tea polyphenols) and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidases) exert synergistic actions in scavenging free radicals. There has been growing evidence over the past three decades showing that malnutrition (e.g., dietary deficiencies of protein, selenium, and zinc) or excess of certain nutrients (e.g., iron and vitamin C) gives rise to the oxidation of biomolecules and cell injury. A large body of the literature supports the notion that dietary antioxidants are useful radioprotectors and play an important role in preventing many human diseases (e.g., cancer, atherosclerosis, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegeneration, and diabetes). The knowledge of enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative defense mechanisms will serve as a guiding principle for establishing the most effective nutrition support to ensure the biological safety of manned space missions. PMID:12361782

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) vs vitamin E on lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Bañón, Sancho

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on lamb meat of the dietary use of rosemary diterpenes and vitamin E were compared. Thirty fattening lambs were assigned to three diets: (C) control; (R) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w; or (E) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) α-tocopherol. The deposition of the dietary supplements in the muscle was determined. Microbial quality (total viable counts, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp), oxidative stability (CIELab color, malondialdehyde and total carbonyls) and sensory attributes (appearance and odor) were determined in loin stored at 2°C under 70% O2/30% CO2 atmosphere. Microbial quality was ensured by packaging and chilling. The E-diet was more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the R-diet in preventing meat oxidation, although the latter had antimicrobial effects on meat. The shelf life of lamb (assessed as the loss of freshness) could be increased by 5 (R-diet) or 10 (E-diet) days.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) vs vitamin E on lamb meat packed under protective atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Jordi; Serrano, Rafael; Bañón, Sancho

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects on lamb meat of the dietary use of rosemary diterpenes and vitamin E were compared. Thirty fattening lambs were assigned to three diets: (C) control; (R) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 w:w; or (E) C plus 600 mg kg(-1) α-tocopherol. The deposition of the dietary supplements in the muscle was determined. Microbial quality (total viable counts, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp), oxidative stability (CIELab color, malondialdehyde and total carbonyls) and sensory attributes (appearance and odor) were determined in loin stored at 2°C under 70% O2/30% CO2 atmosphere. Microbial quality was ensured by packaging and chilling. The E-diet was more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the R-diet in preventing meat oxidation, although the latter had antimicrobial effects on meat. The shelf life of lamb (assessed as the loss of freshness) could be increased by 5 (R-diet) or 10 (E-diet) days. PMID:26186399

  12. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-12-18

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05) increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH) content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction.

  13. Transciptomic study of mucosal immune, antioxidant and growth related genes and non-specific immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida).

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Jafar, Ali

    2016-08-01

    A 8-weeks feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida) on expression of antioxidant enzymes (GSR, GPX and GSTA), immune (TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL- 8 and LYZ) and growth (GH, IGF1 and Ghrl) genes as well as cutaneous mucus and serum non-specific immune response in common carp. The results revealed Ferula significantly increased antioxidant gene expression (GSR and GSTA) in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The expression of immune growth related genes were significantly higher in Ferula fed fish compared control group (P < 0.05). The effects of Ferula on expression of genes was more pronounced in higher doses. Feeding on Ferula supplemented diet remarkably increased skin mucus lysozyme activity (P < 0.05). However, evaluation of mucus total Ig and protease activity revealed no significant difference between control and treated groups (P > 0.05). Regarding non-specific humoral response, serum total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50 showed no remarkable variation between Ferula fed carps and control group (P > 0.05). These results indicated up-regulation of growth and health related genes in Ferula fed common carp. Further studies using pathogen or stress challenge is required to conclude that transcriptional modulation is beneficial in common carp. PMID:27241284

  14. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  15. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  16. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  17. Effects of the Dietary Addition of Amaranth (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) Protein Isolate on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Rats.

    PubMed

    Lado, María B; Burini, Julieta; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the dietary addition of 2.5% (w/w) Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein isolate (AI) on blood pressure, lipid profiles and antioxidative status of Wistar rats were evaluated. Six diets were used to feed animals during 28 days: (base (AIN93G), Chol (cholesterol 1%, w/w), CE (α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CholE (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CAI (AI 2.5% w/w), CholAI (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + AI 2.5%, w/w). Lipid profiles of plasma and liver and faecal cholesterol content were analyzed. Antioxidant status was evaluated by the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and liver. Blood pressure was measured in the tail artery of rats. CholA group presented a significant (α < 0.05) reduction (16%) in the plasma total cholesterol. In liver, the intake of cholesterol (Chol group) induced a significant increment in cholesterol and triglycerides (2.5 and 2.3 times, respectively), which could be decreased (18% and 47%, respectively) by the addition of AI (CholA group). This last group also showed an increased faecal cholesterol excretion (20%). Increment (50%) in FRAP values, diminution of TBA value in plasma and liver (70% and 38%, respectively) and diminution of SOD activity (20%) in plasma of CholA group suggest an antioxidant effect because of the intake of AI. In addition, CA and CholA groups presented a diminution (18%) of blood pressure after 28 days.

  18. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  19. Effects of the Dietary Addition of Amaranth (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) Protein Isolate on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Rats.

    PubMed

    Lado, María B; Burini, Julieta; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the dietary addition of 2.5% (w/w) Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein isolate (AI) on blood pressure, lipid profiles and antioxidative status of Wistar rats were evaluated. Six diets were used to feed animals during 28 days: (base (AIN93G), Chol (cholesterol 1%, w/w), CE (α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CholE (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CAI (AI 2.5% w/w), CholAI (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + AI 2.5%, w/w). Lipid profiles of plasma and liver and faecal cholesterol content were analyzed. Antioxidant status was evaluated by the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and liver. Blood pressure was measured in the tail artery of rats. CholA group presented a significant (α < 0.05) reduction (16%) in the plasma total cholesterol. In liver, the intake of cholesterol (Chol group) induced a significant increment in cholesterol and triglycerides (2.5 and 2.3 times, respectively), which could be decreased (18% and 47%, respectively) by the addition of AI (CholA group). This last group also showed an increased faecal cholesterol excretion (20%). Increment (50%) in FRAP values, diminution of TBA value in plasma and liver (70% and 38%, respectively) and diminution of SOD activity (20%) in plasma of CholA group suggest an antioxidant effect because of the intake of AI. In addition, CA and CholA groups presented a diminution (18%) of blood pressure after 28 days. PMID:26497504

  20. Lipid peroxidation by "free" iron ions and myoglobin as affected by dietary antioxidants in simulated gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tair; Granit, Rina; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Grilled red turkey muscle (Doner Kabab) is a real "fast food" containing approximately 200 microM hydroperoxides, homogenized in simulated gastric fluid and oxidized more rapidly at pH 3.0 than at pH 5.0, after 180 min, producing 1200 and 600 microM hydroperoxides, respectively. The effects of "free" iron ions and metmyoglobin, two potential catalyzers of lipid peroxidation in muscle foods, were evaluated for linoleic acid peroxidation at pH 3.0 of simulated gastric fluid. The prooxidant effects of free iron ions on linoleic acid peroxidation in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated in the presence of ascorbic acid. At low concentrations of ascorbic acid, the effects were prooxidative, which was reversed at high concentrations. In the presence of metmyoglobin, ascorbic acid with or without free iron enhanced the antioxidative effect. Lipid peroxidation by an iron-ascorbic acid system was inhibited totally by 250-500 microM catechin at pH 3.0. The catechin antioxidant effect was determined also in the iron-ascorbic acid system containing metmyoglobin. In this system, catechin totally inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration 20-fold lower than without metmyoglobin. The ability of catechin to inhibit lipid peroxidation was also determined at a low pH with beta-carotene as a sensitive target molecule for oxidation. The results show that a significant protection was achieved only with almost 100-fold higher antioxidant concentration. Polyphenols from different groups were determined for the antioxidant activity at pH 3.0. The results show a high antioxidant activity of polyphenols with orthodihydroxylated groups at the B ring, unsaturation, and the presence of a 4-oxo group in the heterocyclic ring, as demonstrated by quercetin. PMID:15853376

  1. Lipid peroxidation by "free" iron ions and myoglobin as affected by dietary antioxidants in simulated gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tair; Granit, Rina; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Grilled red turkey muscle (Doner Kabab) is a real "fast food" containing approximately 200 microM hydroperoxides, homogenized in simulated gastric fluid and oxidized more rapidly at pH 3.0 than at pH 5.0, after 180 min, producing 1200 and 600 microM hydroperoxides, respectively. The effects of "free" iron ions and metmyoglobin, two potential catalyzers of lipid peroxidation in muscle foods, were evaluated for linoleic acid peroxidation at pH 3.0 of simulated gastric fluid. The prooxidant effects of free iron ions on linoleic acid peroxidation in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated in the presence of ascorbic acid. At low concentrations of ascorbic acid, the effects were prooxidative, which was reversed at high concentrations. In the presence of metmyoglobin, ascorbic acid with or without free iron enhanced the antioxidative effect. Lipid peroxidation by an iron-ascorbic acid system was inhibited totally by 250-500 microM catechin at pH 3.0. The catechin antioxidant effect was determined also in the iron-ascorbic acid system containing metmyoglobin. In this system, catechin totally inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration 20-fold lower than without metmyoglobin. The ability of catechin to inhibit lipid peroxidation was also determined at a low pH with beta-carotene as a sensitive target molecule for oxidation. The results show that a significant protection was achieved only with almost 100-fold higher antioxidant concentration. Polyphenols from different groups were determined for the antioxidant activity at pH 3.0. The results show a high antioxidant activity of polyphenols with orthodihydroxylated groups at the B ring, unsaturation, and the presence of a 4-oxo group in the heterocyclic ring, as demonstrated by quercetin.

  2. α-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682–699. PMID:24295217

  3. Chronic effects of dietary vitamin D deficiency without increased calcium supplementation on the progression of experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Gopala K; Schwensen, Kristina G; Foster, Sheryl L; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Peduto, Anthony; Harris, David C

    2013-08-15

    Increasing evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency exacerbates chronic kidney injury, but its effects on renal enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not known. In this study, male Lewis polycystic kidney disease (LPK) rats received a normal diet (ND; AIN-93G) supplemented with or without cholecalciferol (vitamin D-deficient diet, VDD; both 0.5% calcium), commenced at either postnatal week 3 (until weeks 10-20; study 1) or from week 10 (until week 20; study 2). Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D were reduced in groups receiving the VDD (12 ± 1 nmol/l vs. 116 ± 5 in ND; P < 0.001). In study 1, food intake and weight gain increased by ∼25% in LPK rats receiving the VDD ad libitum, and at week 20 this was associated with a mild reduction in the corrected serum calcium (SCa(2+), 7.4%) and TKW:BW ratio (8.8%), and exacerbation of proteinuria (87%) and hypertension (19%; all P < 0.05 vs. ND). When LPK rats were pair-fed for weeks 3-10, there was a further reduction in the SCa(2+) (25%) and TKW:BW ratio (22%) in the VDD group (P < 0.05 vs. ND). In study 2, the VDD did not alter food intake and body weight, reduced SCa(2+) (7.7%), worsened proteinuria (41.9%), interstitial monocyte accumulation (26.4%), renal dysfunction (21.4%), and cardiac enlargement (13.2%, all P < 0.05), but there was a trend for a reduction in the TKW:BW ratio (13%, P = 0.09). These data suggest that chronic vitamin D deficiency has adverse long-term actions on proteinuria, interstitial inflammation, renal function, and cardiovascular disease in PKD, and these negate its mild inhibitory effect on kidney enlargement.

  4. Dietary Supplementation with Fresh Pineapple Juice Decreases Inflammation and Colonic Neoplasia in IL-10-deficient Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P.; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T.; Greer, Paula K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Results Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 16 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (p = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% vs. 66%; p< 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (p = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:20848493

  5. The importance of dietary protein in human health: combating protein deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa through transgenic biofortified sorghum.

    PubMed

    Henley, E C; Taylor, J R N; Obukosia, S D

    2010-01-01

    Child malnutrition is increasing in Africa. Protein deficiency is an important cause since protein is essential for both growth and maintenance of muscle mass. Sorghum is a major staple food in Africa on account of its hardiness as a crop. However, sorghum protein is very deficient in the indispensable amino acid lysine and on cooking has poor protein digestibility. This results in sorghum having a very low Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS). The Africa Biofortified Sorghum project, a Grand Challenges in Global Heath project, is undertaking research to biofortify sorghum in terms of protein and micronutrient quality using genetic engineering. Lysine and protein digestibility have been improved by suppression of synthesis of the kafirin storage proteins. Transgenic biofortified sorghum has double the PDCAAS of conventional sorghum. This improvement should enable a young child to meet most of its protein and energy requirements from biofortified sorghum porridge. This together with the improvement in micronutrients could provide the basis of a sustainable and broadly comprehensive solution to child malnutrition in many African countries.

  6. Dietary habits and selenium, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary habits and adequate dietary intake of antioxidants in the diet may be one of the most important environmental factors for the prevention of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate selenium (Se) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with MS and the influence of dietary habits on the status. Methods 101 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (aged 18-58 years), as well as control group of 63 healthy people (aged 19-65 years) were studied. Food-frequency questionnaires were implemented to collect the dietary data. Se concentration in the serum samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. GSH-Px activity and TAS in examined serum was measured using the ready-made sets of tests by Randox Laboratories Ltd., UK. Results Serum Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in the serum of patients with MS (55.2±16.2 μg/L, 6676.1±2386.4 U/L; respectively) were significantly decreased (p<0.01, p<0.05; respectively) compared with control group (79.2±20.6 μg/L, 8029.9±2650.1 U/L; respectively). A significant correlation (r=0.39, p<0.01) was observed between Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in the serum of examined patients. TAS value in the serum of patients with MS (1.03±0.37 mmol/L) was also significantly lower (p<0.01) than in healthy volunteers (1.48±0.41 mmol/L). Frequent consumption of poultry, bakery products, pulses and fish seemed to increase serum Se concentration in the group of patients; whereas frequent consumption of butter, wholegrain bread, sweet beverages and sugar was found to accompany with lower values of Se in the serum. We have observed significant decrease TAS (p<0.05, p<0.01; respectively) in the serum of smokers and those patients who received immunomodulatory drugs (0.95±0.39 mmol/L, 0.92±0.34 mmol/L; respectively) compared with no-smoking patients and not taking immunomodulators (1.14±0.33 mmol/L, 1.31±0

  7. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  8. Antioxidant and antitumor efficacy of Luteolin, a dietary flavone on benzo(a)pyrene-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Barua, Chandana C; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-08-01

    The present study is designed to assess the antioxidant and antitumor potential of luteolin against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Here, we reported that oral administration of B(a)P (50mg/kg body weight) to mice resulted in raised lipid peroxides (LPO), lung specific tumor markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) with concomitant decrease in the levels of both enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E and vitamin C. Luteolin treatment (15mg/kg body weight, p.o) significantly counteracted all these alterations and maintained cellular normalcy. Moreover, assessment of protein expression levels by western blot analysis revealed that luteolin treatment effectively negates B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Furthermore, histopathology of lung tissue and immunohistochemistry of CYP1A1 were carried out to substantiate the anti- lung cancer effect of luteolin. Overall, these findings confirm the chemopreventive potential of luteolin against B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  9. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zambonin, Laura; Caliceti, Cristiana; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach. PMID:22792417

  10. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  11. Individualized long-term outcomes in blood phenylalanine concentrations and dietary phenylalanine tolerance in 11 patients with primary phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency treated with Sapropterin-dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Yuskiv, Nataliya; Salvarinova, Ramona; Apatean, Delia; Ho, Gloria; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Lillquist, Yolanda; Ueda, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-term sustainability of improved blood Phenylalanine (Phe) control and changes to dietary Phe tolerance in 11 patients (1 month to 16 years), with various forms of primary PAH deficiency (classic, moderate, severe phenylketonuria [PKU], mild hyperphenylalaninemia [HPA]), who were treated with 15-20mg/kg/d Sapropterin-dihydrochloride during a period of 13-44 months. 7/11 patients had a sustainable, significant reduction of baseline blood Phe concentrations and 6 of them also had an increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. In 2 patients with mild HPA, blood Phe concentrations remained in the physiologic range even after a 22 and 36% increase in mg/kg/day Phe tolerance and an achieved Phe intake at 105% and 268% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for protein. 2 of these responders had classic PKU. 1 patient with mild HPA who started treatment at 2 months of life, had a significant and sustainable reduction in pretreatment blood Phe concentrations, but no increase in the mg/kg/day Phe tolerance. An increase in Phe tolerance could only be demonstrated when expressing the patient's daily Phe tolerance with the DRI for protein showing an increase from 58% at baseline to 78% of normal DRI at the end of the observation. Long-term follow-up of patients with an initial response to treatment with Sapropterin is essential to determine clinically meaningful outcomes. Phenylalanine tolerance should be expressed in mg/kg/day and/or % of normal DRI to differentiate medical therapy related from physiologic growth related increase in daily Phe intake.

  12. Effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, liver function, and inflammatory response in broiler chickens fed a diet high in oxidants.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Corl, B A; LeRoith, T; Dalloul, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, inflammatory response, and liver function. Cobb 500 male broilers (n = 1,200, d 0) were randomly distributed into 6 treatments with 10 replicate floor pens. Treatments included (1) a high-oxidant diet, with vitamin E at 10 IU/kg, 3% oxidized oil, 3% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) source (HO); (2) the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg (VE); (3) the HO diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (AOX); (4) the HO diet with both vitamin E at 200 IU/kg and an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (VE+AOX); (5) standard control (SC); and (6) a positive control, which was the SC diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg. The concentrations of 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, 22:6, and all the n-3 fatty acids were greater in the abdominal fat of HO, VE, AOX, and VE+AOX birds than SC and positive control birds on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.001). Compared with HO treatment, AOX and VE+AOX preserved the deposition of PUFA better (P < 0.001). The HO birds had greater concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase on d 21 and 42, and γ-glutamyl transferase on d 21, whereas AOX and VE+AOX chickens had restored γ-glutamyl transferase concentration (P < 0.01). The inflammation scores of abdominal fat of AOX and VE+AOX birds were lower than the HO on d 21 (P < 0.001). Compared with SC, the VE and VE+AOX birds exhibited greater vacuole scores on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.01). The lower vacuoles score in SC was associated with a greater expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -γ and -α (P < 0.05). The expression of inflammatory genes in the liver did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, the AOX and AOX+VE diets were effective in preserving PUFA in the abdominal fat, moderately improved liver function, and reduced inflammation in fat.

  13. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  14. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  15. Vitamin A deficiency among preschool children in a rural area of Egypt: the results of dietary assessment and biochemical assay.

    PubMed

    el-Arab, Ali Ezz; Khalil, Fatma; Hussein, Laila

    2002-11-01

    Vitamin A status was evaluated among a cohort of preschool children (mean age 43 months) pertinent to a traditional society in rural Egypt. The Helen Keller International food frequency questionnaire, the 7-day 24-h dietary recall method and serum vitamin A concentrations were the criteria used for the evaluation. Mean values of 280 and 382 retinol equivalents (RE) were the daily estimates of vitamin A intakes among male and female children, respectively. Animal foods made up 39 and 54% of the total vitamin A intake among male and female children, respectively. The aforementioned estimates of total vitamin A intakes were 58 and 81%, respectively, of the FAO/WHO requirements (35 RE/kg). Children from high socio-economic class had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean vitamin A intake compared with the respective mean intake obtained with poor children. Serum vitamin A concentrations correlated significantly with the respective vitamin A intakes. A 10-week vitamin A intervention trial using either pharmaceutical vitamin A preparations or a food-based strategy consisting of carrot jam led to significant improvement in the growth velocity of the beneficiaries compared with the control group.

  16. Effects of an essential fatty acid deficiency, pair-feeding and level of dietary corn oil on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and other physiological parameters in the male chicken.

    PubMed

    Engster, H M; Carew, L B; Cunningham, F J

    1978-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to observe the effects of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, added dietary corn oil and pair-feeding on growth, reproduction and other physiological parameters in the mature cockerel. A purified, linoleic acid (LA)-deficient diet (0.01% LA), or additions of 5% (3.01% LA) or 15% (9.04% LA) corn oil, were fed ad libitum from hatching through 24 weeks of age. Reductions in growth, feed consumption, and comb, and testes size, incomplete spermatogenesis, increased tissue eicosatrienoic acid (20: 3 omega 9) and changes in weights of selected internal organs were observed in deficient cockerels. Total pituitary gonadotropic activity was measured by two bioassay procedures and blood luteinizing hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay. By maturity both of these parameters were significantly reduced in deficient chickens. When these chickens were fed diets with 5% or 15% corn oil under pair-feeding or ad libitum conditions from 20 to 24 weeks, the reduced growth, comb and testes size and gonadotropin metabolism appeared to be caused by depressions in appetite and energy intake rather than EFA per se. The degenerate testicular histology of the 20-week old deficient cockerels, while responding fully to the ad libitum intake of the diets containing corn oil, showed only partial rehabilitation of spermatogenesis when diets with either 5% or 15% corn oil were pair-fed. In general, increasing the level of dietary fat from 5% to 15% did not cause many physiological changes.

  17. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2013-08-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  18. Effect of dietary lysine on growth, intestinal enzymes activities and antioxidant status of sub-adult grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yin; Tang, Ling; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Chen, Gang-Fu; Li, Shu-Hong; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The dietary lysine requirement of sub-adult grass carp (460 ± 1.5 g) was assessed by feeding diets supplemented with grade levels of lysine (6.6, 8.5, 10.8, 12.9, 15.0 and 16.7 g kg(-1) diet) for 56 days. The test diets (28% CP) contained fish meal, casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Weight gain (WG), feed intake and feed efficiency were significantly improved with increasing levels of lysine up to 12.9 g kg(-1) diet and thereafter declined (P < 0.05). Quadratic regression analysis of WG at 95% maximum response indicated lysine requirement was 10.9 g kg(-1) diet. Activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in intestine, creatine kinase activity in proximal and mid-intestine responded similar to WG (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and protein oxidation decreased with increasing levels of lysine up to certain values and increased thereafter (P < 0.05); the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity, dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione content were increased with increasing dietary lysine levels up to certain values in the detected tissues, except for hepatopancreatic GST. Requirement estimated on the basis of malondialdehyde content in intestine and hepatopancreas was 10.6 and 9.53 g lysine kg(-1) diet, respectively. PMID:24174167

  19. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on high- fat/cholesterol-dietary hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chen, Jr-Wei; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Noni juice (NJ) is rich in phytochemicals and polysaccharides. Lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects of NJ were investigated in this study. Fifty male hamsters were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) normal diet and distilled water (LFCD); (2) high-fat/cholesterol diet and distilled water (HFCD); (3) HFCD and 3 ml NJ (including 0.20 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_L); (4) HFCD and 6 mL NJ (including 0.40 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_M); (5) HFCD and 9 ml NJ (including 0.60 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_H) for six weeks. NJ supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, atherogenic index, malondialdehyde levels, and hepatic lipids in HFCD hamsters, whereas serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, glutathione, and fecal lipids in HFCD hamsters were increased (p < 0.05) by NJ supplementation. Although NJ supplementation downregulated (p < 0.05) sterol regulator element binding protein-1c in HFCD hamsters, it upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and uncoupling protein 2 gene expressions in HFCD hamsters. Results demonstrate that NJ promotes cardioprotection in a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

  20. Citrus Pulp as a Dietary Source of Antioxidants for Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Highly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets

    PubMed Central

    Santos, G. T.; Lima, L. S.; Schogor, A. L. B.; Romero, J. V.; De Marchi, F. E.; Grande, P. A.; Santos, N. W.; Santos, F. S.; Kazama, R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk. PMID:25083104

  1. Influence of dietary zinc on semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes and trace minerals of beetal bucks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, H U; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2014-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a potent antioxidant and plays a key role in scavenging free radicals. We hypothesized that supplementation of Zn would reduce the oxidative damage, which is linked with poor sperm quality. Sixteen bucks of similar average age (2 years) and body weight (41 kg) were randomly divided into four groups viz., 1, 2, 3 and 4 supplemented with zinc sulphate into the diet at the rate of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/buck/day, respectively, for 3 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and assessed. Seminal plasma was separated to find the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). The results revealed that semen volume (1.85 ± 0.01 ml) and sperm motility (88.23 ± 5.77%) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in supplemented groups compared with the control specifically in group 3. SOD (10.66 ± 0.23 inhibition rate %) and GPx (23.55 ± 0.49 mU/ml) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in group 3 with no effect on AST and ALT. Among seminal plasma trace elements, no significant change (p > 0.05) was observed. From the present results, we concluded that zinc sulphate at the rate of 100 mg/buck/day improved semen traits and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in Beetal bucks.

  2. Effects of dietary sodium selenite and selenium yeast on antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hussain; Tian, Jinke; Wang, Jianjun; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Wang, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2012-07-25

    The effects of sodium selenite (SS) and selenium yeast (SY) alone and in combination (MS) on the selenium (Se) content, antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat were investigated. The results showed that the highest (p < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was found in the SS-supplemented chicken breast meat; however, SY and MS treatments significantly increased (p < 0.05) the Se content and the activities of catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and TAC, but decreased (p < 0.05) the malondialdehyde (MDA) content at 42 days of age. Twelve days of storage at 4 °C decreased (p < 0.05) the activity of the GSH-Px, but CAT, T-SOD, and TAC remained stable. SY decreased the lipid oxidation more effectively in chicken breast meat. It was concluded that SY and MS are more effective than SS in increasing the AEA, TAC, and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat. PMID:22732007

  3. Effects of dietary α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jia, R; Bao, Y H; Zhang, Y; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-lipoic acid (LA), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), and sex on antioxidative ability, energy, and lipid metabolism in broilers. A total of 972 one-day-old broilers with equal sex were randomly assigned in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design using 3 LA, 3 ALC levels, and 2 sexes (6 replications, 9 birds/replication). The LA and ALC levels were 0, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that increased LA or ALC resulted in increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased levels of malondialdehyde in serum and liver of birds (P < 0.05). In addition, with increasing addition of LA or ALC, an increased (P < 0.01) level of insulin (Ins), as well as decreased (P < 0.05) levels of glucose and glucagon (Glu), were observed in serum of broilers. Total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acid, lipoprotein lipase, and lipase levels increased (P < 0.05) in serum with increased administration of LA or ALC. Moreover, a significant (P < 0.05) interaction of LA × ALC was observed for serum and liver SOD, serum GSH-Px, glucose, and TG levels. Birds fed diets containing 50 mg/kg of LA and 50 mg/kg of ALC had higher serum and liver SOD activities and lower serum glucose and TG levels than those fed diets containing 100 mg/kg of LA or ALC alone. The main effect of sex and all interactions among main effects (except LA × ALC) were not significant (P > 0.05) for all of the above parameters. Overall, the present data indicate that LA or ALC supplementation, or both, at low levels (50 or 100 mg/kg) improved antioxidative ability, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism in broilers, and synergistic effects by the combined supplementation of LA and ALC were indicated by serum and liver SOD activities and serum glucose and TG levels. PMID:25239530

  4. Effects of dietary L-arginine on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoxue; Li, Feng; Mou, Shaoyang; Feng, Jiawei; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of maternal L-arginine supplementation on laying performance and the antioxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, egg yolk, and their one-day-old offspring were investigated. In a 9 wk experiment, 210 60-week-old Arbor Acres healthy female broiler breeders were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 7 females and fed a corn and soybean meal diet with 5 arginine levels (0.96%, 1.16%, 1.36%, 1.56%, and 1.76% digestible arginine). Laying performance and anti-oxidant capacity of broiler breeder hens, eggs, and offspring were evaluated. Digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet had a significant effect on the laying rate (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.0001). The highest laying rate was obtained when the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. There was a significant effect of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) concentration in the broiler breeder serum, egg yolk and serum, and liver and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P<0.05). The T-AOC level was highest and the MDA concentration lowest in all tissues when a diet with 1.36% digestible arginine was fed. No difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in the broiler breeder serum was observed. There were significant effects of digestible arginine level in the broiler breeder diet on the GSH-PX activity of the egg yolk (linear effect, P<0.01; quadratic effect, P<0.05) and serum, liver, and breast of one-day-old offspring (linear and quadratic effect, P≤0.01). The GSH-PX activity in all tissues measured in this experiment was highest when the dietary digestible arginine was 1.36%. These results indicate that the diet with 1.36% digestible arginine (1,972 mg/d) is optimal to satisfy the nutritional needs of a female broiler breeder during the late laying period.

  5. Effects of dietary tin on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemistry, antioxidant status, and tin retention in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lv-Hui; Zhang, Ni-Ya; Zhai, Qin-Hui; Gao, Xin; Li, Chong; Zheng, Qiang; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, DeSheng

    2014-12-01

    Tin (Sn) is widely used in daily life and distributed in many tissues and nutrients. Although over-ingestion of Sn can cause health problems, relatively little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sn in livestock health and productivity. This study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of prolonged high intake of dietary Sn on broilers. 150 one-day-old Avian broilers were randomly divided into five treatment groups, with five replicates of six birds. For 6 weeks, each group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (BD) or BD + Sn (as SnCl2) at 120, 240, 480, or 720 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the control, hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased when supplemented with Sn up to 480 mg/kg, while malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased until Sn supplementation at 720 mg/kg. Moreover, dietary Sn supplementation at 720 mg/kg decreased BW gain, feed intake, and impaired feed conversion ratio. The 720 mg Sn/kg group also increased activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), while decreased hemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC), and hematocrit (HCT) in the blood. Furthermore, the accumulation of Sn in various tissues was dose dependent on Sn ingestion. It was found that the tibia and feather are the two main tissues for Sn accumulation, followed by the liver, kidney, and other tissues in broilers. In conclusion, the adverse effects on broilers were induced when diets supplemented with Sn up to 480 mg/kg. Sn levels also managed to accumulate in the tibia and feather of broilers.

  6. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  7. Antioxidant activity of olive phenols and other dietary phenols in model gastric conditions: Scavenging of the free radical DPPH and inhibition of the haem-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Achat, Sabiha; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Madani, Khodir; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of dietary phenols in humans (direct reduction of radicals and other highly oxidizing species) could be largely restricted to fighting postprandial oxidative stress in the gastric compartment. Hence, the development of chemical tests simply modelling this situation is pertinent. In this work, the antioxidant properties of the olive phenols hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are investigated in pH 5-6 micellar solutions through the reduction of the DPPH radical and the inhibition of the metmyoglobin-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid. In the first test, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein proved as efficient as common polyphenols and their reactivity was only moderately affected by β-cyclodextrin and bovine serum albumin, taken as models of food macromolecules. In the second test, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein by themselves came up as relatively weak inhibitors, despite their efficiency at reducing hypervalent haem iron. However, hydroxytyrosol was able to act in synergy with the typical chain-breaking antioxidant α-tocopherol. PMID:27451164

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive. PMID:26812815

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive.

  10. SIRT5 Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Kainate-Induced Seizures and Exacerbates Hippocampal Neurodegeneration not through Mitochondrial Antioxidant Enzyme SOD2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common and serious neurological disorder characterized by occurrence of recurrent spontaneous seizures, and emerging evidences support the association of mitochondrial dysfunction with epilepsy. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), localized in mitochondrial matrix, has been considered as an important functional modulator of mitochondria that contributes to ageing and neurological diseases. Our data shows that SIRT5 deficiency strikingly increased mortality rate and severity of response to epileptic seizures, dramatically exacerbated hippocampal neuronal loss and degeneration in mice exposed to Kainate (KA), and triggered more severe reactive astrogliosis. We found that the expression of mitochondrial SIRT5 of injured hippocampus was relatively up-regulated, indicating its potential contribution to the comparably increased survival of these cells and its possible neuroprotective role. Unexpectedly, SIRT5 seems not to apparently alter the decline of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in hippocampus caused by KA exposure in our paradigm, which indicates the protective role of SIRT5 on seizures and cellular degeneration might through different regulatory mechanism that would be explored in the future. In the present study, we provided strong evidences for the first time to demonstrate the association between SIRT5 and epilepsy, which offers a new understanding of the roles of SIRT5 in mitochondrial functional regulation. The neuroprotection of SIRT5 in KA-induced epileptic seizure and neurodegeneration will improve our current knowledge of the nature of SIRT5 in central nervous system (CNS) and neurological diseases. PMID:27445698

  11. Alleviation of chronic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of betaine and turmeric rhizome powder: dynamics of performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Akhavan-Salamat, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. THeat stress (HS), one of the most serious climate problems of tropical and subtropical countries, negatively affects the production performance of broilers. Keeping this in view, the current study was aimed at elucidating the effects of supplementing betaine (Bet) and dried turmeric rhizome powder (TRP), either singly or in combination, on growth performance, leukocyte profile, humoral immunity, and antioxidant status in broilers kept under chronic HS. A total of 625 one-day-old Ross male chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (5 replicates of 25 birds per replicate pen). From day 1, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS (33 ± 1°C) to the conclusion of study, day 42. The treatment groups were as follows: thermoneutral control (TN-CON), HS-CON, HS-Bet, HS-TRP, and HS-BT (fed Bet and TRP). The results showed that decreases in body weight gain, feed intake, and increases in feed-to-gain ratio and mortality induced by HS were partially restored by dietary supplementation of Bet and TRP. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total, and IgG antibody titers against sheep red blood cell for secondary responses in the HS-TRP and HS-BT groups were also similar to those of the broilers in the TN

  12. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides [liver expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, β-defensin] and anti-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, interleukin (IL) 4/13A, IL-4/13B (only in head kidney), IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGF-β2, inhibitor of κBα and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (P < 0.05), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35 (only in spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the head kidney and spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen immunity and cause inflammation. Meanwhile, compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency decreased the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P < 0.05), and down-regulated zonula occludens (ZO) 1, ZO-2, Claudin-b, -c, -3c, -7a, -7

  13. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides [liver expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, β-defensin] and anti-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, interleukin (IL) 4/13A, IL-4/13B (only in head kidney), IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGF-β2, inhibitor of κBα and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (P < 0.05), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35 (only in spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in the head kidney and spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen immunity and cause inflammation. Meanwhile, compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency decreased the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P < 0.05), and down-regulated zonula occludens (ZO) 1, ZO-2, Claudin-b, -c, -3c, -7a, -7

  14. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV) activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation. PMID:27698953

  15. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Busquets-Cortés, Carla; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation (1.14 g/day) on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N = 9) or placebo groups (N = 7) in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV) activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  16. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor β2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp.

  17. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract efficacy as a dietary antioxidant against azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rat.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Amanat; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Farooq, Sardar A; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2012-01-01

    Functional foods include antioxidant nutrients which may protect against many human chronic diseases by combating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in rats as an in vivo experimental model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups containing 10 rats per group, and were treated with either AOM, PPE, or PPE plus AOM or injected with 0.9% physiological saline solution as a control. At 8 weeks of age, the rats in the AOM and PPE plus AOM groups were injected with 15 mg AOM/kg body weight, once a week for two weeks. After the last AOM injection, the rats were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for another 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment (i.e. at the age of 4 months), all rats were killed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for lesions suspected of being preneoplastic lesions or tumors as well as for biochemical measurement of oxidative stress indices. The results revealed a lower incidence of aberrant crypt foci in the PPE plus AOM administered group as compared to the AOM group. In addition, PPE blocked the AOM-induced impairment of biochemical indicators of oxidative stress in the examined colonic tissue homogenates. The results suggest that PPE can partially inhibit the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, by abrogating oxidative stress and improving the redox status of colonic cells. PMID:23098515

  18. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  19. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens.

  20. Effects of dietary addition of heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei on growth performance, immune status and anti-oxidative capacity in early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin-Feng; Wu, Wei-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Tu, Wei; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Fang, Re-Jun

    2016-08-01

    The contradiction between high susceptibility of early weaned piglets to enteric pathogens and rigid restriction of antibiotic use in the diet is still prominent in the livestock production industry. To address this issue, the study was designed to replace dietary antibiotics partly or completely by an immunostimulant, namely heat-killed Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei). Piglets (n = 192) were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: (1) basal diet (Group A), (2) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (80 mg/kg diet, Group B), (3) basal diet + a mixture of antibiotics (same as in Group B, but 40 mg/kg diet) + heat-killed M. phlei (1.5 g/kg diet) (Group C) and (4) basal diet + heat-killed M. phlei (3 g/kg diet) (Group D). All piglets received the respective diets from days 21 to 51 of age and were weaned at the age of 28 d. Compared with the Control (Group A), in all other groups the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, small intestinal villus height:crypt depth ratio and protein levels of occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunal mucosa were increased. A decreased incidence of diarrhoea in conjunction with an increased sIgA concentration in the intestinal mucosa and serum IL-12 and IFN-γ concentrations was found in groups supplemented with heat-killed M. phlei (Groups C and D), but not in Group B. Groups C and D also showed decreased IL-2 concentrations in the intestinal mucosa with lower TLR4 and phosphor-IκB protein levels. The antioxidant capacity was reinforced in Groups C and D, as evidenced by the reduction in malondialdehyde and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. These data indicate that heat-killed M. phlei is a promising alternative to antibiotic use for early weaned piglets via induction of protective immune responses. PMID:27216553

  1. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  2. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  3. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality. PMID:26516828

  4. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH (ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA SSP. WYOMINGENSIS) VARIES SPATIALLY AND IS NOT RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF A SAGEBRUSH DIETARY SPECIALIST

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Lam, Lisa; Gehlken, Kristina; Ulappa, Amy C.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in North America is an abundant native plant species that is ecologically and evolutionarily adapted to have a diverse array of biologically active chemicals. Several of these chemicals, specifically polyphenols, have antioxidant activity that may act as biomarkers of biotic or abiotic stress. This study investigated the spatial variation of antioxidant capacity, as well as the relationship between a mammalian herbivore and antioxidant capacity in Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis). We quantified and compared total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from sagebrush plants from different spatial scales and at different levels of browsing by a specialist mammalian herbivore, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). We found that antioxidant capacity of sagebrush extracts was positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Antioxidant capacity varied spatially within and among plants. Antioxidant capacity in sagebrush was not related to either browsing intensity or duration of association with rabbits. We propose that the patterns of antioxidant capacity observed in sagebrush may be a result of spatial variation in abiotic stress experienced by sagebrush. Antioxidants could therefore provide a biomarker of environmental stress for sagebrush that could aid in management and conservation of this plant in the threatened sagebrush steppe. PMID:26582971

  5. Dietary vitamin C supplementation reduces noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Sandra L; Woo, Jenifer M; Michalak, Nathan; Ding, Dalian

    2005-04-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is a water-soluble, low molecular weight antioxidant that works in conjunction with glutathione and other cellular antioxidants, and is effective against a variety of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that have been implicated in the etiology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Whereas most animals can manufacture their own vitamin C, humans and a few other mammals such as guinea pigs lack the terminal enzyme for vitamin C synthesis and must obtain it from dietary sources. To determine if susceptibility to NIHL could be influenced by manipulating dietary levels of vitamin C, albino guinea pigs were raised for 35 days on a diet with normal, supplemented or deficient levels of ascorbate, then exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 114 dB SPL for 6 h to induce permanent threshold shifts (PTS) of the scalp-recorded auditory brainstem response. Animals that received the highest levels of dietary ascorbate developed significantly less PTS for click stimuli and 4, 8, 12, and 16 kHz tones than animals on normal and deficient diets. Outer hair cell loss was minimal in all groups after noise exposure, but permanent damage to stereocilia were observed in noise-exposed ears. The results support the hypothesis that dietary factors influence individual susceptibility to hearing loss, and suggest that high levels of vitamin C may be beneficial in reducing susceptibility to NIHL.

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  7. Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.

  8. Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by dietary methionine without lowering plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Troen, Aron M; Chao, Wei-Hsun; Crivello, Natalia A; D'Anci, Kristen E; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Smith, Don E; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2008-12-01

    Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely thought to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate deficiency in cognitive dysfunction, we fed rats folate-deficient diets (0 mg FA/kg diet) with or without supplemental L-methionine for 10 wk, followed by cognitive testing and tissue collection for hematological and biochemical analysis. Folate deficiency with normal methionine impaired spatial memory and learning; however, this impairment was prevented when the folate-deficient diet was supplemented with methionine. Under conditions of folate deficiency, brain membrane content of the methylated phospholipid phosphatidylcholine was significantly depleted, which was reversed with supplemental methionine. In contrast, neither elevated plasma homocysteine nor brain S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine concentrations predicted cognitive impairment and its prevention by methionine. The correspondence of cognitive outcomes to changes in brain membrane phosphatidylcholine content suggests that altered phosphatidylcholine and possibly choline metabolism might contribute to the manifestation of folate deficiency-related cognitive dysfunction.

  9. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  10. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon γ-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase I in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in

  11. Selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies induce widespread pyogranuloma formation in mice, while high levels of dietary selenium decrease liver tumor size driven by TGFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying l...

  12. Dietary Deficiency of Calcium and/or Iron, an Age-Related Risk Factor for Renal Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyong-Son; Sano, Erika; Ueda, Hidenori; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Keita; Takano, Masaoki; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The major route of cadmium (Cd) intake by non-smokers is through food ingestion. Cd is a non-essential metal absorbed through one or more transporters of essential metal ions. Expression of these transporters is affected by nutritional status. To investigate the risk factors for Cd toxicity, the effects of deficiency of essential metals on hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd were studied in mice of different ages. Mice were administered a control diet or one of the essential metal-deficient diets, administered Cd by gavage for 6 weeks, and killed; then, Cd accumulation was evaluated. Iron deficiency (FeDF) or calcium deficiency (CaDF) resulted in remarkable increases in hepatic and renal Cd accumulation compared with control-diet mice and other essential metal-deficient mice. Cd accumulation in hepatic and renal tissue was increased significantly at all ages tested in FeDF and CaDF mice. Renal Cd concentrations were higher in 4-week-old mice than in 8- and 25-week-old mice. Increase in intestinal mRNA expression of calcium transporter (CaT)1, divalent metal ion transporter-1, and metallothionein (MT)1 was also higher in 4-week-old mice than in other mice. Renal accumulation of Cd showed strong correlation with intestinal mRNA expression of CaT1 and MT1. These data suggest that CaDF and FeDF at younger ages can be a risk factor for Cd toxicity.

  13. Occurrence of cleft-palate and alteration of Tgf-β(3) expression and the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion in mice following dietary folic-acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Estela; Murillo, Jorge; Barrio, Carmen; del Río, Aurora; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Partearroyo, Teresa; Paradas, Irene; Maestro, Carmen; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is essential for numerous bodily functions. Its decrease during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations in the progeny. The relationship between FA deficiency and the appearance of cleft palate (CP) is controversial, and little information exists on a possible effect of FA on palate development. We investigated the effect of a 2-8 weeks' induced FA deficiency in female mice on the development of CP in their progeny as well as the mechanisms leading to palatal fusion, i.e. cell proliferation, cell death, and palatal-shelf adhesion and fusion. We showed that an 8 weeks' maternal FA deficiency caused complete CP in the fetuses although a 2 weeks' maternal FA deficiency was enough to alter all the mechanisms analyzed. Since transforming growth factor-β(3) (TGF-β(3)) is crucial for palatal fusion and since most of the mechanisms impaired by FA deficiency were also observed in the palates of Tgf-β(3)null mutant mice, we investigated the presence of TGF-β(3) mRNA, its protein and phospho-SMAD2 in FA-deficient (FAD) mouse palates. Our results evidenced a large reduction in Tgf-β(3) expression in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 8 weeks; Tgf-β(3) expression was less reduced in palates of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks. Addition of TGF-β(3) to palatal-shelf cultures of embryos of dams fed an FAD diet for 2 weeks normalized all the altered mechanisms. Thus, an insufficient folate status may be a risk factor for the development of CP in mice, and exogenous TGF-β(3) compensates this deficit in vitro.

  14. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg(-1) calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg(-1), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01), up to 31.04 mg kg(-1), with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg(-1) PA exhibited higher (P<0.01) docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg(-1). Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA

  15. Effects of Dietary Pantothenic Acid on Growth, Intestinal Function, Anti-Oxidative Status and Fatty Acids Synthesis of Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan;