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Sample records for antioxidant effects exhibited

  1. Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zambonin, Laura; Caliceti, Cristiana; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana; Landi, Laura; Prata, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach. PMID:22792417

  2. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  3. Saraca indica bark extract shows in vitro antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and does not exhibit toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K R; Singh, R K

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy.

  4. Turmerin, the antioxidant protein from turmeric (Curcuma longa) exhibits antihyperglycaemic effects.

    PubMed

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Raghu, K G; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of proteinaceous inhibitors are present in plants to protect themselves from hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, turmerin, a water-soluble peptide in turmeric rhizomes, was evaluated for its inhibitory potential against glucosidase and its antioxidant (AO) capacity. Turmerin inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities with IC₅₀ values 31 and 192 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. Under the experimental conditions, those values for a standard glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, were 81 and 296 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The AO capacity of turmerin was evaluated using in vitro assay systems. Turmerin showed good DPPH (IC₅₀ = 29 µg mL⁻¹) and superoxide (IC₅₀ = 48 µg mL⁻¹) and moderate ABTS (IC₅₀ = 83 µg mL⁻¹) radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation (IC₅₀ = 101 µg mL⁻¹) capacities. The inhibitory potential showed by turmerin against enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, as well as its moderate AO capacity, could rationalise the traditional usage of turmeric rhizome preparations against diabetes.

  5. Humulus japonicus extract exhibits antioxidative and anti-aging effects via modulation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, BOKYUNG; CHUNG, JI WON; BAE, HA RAM; CHOI, JAE SUE; KIM, CHEOL MIN; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2015-01-01

    The perennial herb, Humulus japonicus, has been previously described as possessing potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the anti-aging activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of H. japonicus (HJE) was evaluated in yeast and human fibroblast cells. In addition, the antioxidant activity of HJE was analyzed using free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the hypothesized HJE-associated extension of lifespan was investigated, and the results indicated that HJE was able to extend the lifespan of yeast cells. Further experiments demonstrated that HJE upregulated the longevity-associated proteins, sirtuin 1 and AMP-activated protein kinase, and effectively inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the antioxidative potential of the active constituents of HJE, including luteolin, luteolin 7-glycoside, quercetin and quercitrin, was evaluated and the results demonstrated that these flavonoids were able to scavenge ROS in cell-free and intracellular systems. In summary, the results revealed that HJE possessed the potential for antioxidative activity; however, further in vivo investigations are required with the aim of developing safe, high-efficacy anti-aging agents. PMID:26136899

  6. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-Fayoumy, Eman A.

    2011-01-01

    The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%). However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:21869863

  7. Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. Extract Has a High Antioxidant Capacity and Exhibits Hair Growth-promoting Effects in Male C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Choi, Joo Yeon; Park, Byung Cheol; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. (PSE) extract on mouse hair growth and to determine the mechanism of action of PSE. PSE was purchased and its antioxidant activities, such as electron donating ability, total polyphenol content, and flavonoid content were tested. Toxicity during topical treatment was determined by the CCK-8 assay, a cell viability test. Fifteen 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to receive one of three treatments: dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), minoxidil (positive control) or PSE. Test materials were topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 weeks. After 21 days, we observed skin tissue hair follicle morphology and length, mast cell number, and stem cell factor (SCF) expression using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines involved in hair growth [i.e., insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] was determined by PCR. PSE was found to have very high antioxidant activity. The cell viability rate of PSE-treated mice was markedly higher than that of mice in the control group. We also observed an increase in hair follicle length, strong SCF staining, and a decrease in mast cell number in the PSE group. In addition, PSE-treated mice had higher IGF-1 and KGF expression and lower TGF-β1 expression than mice in the minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that topical application of PSE promotes hair growth by intensifying SCF, suppressing mast cell production, and increasing hair growth-promoting cytokine expression. PMID:25320710

  8. Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. Extract Has a High Antioxidant Capacity and Exhibits Hair Growth-promoting Effects in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jin; Choi, Joo Yeon; Park, Byung Cheol; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Platycarya strobilacea S. et Z. (PSE) extract on mouse hair growth and to determine the mechanism of action of PSE. PSE was purchased and its antioxidant activities, such as electron donating ability, total polyphenol content, and flavonoid content were tested. Toxicity during topical treatment was determined by the CCK-8 assay, a cell viability test. Fifteen 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to receive one of three treatments: dimethyl sulfoxide (negative control), minoxidil (positive control) or PSE. Test materials were topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of each mouse daily for 3 weeks. After 21 days, we observed skin tissue hair follicle morphology and length, mast cell number, and stem cell factor (SCF) expression using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines involved in hair growth [i.e., insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] was determined by PCR. PSE was found to have very high antioxidant activity. The cell viability rate of PSE-treated mice was markedly higher than that of mice in the control group. We also observed an increase in hair follicle length, strong SCF staining, and a decrease in mast cell number in the PSE group. In addition, PSE-treated mice had higher IGF-1 and KGF expression and lower TGF-β1 expression than mice in the minoxidil-treated group. These results suggest that topical application of PSE promotes hair growth by intensifying SCF, suppressing mast cell production, and increasing hair growth-promoting cytokine expression. PMID:25320710

  9. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  10. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2′- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. PMID:23569980

  11. New lipophilic piceatannol derivatives exhibiting antioxidant activity prepared by aromatic hydroxylation with 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX).

    PubMed

    Bernini, Roberta; Barontini, Maurizio; Spatafora, Carmela

    2009-01-01

    Piceatannol (E-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin synthesized in grapes in response to stress conditions. It exhibits strong antioxidant and antileukaemic activities due to the presence of the catechol moiety. To modify some physical properties like solubility, and miscibility in non-aqueous media some new previously unreported piceatannol derivatives having lipophilic chains on the A-ring were prepared in good yields by a simple and efficient procedure. The key step was a chemo- and regioselective aromatic hydroxylation with 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX). The new compounds showed antioxidant activity and seemed promising for possible applications as multifunctional emulsifiers in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical fields.

  12. Carlina acaulis Exhibits Antioxidant Activity and Counteracts Aβ Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Link, Pille; Roth, Kevin; Sporer, Frank; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Carlina acaulis is a medicinal plant that has shown antioxidant activity in in vitro studies, but to date no corresponding in vivo data is available. Therefore, in the present study the antioxidant activity and its impact in counteracting Aβ toxicity were studied in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. A dichloromethane extract of the roots of C. acaulis was prepared and characterised via gas-liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GLC-MS). The in vitro antioxidant activity was confirmed via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl assay. The extract was further separated by thin layer chromatography into two fractions, one of which was a fraction of the dichloromethane extract of C. acaulis containing mostly Carlina oxide (CarOx). Different strains of C. elegans were employed to study the expression of hsp-16.2p::GFP as a marker for oxidative stress, delocalisation of the transcription factor DAF-16 as a possible mechanism of antioxidant activity, the effect of the drug under lethal oxidative stress, and the effect against beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in a paralysis assay. The C. acaulis extract and CarOx showed high antioxidant activity (stress reduction by 47% and 64%, respectively) in C. elegans and could activate the transcription factor DAF-16 which directs the expression of anti-stress genes. In paralysis assay, only the total extract was significantly active, delaying paralysis by 1.6 h. In conclusion, in vivo antioxidant activity was shown for C. acaulis for the first time in the C. elegans model. The active antioxidant compound is Carlina oxide. This activity, however, is not sufficient to counteract Aβ toxicity. Other mechanisms and possibly other active compounds are involved in this effect. PMID:27384550

  13. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  14. Electrochemical approaches employed for sensing the antioxidant capacity exhibited by vegetal extracts: a review.

    PubMed

    Hilgemann, Maurício; Bassetto, Victor Costa; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2013-02-01

    Vegetal extracts are among the most important source of polyphenols in the diet, highlighting the importance of their characterization and determination. For this reason, analytical methods have gained increasing interest, with many publications devoted to this subject. Among the wide possibilities of analytical methods, electroanalytical techniques can provide valuable information, since the antioxidant activity of polyphenols is related to their electrochemical properties. This review analyzes and highlights the role of electroanalytical approaches for sensing the antioxidant capacity exhibited by vegetal extracts, as well as focuses on their importance for human health. The analytical capacity of the electrochemistry is comprehensively stated with the selected results found in the literature, mainly from 2000 up to the present date.

  15. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  16. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  17. Genetically Engineered Immunomodulatory Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Producing Antioxidant Enzymes Exhibit Enhanced Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Silvina; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Martin, Rebeca; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having both immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro, in different cellular models, and in vivo, in a mouse model of colitis. Different Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were cocultured with primary cultures of mononuclear cells. Analysis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by these cells after coincubation with candidate bacteria revealed that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 and S. thermophilus CRL 807 display the highest anti-inflammatory profiles in vitro. Moreover, these results were confirmed in vivo by the determination of the cytokine profiles in large intestine samples of mice fed with these strains. S. thermophilus CRL 807 was then transformed with two different plasmids harboring the genes encoding catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes, and the anti-inflammatory effects of recombinant streptococci were evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Our results showed a decrease in weight loss, lower liver microbial translocation, lower macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, and modulation of the cytokine production in the large intestines of mice treated with either CAT- or SOD-producing streptococci compared to those in mice treated with the wild-type strain or control mice without any treatment. Furthermore, the greatest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in mice receiving a mixture of both CAT- and SOD-producing streptococci. The addition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 864 to this mixture did not improve their beneficial effects. These findings show that genetically engineering a candidate bacterium (e.g., S. thermophilus CRL 807) with intrinsic immunomodulatory properties by introducing a gene expressing an antioxidant enzyme enhances its anti

  18. Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Khan, Shabana I; Ferreira, Daneel

    2009-11-11

    Many health benefits of pomegranate products have been attributed to the potent antioxidant action of their tannin components, mainly punicalagins and ellagic acid. While moving through the intestines, ellagitannins are metabolized by gut bacteria into urolithins that readily enter systemic circulation. In this study, the antioxidant properties of seven urolithin derivatives were evaluated in a cell-based assay. This method is biologically more relevant because it reflects bioavailability of the test compound to the cells, and the antioxidant action is determined in the cellular environment. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity of urolithins was correlated with the number of hydroxy groups as well as the lipophilicity of the molecule. The most potent antioxidants are urolithins C and D with IC(50) values of 0.16 and 0.33 microM, respectively, when compared to IC(50) values of 1.1 and 1.4 microM of the parent ellagic acid and punicalagins, respectively. The dihydroxylated urolithin A showed weaker antioxidant activity, with an IC(50) value 13.6 microM, however, the potency was within the range of urolithin A plasma concentrations. Therefore, products of the intestinal microbial transformation of pomegranate ellagitannins may account for systemic antioxidant effects.

  19. Schizandrin ameliorates ovariectomy-induced memory impairment, potentiates neurotransmission and exhibits antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhong-Jiao; Wang, Chun-Yang; Xie, Xun; Yang, Jing-Fang; Huang, Jun-Ni; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Schizandrin (SCH) has been reported to prevent or reduce learning and memory defects. However, it is not known whether SCH ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by oestrogen deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SCH on memory in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX rats. Experimental Approach A passive avoidance test was used to evaluate the effect of SCH on memory. Field EPSPs were recorded in hippocampal slices using an electrophysiological method. In OVX rats, biochemical parameters in the bilateral hippocampus were measured; these included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and AChE. Also, the number of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) positive neurons was counted by NADPH-d histochemistry staining technique. Key Results Oral SCH improved the memory and facilitated the induction of long-term potentiation in non-OVX and OVX rats; this effect was more obvious in OVX rats. Similarly, SCH perfusion enhanced synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from both non-OVX and OVX rats. However, SCH perfusion reduced the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation only in OVX but not in non-OVX rats. In addition, SCH decreased AChE activity and MDA level and increased SOD activity and the number of NADPH-d-positive neurons in OVX rats. Conclusions and Implications SCH improves memory in OVX rats and its potential mechanisms may include a reduction in the loss of hippocampal NADPH-d positive neurons, an increase of antioxidant properties and a potentiation of synaptic transmission that possibly involves to enhance cholinergic function. Overall, our findings indicate that SCH has potential as a therapeutic strategy for the cognitive dysfunctions associated with the menopause. PMID:25573619

  20. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    If aging is due to or contributed by free radical reactions, as postulated by the free radical theory of aging, lifespan of organisms should be extended by administration of exogenous antioxidants. This paper reviews data on model organisms concerning the effects of exogenous antioxidants (antioxidant vitamins, lipoic acid, coenzyme Q, melatonin, resveratrol, curcumin, other polyphenols, and synthetic antioxidants including antioxidant nanoparticles) on the lifespan of model organisms. Mechanisms of effects of antioxidants, often due to indirect antioxidant action or to action not related to the antioxidant properties of the compounds administered, are discussed. The legitimacy of antioxidant supplementation in human is considered. PMID:24783202

  1. Urolithins, Intestinal Microbial Metabolites of Pomegranate Ellagitannins, Exhibit Potent Antioxidant Activity in Cell-Based Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many health benefits of pomegranate products have been attributed to the potent antioxidant action of their tannin components, mainly punicalagins and ellagic acid. While moving through the intestines, ellagitannins are metabolized by gut bacteria into urolithins that readily enter systemic circulat...

  2. Uric Acid and Antioxidant Effects of Wine

    PubMed Central

    Boban, Mladen; Modun, Darko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the role of uric acid in the context of antioxidant effects of wine and its potential implication to human health. We described and discussed the mechanisms of increase in plasma antioxidant capacity after consumption of moderate amounts of wine. Because this effect is largely contributed by acute elevation in plasma uric acid, we paid special attention to wine constituents and metabolic processes that are likely to be involved in uric acid elevation. PMID:20162741

  3. Effect of cultural system and essential oil treatment on antioxidant capacity in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Shiow Y; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Zheng, Yonghua; Wang, Chien Y

    2012-05-01

    The effects of cultural system and essential oil treatment on antioxidant capacities in raspberries were evaluated. Raspberries were hand-harvested from organic and conventional farms in Maryland, USA, and were treated with essential oil including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and linalool. Results from this study showed that raspberries grown from organic culture exhibited higher value of antioxidant capacities and individual flavonoids contents. Moreover, the organic culture also enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, essential oil treatments promoted the antioxidant enzymes activities and antioxidant capacities of raspberries, and the most effective compound was perillaldehyde. In conclusion, raspberries produced from organic culture contained significantly higher antioxidant capacities than those produce from conventional culture. Postharvest essential oil treatments have positive effect on enhancing antioxidant capacities in raspberries from both organic and conventional cultures.

  4. Kaempferol Exhibits Progestogenic Effects in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toh, May Fern; Mendonca, Emma; Eddie, Sharon L.; Endsley, Michael P.; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Petukhov, Pavel A.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Progesterone (P4) plays a central role in women's health. Synthetic progestins are used clinically in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), oral contraceptives, and for the treatment of endometriosis and infertility. Unfortunately, synthetic progestins are associated with side effects, including cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Botanical dietary supplements are widely consumed for the alleviation of a variety of gynecological issues, but very few studies have characterized natural compounds in terms of their ability to bind to and activate progesterone receptors (PR). Kaempferol is a flavonoid that functions as a non-steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in vitro. This study investigated the molecular and physiological effects of kaempferol in the ovariectomized rat uteri. Methods Since genistein is a phytoestrogen that was previously demonstrated to increase uterine weight and proliferation, the ability of kaempferol to block genistein action in the uterus was investigated. Analyses of proliferation, steroid receptor expression, and induction of well-established PR-regulated targets Areg and Hand2 were completed using histological analysis and qPCR gene induction experiments. In addition, kaempferol in silico binding analysis was completed for PR. The activation of estrogen and androgen receptor signalling was determined in vitro. Results Molecular docking analysis confirmed that kaempferol adopts poses that are consistent with occupying the ligand-binding pocket of PRA. Kaempferol induced expression of PR regulated transcriptional targets in the ovariectomized rat uteri, including Hand2 and Areg. Consistent with progesterone-l ke activity, kaempferol attenuated genistein-induced uterine luminal epithelial proliferation without increasing uterine weight. Kaempferol signalled without down regulating PR expression in vitro and in vivo and without activating estrogen and androgen receptors. Conclusion Taken together, these data

  5. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in hairless mice and exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Ana L M; Campanini, Marcela Z; Martinez, Renata M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Martins, Frederico S; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antioxidant and inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the mechanisms of PDTC were investigated in cell free oxidant/antioxidant assays, in vivo UVB irradiation in hairless mice and UVB-induced NFκB activation in keratinocytes. PDTC presented the ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH); and also efficiently inhibited iron-dependent and -independent lipid peroxidation as well as chelated iron. In vivo, PDTC treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant capacity of the skin tested by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS assays. PDTC also reduced UVB-induced IκB degradation in keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PDTC presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which line up well with the PDTC inhibition of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. These data suggest that treatment with PDTC may be a promising approach to reduce UVB irradiation-induced skin damages and merits further pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  6. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  7. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

  8. High-amylose corn exhibits better antioxidant activity than typical and waxy genotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wende; Wei, Chunliang Victor; White, Pamela J; Beta, Trust

    2007-01-24

    The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rich in antioxidative phytochemicals is associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataract, and aged-related functional decline. For example, phenolic acids are among the main antioxidative phytochemicals in grains that have been shown to be beneficial to human health. Corn (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food in several parts of the world; thus, the antioxidant activity of several corn types was evaluated. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances (ACL), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and phenolic acid compositions of typical and mutant genotypes (typical-1, waxy, typical-2, and high-amylose) were investigated. The DPPH* scavenging activity at 60 min was 34.39-44.51% in methanol extracts and 60.41-67.26% in HCl/methanol (1/99, v/v) extracts of corn. The DPPH* scavenging activity of alkaline hydrolysates of corn ranged from 48.63 to 64.85%. The TPC ranged from 0.67 to 1.02 g and from 0.91 to 2.15 g of ferulic acid equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. The TPC of alkaline hydrolysates ranged from 2.74 to 6.27 g of ferulic acid equiv/kg of corn. The ACL values were 0.41-0.80 and 0.84-1.59 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. The ORAC values were 10.57-12.47 and 18.76-24.92 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. ORAC values of alkaline hydrolysates ranged from 42.85 to 68.31 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn. The composition of phenolic acids in alkaline hydrolysates of corn was p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.08-10.6 mg/kg), vanillic acid (3.25-14.71 mg/kg), caffeic acid (2.32-25.73 mg/kg), syringic acid (12.37-24.48 mg/kg), p-coumaric acid (97.87-211.03 mg/kg), ferulic acid (1552.48-2969.10 mg/kg), and o

  9. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  10. Patatin, the tuber storage protein of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2003-07-16

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber storage protein, patatin, was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The purified patatin showed antioxidant or antiradical activity by a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC(50), was 0.582 mg/mL) scavenging activity assays, anti-human low-density lipoprotein peroxidation tests, and protections against hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA damages and peroxynitrite-mediated dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detections, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by the increased amounts of patatin added (IC(50) was 0.775 mg/mL). Through modifications of patatin by iodoacetamide or N-bromosuccinimide, it was found that the antiradical activities of modified patatin against DPPH or hydroxyl radicals were decreased. It was suggested that cysteine and tryptophan residues in patatin might contribute to its antioxidant activities against radicals.

  11. Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lisu; Tu, Yi-Chen; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Hung, Jing-Ting; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-12-27

    The antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols have been suggested to be structure-related. Results revealed that selected flavonols, including fisetin (F), kaempferol (K), morin (MO), myricetin (MY), and quercetin (Q), exhibited distinctive free radical scavenging properties against different kinds of free radicals. The H donation (DPPH bleaching) potential was Q > F approximately equals MY > MO > K, indicating that the presence of a 3',4'-catechol moiety in the B ring correlated with high activity. The 4'-OH in the B ring was suggested to be important for reducing xanthing/xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide; while an additional OH moiety on the ortho sites (3' or 5') attenuated the effect as the observed inhibitory potency was K approximately equals MO > Q > F > MY. The relative inhibitory effect for Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical was K approximately equals MO approximately equals Q > F > MY. This result implies the involvement of 4-keto, 5-OH region in Fe++ chelating and the negative effect of pyrogallol moiety in the B ring. Similar to the inhibitory activity against a N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP)-stimulated oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), our result showed that the structural peculiarity of the di-OH in the B ring obviously rendered F, Q, and MO more potent as ROS inhibitors than MY and K, which have tri- and mono-OH in the B ring, respectively. All of the previous data indicated that the structure prerequisite to reinforce the free radical scavenging activity varies with the type of free radical. We further analyzed the effects of flavonols on nitric oxide (NO) production in endotoxin-stimulated murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. Results showed that all flavonols (up to 10 microM) inhibited NO production without exerting detectable cytotoxicity. F, K, and Q dose-dependently repressed iNOS mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, in part through an attenuating NF-kappaB signaling

  12. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  13. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy. PMID:24114345

  14. Dietary sources and antioxidant effects of ergothioneine.

    PubMed

    Ey, Janine; Schömig, Edgar; Taubert, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    Ergothioneine is a native membrane-impermeable thiol compound that is specifically accumulated in cells via the organic cation transporter OCTN1. In humans, OCTN1 and ergothioneine have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. However, available evidence about dietary sources and the functional role of ergothioneine in human physiology is scarce. Here, we analyzed the ergothioneine content in common foods using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Additionally, we assessed the protective potency of ergothioneine against various oxidative stressors in OCTN1-expressing cells in comparison with the main intracellular thiol antioxidant glutathione by evaluating cell viability with the MTT reduction assay. Only some food contained ergothioneine with highest concentrations detected in specialty mushrooms, kidney, liver, black and red beans, and oat bran. Ergothioneine exhibited cell protection only against copper(II)-induced toxicity but was far less potent than glutathione, indicting that ergothioneine is not involved in the intracellular antioxidant thiol defense system. PMID:17616140

  15. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Longlong; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Mingxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor effects of the extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen. Methods: Four different fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen were obtained by the extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol, respectively, which were used to treat the HCT116, Caco-2, HepG2, and MFC cells. Free radical scavenging effects of the ferula fractions were deteced with the DPPH assay. Effects of the ferula fractions on the peroliferatoin of the tumor cells were assessed with the SRB assay. Apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The DPPH assay showed that the petroleum ether fraction hardly showed any antioxidant activity, while the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol fractions exhibited free radical-scavenging capacities, in a dose dependent manner. The SRB assay showed that, the proliferation of the tumor cells could be inhibited by the ferula fractions, in a dose dependent manner. However, differential effects were observed for the different fractions in different model cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the most efficient inhibiting effects on the tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the flow cytometry showed that, all the ferula fractions significantly enhanced the apoptotic process in the tumor cells, with differential enhancing capacities in different model cells. Conclusion: Extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen could exert antioxidant, proliferation-inhibiting, and apoptosis-enhancing effects in tumor cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibits the most potent antioxidant and antitumor effects. PMID:26885009

  16. Photodegradation of avobenzone: stabilization effect of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Afonso, S; Horita, K; Sousa e Silva, J P; Almeida, I F; Amaral, M H; Lobão, P A; Costa, P C; Miranda, Margarida S; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G; Sousa Lobo, J M

    2014-11-01

    Avobenzone is one of the most common UVA-filters in sunscreens, and is known to be photounstable. Some of the strategies used to stabilize this filter present some drawbacks like photosensitization reactions. Antioxidants are widely used as cosmetic ingredients that prevent photoageing and complement the photoprotection offered by the UV-filters preventing or reducing photogenerated reactive species. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of antioxidants in the photostabilization of avobenzone. The filter dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide or incorporated in a sunscreen formulation was irradiated with simulated solar radiation (750 W/m(2)). The tested antioxidants were vitamin C, vitamin E, and ubiquinone. The area under the curve of the absorption spectrum for UVA range and the sun protection factor (SPF) were calculated. Vitamin E (1:2), vitamin C (1:0.5) and ubiquinone (1:0.5) were the more effective concentrations increasing the photostability of avobenzone. In sunscreen formulations, the most effective photostabilizer was ubiquinone which also promoted an increase in SPF. This knowledge is important to improve effectiveness of sunscreen formulation. Antioxidants can be valuable ingredients for sunscreens with a triple activity of filter stabilization, SPF boosting and photoageing prevention.

  17. Antioxidant and astroprotective effects of a Pulicaria incisa infusion.

    PubMed

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Ofir, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi) was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role.

  18. Antiatherogenic effects of the antioxidant BO-653 in three different animal models

    PubMed Central

    Cynshi, Osamu; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takashima, Yoshiaki; Kaise, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Minako; Ohba, Yasuhiro; Kato, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Kunio; Hayasaka, Akira; Higashida, Atsuko; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Takeya, Motohiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Kenji; Noguchi, Noriko; Niki, Etsuo; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidants have been proposed to have antiatherogenic potential by their inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Here, we report an antioxidant, BO-653 (2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2,2-dipentyl-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzofuran), designed to exhibit antioxidative potency comparable to that of α-tocopherol, but yet possess a high degree of lipophilicity comparable to that of probucol. BO-653 exhibits a high affinity for LDL and is well distributed in aortic vessels in vivo. In atherosclerosis models of rabbits and mice, BO-653 has been shown to be able to suppress the formation of atherosclerotic lesions without untoward side effects. Specifically, there was no reduction of high density lipoprotein levels. This antioxidant provides additional evidence in support of the oxidized-LDL hypothesis, and itself is a promising candidate antioxidant for clinical use. PMID:9707611

  19. Effect of Electron Donating Groups on Polyphenol-based Antioxidant Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Nanah, Cyprien; Held, Rich; Clark, Amanda; Huynh, Uyen; Maraskine, Marina C.; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; McCracken, John; Sharma, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the beneficial effects of antioxidants in human diseases. Among their biological effects, a majority of antioxidants scavenge reactive radicals in the body, thereby reducing oxidative stress that is associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidant dendrimers are a new class of potent antioxidant compounds reported recently. In this study, six polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers with or without electron donating groups (methoxy group) were synthesized in order to elucidate the influence of electron donating groups (EDG) on their antioxidant activities. Syringaldehyde (2 ortho methoxy groups), vanillin (1 ortho methoxy group), and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0 methoxy group) were derivatized with propargylamine to form building blocks for the dendrimers. All the six dendrimers contain polyether cores, which were synthesized by attaching pentaerythritol and methyl α-D-glucopyranoside to in-house prepared spacer units. To prepare generation 1 antioxidant dendrimers, microwave energy and granulated metallic copper catalyst were used to link the cores and building blocks together via alkyne-azide 1,3-cycloaddition click chemistry. These reaction conditions resulted in high yields of the target dendrimers that were free from copper contamination. Based on DPPH antioxidant assay, antioxidant dendrimers decorated with syringaldehyde and vanillin exhibited over 70- and 170-fold increase in antioxidant activity compared to syringaldehyde and vanillin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of dendrimers increased with increasing number of EDG groups. Similar results were obtained when the dendrimers were used to protect DNA and human LDL against organic carbon and nitrogen-based free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant dendrimers did not show any pro-oxidant activity on DNA in the presence of physiological amounts of copper. Although the dendrimers showed potent antioxidant activities against carbon and nitrogen free radicals

  20. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Crataegus songarica methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Tanveer Ali; Zargar, Bilal; Hamid, Rabia; Zargar, Ovais; Dar, Parvaiz Ahmad; Abeer, Shayaq Ul; Masood, Akbar; Amin, Shajrul; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal

    2014-01-01

    The protective activity of the methanolic extract of the Crataegus songarica leaves was investigated against CCl4- and paracetamol-induced liver damage. On folklore levels, this plant is popularly used to treat various toxicological diseases. We evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of C. songarica. At higher concentration of plant extract (700 µg/ml), 88.106% inhibition on DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed and reducing power of extract was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed its inhibition on Fe2+/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation on rat liver microsomes in vitro. In addition, C. songarica extract exhibited antioxidant effects on calf thymus DNA damage induced by Fenton reaction. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, i.p.) and paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) and the extract was administered at three concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver. Administration of CCl4 elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, SGOT, SGPT, and LDH. We also observed a dramatic increase in ALT, AST, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase levels in rats administered 500 mg/kg body weight of paracetamol. Decreased antioxidant defense system as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in rats treated with CCl4 and paracetamol. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase activities and increased the antioxidant enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, C. songarica methanol extract may be an effective hepatic protective agent and viable candidate for treating hepatic disorders and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:24941296

  1. Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Bowen, R; Cai, Q; Barnes, S; Wang, Y

    1995-01-01

    Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein have been studied in HL-60 cells and the mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Effects of structure-related flavone/isoflavones on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-activated HL-60 cells and superoxide anion (O2-) generation by xanthine/xanthine oxidase were compared. Of tested isoflavones, genistein is the most potent inhibitor among TPA-induced H2O2 formation by (dimethyl sulfoxide) DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells, daidzein is second, and apigenin and biochanin A show little effect. In contrast, genistein, apigenin, and prunectin are equally potent in inhibiting O2- generation by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with daidzein showing a moderate inhibitory effect and biochanin A exhibiting no effect. These results suggest that the antioxidant properties of isoflavones are structurally related and the hydroxy group at Position 4' is crucial in both systems. Dietary administration of 250 ppm genistein for 30 days significantly enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the skin and small intestine of mice. Further studies show that genistein significantly inhibits TPA-induced proto-oncogene expression (c-fos) in mouse skin in a dose-dependent manner. In a two-stage skin carcinogenesis study, low levels of genistein (1 and 5 mumol) significantly prolong tumor latency and decrease tumor multiplicity by approximately 50%. We conclude that genistein's antioxidant properties and antiproliferative effects may be responsible for its anticarcinogenic effect. Its high content in soybeans and relatively high bioavailability favor genistein as a promising candidate for the prevention of human cancers.

  2. Biobreeding rat islets exhibit reduced antioxidative defense and N-acetyl cysteine treatment delays type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bogdani, Marika; Henschel, Angela M.; Kansra, Sanjay; Fuller, Jessica M.; Geoffrey, Rhonda; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L.; Pavletich, Scott; Prosser, Simon; Chen, Yi-Guang; Lernmark, Åke; Hessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Islet-level oxidative stress has been proposed as a trigger for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and release of cytokines by infiltrating immune cells further elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS), exacerbating β cell duress. To identify genes/mechanisms involved with diabeto-genesis at the β cell level, gene expression profiling and targeted follow-up studies were used to investigate islet activity in the biobreeding (BB) rat. Forty-day-old spontaneously diabetic lymphopenic BB DRlyp/lyp rats (before T cell insulitis) as well as nondiabetic BB DR+/+ rats, nondiabetic but lymphopenic F344lyp/lyp rats, and healthy Fischer (F344) rats were examined. Gene expression profiles of BB rat islets were highly distinct from F344 islets and under-expressed numerous genes involved in ROS metabolism, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members (Gstm2, Gstm4, Gstm7, Gstt1, Gstp1, and Gstk1), superoxide dismutases (Sod2 and Sod3), peroxidases, and peroxiredoxins. This pattern of under-expression was not observed in brain, liver, or muscle. Compared with F344 rats, BB rat pancreata exhibited lower GST protein levels, while plasma GST activity was found significantly lower in BB rats. Systemic administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine to DRlyp/lyp rats altered abundances of peripheral eosinophils, reduced severity of insulitis, and significantly delayed but did not prevent diabetes onset. We find evidence of β cell dysfunction in BB rats independent of T1D progression, which includes lower expression of genes related to antioxidative defense mechanisms during the pre-onset period that may contribute to overall T1D susceptibility. PMID:23111281

  3. Antioxidant therapy effectiveness: an up to date.

    PubMed

    Iannitti, T; Palmieri, B

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidants are chemical compounds that giving an electron to free radical molecules convert them to an harmless configuration, avoiding damaging chain reaction, which can involve lipids, proteins enzymes carbohydrates, DNA, cell and nuclear membranes up to the cell death. Being either exogenous or endogenous they are addressed to prevent the oxidation induced damage, a process that causes damage in all tissues through free radicals chemical reactivity. A lot of natural, nutraceutical or chemical compounds are being actually marketed with a lot of different claims and are prescribed by doctors or sold over the counter. Unfortunately, in the medical literature many heterogeneous published articles support the use of this class of drugs, but most of them cannot be compared or pooled to achieve statistical significance of effectiveness. Our review aims at defining the state of the art of antioxidant therapy, with specific reference on the evidence based clinical use.

  4. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  5. New neptunium(V) borates that exhibit the alexandrite effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    A new neptunium(V) borate, K[(NpO(2))B(10)O(14)(OH)(4)], was synthesized using boric acid as a reactive flux. The compound possesses a layered structure in which Np(V) resides in triangular holes, creating a hexagonal-bipyramidal environment around neptunium. This compound is unusual in that it exhibits the Alexandrite effect, a property that is typically restricted to neptunium(IV) compounds.

  6. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  7. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  8. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO in vivo, using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered per os, at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil.

  9. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YEAP, SWEE KEONG; BEH, BOON KEE; ALI, NORLAILY MOHD; YUSOF, HAMIDAH MOHD; HO, WAN YONG; KOH, SOO PENG; ALITHEEN, NOORJAHAN BANU; LONG, KAMARIAH

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO in vivo, using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered per os, at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil. PMID:25452773

  10. Antistress and antioxidant effects of virgin coconut oil in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2015-01-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been consumed worldwide for various health-related reasons and some of its benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Medium-chain fatty acids were found to be a potential antidepressant functional food; however, this effect had not been evaluated in VCO, which is rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistress and antioxidant effects of VCO in vivo, using mice with stress-induced injury. The antistress effect of VCO (administered per os, at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight) was evaluated using the forced swim test and chronic cold restraint stress models. VCO was able to reduce immobility time and restore oxidative stress in mice post-swim test. Furthermore, mice treated with VCO were found to exhibit higher levels of brain antioxidants, lower levels of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and reduced weight of the adrenal glands. Consequently, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and corticosterone levels were also lower in VCO-treated mice. These results suggest the potential value of VCO as an antistress functional oil. PMID:25452773

  11. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.

    Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  12. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  13. Antioxidant and Astroprotective Effects of a Pulicaria incisa Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Ofir, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi) was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role. PMID:23320126

  14. Effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya; Matsugi, Junko; Someya, Tatsushi; Masuda, Toshiya; Kishida, Taro; Akiyama, Koichi; Maruyama, Masafumi

    2007-09-01

    The effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (1) and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran (2), which have two secondary benzylic positions without oxygen, showed the highest antioxidant activity. Optically active verrucosin (4) was synthesized for the first time in this experiment.

  15. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  16. Recent Breakthroughs in the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Morella and Myrica Species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno J C; Seca, Ana M L; Barreto, Maria do Carmo; Pinto, Diana C G A

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and Morella genus (Myricaceae) are taxonomically very close and their species are trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine, for instance in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns and skin diseases. Nearly 36 compounds were isolated from different morphological parts of Myrica and/or Morella species and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities evaluated. Thirteen of these compounds exhibit greater effects than the positive controls used. Adenodimerin A was the most active compound reported (in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay EC50= 7.9 ± 0.3 µM). These results are just one aspect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations reported regarding Myrica and Morella species, so a comprehensive overview on the current status, highlighting the antioxidant health promoting effect of these species, their key antioxidant compounds as well as the compounds with protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases such as inflammation, is relevant. PMID:26308834

  17. Recent Breakthroughs in the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Morella and Myrica Species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno J. C.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Barreto, Maria do Carmo; Pinto, Diana C. G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and Morella genus (Myricaceae) are taxonomically very close and their species are trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine, for instance in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns and skin diseases. Nearly 36 compounds were isolated from different morphological parts of Myrica and/or Morella species and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities evaluated. Thirteen of these compounds exhibit greater effects than the positive controls used. Adenodimerin A was the most active compound reported (in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay EC50= 7.9 ± 0.3 µM). These results are just one aspect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations reported regarding Myrica and Morella species, so a comprehensive overview on the current status, highlighting the antioxidant health promoting effect of these species, their key antioxidant compounds as well as the compounds with protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases such as inflammation, is relevant.

  18. Recent Breakthroughs in the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Morella and Myrica Species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno J. C.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Barreto, Maria do Carmo; Pinto, Diana C. G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and Morella genus (Myricaceae) are taxonomically very close and their species are trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine, for instance in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns and skin diseases. Nearly 36 compounds were isolated from different morphological parts of Myrica and/or Morella species and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities evaluated. Thirteen of these compounds exhibit greater effects than the positive controls used. Adenodimerin A was the most active compound reported (in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay EC50= 7.9 ± 0.3 µM). These results are just one aspect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations reported regarding Myrica and Morella species, so a comprehensive overview on the current status, highlighting the antioxidant health promoting effect of these species, their key antioxidant compounds as well as the compounds with protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases such as inflammation, is relevant. PMID:26225964

  19. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    PubMed

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  20. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    PubMed

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  1. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  2. Interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antilieshmania effects of some selected Egyptian plants and their phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; El-Hela, Atef A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-12-01

    Medicinal plants are the most potential resource of new therapeutic agents. They are diverse, largely productive, biologically active and chemically unique; among their constituents "polyphenol compounds group" one of the main determinant factors in evaluating the pharmacological potentials i.e. polyphenols display an array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, immunostimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic effects. Cancer is a dreadful human disease, increasing with changing life style, nutrition and global warming while current available anticancer drugs cause serious side effects in most instances. Several reports suggested the relationship between antioxidant, anticancer and antiparasitic effects; they suggested that they act indirectly through promoting host resistance, restabilizing body equilibrim and conditioning body tissues in addition to their direct effect on certain parasites involved in cancer etiology. This work was conducted for estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycoside and iridoid content of twenty-three selected Egyptian plants as well as screening of their anticancer, antioxidant and antileishmanial effects, the overall gained results for suggest that the most suitable medicinal plant used as anticancer and antioxidant is Petrea volubilis L. which contain adequate mixture of total phenolic compounds 88.7 mg% and flavonoids 50.80 mg% and also suggest that flavonoid compounds are the category of phenolic compounds possess significant antioxidant and anticancer effects while the antilieshamnia screening revealed that Thymus decussatus Benth. extract exhibited the highest effect due to the presence of flavonoids and iridoids in adequate combination where iridoid compounds 201 mg% and flavonoid content was 128 mg%. PMID:22435170

  3. Interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antilieshmania effects of some selected Egyptian plants and their phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; El-Hela, Atef A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-12-01

    Medicinal plants are the most potential resource of new therapeutic agents. They are diverse, largely productive, biologically active and chemically unique; among their constituents "polyphenol compounds group" one of the main determinant factors in evaluating the pharmacological potentials i.e. polyphenols display an array of pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, immunostimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic effects. Cancer is a dreadful human disease, increasing with changing life style, nutrition and global warming while current available anticancer drugs cause serious side effects in most instances. Several reports suggested the relationship between antioxidant, anticancer and antiparasitic effects; they suggested that they act indirectly through promoting host resistance, restabilizing body equilibrim and conditioning body tissues in addition to their direct effect on certain parasites involved in cancer etiology. This work was conducted for estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, phenylethanoid glycoside and iridoid content of twenty-three selected Egyptian plants as well as screening of their anticancer, antioxidant and antileishmanial effects, the overall gained results for suggest that the most suitable medicinal plant used as anticancer and antioxidant is Petrea volubilis L. which contain adequate mixture of total phenolic compounds 88.7 mg% and flavonoids 50.80 mg% and also suggest that flavonoid compounds are the category of phenolic compounds possess significant antioxidant and anticancer effects while the antilieshamnia screening revealed that Thymus decussatus Benth. extract exhibited the highest effect due to the presence of flavonoids and iridoids in adequate combination where iridoid compounds 201 mg% and flavonoid content was 128 mg%.

  4. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Juliá, Luis; Fajari, Lluis; Almajano, MaríaPilar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O2 and 20% CO2) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant. PMID:26785344

  5. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins.

  6. Pimecrolimus micelle exhibits excellent therapeutic effect for Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.

    PubMed

    Yingfang, Fan; Zhuang, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xuelian; Xu, Wei; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    Poor corneal penetration and short residence time on the ocular surface are two major bottlenecks for conventional ophthalmic formulations. To overcome the foregoing dilemmas, we prepared two novel formulations of pimecrolimus nanomicelles (PNM) with particle size of 37.85 ± 1.21 nm and thermosensitive hydrogel (PTH) for treating Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS). PNM were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Malvern laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) system, and the content of drug in PNM was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency reached to 7.57% ± 0.10% and 97.9% ± 1.26%, respectively. PTH displayed special gel-sol transition behavior with temperature increasing from 4 °C to 37 °C. The in vitro release profile demonstrated that PNM and PTH exhibited sustained-release behavior compared with free pimecrolimus oil-based eye drop (FPO). In addition, we established a mouse model of KCS induced by benzalkonium chloride to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of different pimecrolimus formulations. The production of tear, fluorescein staining scores and histopathologic examinations of the cornea were assessed in detail. The results confirmed that PNM had the best therapeutic effect among all formulations based on its higher drug encapsulation capability, favourable permeability and sustained release. All these indicated that PNM could serve as a potent ophthalmologic agent for KCS. PMID:26731192

  7. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  8. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    PubMed

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice.

  9. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    PubMed Central

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  10. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  11. On NMR prediction of the effectiveness of p-phenylenediamine antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puškárová, Ingrid; Šoral, Michal; Breza, Martin

    2015-10-01

    NMR shifts of N-phenyl-N‧-alkyl-p-phenylenediamines (PPD) in DMSO have been measured as well as evaluated by B3LYP calculations. According to Simon et al. Molar Antioxidant Effectiveness (AEM) of PPD antioxidants depends on the bond strength of hydrogens to amine nitrogens between aromatic rings (NA), to the side aliphatic chain nitrogens (NB) and to its neighboring tertiary carbon atoms (CT). AEM increases with NMR shifts of HA, HB, NA and probably also of CT atoms whereas NMR shifts of NB atoms exhibit a reverse trend. This is very surprising because similar reactions at A and B sites are supposed.

  12. The antioxidant effect of derivatives pyroglutamic lactam

    SciTech Connect

    Rohadi, Atisya; Lazim, Azwani Mat; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2013-11-27

    Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is widely used for quickly accessing the ability of polyphenols to transfer labile H atoms to radicals. The antioxidant activity of all the synthesized compounds was screened by DPPH method. Compound (4) showed 54% antioxidant potential while all other compounds were found to have moderate to have moderate to mild antioxidant activity ranging from 47–52%. Pyroglutamic lactams have been synthesized stereoselectively in racemic form from levulinic acid as bifunctional adduct using convertible isocyanide in one-pot Ugi 4-center-3-component condensation reaction (U-4C-3CR). The product formed provides biologically interesting products in excellent yields in a short reaction time. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  13. The antioxidant effect of derivatives pyroglutamic lactam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohadi, Atisya; Lazim, Azwani Mat; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2013-11-01

    Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is widely used for quickly accessing the ability of polyphenols to transfer labile H atoms to radicals. The antioxidant activity of all the synthesized compounds was screened by DPPH method. Compound (4) showed 54% antioxidant potential while all other compounds were found to have moderate to have moderate to mild antioxidant activity ranging from 47-52%. Pyroglutamic lactams have been synthesized stereoselectively in racemic form from levulinic acid as bifunctional adduct using convertible isocyanide in one-pot Ugi 4-center-3-component condensation reaction (U-4C-3CR). The product formed provides biologically interesting products in excellent yields in a short reaction time. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  14. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  15. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  16. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  17. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  18. Polyphenols, antioxidants, and antimutagenic effects of Copaifera langsdorffii fruit.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ângela Giovana; Ferrari, Angélica Simões; da Cunha, Débora Cristina; da Silva, Juliana Kelly; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Carvalho-Silva, Luciano Bruno de; Esteves, Elizabethe Adriana; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2016-04-15

    Copaifera langsdorffii (copaiba) is a Brazilian exotic fruit, poorly studied regarding its bioactive composition. The aim of this study was to determine bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of copaiba pulp. The samples were extracted with different solvents in order to analyze polyphenol compounds (Folin Ciocalteau and HPLC-DAD), total flavonoids (reaction with AlCl3) and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ORAC, DPPH). The copaiba fruit showed high polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid, epicatechin gallate, catechin, epicatechin and isoquercitrin, were identified in the copaiba pulp. Despite the antioxidant capacity, the highest dose of copaiba showed no antimutagenic effects in the in vivo study. The dose which showed antimutagenic activity was 100 mg kg(-1).

  19. The immunomodulation effect of Aronia extract lacks association with its antioxidant anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Mojsoska, Biljana

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols comprise a diverse group of molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. To compare the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries), recognized for their high content of anthocyanins, a noncytotoxic isolation method was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes mono mac 6. The isolated AF, containing six different anthocyanins, exhibited a stronger antioxidative capacity compared to resveratrol. Resveratrol enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α and reduced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by LPS, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other than its anthocyanins.

  20. Anti-oxidative activity of pectin and its stabilizing effect on retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Jang, Soung Baek; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chakma, Suharto; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation. PMID:23776395

  1. A Dimeric Chlorite Dismutase Exhibits O2-Generating Activity and Acts as a Chlorite Antioxidant in Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) convert chlorite to O2 and Cl–, stabilizing heme in the presence of strong oxidants and forming the O=O bond with high efficiency. The enzyme from the pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpCld) represents a subfamily of Clds that share most of their active site structure with efficient O2-producing Clds, even though they have a truncated monomeric structure, exist as a dimer rather than a pentamer, and come from Gram-negative bacteria without a known need to degrade chlorite. We hypothesized that KpCld, like others in its subfamily, should be able to make O2 and may serve an in vivo antioxidant function. Here, it is demonstrated that it degrades chlorite with limited turnovers relative to the respiratory Clds, in part because of the loss of hypochlorous acid from the active site and destruction of the heme. The observation of hypochlorous acid, the expected leaving group accompanying transfer of an oxygen atom to the ferric heme, is consistent with the more open, solvent-exposed heme environment predicted by spectroscopic measurements and inferred from the crystal structures of related proteins. KpCld is more susceptible to oxidative degradation under turnover conditions than the well-characterized Clds associated with perchlorate respiration. However, wild-type K. pneumoniae has a significant growth advantage in the presence of chlorate relative to a Δcld knockout strain, specifically under nitrate-respiring conditions. This suggests that a physiological function of KpCld may be detoxification of endogenously produced chlorite. PMID:25437493

  2. Lutein derived fragments exhibit higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties than lutein in lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, Bhatiwada; Sharavana, Gurunathan; Ramaprasad, Talahalli R; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we appraise the anti-inflammatory efficacy of lutein oxidative degradation derivatives mediated through UV-irradiation over lutein in counteracting the inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats (n = 5 per group). UV-irradiated lutein fragments were identified as anhydrolutein (B, C40H54O), 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexa-1,4-dienylium (M1, C9H13), (2E,4E,6E,8E)-9-(4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-1en-1-yl)-3,7-dimethylnona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ylium (M2, C20H29O), 4-[(1E,3E,5E,7E)-3,7,-dimethyldeca-1,3,5,7-tetraen-1-yl]-3,5,5-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol (M3, C21H30O) and zeaxanthin (M4, C40H56O) and its isomers as 13'-Z zeaxanthin, 13'-Z lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, and 9-Z lutein. Induction of inflammation by LPS significantly increased the production of nitrites (3.3 fold in the serum and 2.6 fold in the liver), prostaglandin E2 (26 fold in the serum), and pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (6.6 fold in the serum), and interleukin-6 (4.8 fold in the serum). Oxidative derivatives of lutein, especially M1, M2 and M3, ameliorated acute inflammation in rats by inhibiting the production of nitrites, malondialdehyde (MDA), PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokines more efficiently than lutein in rats. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of derivatives might be related to the decrease of inflammatory cytokines and the increase of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase), which would result in the reduction of iNOS, COX-2 and MDA and subsequently inflammatory responses.

  3. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  4. Pro- and antioxidant effects and cytoprotective potentials of nine edible vegetables in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwalewa, E O; Adewunmi, C O; Omisore, N O A; Adebanji, O A; Azike, C K; Adigun, A O; Adesina, O A; Olowoyo, O G

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of boiled, cold, and methanolic extracts of nine edible vegetables in Southwest Nigeria were evaluated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and hemagglutination assay in bovine erythrocytes, respectively. Crassocephalum rubens showed the highest antioxidant activity (56.5%), Solanum americanum and Vernonia amygdalina exhibited moderate antioxidant activity (26.0-37.5% and 14.8-36.2%, respectively), Solanum macrocarpon, Telfaria occidentalis, Amaranthus hybridus, and Jatropha tanjorensis produced weak activity (1.6-15.8%, 1.6-7.7%, 2.8-6.62%, and 10.7-12.1%, respectively), while Celosia argentea and Talinum triangulare were pro-oxidants. It was also shown that extracts from all the vegetables are pro-oxidants at high concentrations of either 1 or 5 mg/mL or both. On the other hand, the studies on the cytoprotective effect showed that all the plant extracts demonstrated a very low hemagglutination titer value between 0.32 and 5.56 except S. americanum methanolic extract, which had a titer of 50.0. These results indicated correlation between the antioxidant properties and the hemagglutination values of these plant extracts; however, the membrane stabilizing capacity of the extracts supports the plants' antioxidant activity. PMID:16379569

  5. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health. PMID:25785644

  6. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  7. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition. PMID:24651472

  8. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect of Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.

    PubMed

    Hevesi, B T; Houghton, P J; Habtemariam, S; Kéry, A

    2009-05-01

    Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. (Onagraceae) is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its biological action is not entirely identified. This paper aims to report data on E. parviflorum with respect to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The aqueous acetone extract of E. parviflorum showed higher antioxidant effect in the DPPH assay than well known antioxidants and inhibited the lipid peroxidation determined by the TBA assay (IC(50) = 2.37 +/- 0.12 mg/mL). In concentrations of 0.2-15.0 microg/mL the extract possessed a protective effect, comparable to catalase (250 IU/mL), against oxidative damage, generated in fibroblast cells. In the COX inhibition assay E. parviflorum decreased the PGE(2) release, so showing inhibition of the COX-enzyme (IC(50) = 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/mL). PMID:19107731

  9. Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

    2014-04-01

    Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity.

  10. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Birch, John

    2014-02-24

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH(•), 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  11. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Birch, John

    2014-01-01

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems. PMID:26784664

  12. Effects of boron on structure and antioxidative activities of spleen in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qianqian; Li, Shenghe; Qiao, Enmei; Tang, Zhongtao; Jin, Erhui; Jin, Guangming; Gu, Youfang

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the relationship between boron and development of the spleen, especially in the promoting biological effects, we examined the effects of different levels of boron on weight, organ index, microstructure, and antioxidative activities of the spleen in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and treated with different concentrations of boron, and then, the organs were resected and weighed. One half of the tissue was fixed and embedded in paraffin to observe tissue structure changes. The other half of the tissue was homogenated for determining the antioxidant activities. The results showed that 40 mg/L of boron could increase weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and improve the spleen tissue structure, while the boron concentration above 80 mg/L could decrease weight, organ indexes, and antioxidant capacity of spleens and damage the spleen tissue structure. The higher the concentration, the more serious the damage was. Especially at the concentration of 640 mg/L, it could significantly inhibit the development of the spleen and even exhibit toxic effect. Hence, low boron concentration played a protective role in the development of the spleen, while high boron concentration could damage the organs and even produce toxic effect.

  13. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) only for seaweed treated with 5% lemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  14. Fruit as Potent Natural Antioxidants and Their Biological Effects.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; Da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Nabavi, Seyed M; Mota, Erika F; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana C S; Daglia, Maria; De Melo, Dirce F

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fruit has increased in the last 20 years, along with the growing recognition of its nutritional and protective values. Many of the benefits of a diet rich in fruit are attributed to the presence of different bioactive substances, such as vitamins, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. Flavanoids, a class of phenolic compounds, present particular antioxidant activity and thus provide protection against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Research suggests that an increased intake of plant foods is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic disease. There is currently a great deal of interest in the study of antioxidants, in particular due to the discovery of the damaging effects of free radicals to the body. Thus, this review aims to address the beneficial effects of the antioxidants present in fruits, on the neutralization of reactive species and the reduction of any damage they may cause. PMID:27109905

  15. The pretreatment effects on the antioxidant activity of jujube polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.

  16. Cofactor metals and antioxidant enzymes in cisplatin-treated rats: effect of antioxidant intervention.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Eken, Ayse; Aydin, Ahmet; Ozgunes, Hilal; Orhan, Hilmi

    2015-10-01

    We explored the association between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and their metallic cofactors in rats treated with cisplatin. The antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine, and a combination of vitamins E and C were investigated. Plasma platin was significantly lower than liver and kidney. Cisplatin treatment caused significant increase in plasma Se-glutathione peroxidase activity. Activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been found to be significantly decreased in liver and kidney compared to controls. Zn levels in these organs were diminished upon cisplatin treatment, while levels of Cu were unaffected. Interestingly, levels of iron, the cofactor of catalase, were found to be significantly increased in liver and kidney. Intervention with aminoguanidine or vitamins was generally prevented cisplatin-caused changes in the activity of enzymes and in the tissue levels of cofactor metals. These observations suggest that relation between activities of enzymes and levels of cofactor metals is multifactorial.

  17. Linalool exhibits cytotoxic effects by activating antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    According to recent studies, the Plantaginaceae, which are traditional Chinese herbal remedies, have potential for use in viral infection treatment and cancer therapy. Linalool and p-coumaric acid are two of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from the Plantaginaceae. This study mainly focused on investigating the bioactivity of linalool as well as the bioactivity of p-coumaric acid in terms of their cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Whether the mechanisms of such effects are generated through apoptosis and immunoregulatory activity were also investigated. By using WST-1 analysis, it was shown that linalool and p-coumaric acid have good inhibitory effects against breast, colorectal and liver cancer cells. The IC50 values of linalool for those cancer cell types were 224 μM, 222 μM, and 290 μM, respectively, and the IC50 values of p-coumaric acid were 693 μM, 215 μM and 87 μM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis also confirmed that linalool and p-coumaric acid can lead to apoptosis. By using flow cytometry, it was determined that treatment with linalool rather than p-coumaric acid significantly increased the sub-G1 phase and that there were more cells concentrated in the G1 phase. Furthermore, by using cytokine array analysis, we found that linalool can stimulate IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-2, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-4, IL-6sR and TNF-α secretion. This demonstrated that in addition to the bidirectional regulation capabilities found in linalool, it also induces Th1 cellular immune response in T-47D cells. These results showed that linalool holds great potential for use in cancer therapy, and we believe that it could provide an alternative way to take action against tumors.

  18. Controlling chaos experimentally in systems exhibiting large effective Lyapunov exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübinger, B.; Doerner, R.; Martienssen, W.; Herdering, M.; Pitka, R.; Dressler, U.

    1994-08-01

    We investigate experimentally the performance of the Ott, Grebogi, and Yorke [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1989)] feedback concept to control chaotic motion. The experimental systems are a driven pendulum and a driven bronze ribbon. Both setups have unstable periodic orbits characterized by large effective Lyapunov exponents. All control vectors for the feedback control are extracted from the experimental data. To do this for the pendulum a global model obtained by the flow field analysis of Cremers and Hübler [Z. Naturforsch. 42a, 797 (1987)] is used, and for the bronze ribbon linear approximations in embedding space are exploited. We analyze the problems that arise due to the amplification of noise by large effective Lyapunov exponents in the determination of the control values as well as in the performance of the experimental control. Successful control can be achieved in our experiments by applying the ``local control method'' which allows a quasicontinuous adjustment of the control parameter in contrast to adjusting the control parameter only once per return time of the Poincaré map.

  19. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive

  20. Pauses and durations exhibit a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Karl; Lawrence, Holly; Krohn, Talia; Bower, Katherine; Thomas, J Graham

    2005-02-01

    This article reports evidence of two kinds of serial position effects in immediate serial recall: One involves interresponse pauses, and the other response durations. In forward and backward recall, responding was faster at initial and final positions than at center positions, exhibitinga bow-shaped function relative to serial position. These data were obtained in a spoken recall study in which ungrouped lists of four to six words and postcuing of recall direction were used. The pause pattern is consistent with several models of serial memory, including a distinctiveness model (Brown, Neath, & Chater, 2002) and a version of the ACT-R model augmented with a spontaneous grouping strategy (Maybery, Parmentier, & Jones, 2002). The duration pattern suggests that response articulation depends on the processing context, rather than being modular.

  1. Effects of gamma-Radiation on Select Lipids and Antioxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolph, Jacob; Mauer, Lisa; Perchonok, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Radiation encountered on an extended duration space mission (estimates of 3 Sieverts for a mission to Mars) poses a threat not only to human health, but also to the quality, nutritional value, and palatability of the food system. Free radicals generated by radiation interaction with foods may initiate many unwanted reactions including: 1) autoxidation in lipids that alters flavor, odor, and concentrations of essential fatty acids, and 2) depletion of antioxidants food products and dietary supplements. Studies have shown that antioxidants may provide long term health protection from oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure; therefore, consumption of antioxidants will be important. Stability of essential fatty acids is also important for astronauts long-term health status. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on lipids and antioxidants by monitoring oxidation and reducing power, respectively, in model systems. Select oils and antioxidants were exposed to levels of gamma-radiation ranging from 0 to 1000 Gy (1 Gy = 1 Sv) using a Gammacell 220 and stored at ambient or elevated temperatures (65 C) for up to 3 months prior to analysis. A Fricke dosimeter was used to verify differences between the radiation doses administered. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation in soybean and peanut oils were monitored using conjugated diene and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARs) assays. Changes in fatty acid composition and formation and vitamin E levels were also measured. The reducing power of antioxidant compounds, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Significant differences (alpha =0.05) were present between all radiation doses tested using the Fricke dosimeter. Increasing radiation doses above 3 Sv resulted in significantly (alpha =0.05) elevated levels of oxidation and free fatty acids in soybean and peanut oils. Decreases in

  2. Inhibition of rhotekin exhibits antitumor effects in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEIZHEN; LIANG, ZHENYU; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death, however, the pathogenesis mechanism is poorly understood. Although the rhotekin (RTKN) gene has been reported to encode an effector for the Rho protein that has critical roles in regulating cell growth, the role of RTKN in lung cancer has not been investigated. In clinical lung cancer patient tumor samples, we identified that the RTKN gene expression level was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to that of the adjacent normal tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of RTKN in lung cancer, we established RTKN stable knock-down A549 and SPC-A-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines using lentiviral transfection of RTKN shRNA and evaluated the antitumor effects. The results showed that RTKN knock-down inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell viability, induced S phase arrest and increased cell apoptosis. In addition, RTKN knock-down inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Further analysis showed that the S phase promoting factors cyclindependent kinase (CDK)1 and CDK2 levels were decreased in RTKN knock-down cells, and that the DNA replication initiation complex proteins Minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM)2 and MCM6 were decreased as well in RTKN knock-down cells. These results indicated that the RTKN protein was associated with lung cancer in clinic samples and exerted anticancer activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibiting cell cycle progression and the DNA replication machinery. These findings suggest that RTKN inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26935528

  3. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P; Upreti, Dalip K; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as

  4. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P; Upreti, Dalip K; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as

  5. 45 CFR 150.439 - Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits... Hearings § 150.439 Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits. (a) Any proposed hearing exhibit... raised either in writing prior to the prehearing conference provided for in § 150.441 or at...

  6. Antioxidative effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in brain cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ningna; Tang, Yang; Keep, Richard F; Ma, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Jianming

    2014-09-15

    Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in cell death associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Antioxidant compounds that improve endogenous antioxidant defenses have been proposed for neural protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) on oxidative stress and cell death in brain cells in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay indicated that LPNS (5 μg/ml) reduced H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23±8% reduction in LDH release vs. control). Similar protection was found in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation induced SH-SY5Y (a human neuroblastoma cell line) cell damage (78±7% reduction vs. control). The protective effects of LPNS in astrocytes were associated with attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These effects involved activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). These results demonstrate for the first time that LPNS has antioxidative effects which may be neuroprotective in neurological disorders. PMID:24916704

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imene; Bardaa, Sana; Mzid, Massara; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebaii, Tarak; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica flowers are used for various medicinal purposes. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate biological properties of O. ficus-indica flowers extracts and to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial activities and its ability to enhance wound healing. The wound healing activity of the mucilaginous and methanol extracts of O. ficus-indica flowers were assessed using excision wound model in rats. After thirteen days of treatment by both extracts, a beneficial effect on cutaneous repair was observed as assessed by the acceleration of wound contraction and remodeling phases. Histopathological studies of the granulation tissue indicated that the derma is properly arranged with the Opuntia flowers extract, compared with the control group. The mucilage extract was more effective than the methanol extract, but both showed significant results compared with the control. Such investigation was supported by the efficiency of the methanolic and mucilage extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extracts showed a potential antioxidant activity determined by different test systems, namely DPPH radicals scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching assay and metal chelating activity and exhibited significant antibacterial activity against almost all tested bacteria.

  8. Antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Nitin K; Kumar, M S Yogendra; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial effects of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) leaves by using various in vitro systems and analysis of marker compounds by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chemical composition of the leaf extracts was quantified by colorimetric reaction in terms of total phenol and flavonoids contents. Further, some of its bioactive phenolic constituents, such as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were also quantified in both SBT leaf extracts by RP-HPLC. The SBT leaf extracts exhibited potent antioxidant activity determined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further, both extracts were observed to have cytoprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase induced damage to BHK-21 cell line. The SBT leaf extracts showed growth inhibiting effect against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. These observations suggest that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Sea buckthorn leaves have marked antioxidant, cytoprotective and antibacterial activities. PMID:20854873

  9. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  10. Protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ in aqueous and lipid membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Y N; Roginsky, V A; Pashkovskaya, A A; Rokitskaya, T I; Kotova, E A; Zaspa, A A; Chernyak, B V; Skulachev, V P

    2008-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of mitochondria-targeted small molecules, SkQ1 and MitoQ (conjugates of a lipophilic decyltriphenylphosphonium cation with an antioxidant moiety of a plastoquinone and ubiquinone, respectively), was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid environment, i.e., micelles, liposomes and planar bilayer lipid membranes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated by azo initiators or ferrous ions with or without tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, oxygen consumption and inactivation of gramicidin peptide channels were measured to detect antioxidant activity. In all of the systems studied, SkQ1 was shown to effectively scavenge ROS. The scavenging was inherent to the reduced form of the quinone (SkQ1H(2)). In the majority of the above model systems, SkQ1 exhibited higher antioxidant activity than MitoQ. It is concluded that SkQ1H(2) operates as a ROS scavenger in both aqueous and lipid environments, being effective at preventing ROS-induced damage to membrane lipids as well as membrane-embedded peptides. PMID:18493812

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effect of methanolic Crinum jagus bulb extract in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma; Udegbunam, Rita Ijeoma; Nnaji, Theophilus Okafor; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Kene, Raphel Okoli Chukwujekwu; Anika, Silavanus Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Crinum jagus (J. Thomps.) Dandy methanolic bulb extract in wound healing. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, and saponins in the extract. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by agar well diffusion method. In vivo antimicrobial activity of the extract was determined by microbial assay of excision wound in rats contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas areuginosa, and Candida albicans and treated with 300 mg/kg body weight (bw) of 10 and 5% methanolic C. jagus bulb extract ointment (MCJBEO), respectively. Enzymatic antioxidant effect of the extract was determined in vivo by assaying superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in excision wound biopsies of rats treated with 10 and 5% MCJBEO, respectively, following standard methods. Non-enzymatic antioxidant effect of the extract was determined in vitro using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method following standard procedure. Results: The extract exhibited in vitro antimicrobial effect in a concentration-dependent manner with one hundred (100) mg/ml concentration of the extract having the highest inhibitory zone diameter for B. subtilis (25 mm), S. aureus (21 mm), and C. albicans (14 mm) followed by the 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans were not isolated from wounds of animals treated with both extract concentrations 10% and 5% MCJBEO, and reference drug (framycetin sulfate/clotrimazole). Activities of the enzymatic antioxidants SOD and CAT in wound biopsies treated with 10% MCJBEO were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when compared with those treated with 5% MCJBEO. Significantly (P < 0.05) decreased MDA level of wound biopsies from extract-treated rats was observed. The extract exhibited non

  12. Effect of γ-irradiation on antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of oat β-glucan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F. A.; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. Irradiation doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy were given to extracted β-glucan. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Gel permeation chromatography and quantitative estimation by (1-3) (1-4) β-D-Glucan assay kit (Megazyme). The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed increased antioxidant activity of β-glucan with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that the low molecular weight β-glucan with increased antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by irradiation treatment.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production of some common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Bor, Jung-Yi; Chen, Hui-Yin; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activities and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging effects of vegetables in vitro systems and to study the inhibitory effects of vegetables on the NO production and NO-induced DNA damage in RAW 264.7 macrophage. The results indicated that water extracts from Indian lotus, Jew's ear, shiitake, eggplant, and winter mushroom showed stronger antioxidant activity and free-radical-scavenging ability than that of other vegetable extracts. The scavenging effects of vegetable extracts on NO derived from sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were in decreasing order of water spinach > Indian lotus > eggplant and garland chrysanthemum. In the macrophage model system, the water extracts from fresh daylily flower, sponge gourd, pea sprout, and eggplant exhibited over 80% inhibition on NO generation stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. The extract from fresh daylily flower that expressed the strongest inhibition on NO production was attributed to the ability to reduce the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction. However, the extracts from pea sprout and eggplant suppressed the NO production by scavenging on NO and inactivating toward iNOS enzyme. In addition, the water extracts from fresh daylily flower, sponge gourd, pea sprout, and eggplant also showed over 40% inhibitory effect on DNA damage induced by SNP in RAW 264.7 macrophage. The data also indicated that eggplant and pea sprout extracts contained higher total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acids and appeared to be responsible for their antioxidant activities and scavenging effects on NO derived from SNP. PMID:16506819

  14. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of sea buckthorn berries.

    PubMed

    Chaman, Saadia; Syed, Nawazish-I-Husain; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Farrakh Zia

    2011-07-01

    Sea buckthorn berries are therapeutically used as folk medicine for a variety of diseases, however, the scientific evidence is hardly available to support their role. This study explored their chemical constituents and their role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Three common solvents such as petroleum ether (40° - 60°C), chloroform and methanol were successively used for the extraction of active principles from sea buckthorn berries. Five major fractions (F1-F5) were isolated from the active methanol extract by column and thin layer chromatography. An attempt was made to identify the chemical nature of pooled fractions by available spectral means. Antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its fractions was measured by DPPH, formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and TBA methods. The hole-plate diffussion method was used to find out the antibacterial activity. A very brief structure-activity relationship of the potent antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds is discussed. Methanolic extract and its fractions contain numerous phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, which may be responsible for antioxidant and antibacterial effects. PMID:21715268

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Cranberry Powder in Lipopolysaccharide Treated Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Kim, Jung Hee; Kwak, Ho-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P<0.05). In addition, the mean level of plasma total phenolics was significantly decreased by LPS injection (P<0.05) and tended to be increased when cranberry powder was incorporated in to the diet. Activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) tended to be lowered by LPS injection and declined further in cranberry powder fortified groups. Overall results indicate that dietary cranberry powder may provide appropriate antioxidants to counter the diminished antioxidant status induced by exposing hypercholesterolemic rats to LPS. PMID:25054105

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Kh I; Ishioroshi, M; Samejima, K

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3 degrees C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log(10) CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh.I.; Ishioroshi, M.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3°C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log10 CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products. PMID:17330154

  18. Effects of cultivars, organic cropping management and environment on antioxidants in whole grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain rice contains functional antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids (including proanthocyanidins), vitamin E homologues (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol that have positive effects on human health. These antioxidants are secondary metabolites in plants that can be induced...

  19. Antioxidant effects of gastrointestinal digested purple carrot extract on the human cells of colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Rychlik, Joanna; Kidoń, Marcin; Czapski, Janusz; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Juzwa, Wojciech; Olkowicz, Mariola; Dembczyński, Radosław; Moyer, Mary Pat

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrot (PC) is a potential dietary constituent, which represents a valuable source of antioxidants and can modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the gastrointestinal tract. Antioxidant capacity of a PC extract subjected to digestion process simulated in the artificial alimentary tract, including the stomach, small intestine and colon, was analyzed in normal human cells of colon mucosa. Results indicated that the extract obtained upon passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which could come into contact with the colonic cells in situ, was less potent than the extract, which was not subjected to digestion process. Digested PC extract exhibited intracellular ROS-inhibitory capacity, with 1mg/mL showing the ROS clearance of 18.4%. A 20.7% reduction in oxidative DNA damage due to colon mucosa cells' treatment with digested PC extract was observed. These findings indicate that PC extract is capable of colonic cells' protection against the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26213078

  20. C-Phycocyanin from Oscillatoria tenuis exhibited an antioxidant and in vitro antiproliferative activity through induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Thangam, R; Suresh, V; Asenath Princy, W; Rajkumar, M; Senthilkumar, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rengasamy, R; Anbazhagan, C; Kaveri, K; Kannan, S

    2013-09-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an efficient single step chromatographic method for purification of C-phycocyanin (CPC) from species of Oscillatoria tenuis. Purification of CPC involves a multistep treatment of the crude extract by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Pure CPC was finally obtained from O. tenuis with purity ratio (A620/A280) 4.88. SDS-PAGE of pure CPC yielded two bands corresponding to α and β subunits; the molecular weight of α subunit is 17.0 kDa, whereas the molecular weight of β subunit is 19.5 kDa. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy revealed characteristic apoptotic features like cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. CPC exhibited antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells through apoptosis; nuclear apoptosis induction was accompanied by G0/G1 phase arrest and DNA fragmentation. CPC is a natural pigment with potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:23578642

  1. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. PMID:23364614

  2. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina. PMID:27609480

  3. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system.

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Bandari Uma; Shrivastava, Shweta; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress; natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. BO extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Administration of PCM caused a significant increase in the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Significant enhancement in hepatic lipid peroxidation and marked depletion in reduced glutathione were observed after parac intoxication with severe alterations in liver histology. BO treatment was able to mitigate hepatic damage induced by acute intoxication of PCM and showed a pronounced protective effect against lipid peroxidation, deviated serum enzymatic variables, and maintained glutathione status toward control. The results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of BO against the toxicity induced by PCM. PMID:25263977

  5. Effects of myosmine on antioxidative defence in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Vitcheva, Vessela; Gorneva, Galina; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2012-03-01

    Myosmine [3-(1-pyrrolin-2-yl) pyridine] is an alkaloid structurally similar to nicotine, which is known to induce oxidative stress. In this study we investigated the effects of myosmine on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defence in rat liver. Wistar rats received a single i.p. injection of 19 mg kg-1 of myosmine and an oral dose of 190 mg kg-1 by gavage. Nicotine was used as a positive control. Through either route of administration, myosmine altered the hepatic function by decreasing the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities on one hand and by increasing malondialdehyde, catalase, and glutathione reductase activity on the other. Compared to control, both routes caused significant lipid peroxidation in the liver and altered hepatic enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defences. The pro-oxidant effects of myosmine were comparable with those of nicotine. PMID:22450200

  6. Protective and Antioxidant Effects of a Chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on Brain Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Telerman, Alona; Erlank, Hilla; Mordechay, Sharon; Rindner, Miriam; Ofir, Rivka; Kashman, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones—pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists. PMID:24069503

  7. Protective and antioxidant effects of a chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on brain astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Erlank, Hilla; Mordechay, Sharon; Rindner, Miriam; Ofir, Rivka; Kashman, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones-pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists.

  8. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  9. Nerve growth factor exhibits an antioxidant and an autocrine activity in mouse liver that is modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, arsenic, and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, C; Gonsebatt, M E

    2013-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the several structurally related proteins, named neurotrophins (NTs), that regulate neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. Moreover, NGF is an important activator of antioxidant mechanisms. These NGF functions are mediated by tropomyosin-related kinase receptor A (TrkA). Although NTs and their receptors have been shown to be expressed in visceral tissues, the extent to which NTs are involved in the physiology of visceral tissues is less clear. NGF is the most expressed NT in adult mouse livers. Although NGF is an important modulator of antioxidant mechanisms in neural tissues, few studies describe the relationship between oxidative stress and NGF expression in the liver. In this study, we demonstrate that ngfb mRNA is positively modulated in mouse livers after oxidative injury via intraperitoneal injection of 14 mg/kg sodium arsenite, 6 mmol/kg L-buthionine-S-R-sulfoximine (BSO), or 300 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP). In addition to the upregulation of ngfb, we observed the phosphorylation of the NGF high-affinity receptor TrkA in the liver as well as the downstream phosphorylation of Akt, NF-kB nuclear migration and iκbα and tx-1 mRNA upregulation. These effects were abolished when a neutralizing anti-NGF antibody was used. Furthermore, this anti-NGF antibody alone induced oxidative stress in the liver by decreasing the reduced glutathione, increasing the oxidized glutathione, and downregulating tx-1 mRNA. Thus, NGF plays a critical role in liver protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotic injury as well as maintains a reduced thiol state.

  10. Nerve growth factor exhibits an antioxidant and an autocrine activity in mouse liver that is modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, arsenic, and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, C; Gonsebatt, M E

    2013-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the several structurally related proteins, named neurotrophins (NTs), that regulate neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. Moreover, NGF is an important activator of antioxidant mechanisms. These NGF functions are mediated by tropomyosin-related kinase receptor A (TrkA). Although NTs and their receptors have been shown to be expressed in visceral tissues, the extent to which NTs are involved in the physiology of visceral tissues is less clear. NGF is the most expressed NT in adult mouse livers. Although NGF is an important modulator of antioxidant mechanisms in neural tissues, few studies describe the relationship between oxidative stress and NGF expression in the liver. In this study, we demonstrate that ngfb mRNA is positively modulated in mouse livers after oxidative injury via intraperitoneal injection of 14 mg/kg sodium arsenite, 6 mmol/kg L-buthionine-S-R-sulfoximine (BSO), or 300 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP). In addition to the upregulation of ngfb, we observed the phosphorylation of the NGF high-affinity receptor TrkA in the liver as well as the downstream phosphorylation of Akt, NF-kB nuclear migration and iκbα and tx-1 mRNA upregulation. These effects were abolished when a neutralizing anti-NGF antibody was used. Furthermore, this anti-NGF antibody alone induced oxidative stress in the liver by decreasing the reduced glutathione, increasing the oxidized glutathione, and downregulating tx-1 mRNA. Thus, NGF plays a critical role in liver protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotic injury as well as maintains a reduced thiol state. PMID:23472850

  11. Effect of oxidant stressors and phenolic antioxidants on the ochratoxigenic fungus aspergillus carbonarius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the effect of oxidant stressors (hydrogen peroxide, menadione) and antioxidants (BHT, phenolic antioxidants) on growth, ROS generation, OTA production and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes of A. carbonarius was studied. In comparison to a nontoxigenic strain, an OTA-producing A. c...

  12. The Effects of Boron on Arsenic-Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Turkmen, Ruhi; Akbel, Erten; Celik, Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of boron, an antioxidant agent, against arsenic-induced oxidative stress in male and female rats. In total, 42 Wistar albino male and female rats were divided into three equal groups: The animals in the control group were given normal drinking water, the second group was given drinking water with 100 mg/L arsenic, and the third group was orally administered drinking water with 100 mg/kg boron together with arsenic. At the end of the 28-day experiment, arsenic increased lipid peroxidation and damage in the tissues of rats. However, boron treatment reversed this arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in rats. Moreover, boron exhibited a protective action against arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the tissues of rats. In conclusion, boron was found to be effective in protecting rats against arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation by enhancing antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  13. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color. PMID:26805976

  14. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color.

  15. Strawberry and human health: effects beyond antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits on human health has been widely recognized: a high intake of antioxidant and bioactive compounds may in fact play a crucial role in the prevention of several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other chronic pathologies. The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) possesses a remarkable nutritional composition in terms of micronutrients, such as minerals, vitamin C, and folates, and non-nutrient elements, such as phenolic compounds, that are essential for human health. Although strawberry phenolics are known mainly for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, recent studies have demonstrated that their biological activities also spread to other pathways involved in cellular metabolism and cellular survival. This paper has the main objective of reviewing current information about the potential mechanisms involved in the effects elicited by strawberry polyphenols on human health, devoting special attention to the latest findings. PMID:24450925

  16. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    PubMed

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  17. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications. PMID:20630072

  18. Effects of Environmental pH on Antioxidant Interactions between Rosmarinic Acid and α-Tocopherol in Oil-in-Water (O/W) Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kittipongpittaya, Ketinun; Panya, Atikorn; Phonsatta, Natthaporn; Decker, Eric A

    2016-08-31

    Antioxidant regeneration could be influenced by various factors such as antioxidant locations and pH conditions. The effects of environmental pH on the antioxidant interaction between rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated. Results showed that the combined antioxidants at pH 7 exhibited the strongest synergistic antioxidant activity in comparison with the combinations at other pH conditions as indicated by the interaction index. A drop in pH from 7 to 3 resulted in a reduction in the synergistic effect. However, in the case of pH 3, an additive effect was obtained. Moreover, the effect of the pH on the regeneration of α-tocopherol by rosmarinic acid in heterogeneous Tween 20 solutions was studied using EPR spectrometer. The same was true for the regeneration efficiency, where the reaction at pH 7 exhibited the highest regeneration efficiency of 0.3 mol of α-tocopheroxyl radicals reduced/mol of phenolics. However, the study on depletions of rosmarinic acid and α-tocopherol revealed that the formation of caffeic acid, an oxidative degradation product of rosmarinic acid, could be involved in enhancing the antioxidant activity observed at pH 7 rather than the antioxidant regeneration. This study has highlighted that the importance of pH-dependent antioxidant interactions does not solely rely on antioxidant regeneration. In addition, the formation of other oxidative products from an antioxidant should be taken into account. PMID:27494424

  19. Effective Delivery of Endogenous Antioxidants Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Hyunok; Park, Leejin; Min, Dongsoo; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Sooyoung; Park, Moon Hyang

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is thought to be partially due to the injury of renal cells and the renal micro-environment by free radicals. Free radial scavenging agents that inhibit free radical damage may well prevent the development of underlying conditions such as mesangial expansion (by inhibiting extracellular matrix expression) in these patients. Methods Using techniques for intra-cellular delivery of peptides, we made metallothionein (MT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), potent endogenous antioxidants, readily transducible into cell membrane and tested their protective effect against the development of DN in OLETF rats. Herein, we study antioxidant peptides for their ability to prevent oxidative damage to primary rat mesangial cells (MCs), which are important constituents of renal glomeruli. Results Intraperitoneal administration of these antioxidants resulted in delivery to the kidney and decreased ROS and the expression of downstream signals in renal cells and postponed the usual progression to DN. In in vitro experiments, MT and SOD were efficiently transferred to MCs, and the increased removal of ROS by MT and SOD was proportional to the degree of scavenging enzymes delivered. MT and SOD decreased three major oxidative injuries (hyperglycemia, AGE and ROS exposure) and also injuries directly mediated by angiotensin II in MCs while changing downstream signal transduction. Conclusions The protective effects of MT and SOD for the progression of DN in experimental animals may be associated with the scavenging of ROS by MT and SOD and correlated changes in signal transduction downstream. Concomitant administration of these antioxidant peptides may prove to be a new approach for the prevention and therapy of DN. PMID:26114547

  20. Does combined antioxidant vitamin supplementation blunt repeated bout effect?

    PubMed

    He, F; Hockemeyer, J A K; Sedlock, D

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on markers of muscle damage, antioxidant status, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) after repeated downhill runs. Moderately-trained males (n=22) were randomly assigned to a supplement (S) or placebo (P) group. Capsules (vitamin C:1 000 mg/d; vitamin E: 400 IU/d) were ingested daily for 2 weeks. before the first (1D) and second (2D) downhill runs, and for 2 additional days following each run. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were measured pre-exercise and at 0 (immediately), 6, 24 and 48 h post-exercise (POST). DOMS was rated for quadriceps, hamstring, gluteus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h POST. CK at 48 h following 1D remained elevated above pre-exercise only in P (P<0.01). Overall, DOMS of the quadriceps was lower in S (1.1±0.3) than P (2.2±0.5) (P<0.05). At 24 h POST in S, CK was lower (P<0.01) and ORAC was higher (P<0.05) following 2D than 1D. CK and ORAC following 2D were blunted and augmented, respectively, in response to 1D and antioxidant supplementation enhanced this protective effect as indicated by an attenuation of biomarkers of muscle damage and a greater antioxidant capacity observed 24 h POST 2D.

  1. Kinetic solvent effects on phenolic antioxidants determined by spectrophotometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Ruberto, G

    2001-01-01

    The effects of polar (acetonitrile and tert-butyl alcohol) and apolar (cyclohexane) solvents on the peroxyl-radical-trapping antioxidant activity of some flavonoids, catechol derivatives, hydroquinone, and monophenols have been studied. The inhibition rate constants k(inh) of the antioxidants have been determined by following the increase in absorbance at 234 nm of a dilute solution of linoleic acid at 50 degrees C containing small amounts of antioxidant and radical initiator. Despite the low concentration of linoleic acid, the peroxidation process has been confirmed to be a free radical chain reaction described by the classical kinetic laws for this process. However, in the evaluation of k(inh), a careful analysis of the peroxidation curve, absorbance versus time, must be done because the final oxidation products of phenols may absorb at 234 nm. Phenols with two ortho-hydroxyls are the most active antioxidants, with inhibition rate constants in the range of (3-15) x 10(5) M(-1) x s(-1) (in cyclohexane). Nevertheless, it has been observed that in tert-butyl alcohol (a strong hydrogen bond acceptor) the rate constants dramatically decline to values not detectable by the present kinetic method. In acetonitrile (a weaker hydrogen bond acceptor) instead, the phenols with two ortho-hydroxyls scavenge the peroxyl radicals with rate constants close to those in cyclohexane. From the kinetic solvent effect, the equilibrium constant of the first solvation step of hydroquinone with tert-butyl alcohol has been determined at 50 degrees C, K(1) = 2.5 +/- 0.5 M(-1). PMID:11170597

  2. Antioxidative effects of Brassica juncea and Moringa oliefera prepared by different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Bharat Bhusan; Bhoi, Aditya

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, microwave cooking, frying and steaming ) on the antioxidant activity of Brassica juncea (BJ) and Moringa oliefera (MO) were assessed by measuring the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability . TPC (mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry weight) and TFC (quercetin equivalents per gram of extract) of the fresh, boiled, microwaved, fried and steamed BJ were found to be 23.16, 27.7, 18.7, 35.94, 22.06 and 27.09, 27.8, 24.5, 36.34, 18.01 respectively. For MO it was found to be 34.6, 31.5, 31.6, 39.4, 33.72 and 70.84, 58.13, 55.4, 69.5, 52.78. A proportionate variation in DPPH radical scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating ability was observed. The results of the present investigation showed that all the cooking methods affected the antioxidant properties of the vegetables; however, frying exhibited less deleterious effects when compared with those of other treatments. Thus an appropriate method might be sought for the processing of such vegetables to retain their antioxidant components at maximum level.

  3. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  5. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  6. Effect of Potentilla fulgens on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Saio, Valrielyn; Syiem, Donkupar; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) root traditionally used as a folk remedy by local health practitioners of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was investigated for its effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Significant increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decrease in activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed under diabetic condition. Intraperitoneal administration of methanol extract of P. fulgens roots at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to male swiss albino diabetic mice for 14 days caused significant reduction in the elevated TBARS level, while increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic mice. Maximum reduction in TBARS level was observed in liver tissue (75%, p<0.001). Kidney exhibited the highest elevation in the activity for catalase (68%, p<0.001) and superoxide dismutase (29%, p<0.001) while maximum increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was seen in brain (50%, p<0.001). The effects of P. fulgens was compared against known antioxidant, vitamin C. Results indicate that Potentilla fulgens methanolic root extract can reduce free radical mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetes mellitus. PMID:24826032

  7. Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100  and at "60  in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100  significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60 . A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. PMID:23729415

  8. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed. PMID:25808285

  9. Antioxidative effects of propofol vs. ketamin in individuals undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Khoshraftar, Ebrahim; Ranjbar, Akram; Kharkhane, Behroz; Tavakol Heidary, Shayesteh; Gharebaghi, Zohre; Zadkhosh, Nahid

    2014-07-01

    Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent for both induction/maintenance of anesthesia and sedation of critically ill patients. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals undergoing surgery with propofol and ketamine at doses used to induce anesthesia. The plasma oxidative stress biomarkers such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol molecules (TTM) and antioxidant enzymes activity such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidedismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in blood samples obtained from 40 patients with propofol, and compared to samples from 40 patients with ketamine aged 11 - 50 years. The results showed that the ketamine group had significantly higher blood LPO level, GPx and SOD activity while having lower blood TAC and TTM concentrations in comparison to the propofol group. In conclusion, our findings showed that propofol has antioxidant effects in human. Further studies need to be conducted to demonstrate the exact mechanism of oxidative stress caused by anesthesia in surgery patients.

  10. Effect of antioxidants and silicates on peroxides in povidone.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Desai, Divyakant S

    2012-01-01

    Reactive peroxides in povidone often lead to degradation of oxidation-labile drugs. To reduce peroxide concentration in povidone, the roles of storage conditions, antioxidants, and silicates were investigated. Povidone alone and its physical mixtures with ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 25 °C and 40 °C, at 11%, 32%, and 50% relative humidity. In addition, povidone solution in methanol was equilibrated with silicates (silica gel and molecular sieves), followed by solvent evaporation to recover povidone powder. Peroxide concentrations in povidone were measured. The concentration of peroxides in povidone increased under very-low-humidity storage conditions. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid, propyl gallate, and sodium sulfite reduced the peroxide concentration in povidone, whereas BHA and BHT did not. Water solubility appeared to determine the effectiveness of antioxidants. Also, some silicates significantly reduced peroxide concentration in povidone without affecting its functionality as a tablet binder. Porosity of silicates was critical to their ability to reduce the peroxide concentration in povidone. A combination of these approaches can reduce the initial peroxide concentration in povidone and minimize peroxide growth under routine storage conditions.

  11. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on phenylpropanoids’ solubility and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Summary The complexation abilities of five cyclodextrins (CDs) with seven phenylpropanoids (PPs) were evaluated by UV–visible spectroscopy, phase solubility studies and molecular modeling. Formation constants (K f), complexation efficiency (CE), PP:CD molar ratio, increase in formulation bulk and complexation energy were assessed. All complexes exhibited a 1:1 stoichiometry but their stability was influenced by the nature and the position of the phenyl ring substituents. A relationship between the intrinsic solubility of guests (S 0) and the solubilizing potential of CD was proposed. Molecular modeling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. Finally, the antioxidant activity of encapsulated PPs was evaluated by scavenging of the stable DPPH radical. PMID:25298799

  12. Effect of antioxidants of aflatoxigenic molds

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were measured in synthetic media and chicken feed treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethoxyquin (EXQ), propyl gallate (PG) or t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 50-250 ..mu..g/g and 50-1000 ..mu..g/g, respectively. BHA at 50 ..mu..g/g in broth or agar inhibited growth and alfatoxin production by both molds. In poultry feeds, 1000 ..mu..g/g BHA was required to depress CO/sub 2/ production at day 5 of incubation, while 200 ..mu..g/g decreased aflatoxin B/sub 1/ 23.8%. BHT, EXQ, and PG had slight effects on mold growth while TBHQ enhanced growth on broth but reduced it on agar. Afaltoxin B/sub 1/ production was stimulated by EXQ, although G/sub 1/ production declines. Measurement of cellular constituents released from mycelia over 5 hours indicated that BHA doubled the release of UV-absorbing materials and increase by threefold the release of previously incorporated radiolabeled compounds. Furthermore, BHA inhibited the uptake of /sup 14/C-amino acids 8 and 44%, /sup 3/H-uridine 65 and 91%, and /sup 3/H-methyl thymidine 67 and 71%, for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, compared to untreated controls.

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Sericin in Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Oxidative Stress Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Meetali; Devi, Dipali; Kumari, Sima; Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Sarma, Rahul; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE) from Antheraea assamensis in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w.)/day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control, high cholesterol fed (HCF), HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF), HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD), and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD). In brain, heart, liver, serum, and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC) brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC) excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  14. Antioxidant Effect of Sericin in Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Oxidative Stress Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Meetali; Devi, Dipali; Kumari, Sima; Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Sarma, Rahul; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE) from Antheraea assamensis in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w.)/day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control, high cholesterol fed (HCF), HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF), HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD), and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD). In brain, heart, liver, serum, and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC) brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC) excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies. PMID:27695419

  15. Effects of Antioxidant Treatment on Blast-Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoping; Ewert, Donald L.; Cheng, Weihua; West, Matthew B.; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Floyd, Robert A.; Kopke, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has dramatically increased in combat troops in today’s military operations. We previously reported that antioxidant treatment can provide protection to the peripheral auditory end organ, the cochlea. In the present study, we examined biomarker expression in the brains of rats at different time points (3 hours to 21 days) after three successive 14 psi blast overpressure exposures to evaluate antioxidant treatment effects on blast-induced brain injury. Rats in the treatment groups received a combination of antioxidants (2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone and N-acetylcysteine) one hour after blast exposure and then twice a day for the following two days. The biomarkers examined included an oxidative stress marker (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-HNE), an immediate early gene (c-fos), a neural injury marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) and two axonal injury markers [amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein, APP, and 68 kDa neurofilament, NF-68]. The results demonstrate that blast exposure induced or up-regulated the following: 4-HNE production in the dorsal hippocampus commissure and the forceps major corpus callosum near the lateral ventricle; c-fos and GFAP expression in most regions of the brain, including the retrosplenial cortex, the hippocampus, the cochlear nucleus, and the inferior colliculus; and NF-68 and APP expression in the hippocampus, the auditory cortex, and the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Antioxidant treatment reduced the following: 4-HNE in the hippocampus and the forceps major corpus callosum, c-fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex, GFAP expression in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and APP and NF-68 expression in the hippocampus, auditory cortex, and MGN. This preliminary study indicates that antioxidant treatment may provide therapeutic protection to the central auditory pathway (the DCN and MGN) and the non-auditory central nervous system (hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex

  16. Short communication: Effect of genetic type on antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese made from the milk of 2 breeds, Italian Brown and Italian Holstein, and ripened for 1, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d. The antioxidant activity of cheese was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. Italian Brown cheese had higher antioxidant activity than Italian Holstein cheese, and antioxidant activity increased during ripening of both cheeses types. Moreover, antioxidant activity varied during ripening depending on the rate of formation of soluble peptides. To date, few studies have evaluated the effect of genetic type on antioxidant capacity of the pasta filata cheeses; thus, this study forms the basis of new knowledge that could lead to the production of a pasta filata cheese with specific nutraceutical characteristics.

  17. Mammalian cells exhibit a range of sensitivities to silver nanoparticles that are partially explicable by variations in antioxidant defense and metallothionein expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Li, Linjiang; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is well known that there are interspecies differences in Ag sensitivity, we have also observed differences in the cytotoxic responses of mammalian cells to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In order to explore these response outcomes, six cell lines, including epithelial cells (Caco-2, NHBE, RLE-6TN and BEAS-2B) and macrophages (RAW 264.7 and THP-1) of human and rodent origin were exposed to 20 nm citrate- and PVP-coated AgNPs with Au cores as well as 20 nm citrate-coated particles without cores. A MTS assay showed that while Caco-2 and NHBE cells were resistant to particles over a 0.1- 50 μg/mL dose range, RAW 264.7, THP-1, RLE-6TN and BEAS-2B cells were more susceptible. While there were small differences in dissolution rates, there were no major differences in the cytotoxic potential of the different particles. However, we did observe differences in anti-oxidant defense and metallothionein expression among different cell types, which can partially explain differential AgNP sensitivity. So it is important to consider these differences in understanding the potential heterogeneous effects of nano Ag on mammalian biological systems. PMID:25930061

  18. The effect of Irisin on antioxidant system in liver.

    PubMed

    Batirel, Saime; Bozaykut, Perinur; Mutlu Altundag, Ergül; Kartal Ozer, Nesrin; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem and lead to subacute liver failure, cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. An increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant depletion is found in the liver of obese patients with NAFLD. Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced myokine. It increases total energy consumption, reduces body weight, and insulin resistance. It was shown that irisin levels were significantly lower in patients with NAFLD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of irisin on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in liver. In the first phase; AML12 liver cells were divided into 4 groups: control, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated, 10nM irisin-treated and 50nM irisin-treated groups. ROS accumulation in these groups was analyzed by FACS. In the second phase; to see if there is any protective role of irisin on ROS production in the liver, AML12 liver cells were divided into 4 groups: control, H2O2 -treated, H2O2+10nM irisin-treated and H2O2+50nM-irisin treated groups. After measuring ROS accumulation again in these groups, the levels of enzymes related with prooxidant-antioxidant balance via oxidative stress in liver were measured by western blotting. In H2O2 treatment groups, ROS production was increased in AML12 liver cells, on the other hand in irisin treatment groups ROS production was slightly changed. Irisin might be a potential target for metabolic diseases like NAFLD. PMID:26461295

  19. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  20. Antioxidant Capacity and Radical Scavenging Effect of Polyphenol Rich Mallotus philippenensis Fruit Extract on Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B.; Goel, R. K.; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  1. Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic Profile and Cytotoxic Effects of Saxicolous Lichens from Trans-Himalayan Cold Desert of Ladakh

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P.; Upreti, Dalip K.; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B.

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used

  2. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  3. Effect of permethrin plus antioxidants on locomotor activity and striatum in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Cinzia; Falcioni, Maria Letizia; Nwankwo, Innocent Ejike; Cantalamessa, Franco; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2008-09-29

    Pyrethroids are important insecticides used largely because of their high activity as an insecticide and their low mammalian toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that these products show neurotoxic effects on the mammalian central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin to induce oxidative stress in adolescent rats and its possible attenuation by Vitamin E alone or+Coenzyme Q(10). Data indicated that adolescent rats exposed to permethrin exhibited alteration in the locomotor activity and plasma membrane fluidity of striatum. Vitamin E+Q(10) and Vitamin E alone supplementation reversed the negative effect on central nervous system. Permethrin alteration of striatum plasma membrane fluidity was restored by Vitamin E+Q(10). Data obtained from red blood cells showed that permethrin did not induce any modification of plasma membrane fluidity in adolescent rats, whereas antioxidants supplementation induced pro-oxidant effect. In summary some differences between antioxidant treatments were observed at striatum level: Coenzyme Q(10)+Vitamin E maintains plasma membrane fluidity, while Vitamin E is more effective to preserve GSH level.

  4. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Various Cultivars of Kiwi Berry (Actinidia arguta) on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Xiangxue; Lee, Sang Gil; Kang, Hee; Heo, Ho Jin; Cho, Youn-Sup; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-08-28

    The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of three cultivars of Actinidia arguta Planch. kiwi berries; cv. Mansoo (Mansoo), cv. Chiak (Chiak), and cv. Haeyeon (Haeyeon). In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of the three cultivars of kiwi berries were investigated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Mansoo had the highest total phenolic content and TAC among the three cultivars, whereas Chiak had the highest total flavonoid content. The total antioxidant capacities of the kiwi berry extracts were more strongly correlated with total phenolic content than with total flavonoid content. The kiwi berry extracts suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The release of nitrite, an indirect indicator of nitric oxide, was also ameliorated by pre-treatment with the kiwi berry extracts in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular-based measurements of antioxidant capacity exhibited that the kiwi berry extracts had cellular antioxidant capacities. Such cellular antioxidant effects are possibly attributed to their direct antioxidant capacity or to the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation via anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings suggest that kiwi berries are potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27160577

  5. Effects of Antioxidants in Human Cancers: Differential Effects on Non-Coding Intronic RNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shreya; Lu, Chunxia; Menon, Rajasree; Schwartz, Jessica; Guan, Yuanfang

    2016-01-01

    The notion that dietary antioxidants can help fight cancer is popular. However, the mechanism(s) behind the effect of antioxidants in cancer is still unclear. Previous studies indicate that supplements can influence gene expression; however, all of these studies were focused on the coding/exonic gene expression. Studies are now emerging to highlight critical functional roles for RNAs expressed from the non-coding regions. This project was designed to study the effect of antioxidant supplements on non-coding intronic RNA expression in human cancers. Vitamin E, N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Sulforaphane are commonly used supplements to prevent diseases including cancers. We studied the effect of these antioxidant supplements on the non-coding intronic RNA expression using publicly available datasets from a mouse model for lung cancer and prostate cancer cell lines. Although high throughput polyA-enriched RNA-Seq data characterize spliced coding mRNA regions, recent studies reveal the expression of reads from the non-coding intronic regions. Our analyses indicate that cancer cells have higher expression of introns compared to that of normal cells and that treatment with antioxidant supplements reduces the increased expression of introns of several genes. However, we did find high expression of introns of multiple genes including many oncogenes in the supplement treated groups compared to that of the control; this effect was distinct depending on the cell type and the supplement studied. Using RT-PCRs, we validated the expression of introns of two oncogenes, DLK1 and LRG1, known to be key players in lung cancer progression, and demonstrate changed intronic expression with supplement treatment in cancer cells. With regard to the antioxidant system, supplements did not change the intronic RNAs for endogenous antioxidant enzymes except for a significant decrease in the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) intronic RNA. Concurrently, we also found that a prolonged (48 h

  6. Radiosterilization and steam autoclaving sterilization effects on phosphite antioxidant stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoubi, N.; Boucherie, P.; Ferrier, D.

    1997-08-01

    While the radiosterilization by γ rays, is mainly employed for medical devices, this procedure is not commonly used to sterilize and decontaminate raw material and finished product used in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the countries, the requirements for obtaining approval to treat this class of product with γ rays may be different. Usually it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to demonstrate not only the integrity of the irradiated product, but olso its efficiency, safety and quality. Our work consists of a comparative study of the effects of γ radiotreatment at 25 kGy and steam sterilisation on phosphite antioxidant incorporated in polypropylene. The γ radiosensitivity compared with thermolability of this antioxidant was studied by reversed phase HPLC, Fourier Transform Infrared (IRFT) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained proved that the phosphite incorporated into the polymer and treated with the two types of sterilisation is rapidly oxidized in phosphate. Nevertheless, this oxidation is more important when using radiotreatment at 25 kGy.

  7. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  8. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  9. Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Ji Myung; Kang, Soon Ah; Park, Kun Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable containing several ingredients. We investigated the protective activity of methanol extract of kimchi under different fermentation stages against oxidative damage. MATERIALS/METHODS Fresh kimchi (Fresh), optimally ripened kimchi (OptR), and over ripened kimchi (OvR) were fermented until the pH reached pH 5.6, pH 4.3, and pH 3.8, respectively. The radical scavenging activity and protective activity from oxidative stress of kimchi during fermentation were investigated under in vitro and cellular systems using LLC-PK1 cells. RESULTS Kimchi exhibited strong radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the free radical generators led to loss of cell viability and elevated lipid peroxidation, while treatment with kimchi resulted in significantly increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the protective effect against oxidative stress was related to regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB p65, and IκB expression. In particular, OvR showed the strongest protective effect from cellular oxidative stress among other kimchi. CONCLUSION The current study indicated that kimchi, particularly OptR and OvR, played a protective role against free radical-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that kimchi is a promising functional food with an antioxidative effect and fermentation of kimchi led to elevation of antioxidative activity. PMID:25489403

  10. [Effect of simvastatin on the oxygen transport function and prooxidant - antioxidant balance in blood].

    PubMed

    Glutkina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The effects of simvastatin on the blood oxygen transport function and indices of prooxidant - antioxidant balance at incubation have been studied. Simvastatin at a concentration of 100 ng/ml increases p50 (the blood pO2 corresponding to its 50% oxygen saturation) at real values of pH and pCO2 from 39.53 + 2.41 (p <0.05) to 36.60 (36, 40, 37, 60) (p <0.05) mm Hg. An increase in the drug concentration led to a decrease in the level of this parameter, but in a dose-independent manner. In addition, the level of nitrates/nitrites in the blood plasma was also increased, which was evidence of increasing activity of the L-arginine-NO system. The indices of prooxidant - antioxidant balance exhibited no significant changes. The results demonstrate a new pleiotropic effect of simvastatin, which is realized via a change in the hemoglobin - oxygen affinity through modification of NO production. This effect must be taken into account in the treatment of pathology in the blood circulation.

  11. Radical-scavenging Activity and Antioxidative Effects of Olive Leaf Components Oleuropein and Hydroxytyrosol in Comparison with Homovanillic Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Umeno, Aya; Takashima, Mizuki; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Koike, Taisuke; Matsuo, Toshiki; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    Olive leaf has great potential as a natural antioxidant, and one of its major phenolic components is oleuropein. In this study, the antioxidant activity of oleuropein against oxygen-centered radicals was measured by examining its sparing effects on the peroxyl radical-induced decay of fluorescein and pyrogallol red, in comparison with related compounds. The antioxidant capacity of oleuropein against lipid peroxidation was also assessed through its effect on the free radical-induced oxidation of methyl linoleate in a micelle system. On a molar basis, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the decay of fluorescein for longer than both homovanillic alcohol and the vitamin-E mimic 2-carboxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-6-chromanol (Trolox), but did not suppress pyrogallol red decay in a concentration-dependent manner. Measurement of the fluorescein decay period revealed that the stoichiometric number of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against peroxyl radicals was twice that of Trolox, which is substantially higher than expectations based on chemical structure. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were also more effective than Trolox and homovanillic alcohol at suppressing the oxidation of methyl linoleate in the micelle system. Thus, both oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exhibit high antioxidative activity against lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen-centered radicals, but the high reactivity of phenolic/catecholic radicals makes their mechanism of action complex. PMID:26136177

  12. Protective Effects of Melatonin and Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidants Against Oxidative Stress: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ramis, M R; Esteban, S; Miralles, A; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, R J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative damage is related to aging and a wide range of human disorders. Mitochondria are in large part responsible for free radical production and they are also main targets of the attack of these toxic molecules. The resulting deleterious effects of the damage to mitochondria can be prevented by antioxidants. Melatonin is an endogenously-produced indoleamine that modulates numerous functions, including mitochondria-related functions; this result from its capacity to penetrate all morphophysiological barriers and to enter all subcellular compartments due to its amphiphilic nature. Furthermore, this indoleamine and its metabolites are powerful antioxidants and scavengers of free radicals, protecting cellular membranes, the electron transport chain and mitochondrial DNA from oxidative damage. These properties may make melatonin a potent protector against a variety of free radical-related diseases. By comparison, other conventional antioxidants have less efficacy due to their limited access to the mitochondria. In recent years, research has focused on the advancement of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ (composed by the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation conjugated to the endogenous antioxidant coenzyme Q10) and MitoE (composed by the triphenylphosphonium cation attached to the antioxidant α-tocopherol). Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants accumulate in several hundred-fold greater concentrations within mitochondria and protect these critical organelles from oxidative damage. Melatonin also seems to be a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and has similar protective actions as the synthetic antioxidants. Further work is required to determine the therapeutic properties of these antioxidants in ameliorating diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Inhibitory effects of volatile antioxidants found in various beans on malonaldehyde formation in horse blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2005-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of aroma extracts isolated from dried soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from horse blood plasma oxidized with Fenton's reagent was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Aroma chemicals such as maltol, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, butyrolactone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, found in the aroma extracts of beans, were also examined for their inhibitory effect on the same system. Among the four aroma extracts tested, the aroma extract of soybeans exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Extracts of soybeans, mung beans, azuki beans, and kidney beans inhibited MA formation by 58%, 47%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, at the level of 400 microg/mL, whereas, alpha-tocopherol and BHT inhibited MA formation by 52% and 70%, respectively, at the same level. Among the tested aroma chemicals, the antioxidant activity decreased in the following order: eugenol>maltol>1-octen-3-ol>benzyl alcohol>butyrolactone>1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  14. Inhibitory effects of volatile antioxidants found in various beans on malonaldehyde formation in horse blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2005-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of aroma extracts isolated from dried soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from horse blood plasma oxidized with Fenton's reagent was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Aroma chemicals such as maltol, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, butyrolactone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, found in the aroma extracts of beans, were also examined for their inhibitory effect on the same system. Among the four aroma extracts tested, the aroma extract of soybeans exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Extracts of soybeans, mung beans, azuki beans, and kidney beans inhibited MA formation by 58%, 47%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, at the level of 400 microg/mL, whereas, alpha-tocopherol and BHT inhibited MA formation by 52% and 70%, respectively, at the same level. Among the tested aroma chemicals, the antioxidant activity decreased in the following order: eugenol>maltol>1-octen-3-ol>benzyl alcohol>butyrolactone>1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. PMID:15721197

  15. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The content and composition of fatty acids in phospholipid were evaluated. At the optimum addition level, apple phenolic (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) was more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than BHT (0.15 g·kg(-1) in total fat) and ursolic acid (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) in Chinese-style sausages during 120 days storage. Moreover, apple phenolic exhibited stronger phospholipid protective capacity than ursolic acid and BHT at the end of storage. This study reveals a potential application of apple phenolic to enhance the oxidation stability of meat products during long storage.

  16. In vitro antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of polysaccharides extracted from Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenfei; Liu, Min; Fang, Zhexiang; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-06-01

    A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (WPS) was obtained from Laminaria japonica by hot water extraction. Three major polysaccharide fractions (WPS-1, WPS-2 and WPS-3) were purified from WPS by anion-exchange chromatography. Monosaccharide components analysis indicated that galactose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS and WPS-3, accounting for 56.25% and 54.11%, respectively. And fucose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS-1 and WPS-2, accounting for 46.91% and 45.1%, respectively. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that WPS-2 showed significant function of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and WPS-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical. Cytotoxicity of all polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Results showed that WPS-1 and WPS-2 significantly inhibited the growth of A375 cells and low anti-proliferative effects of WPS-2 on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were observed. These results suggested that the polysaccharide fraction of WPS-2 might be explored as a potential safe antioxidant and antitumor agent.

  17. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  18. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Fernandes, Conceição; Carvalho, Rosa; Bennett, Richard N; Saavedra, Maria J; Rosa, Eduardo A S

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  19. Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H; Navarro, E; Tramullas, A; Mora, J; Galiano, D

    2000-02-01

    Professional basketball players of the First Spanish League (ACB) are highly trained athletes performing high training loads and competition sessions. As intense physical activity has been suggested to increase free radical production, we examined the effects of a vitamin antioxidant mixture on the degree of oxidative stress in these athletes. Subjects received either 600 mg alpha-tocopherol, 1,000 mg vitamin C and 32 mg beta-carotene, or a placebo over 32 days during a regular competition season. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, beta-carotene, retinol, lipoperoxides (LPO), and the total antioxidant status (TAS) were analysed before and after treatment. Lipoperoxide plasma levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the vitamin antioxidant supplemented group. The LPO/TAS ratio decreased about 15.3% in this group indicating a reduction in oxidative stress. Vitamin C dropped dramatically (p < 0.03, mean 15.4 micromol/L) in the placebo group leading to a marginal plasma vitamin C concentration (from 11 to less than 28 micromol/L). The results of this study suggest that the administered vitamin antioxidant mixture decreases oxidative stress and avoids the development of a marginal vitamin C status in professional basketball player during habitual training.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Nerium indicum in anxious rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohale, Deepak Suresh; Tripathi, Alok Shiomurthi; Shrirao, Abhijit V.; Jawarkar, Amol G.; Chandewar, Anil V.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the ethyl acetate extract of Nerium indicum (NIE) flower for its antioxidant effect in anxious Sprague–Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6) and treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o. of NIE for 21 days to assess its preventive and curative effects. Anxiety was induced by isolating animals socially for 21 days. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and light and dark model were used for measuring anxiety in animals. Oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood and brain tissue homogenate were monitored after 21 days of social isolation in animals. Results: Rats were treated with NIE 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o. Both the treatments showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the number of open arm entries and time spent in open arm in EPM when compared with the negative control. Results also demonstrated that there was a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the number of lightbox entries and time spent in light box in light and dark model when compared with negative control. There was a significant (P < 0.001) improvement in endogenous anti-oxidants such as SOD, CAT, reduced GSH, and decreased levels of LPO in blood and brain tissue when compared with the negative control. Conclusion: The present study suggests the role of NIE in the treatment of anxiety, possibly by modulating the oxidative stress. PMID:27756956

  1. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-12-29

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine.

  2. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-01-01

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine. PMID:26729080

  3. Ceratonia siliqua L. hydroethanolic extract obtained by ultrasonication: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds profile and effects in yogurts functionalized with their free and microencapsulated forms.

    PubMed

    Rached, Irada; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Isabel P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Ferchichi, Ali; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive extracts were obtained from powdered carob pulp through an ultrasound extraction process and then evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Ten minutes of ultrasonication at 375 Hz were the optimal conditions leading to an extract with the highest antioxidant effects. After its chemical characterization, which revealed the preponderance of gallotannins, the extract (free and microencapsulated) was incorporated in yogurts. The microspheres were prepared using an extract/sodium alginate ratio of 100/400 (mg mg(-1)) selected after testing different ratios. The yogurts with the free extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the samples added with the encapsulated extracts, showing the preserving role of alginate as a coating material. None of the forms significantly altered the yogurt's nutritional value. This study confirmed the efficiency of microencapsulation to stabilize functional ingredients in food matrices maintaining almost the structural integrity of polyphenols extracted from carob pulp and furthermore improving the antioxidant potency of the final product. PMID:26887343

  4. Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on protein oxidation and colour and texture changes in refrigerated stored porcine liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Cava, Ramón

    2006-10-01

    The antioxidant effect of two plant essential oils (sage and rosemary) and one synthetic antioxidant (BHT) on refrigerated stored porcine liver pâté (4°C/90 days) was evaluated. Pâtés with no added antioxidants were used as controls. Liver pâtés were analysed for protein oxidation, modification of heme (HI) and non-heme iron (NHI) concentrations, and colour and texture characteristics at days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of refrigerated storage. The amount of carbonyls from protein oxidation significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage, and this increase was significantly higher in the control pâtés than in their treated counterparts. Antioxidants successfully protected heme molecules from degradation and significantly inhibited the increase of NHI in refrigerated stored liver pâtés. Colour changes seemed not to be directly related to oxidative processes since pâtés with added antioxidants suffered greater colour modifications than the controls. The addition of rosemary essential oil significantly reduced hardness of liver pâtés. Sage and rosemary essential oils exhibited similar antioxidant properties to BHT denoting their suitability as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants.

  5. Review: In vivo and postmortem effects of feed antioxidants in livestock: a review of the implications on authorization of antioxidant feed additives.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Guinguina, A; Agboola, J O; Omede, A A; Agbonlahor, E M; Tayyab, U

    2016-08-01

    The pivotal roles of regulatory jurisdictions in the feed additive sector cannot be over-emphasized. In the European Union (EU), antioxidant substances are authorized as feed additives for prolonging the shelf life of feedstuffs based on their effect for preventing lipid peroxidation. However, the efficacy of antioxidants transcends their functional use as technological additives in animal feeds. Promising research results have revealed the in vivo efficacy of dietary antioxidants for combating oxidative stress in production animals. The in vivo effect of antioxidants is significant for enhancing animal health and welfare. Similarly, postmortem effect of dietary antioxidants has been demonstrated to improve the nutritional, organoleptic and shelf-life qualities of animal products. In practice, dietary antioxidants have been traditionally used by farmers for these benefits in livestock production. However, some antioxidants particularly when supplemented in excess could act as prooxidants and exert detrimental effects on animal well-being and product quality. Presently, there is no exclusive legislation in the EU to justify the authorization of antioxidant products for these in vivo and postmortem efficacy claims. To indicate these efficacy claims and appropriate dosage on product labels, it is important to broaden the authorization status of antioxidants through the appraisal of existing EU legislations on feed additives. Such regulatory review will have major impact on the legislative categorization of antioxidants and the efficacy assessment in the technical dossier application. The present review harnesses the scientific investigations of these efficacy claims in production animals and, proposes potential categorization and appraisal of in vivo methodologies for efficacy assessment of antioxidants. This review further elucidates the implication of such regulatory review on the practical application of antioxidants as feed additives in livestock production

  6. Review: In vivo and postmortem effects of feed antioxidants in livestock: a review of the implications on authorization of antioxidant feed additives.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Guinguina, A; Agboola, J O; Omede, A A; Agbonlahor, E M; Tayyab, U

    2016-08-01

    The pivotal roles of regulatory jurisdictions in the feed additive sector cannot be over-emphasized. In the European Union (EU), antioxidant substances are authorized as feed additives for prolonging the shelf life of feedstuffs based on their effect for preventing lipid peroxidation. However, the efficacy of antioxidants transcends their functional use as technological additives in animal feeds. Promising research results have revealed the in vivo efficacy of dietary antioxidants for combating oxidative stress in production animals. The in vivo effect of antioxidants is significant for enhancing animal health and welfare. Similarly, postmortem effect of dietary antioxidants has been demonstrated to improve the nutritional, organoleptic and shelf-life qualities of animal products. In practice, dietary antioxidants have been traditionally used by farmers for these benefits in livestock production. However, some antioxidants particularly when supplemented in excess could act as prooxidants and exert detrimental effects on animal well-being and product quality. Presently, there is no exclusive legislation in the EU to justify the authorization of antioxidant products for these in vivo and postmortem efficacy claims. To indicate these efficacy claims and appropriate dosage on product labels, it is important to broaden the authorization status of antioxidants through the appraisal of existing EU legislations on feed additives. Such regulatory review will have major impact on the legislative categorization of antioxidants and the efficacy assessment in the technical dossier application. The present review harnesses the scientific investigations of these efficacy claims in production animals and, proposes potential categorization and appraisal of in vivo methodologies for efficacy assessment of antioxidants. This review further elucidates the implication of such regulatory review on the practical application of antioxidants as feed additives in livestock production

  7. Ultrasound effects on the antioxidative defense systems of Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bilian; Huang, Jian; Wang, Juan; Huang, Lingling

    2008-01-15

    Ultrasound is a special physical stimulus that has a variety of biological effects. This study provides a first systemic investigation on the ultrasound-induced oxidation and protection actions of the antioxidant defense system in Porphyridium cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of the cells and the electrolyte leakage of the cell membrane were examined. The change of glutathione and carotenoids produced with/without ultrasonic processing were measured; the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase) were evaluated for either ultrasound-treated or untreated P. cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of ultrasound-treated P. cruentum increase 49.8 and 76.0%, respectively, of which the electrolyte leakage and malonyldialdehyde accumulation are also found increased 48.6 and 48.0%, respectively, indicating a state of oxidative stress. A significant enhancement of the activities of superoxide dismutase by 53.5%, catalase, membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase increased by 67.7 and 69.3%, respectively), and the increment of glutathione and carotenoids production are also observed. These results suggested that oxidative stress manifested by elevated reactive oxygen species levels and malonyldialdehyde contents might be resulted from the biophysical responses of P. cruentum to the physical stimuli, and most likely the enhanced antioxidation ability of the algal cells stimuli by ultrasonic comes from the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic preventive substances as observed in this work.

  8. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation.

  9. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation. PMID:21812646

  10. Antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogenic bacteria, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of various extracts from endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Akca, Gülçin; Sarper, Meral; Elçi, Mualla Pınar; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Thermopsis turcica Kit Tan, Vural & Küçüködük against periodontopathogenic bacteria, its antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on various cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate (EtAc), n-hexane and water extracts of Thermopsis turcica herb against periodontopathogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 were tested by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching methods. Amounts of phenolic contents of the extracts were also analysed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of the extracts on androgen-insensitive prostate cancer, androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia human cancer cell lines were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Human gingival fibroblast cells were used as a control. Results Our data showed that EtAc extract had the highest antimicrobial effect on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC: 1.562 mg/mL, MBC: 3.124 mg/mL) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC: 0.781 mg/mL, MBC: 1.562 mg/mL). In antioxidant assays, EtAc extract exhibited also the highest radical scavenging activity [IC50=(30.0±0.3) µg/mL] and the highest inhibition [(74.35±0.30)%] against lineloic acide oxidation. The amount of phenolic content of it was also the highest [(162.5±1.2) µg/mg gallic acid]. In cytotoxic assay, only ethanol [IC50=(80.00±1.21) µg/mL] and EtAc extract [IC50=(70.0±0.9) µg/mL] were toxic on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells at 20-100 µg/mL (P<0.05). However, no toxic effect was observed on human gingival fibroblast cells

  11. In vitro antioxidant properties, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potentials for fourteen multipurpose traditional herbal preparations sold in South Africa were determined using the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, the anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme inhibitory effects using an ELISA kit and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition using the microtitre plate assay. Nine of the herbal mixtures (Umzimba omubi, Umuthi wekukhwehlela ne zilonda, Mvusa ukunzi, Umpatisa inkosi, Imbiza ephuzwato, Vusa umzimba, Supreme one hundred, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) exhibited higher antioxidant potentials, while only four (Imbiza ephuzwato, Ingwe® muthi mixture, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe® and African potato extract™ showed potent activity against the RT enzyme. Nine mixtures (Imbiza ephuzwato, Umpatisa inkosi, African potato extract™, Sejeso herbal mixture Ingwe®, Vusa umzimba; Ingwe® muthi mixture, Ibhubezi™, Lion izifozonke Ingwe® and Ingwe® special muti) showed AChE enzyme inhibitory activity greater than 50%. The observed activity exhibited by some of the herbal mixtures gives some credence to the manufacturers' claims and goes part of the way towards validating their use against certain conditions such as oxidative stress, HIV/AIDS proliferation and some mental conditions. It is however, desirable to carry out further studies to determine the effects of mixing plant species/parts in one mixture on the antioxidant potency as well as isolating active constituents from the herbal mixtures. PMID:20938401

  12. EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION ON OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies suggest that dietary antioxidants can modulate the cellular and physiologic effects of ozone (O3) inhalation in humans. To determine whether antioxidants can influence human susceptibility to O3-induced changes in lung function and a...

  13. Subcellular cadmium distribution and antioxidant enzymatic activities in the leaves of two castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars exhibit differences in Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Qingjun; Yang, Junxing; Shen, Jianxiu; Chen, Tongbin; Zhu, Guangxu; Chen, Hui; Shao, Chunyan

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days. This research revealed Cd accumulation characteristics in castor are root>stem>young leaf>old leaf. Castor tolerance was Cd dose exposure and the cultivars themselves dependent. Investigation of subcellular Cd partitioning showed that Cd accumulated mainly in the heat stable protein (HSP) and cellular debris fractions, followed by the Cd rich granule (MRG), heat denatured protein (HDP), and organelle fractions. With increasing Cd concentration in nutrient solution, the decreased detoxified fractions (BDM) and the increased Cd-sensitive fractions (MSF) in young leaves may indicate the increased Cd toxicity in castor cultivars. The BDM-Cd fractions or MSF-Cd in old leaves may be linked with Cd tolerance of different cultivars of castor. The antioxidant enzymes that govern Cd detoxification were not found to be active in leaves. Taken together, these results indicate Cd tolerance and toxicity in castor can be explained by subcellular partitioning.

  14. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  15. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  16. Sterols from Mytilidae show anti-aging and neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2014-11-25

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  17. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Glossogyne tenuifolia in Hamsters Fed an Atherogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Lin, Wan-Teng; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2016-05-01

    Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) Cassini is a special herbal tea in the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, and has a long history of being used as an antipyretic, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory remedy in folk medicine among local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from GT on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in animals. Five- to 6-week-old male Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 14) for different treatments, that is: control group (C), high-fat/cholesterol (HF) group, HF diet containing 0.5% (GT0.5) and 1.5% (GT1.5) GT extracts for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed with 0.5% GT powder as well as 1.5% GT powder exhibited reduced serum total cholesterol (TC), conjugated diene of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased serum antioxidant capacity, but 1.5% GT powder was more potent at lowering serum LDL cholesterol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations than 0.5% GT. GT extracts significantly lowered liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration by diminishing activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH). In addition, fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were increased in GT extract groups. In conclusion, GT extracts increase the antioxidative capacity, decrease serum TC, inhibit the activities of FAS and G-6-PDH, and further reduce liver TG accumulation in hamster fed on atherogenic diets. PMID:27152981

  18. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  19. Purification and in vitro antioxidative effects of giant squid muscle peptides on free radical-mediated oxidative systems.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Mendis, Eresha; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2005-09-01

    Low molecular weight peptides obtained from ultrafiltration (UF) of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle protein were studied for their antioxidative effects in different in vitro oxidative systems. The most potent two peptides, Asn-Ala-Asp-Phe-Gly-Leu-Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Ala (1307 Da) and Asn-Gly-Leu-Glu-Gly-Leu-Lys (747 Da), exhibited their antioxidant potential to act as chain-breaking antioxidants by inhibiting radical-mediated peroxidation of linoleic acid, and their activities were closer to highly active synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. Addition of these peptides could enhance the viability of cytotoxic embryonic lung fibroblasts significantly (P<.05) at a low concentration of 50 microg/ml, and it was presumed due to the suppression of radical-induced oxidation of membrane lipids. Electron spin trapping studies revealed that the peptides were potent scavengers of free radicals in the order of carbon-centered (IC(50) 396.04 and 304.67 microM), hydroxyl (IC(50) 497.32 and 428.54 microM) and superoxide radicals (IC(50) 669.34 and 573.83 microM). Even though the exact molecular mechanism for scavenging of free radicals was unclear, unusually high hydrophobic amino acid composition (more than 75%) of giant squid muscle peptides was presumed to be involved in the observed activities.

  20. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects. PMID:23531841

  1. Baicalin's Therapeutic Time Window of Neuroprotection during Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Its Antioxidative Effects In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fafeng; Lu, Yi; Zhong, Xianggen; Song, Wenting; Wang, Xueqian; Sun, Xiaoguang; Guo, Shaoying; Wang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of baicalin on an ischemia-reperfusion-induced brain injury model in rats and its antioxidative activities in vitro and in vivo. An ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain via a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats. Baicalin was injected at different time points (0, 2, 4, and 6 h) after the MCAO was induced. Baicalin can improve neurological function and significantly decrease brain infarction within a time window of 4 h. Moreover, baicalin was able to reduce cell apoptosis and had the strong antioxidative effect of reducing reactive oxygen species production and malondialdehyde generation. In contrast, baicalin interfered with superoxide dismutase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate oxidase activities. Moreover, baicalin also exhibited strong neuroprotective effects against H2O2-mediated injury and improved the SOD activity of neurons. Furthermore, baicalin demonstrated good scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, and DPPH radicals and exerted an additional effect of inhibiting xanthine oxidase. Baicalin showed beneficial effects against MCAO-induced injury within a 4 h time window, and its antioxidative effects both in vitro and in vivo may partly elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:23878589

  2. Antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects of Carum copticum L. and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Alavinezhad, Azam; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Carum copticum L. has been used traditionally for its various therapeutic effects. The plant contains various components such as thymol and carvacrol. Different therapeutic effects such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antilipidemic were described for the plant and its constituents. Therefore, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects of C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol, were discussed in the present review. Previous studies have shown potent antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects for C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol. Therefore, the plant and its constituents have therapeutic values in several inflammatory and immunological disorders as well as in the oxidative stress conditions.

  3. Antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects of Carum copticum L. and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Alavinezhad, Azam; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Carum copticum L. has been used traditionally for its various therapeutic effects. The plant contains various components such as thymol and carvacrol. Different therapeutic effects such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antilipidemic were described for the plant and its constituents. Therefore, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects of C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol, were discussed in the present review. Previous studies have shown potent antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunological effects for C. copticum and its constituents, thymol and carvacrol. Therefore, the plant and its constituents have therapeutic values in several inflammatory and immunological disorders as well as in the oxidative stress conditions. PMID:25044318

  4. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of extracts from Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu Hui; Liang, Zeng Chin; Chia, Yi Chen; Lien, Juang Lin; Chen, Ker Shaw; Lee, Min Yen; Wang, Jinn Chyi

    2006-03-22

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus is a popular edible mushroom which is physiologically active in both humans and animals. In the study we investigate the effects of this mushroom on hyperlipidemic hamster rats. Four dietary forms of the mushroom were created as follows. The powdered dry fruiting body, hot-water extract, and two kinds of elutes were obtained, from ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract, respectively, in different mixed proportion solvents over silica gel column chromatography (referred to as EAE and MOE, respectively). They were tested at different dosages as a supplement to a high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in groups supplemented with the highest dosages of EAE and MOE (0.5 g/kg, body weight daily) as compared with the control groups that received no mushroom additive. High-density lipoprotein levels in these same two experimental groups were also significantly higher than those in the negative control group. The tested rats that were fed with EAE had the highest serum glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, and those with the MOE and EAE had the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activities and ferric-reducing abilities, tested in vitro. The major constituents of MOE and EAE were identified as ergosterol and nicotinic acid, respectively. P. citrinopileatus extracts may have a significant antihyperlipidemia effect. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and antihyperlipidemic effects of MOE and EAE seemed to display similar tendencies. PMID:16536582

  5. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:26770698

  6. Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Alemu; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A.; Mohammed, Salahuddin Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Results: Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Conclusion: Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study. PMID:26109792

  7. Effect of Selenium Enrichment of Lenzites betulinus and Trametes hirsuta Mycelia on Antioxidant, Antifungal and Cytostatics Potential.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Ivan N; Stanojkovic, Tatjana P; Stajic, Mirjana M; Brceskic, Ilija D; Knezevic, Aleksandar Z; Cilerdzic, Jasmina Lj; Vukojevic, Jelena B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was an assessment of the antioxidant, antifungal and cytotoxic potentials of L. betulinus and T. hirsuta mycelia extracts and the effect of selenium on these activities. Extracts of L. betulinus were twice as efficient in DPPH• scavenging as those of T. hirsuta. The phenol content in Se-enriched L. betulinus extracts was higher than in non-enriched extracts, in contrast to the effect of Se-enrichment on T. hirsuta extracts, and a direct correlation between the amount and DPPH• scavenging effect was observed. Ethanol extracts exhibited fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against a range of micromycetes, and mycelium enrichment with selenium inhibited this effect. Although the extracts showed low cytotoxic activity against HeLa and LS174 cells, T. hirsuta extracts, especially those enriched with selenium, had better potential. L. betulinuss extracts showed better antioxidant and antifungal activity than T. hirsuta extracts which were more active cytotoxic agents. The presence of selenium stimulated antioxidant and cytotoxic, and inhibited antifungal activity in L. betulinus, while in T. hirsuta its effect was slight.

  8. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  9. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  10. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  11. Properties of epitaxial (210) iron garnet films exhibiting the magnetoelectric effect

    SciTech Connect

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Balbashov, A. M.; Lisovskii, F. V. Mansvetova, E. G.; Temiryazev, A. G.; Temiryazeva, M. P.

    2015-04-15

    The properties of epitaxial magnetic (LuBi){sub 3}(FeGa){sub 5}O{sub 12} iron garnet films grown on (210) substrates, which exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, are experimentally studied. The induced anisotropy and the behavior of the domain structure in the films are investigated in uniform and nonuniform external fields. The existing hypotheses about the nature of the magnetoelectric coupling in such films are critically analyzed.

  12. Effect of pineapple waste powder on probiotic growth, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2016-03-01

    Although many fruit by-products are good sources of nutrients, little is known about their prebiotic potential. This research was aimed at establishing the prebiotic effect of pineapple wastes on probiotics including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), L. casei (ATCC® 393™) and L. paracasei spp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) and the subsequent release of antioxidant and antimutagenic peptides in yogurt during their growth. Oven- and freeze- dried peel and pomace were milled separately into powders and tested for prebiotic activities. The net probiotic growth (1.28-2.14 log cfu/g) in customized MRS broth containing the pineapple powders as a direct carbohydrate source was comparable to MRS broth containing glucose. The powders were also separately added to milk during the manufacturing of yogurt with or without probiotics. An increase (by 0.3-1.4 log cycle) in probiotic populations was observed in the yogurts as a consequence of pineapple powder supplementation. Crude water-soluble peptide extracts, prepared by high-speed centrifugation of the yogurts, displayed remarkable antioxidant activities assessed through in vitro assays, namely scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC50 = 0.37-0.19 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (58.52-73.55 %). The peptide extracts also exhibited antimutagenic activities (18.60-32.72 %) as sodium azide inhibitor in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Together, these results suggest that pineapple by-products exhibited prebiotic properties and could possibly be commercially applied in new functional food formulations. PMID:27570295

  13. Effect of pineapple waste powder on probiotic growth, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2016-03-01

    Although many fruit by-products are good sources of nutrients, little is known about their prebiotic potential. This research was aimed at establishing the prebiotic effect of pineapple wastes on probiotics including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), L. casei (ATCC® 393™) and L. paracasei spp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52™) and the subsequent release of antioxidant and antimutagenic peptides in yogurt during their growth. Oven- and freeze- dried peel and pomace were milled separately into powders and tested for prebiotic activities. The net probiotic growth (1.28-2.14 log cfu/g) in customized MRS broth containing the pineapple powders as a direct carbohydrate source was comparable to MRS broth containing glucose. The powders were also separately added to milk during the manufacturing of yogurt with or without probiotics. An increase (by 0.3-1.4 log cycle) in probiotic populations was observed in the yogurts as a consequence of pineapple powder supplementation. Crude water-soluble peptide extracts, prepared by high-speed centrifugation of the yogurts, displayed remarkable antioxidant activities assessed through in vitro assays, namely scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC50 = 0.37-0.19 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (58.52-73.55 %). The peptide extracts also exhibited antimutagenic activities (18.60-32.72 %) as sodium azide inhibitor in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Together, these results suggest that pineapple by-products exhibited prebiotic properties and could possibly be commercially applied in new functional food formulations.

  14. Antioxidant effect of Ebselen (PZ 51): peroxidase mimetic activity on phospholipid and cholesterol hydroperoxides vs free radical scavenger activity.

    PubMed

    Maiorino, M; Roveri, A; Ursini, F

    1992-06-01

    The selenocompound Ebselen (PZ 51) is a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. This antioxidant effect has been previously attributed both to a peroxidase mimetic activity and to a free radical scavenging capability. In the present paper the latter is ruled out by competition kinetic analysis based on the inhibition of carotenoid bleaching by hydroperoxyl radicals. Furthermore, evidence is reported indicating that Ebselen exhibits a peroxidase activity extended to cholesterol and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides, besides phospholipid hydroperoxides. According to this, we propose that the unique mechanism of the antioxidant capacity of Ebselen is the reduction of lipid hydroperoxides present in liposomes or lipoproteins, eventually leading to the prevention of hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation. PMID:1586168

  15. Antioxidant effect of bisphosphonates and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrecht, E.J.; De Tollenaere, C.B.; Aerts, K.; Cos, P.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Bridts, C.H.; Van Offel, J.F.; Ebo, D.G.; Stevens, W.J. . E-mail: immuno@ua.ac.be; De Clerck, L.S.

    2006-09-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) and simvastatin on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. For this purpose, a flow cytometrical method using C11-BODIPY{sup 581/591} was developed to detect hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation in chondrocytes. Tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced a time and concentration dependent increase in chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. Addition of a Fe{sup 2+}/EDTA complex to t-BHP or hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) clearly enhanced lipid peroxidation. The lipophilic simvastatin demonstrated a small inhibition in the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. None of three tested BPs (clodronate, pamidronate, and risedronate) had an effect on chondrocyte lipid peroxidation induced by t-BHP. However, when Fe{sup 2+}/EDTA complex was added to t-BHP or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BPs inhibited the lipid peroxidation process varying from 25% to 58%. This study demonstrates that BPs have antioxidant properties as iron chelators, thereby inhibiting the chondrocyte lipid peroxidation. These findings add evidence to the therapeutic potential of bisphosphonates and statins in rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-09-01

    Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

  17. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-09-01

    Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

  18. How effective are antioxidant supplements in obesity and diabetes?

    PubMed

    Abdali, Daniyal; Samson, Sue E; Grover, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a central health issue due to its epidemic prevalence and its association with type 2 diabetes and other comorbidities. Obesity is not just being overweight. It is a metabolic disorder due to the accumulation of excess dietary calories into visceral fat and the release of high concentrations of free fatty acids into various organs. It represents a state of chronic oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation whose intermediary molecules may include leptin, adiponectin and cytokines. It may progress to hyperglycemia, leading to type 2 diabetes. Whether or not dietary antioxidant supplements are useful in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes is discussed in this review. Only the benefits for obesity and diabetes are examined here. Other health benefits of antioxidants are not considered. There are difficulties in comparing studies in this field because they differ in the time frame, participants' ethnicity, administration of antioxidant supplements, and even in how obesity was measured. However, the literature presents reasonable evidence for marginal benefits of supplementation with zinc, lipoic acid, carnitine, cinnamon, green tea, and possibly vitamin C plus E, although the evidence is much weaker for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, green coffee, resveratrol, or lycopene. Overall, antioxidant supplements are not a panacea to compensate for a fast-food and video-game way of living, but antioxidant-rich foods are recommended as part of the lifestyle. Such antioxidant foods are commonly available. PMID:25791371

  19. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    TSUZUKI, Nao; ENDO, Yoshiro; KIKKAWA, Lisa; KOROSUE, Kenji; KANEKO, Yasuyuki; KITAUCHI, Akira; KATAMOTO, Hiromu; HIDAKA, Yuichi; HAGIO, Mitsuyoshi; TORISU, Shidow

    2015-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (P<0.01) and 7 days (P<0.05) after OAHT than in the control group at 3 and 7 days after starting collection of blood samples. Therefore, it was shown that OAHT improved the antioxidant capacity of the horses. PMID:26166812

  20. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (P<0.01) and 7 days (P<0.05) after OAHT than in the control group at 3 and 7 days after starting collection of blood samples. Therefore, it was shown that OAHT improved the antioxidant capacity of the horses.

  1. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, William M.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants. - Highlights: • Ethacrynic acid (EA) caused cellular DNA damage. • EA-induced DNA damage was potentiated by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA increased ROS production, not inhibited by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA

  2. Involvement of serotoninergic and adrenergic systems on the antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora L. leaves essential oil and further analysis of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; de Siqueira Brahm, Arthur; Savegnago, Lucielli; Lenardão, Eder João

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora leaves EO employing the tail suspension test. The involvement of serotonergic and adrenergic systems was appraised. EO was administered by oral route (p.o.) in mice and the doses of 10 and 50mg/kg exhibited antidepressant-like action in the TST. The effect of EO (10mg/kg) was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with ketanserin (5mg/kg, intraperitoneal), prazosin (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) and yohimbine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, further analysis of the in vitro antioxidant effect of the EO was made against lipid oxidation. The results revealed that EO has a potent antioxidant activity and therapeutic potential for the development of phytomedicines with antidepressant and antioxidant properties. PMID:23583586

  3. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry.

  4. The Effect of Tomato Juice Consumption on Antioxidant Status in Overweight and Obese Females.

    PubMed

    Pourahmadi, Zohre; Mahboob, Soltanali; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Reykandeh, Mohammad Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes and their products are the main source of lycopene, a powerful potent antioxidant. Tomato products improve antioxidant defenses and reduce the risk of oxidative stress, at least partly, due to the presence of lycopene. Lycopene, as an antioxidant, induces the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and reinforces the total enzyme capacity of the human body. Obesity is a chronic condition in which destructive mechanisms increase the reactive oxygen species and attenuation of antioxidant status. We hypothesized that the consumption of a lycopene-rich food would improve the antioxidant defense of women who were overweight or obese. A total of seventy-five overweight or obese female students of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled and randomly allocated to one of two groups, intervention (n = 40) or control (n = 35), consuming 330 ml/d of tomato juice or water, respectively, for a 20-day period. At baseline and day 20, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) were analyzed using ELISA kits and spectrophotometric methods and then compared between the two groups. Lycopene consumption had no effect on these aforementioned variables. Therefore, it seems that more research with longer duration and more sensitive indicators will be required.

  5. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  6. Comparison and combination effects on antioxidant power of curcumin with gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and xanthone.

    PubMed

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin has been extensively reported as a potential natural antioxidant. However, there was no data on activity comparison as well as the biological interactions of curcumin with other natural antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant power of curcumin in comparison with three important natural antioxidants; gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and xanthone on free radical scavenging action and their combination effects on this activity. The results indicated that the activities of these compounds were dose-dependent. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of curcumin was found to be 11 μg/mL. Curcumin showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid and xanthone but less than gallic acid. Interestingly, curcumin revealed synergistic antioxidant effect when combined with gallic acid whereas the antagonistic effect occurred in curcumin combination with ascorbic acid or xanthone. These results suggest that curcumin-gallic acid combination is the potential antioxidant mixture to be used in place of the individual substance whereas using of curcumin in combination with ascorbic acid or xanthone should be avoid.

  7. Antioxidant and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Campomanesia adamantium O. Berg Root.

    PubMed

    Espindola, Priscilla Pereira de Toledo; da Rocha, Paola Dos Santos; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Schmitz, Wanderlei Onofre; Pereira, Zefa Valdivina; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium O. Berg, popularly known as guavira, has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for reduction of serum lipid. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of Campomanesia adamantium root aqueous extract (ExCA). Phenolic compounds were quantified in the ExCA and gallic and ellagic acids were identified by HPLC. ExCA showed efficiency in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, with IC50 similar to butylhydroxytoluene control, and protected the erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, reducing generated malondialdehyde. Hyperlipidemic Wistar rats treated daily by gavage during eight weeks with ExCA (200 mg/kg of body weight) showed reduced serum level of total cholesterol and triglycerides, similar to normolipidemic rats and hyperlipidemic rats treated with simvastatin (30 mg/kg of body weight) and ciprofibrate (2 mg/kg of body weight). Moreover, the treatment with ExCA also decreased malondialdehyde serum level in the hyperlipidemic rats. The body weight and organ mass were unmodified by ExCA in hyperlipidemic rats, except an increase of liver mass; however, the hepatic enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, were unchanged. Together, these results confirm the potential value of Campomanesia adamantium root for lowering lipid peroxidation and lipid serum level, improving risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases development. PMID:27493705

  8. Antioxidant and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Campomanesia adamantium O. Berg Root

    PubMed Central

    Espindola, Priscilla Pereira de Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium O. Berg, popularly known as guavira, has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for reduction of serum lipid. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of Campomanesia adamantium root aqueous extract (ExCA). Phenolic compounds were quantified in the ExCA and gallic and ellagic acids were identified by HPLC. ExCA showed efficiency in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, with IC50 similar to butylhydroxytoluene control, and protected the erythrocytes against lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, reducing generated malondialdehyde. Hyperlipidemic Wistar rats treated daily by gavage during eight weeks with ExCA (200 mg/kg of body weight) showed reduced serum level of total cholesterol and triglycerides, similar to normolipidemic rats and hyperlipidemic rats treated with simvastatin (30 mg/kg of body weight) and ciprofibrate (2 mg/kg of body weight). Moreover, the treatment with ExCA also decreased malondialdehyde serum level in the hyperlipidemic rats. The body weight and organ mass were unmodified by ExCA in hyperlipidemic rats, except an increase of liver mass; however, the hepatic enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, were unchanged. Together, these results confirm the potential value of Campomanesia adamantium root for lowering lipid peroxidation and lipid serum level, improving risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases development. PMID:27493705

  9. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Brglez Mojzer, Eva; Knez Hrnčič, Maša; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko; Bren, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity. PMID:27409600

  10. Effect of hesperidin on matrix metalloproteinases and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Annida; Menon, Venugopal P

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking has been established as a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and also for lung cancer. Nicotine is an active substance present in tobacco. We have analyzed the effect of hesperidin, a bioflavonoid on nicotine induced toxicity. Antioxidant status and expression of MMPs (Matrix metalloproteinases) were analyzed to monitor the protective effect of hesperidin against nicotine toxicity. Our result demonstrated that nicotine significantly up regulates the expression of MMPs and depletes the antioxidant status. On treatment with hesperidin we found the down regulation of expression of MMPs and enhancement in antioxidant status. Hence it could be developed as a drug against tobacco related disease in near future. PMID:17643689

  11. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Daraesoon (Actinidia arguta shoot) in animal models of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Yeon; Kang, Min-Jung; Choe, Eunok

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the treatment of diabetes mellitus is the attainment of glycemic control. Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress which contributes to the progression of diabetic complications. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of Daraesoon (Actinidia arguta shoot) in animal models of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS/METHODS Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes received an oral administration of a starch solution (1 g/kg) either with or without a 70% ethanol extract of Daraesoon (400 mg/kg) or acarbose (40 mg/kg) after an overnight fast and their postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. Five-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed either a basal or high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet with or without Daraesoon extract (0.4%) or acarbose (0.04%) for 12 weeks after 1 week of adaptation to determine the effects of the chronic consumption of Daraesoon on fasting hyperglycemia and antioxidant status. RESULTS Compared to the control group, rats that received Daraesoon extract (400 mg/kg) or acarbose (40 mg/kg) exhibited a significant reduction in the area under the postprandial glucose response curve after the oral ingestion of starch. Additionally, the long-term consumption of Daraesoon extract or acarbose significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin levels as well as small intestinal maltase activity in HFHS-fed mice. Furthermore, the consumption of Daraesoon extract significantly reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increased glutathione levels in the livers of HFHS-fed mice compared to HFHS-fed mice that did not ingest Daraesoon. CONCLUSIONS Daraesoon effectively suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia via the inhibition of α-glucosidase in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic consumption of Daraesoon alleviated fasting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in mice fed a HFHS diet. PMID:26060538

  12. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) product in humans.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Miwako; Zhang, Liliang; Ji, Hongping; Kou, Yan; Ou, Boxin

    2009-10-14

    Oxidative damage is involved in many chronic diseases including those cited as the major causes of death in Western societies such as cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Antioxidants may prevent these degenerative processes by various mechanisms including the scavenging of free radicals. Intake of antioxidant supplements is associated with preventing oxidative damages. This study investigated the absorption and antioxidant effects of a xanthone-rich mangosteen liquid in healthy human volunteers after the acute consumption of 59 mL of the supplement. The liquid contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. Results indicated that alpha-mangostin and vitamins B(2) and B(5) were bioavailable, with observed C(max) at t(max) of around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 18% after 2 h, and the increased antioxidant level lasted at least 4 h. Overall, this study demonstrated the bioavailability of antioxidants from a xanthone-rich mangosteen product and its in vivo antioxidant effects.

  13. Antioxidative effect of sesamol and related compounds on lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, M; Nakajin, S; Toyoshima, S; Shinoda, M

    1996-04-01

    The effect of sesamol and 20 related compounds on the lipid peroxidation of liposomes induced by Fe(2)+, on the lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes induced by CCl(4) or NADPH and on the lipid peroxidation of mitochondria induced by ascorbate/Fe(2)+ were demonstrated. Consequently, sesamol and related compounds, such as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyquinone, isosafrol, isoeugenol, eugenol, 3,4-methylenedioxyaniline, catechol, hydroxy-hydroquinone, 3,4-dimethoxyaniline and caffeic acid, exhibited powerful inhibitory effects on the lipid peroxidation system investigated. In particular, isoeugenol was the most powerful inhibitor among all the sesamol-related compounds tested on the lipid peroxidation system. In addition, 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene, ferulic acid, and 3,4-methylenedioxynitrobenzene were also effective on the lipid peroxidation system of liposomes induced by Fe(2)+. The correlation between the structures of sesamol-related compounds and their inhibitory effect is discussed. PMID:9132170

  14. Enhancement of antioxidant effects of naringin after atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Soo Jeung; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-03-15

    Naringin is the natural chief bitter flavonoid found in Citrus species. Herein, bitter naringin was treated with atmospheric pressure plasma to afford two new converted flavonoids, narinplasmins A (2) and B (3), along with the known compound, 2R-naringin. The structures of the two new naringin derivatives were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all isolates was evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging assays. The new flavanone glycoside 2 containing a methoxyalkyl group exhibited significantly improved antioxidant properties in these assays relative to the parent naringin.

  15. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties and antioxidant effect of Mexican oregano-soy based edible films.

    PubMed

    Pruneda, E; Peralta-Hernández, J M; Esquivel, K; Lee, S Y; Godínez, L A; Mendoza, S

    2008-08-01

    Water-soluble extracts from Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Water vapor permeability, mechanical properties, and antioxidant ability were evaluated. All the extracts were capable of scavenging DPPH radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion; the IC50 values were obtained. Oregano extracts were incorporated into SPI films plasticized with sorbitol, glycerol, and glycerol-sorbitol 1:1. The addition of the extracts resulted in an increase in the water vapor permeability values and provided a dark reddish film appearance. Changes in tensile strength as well as elongation values were observed. The oregano SPI films exhibited antioxidant properties in a concentration-dependent fashion.

  16. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  17. PTEN Mediates the Antioxidant Effect of Resveratrol at Nutritionally Relevant Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Inglés, Marta; Gambini, Juan; Miguel, M. Graça; Bonet-Costa, Vicent; Abdelaziz, Kheira M.; El Alami, Marya; Viña, Jose; Borrás, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol have been intensively studied for the last years, both in vivo and in vitro. Its bioavailability after an oral dose is very low and therefore it is very important to make sure that plasma concentrations of free resveratrol are sufficient enough to be active as antioxidant. Aims. In the present study, using nutritionally relevant concentrations of resveratrol, we aim to confirm its antioxidant capacity on reducing peroxide levels and look for the molecular pathway involved in this antioxidant effect. Methods. We used mammary gland tumor cells (MCF-7), which were pretreated with different concentrations of resveratrol for 48 h, and/or a PTEN inhibitor (bpV: bipy). Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined by fluorimetry, PTEN levels and Akt phosphorylation by Western Blotting, and mRNA expression of antioxidant genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. Resveratrol treatment for 48 h lowered peroxide levels in MCF-7, even at low nutritional concentrations (1 nM). This effect was mediated by the activation of PTEN/Akt pathway, which resulted in an upregulation of catalase and MnSOD mRNA levels. Conclusion. Resveratrol acts as an antioxidant at nutritionally relevant concentrations by inducing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, through a mechanism involving PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:24812624

  18. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. PMID:26304363

  19. Antioxidant effect of simvastatin throught oxidative imbalance caused by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate.

    PubMed

    Eger, Guilherme A; Ferreira, Vinícius V; Batista, Camila R; Bonde, Henrique; de Lima, Daniela D; Wyse, Angela T S; da Cruz, Júlia N; Rodrigues, André F; Magro, Débora D Dal; da Cruz, José G P

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to directly investigate the behavioral and antioxidant effects of simvastatin in a model of bipolar mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with simvastatin. On the 24th day after the start of treatment, each rat was administered lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for 7 days. The results suggest that simvastatin combined with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate induced a significant increased locomotion and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate administration causes an oxidative imbalance determined by an increment in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain areas; moreover, in the presence of simvastatin, most of these effects were prevented. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, associated with increased oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymatic defense. In view of the central role played by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the established antioxidant effect of simvastatin therapy is of major interest. PMID:26871491

  20. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient. PMID:22409158

  1. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient.

  2. Effect of irradiation and storage on the antioxidative activity of cashew nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajilata, M. G.; Singhal, R. S.

    2006-02-01

    Food irradiation, a cold process employed for preservation of food has been studied extensively for its beneficial and undesirable effects on food constituents. Since nuts have been shown to contain several antioxidants, and ionizing irradiation is known to result in the formation of free radicals, investigation on the antioxidative potential of cashew nuts after irradiation and subsequent storage was undertaken by assessing their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (DETBA) assay. Irradiation at 0.25-1.00 kGy and subsequent storage was found to considerably reduce antioxidative activity in the cashew nuts.

  3. Antioxidant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Braid, M.

    1980-08-12

    Compositions having highly effective antioxidant characteristics are provided comprising organic media, normally susceptible to oxidation, such as oils of lubricating viscosity, containing a minor amount sufficient to impart antioxidant properties thereto of the reaction product of a polysulfide and a hydrocarbylmagnesium halide or a grignard reagent.

  4. Antioxidant effect of mono- and dihydroxyphenols in sunflower oil with different levels of naturally present tocopherols

    PubMed Central

    Hrádková, Iveta; Merkl, Roman; Šmidrkal, Jan; Kyselka, Jan; Filip, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mono- and dihydroxyphenolic acids and their alkyl esters were examined, with emphasis on the relationship between their molecular structure and antioxidant activity. Test media with different tocopherol level were used for determining the oxidative stability: original refined sunflower oil (total tocopherols 149.0 mg/kg), partially tocopherol-stripped sunflower oil (total tocopherols 8.7 mg/kg) and distilled fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a tocopherol-free medium. The chemical reaction of tocopherols with diazomethane tested for the purpose to eliminate their antioxidant activity failed due to the negligible degree of methylation of hydroxyl group in the tocopherol molecule. Caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenolic acids) and their alkyl esters were found to be more active antioxidants than monohydroxyphenolic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid), 2,5-dihydroxyphenolic acid (gentisic acid), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolic acids (vanillic and ferulic acids) and their corresponding alkyl esters. Naturally present tocopherols in refined sunflower oil proved to have a synergistic effect on gentisic acid but not on its alkyl esters. In contrast, tocopherols showed an antagonistic effect on alkyl esters of caffeic acid, because their protection factors decreased with increasing level of tocopherols in the test medium. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these alkyl esters decreased with increasing length of their alkyl chain in conformity with the polar paradox hypothesis. Practical applications: Tocopherols as naturally present antioxidants influence considerably the antioxidant activity of other antioxidants added to plant oils used as a test medium. Distilled fatty acid methyl esters prepared from refined sunflower oil may serve as an optimal tocopherol-free test medium. Some alkyl esters of phenolic acids were evaluated to be applicable as natural more lipophilic antioxidants in comparison with phenolic acids. PMID:23997655

  5. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  6. Lipid-Coated Cisplatin Nanoparticles Induce Neighboring Effect and Exhibit Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shutao; Wang, Yuhua; Miao, Lei; Xu, Zhenghong; Lin, C. Michael; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of cisplatin (CDDP) into nanoparticles (NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency has been difficult due to the poor solubility of CDDP. However, this barrier has been overcome with a reverse microemulsion method appropriating CDDP’s poor solubility to our advantage promoting the synthesis of a pure cisplatin nanoparticle with a high drug loading capacity (approximately 80.8wt%). Actively targeted CDDP NPs exhibited significant accumulation in human A375M melanoma tumor cells in vivo. In addition, CDDP NPs achieved potent anti-tumor efficacy through the neighboring effect at a dose of 1 mg/kg when injected weekly via IV without inducing nephrotoxicity. The neighboring effect regards an observation made in vivo when the tumor cells that took up CDDP NPs released active drug following apoptosis. Via diffusion, surrounding cells that were previously unaffected showed intake of the released drug and their apoptosis soon followed. This observation was also made in vitro when A375M melanoma tumor cells incubated with CDDP NPs exhibited release of active drug and induced apoptosis on untreated neighboring cells. However, the neighboring effect was unique to rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Liver functional parameters and H&E staining of liver tissue in vivo failed to detect any difference between CDDP NP treated and control groups in terms of tissue health. By simultaneously promoting an increase in cytotoxicity and a lesser degree of side effects over free CDDP, CDDP NPs show great therapeutic potential with lower doses of drug while enhancing anti-cancer effectiveness. PMID:24083505

  7. Antioxidant, antilipidemic and antidiabetic effects of ficusin with their effects on GLUT4 translocation and PPARγ expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Stalin, Antony; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2016-08-25

    In this study, the antioxidant, antilipidemic and antidiabetic effects of ficusin isolated from Ficus carica leaves and their effects on GLUT4 translocation and PPARγ expression were evaluated in HFD-STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. Ficusin (20 and 40 mg/kg b. wt.) lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and body weight gain, in HFD-STZ induced diabetic rats. Ficusin also significantly lowered the serum antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and lipids (TC, TG and FFA) levels to near normal. Ficusin significantly enhanced the PPARγ expression and improved the translocation and activation of GLUT4 in the adipose tissue. Molecular docking analysis exhibited promising interactions of GLUT4 and PPARγ into their active sites. This study suggests that ficusin improved the insulin sensitivity on adipose tissue and it can be used for the treatment of obesity related type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27350165

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  9. Oxidant/antioxidant effects of chronic exposure to predator odor in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Carmona, G E; Gosselink, K L; Pérez-Ishiwara, G; Martínez-Martínez, A

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of anxiety-related diseases is increasing these days, hence there is a need to understand the mechanisms that underlie its nature and consequences. It is known that limbic structures, mainly the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are involved in the processing of anxiety, and that projections from prefrontal cortex and amygdala can induce activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with consequent cardiovascular changes, increase in oxygen consumption, and ROS production. The compensatory reaction can include increased antioxidant enzymes activities, overexpression of antioxidant enzymes, and genetic shifts that could include the activation of antioxidant genes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant effect that chronic anxiogenic stress exposure can have in prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus by exposition to predator odor. Results showed (a) sensitization of the HPA axis response, (b) an enzymatic phase 1 and 2 antioxidant response to oxidative stress in amygdala, (c) an antioxidant stability without elevation of oxidative markers in prefrontal cortex, (d) an elevation in phase 1 antioxidant response in hypothalamus. Chronic exposure to predator odor has an impact in the metabolic REDOX state in amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus, with oxidative stress being prevalent in amygdala as this is the principal structure responsible for the management of anxiety.

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  11. Oxidative Stress -a Phenotypic Hallmark of Fanconi Anemia and Down Syndrome: The Effect of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassyouni, HT; Afifi, HH; Eid, MM; Kamal, RM; El-Gebali, HH; El-Saeed, GSM; Thomas, MM; Abdel-Maksoud, SA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of leukemia-prone diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA) and Down syndrome (DS) Aim: To explore the oxidative stress state in children with DS and FA by estimating the levels of antioxidants (e.g., malondialdehyde [MDA], total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity) and DNA damage, and to evaluate of the effect of antioxidant treatment on these patients. Subjects and methods The study included 32 children clinically diagnosed with (15 patients) and FA (17 patients) in addition to 17 controls matched for age and sex. MDA, total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity, and DNA damage were measured. Antioxidants including Vitamin A, E, and C were given to the patients according to the recommended daily allowance for 6 months. Clinical follow-up and re-evaluation were conducted for all patients. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, karyotyping, DNA damage, and oxidative stress were re-evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical computer program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 14.0. Results: Children with FA and DS had elevated levels of oxidative stress and more DNA damage than controls. Oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage improved in FA and DS patients after antioxidant administration. Conclusion: Early administration of antioxidants to FA and DS patients is recommended for slowing of the disease course with symptoms amelioration and improvement of general health. PMID:26097763

  12. Effect-Directed Analysis for the Antioxidant Compound in Salvia verticillata

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Bahman; Rezaee, Javad; Nickavar, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Salvia genus is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. Its species have been used for a wide variety of disorders in the local traditional medicine systems. Therefore, the genus has been the subject of several phytochemical and biological studies. The aim of the study was to identify the major antioxidant compound(s) from the methanol extract of Salvia verticillata using activity-guided fractionation. The crude extract showed strong antioxidant activities in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. The ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited a potent free radical scavenging activity compared to the other fractions. Further fractionation and purification of the ethyl acetate fraction using chromatography methods yielded a compound with high antioxidant capacity. The isolated active compound was determined as chrysoeriol. It showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 (DPPH scavenging) value of 93.32 (80.23 – 108.57) mM.

  13. Effect-Directed Analysis for the Antioxidant Compound in Salvia verticillata.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Bahman; Rezaee, Javad; Nickavar, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Salvia genus is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. Its species have been used for a wide variety of disorders in the local traditional medicine systems. Therefore, the genus has been the subject of several phytochemical and biological studies. The aim of the study was to identify the major antioxidant compound(s) from the methanol extract of Salvia verticillata using activity-guided fractionation. The crude extract showed strong antioxidant activities in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. The ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited a potent free radical scavenging activity compared to the other fractions. Further fractionation and purification of the ethyl acetate fraction using chromatography methods yielded a compound with high antioxidant capacity. The isolated active compound was determined as chrysoeriol. It showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 (DPPH scavenging) value of 93.32 (80.23 - 108.57) mM. PMID:27610164

  14. Effect-Directed Analysis for the Antioxidant Compound in Salvia verticillata

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Bahman; Rezaee, Javad; Nickavar, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Salvia genus is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. Its species have been used for a wide variety of disorders in the local traditional medicine systems. Therefore, the genus has been the subject of several phytochemical and biological studies. The aim of the study was to identify the major antioxidant compound(s) from the methanol extract of Salvia verticillata using activity-guided fractionation. The crude extract showed strong antioxidant activities in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. The ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited a potent free radical scavenging activity compared to the other fractions. Further fractionation and purification of the ethyl acetate fraction using chromatography methods yielded a compound with high antioxidant capacity. The isolated active compound was determined as chrysoeriol. It showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 (DPPH scavenging) value of 93.32 (80.23 – 108.57) mM. PMID:27610164

  15. Effect of antioxidants on the oxidative stress in cataract patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the relationship between oxidative stress and eye disease, and the impact of antioxidant supplementation, forty subjects (50-70 y, F25, M15) were enrolled in a double blinded randomized study. Subjects were randomized to receive either 1) lutein (12 mg) or 2) lutein (12 mg) + green tea...

  16. Oenanthe Javanica Extract Protects Against Experimentally Induced Ischemic Neuronal Damage via its Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hong, SeongKweon; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) as a popular traditional medicine in Asia shows various biological properties including antioxidant activity. In this study, we firstly examined the neuroprotective effect of Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 region (CA1 region) of the gerbil subjected to transient cerebral ischemia. Methods: Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The neuroprotective effect of OJE was estimated by cresyl violet staining. In addition, 4 antioxidants (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase [SOD], manganese SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) immunoreactivities were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region showed neuronal death at 5 days postischemia; at this point in time, all antioxidants immunoreactivities disappeared in CA1 pyramidal neurons and showed in many nonpyramidal cells. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, OJE protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage. In addition, 200 mg/kg OJE treatment increased or maintained antioxidants immunoreactivities. Especially, among the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity was effectively increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the OJE-treated sham-operated and ischemia-operated groups. Conclusion: Our present results indicate that treatment with OJE can protect neurons from transient ischemic damage and that the neuroprotective effect may be closely associated with increased or maintained intracellular antioxidant enzymes by OJE. PMID:26521793

  17. Antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts and their gut fermentation products in the human colon carcinoma cell line caco-2.

    PubMed

    Bellion, Phillip; Hofmann, Thomas; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Knaup, Bastian; Richling, Elke; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2008-08-13

    Apples represent a major dietary source of antioxidative polyphenols. Their metabolic conversion by the gut microflora might generate products that protect the intestine against oxidative damage. We studied the antioxidant effectiveness of supernatants of fermented apple juice extracts (F-AEs, 6 and 24 h fermentation) and of selected phenolic degradation products, identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Cell free antioxidant capacity of unfermented apple juice extracts (AEs) was decreased after fermentation by 30-50%. In the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, F-AEs (containing <0.5% of original AE-phenolics) decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level more efficiently than the F-blank (fermented without AE) but were less effective than the respective AEs. Similarly, antioxidant effectiveness of individual degradation products was lower compared to respective AE constituents. Glutathione level was slightly increased and oxidative DNA damage slightly decreased by fermented AE03, rich in quercetin glycosides. In conclusion, F-AEs/degradation products exhibit antioxidant activity in colon cells but to a lesser extent than the respective unfermented AEs/constituents.

  18. 45 CFR 150.439 - Effect of submission of proposed hearing exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... introduce a proposed hearing exhibit following the times for submission specified in § 150.437 only if the party establishes to the satisfaction of the ALJ that it could not have produced the exhibit earlier...

  19. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  20. Offspring of Prenatal IV Nicotine Exposure Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to the Reinforcing Effects of Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Steven B; Lacy, Ryan T; Morgan, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH) in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV) exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or prenatal saline (PS) 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1) or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2) procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/infusion; fixed-ratio 3) and they were tested on varying doses of the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/infusion). For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc) followed by 14 daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal's curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that IV PN-exposed adult offspring exhibited increased sensitivity to IV METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring. PMID:22719728

  1. The Chemical Profile of Senna velutina Leaves and Their Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; de Castro, David Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu; Damião, Marcio José; Vieira Torquato, Heron F.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural products can be a source of biomolecules with antioxidant activity which are able to prevent oxidative stress-induced diseases and show antitumor activity, making them important sources of new anticancer drug prototypes. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of an ethanol extract of Senna velutina leaves and to assess its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in leukemic cells. The antioxidant properties were evaluated using a DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by examining the extract's inhibition of AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Its cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action were assessed in Jurkat and K562 leukemic cell lines. The ethanol extract contained flavonoids, such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, kaempferol heteroside, rutin, and dimeric and trimeric proanthocyanidin derivatives. The extract exhibited antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and antihemolytic action, and it decreased malondialdehyde content in human erythrocytes. Furthermore, the extract also induced leukemic cell death by activating intracellular calcium and caspase-3, decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, and arresting the cell cycle in S and G2 phases. Hence, S. velutina leaf extract contains antioxidant and antileukemic biomolecules with potential applications in diseases associated with oxidative stress and in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. PMID:27803764

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Oprean, Radu; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-08-17

    L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers.

  3. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vlase, Laurian; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Oprean, Radu; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers. PMID:26287157

  4. The effect of milk alpha-casein on the antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Philippe; Côté, Roland; Hutchandani, Surat; Samson, Guy; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we report how the antioxidant capacities of major tea polyphenols are affected by their interactions with milk alpha-casein (milk protein) using three complimentary oxidation methods: ABTS(+) radical cation scavenging, cyclic voltammetry and lipid peroxidation inhibition. We found that using the ABTS(+) assays, the antioxidant activity of all polyphenols was lowered by 11-27% in the presence of caseins. Using cyclic voltammetry, the overall current measured at the electrode was decreased by the presence of the protein, from 21% to 61%. The peak potentials were also shifted to higher values varying from 13 to 41 mV. However, using lipid peroxidation method, we noticed of the antioxidant activity of all the polyphenols changed (from 6% up to 75%) after the addition of alpha-casein. The results show using this method the larger gallate esters containing polyphenols epicatechingallate (ECG) and (epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) were less affected by the presence of casein than smaller polyphenols catechins (C), epicatechin (EC) and epicgallocatechine (EGC). Alpha-casein caused a small effect on the chain breaking antioxidant capacity of theaflavins as well. Therefore, casein has different effects on the overall antioxidant capacities of tea compounds depending on the methods used. We aim to understand those results with the types of protein-polyphenol interactions that take place in various settings and their effects on the antioxidant capacities of those compounds. PMID:24001682

  5. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  6. Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil-yielding crop, against CCl4 -induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Paramesha, Mahadevappa; Ramesh, Chapeyil K.; Krishna, Venkatarangaiah; Ravi Kumar, Yelegara S.; Parvathi, Karur M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present investigation evaluates the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of methanolic extract and its isolated constituent, dehydroabietylamine, in Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil yielding crop. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effects were estimated for the parameters viz, total bilirubin, total protein, serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and along with the pathological findings of hepatotoxicity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging assays: DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Both the methanolic extract (at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw) and dehydroabietylamine (at 50 mg/kg bw) showed significant liver protection against CCl4 -induced liver damage that was comparable with the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg bw), in reducing the elevated serum enzyme markers. The liver sections of the animals treated with dehydroabietylamine elicit a significant liver protection compared with the methanolic extract against CCl4 -induced liver damage. Further, both the methanolic extract and dehydroabietylamine exhibited a considerable and dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. Similarly, in the reducing power assay, the results were very persuasive. In addition, the Fe2+ chelating activity and the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extract and its isolated constituent. Among the two experimental samples, dehydroabietylamine proved to be more effective for the said parameters. Conclusion: The potent antioxidant and its correlative hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and isolated constituent dehydroabietylamine is therefore attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. PMID:22262931

  7. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of dates in Alzheimer's disease APPsw/2576 transgenic mice on oxidative stress and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Al-Adawi, Samir; Vaishnav, Ragini; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Changes in the oxidative stress, antioxidants, and membrane-bound enzymes were investigated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD transgenic mice model after long-term dietary supplementation of date palm fruits from Oman. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576) were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA; mice were fed two different doses of dates (such as 4 and 2%) or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls and parallel decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in control diet-treated Tg2576 AD mice. Dates (4 and 2%) treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice exhibited significantly attenuated oxidative damage, evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, and glutathione reductase). The activities of membrane-bound enzymes (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetyl cholinesterase) were altered in control diet-treated APPsw/Tg2576 AD mice brain regions. Meanwhile, both the percentages of date supplementation were able to restore the activity of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. In summary, we have shown that chronic dietary supplementation of date palm fruits grown in Oman showed possible beneficial effects concomitant with oxidative stress reduction and increased antioxidant enzymes in AD transgenic mice model. These results warrant further exploration of how anti-reactive oxygen species properties of dates offer such beneficial effects on the AD-like brain.

  9. Increasing awareness and preparedness by an exhibition and studying the effect of visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Damages caused by natural hazards can be reduced not only by protection, management and intervention activities, but also by information and communication to improve awareness and preparedness of local communities and tourists. Risk communication is particularly crucial for mountainous areas, such as the Ubaye Valley (France), as they are affected by multiple hazards and are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate and socio-economic changes which may increase the risk associated with natural hazards significantly. An exhibition is a powerful tool to communicate with the general public. It allows1: (1) targeting specific audiences, (2) transmitting technical and scientific knowledge using a suitable language, (3) anchoring the collective memory of past events, (4) visualize and emotionalize the topic of natural hazards, (5) strengthening the communication between peers, and (6) highlighting local resources and knowledge. In addition to these theoretical advantages, an exhibition may fulfill the requirements of a community. In the Ubaye Valley (France), this tool was proposed by the stakeholders themselves to increase awareness and preparedness of the general public. To meet this demand, the exhibition was designed following three general topics: (1) the natural phenomena and their potential consequences on the elements at risk, (2) the management and protection measures (individual and collective) and (3) the evolution of events and knowledge throughout past up to the present and the anticipation of the future situations. Besides being a real risk communication practice, this exhibition will be the setting for an extensive research project studying the effect of the use of visualization tools on the awareness and preparedness of a community. A wide range of visuals (photos, videos, maps, models, animations, multimedia, etc.) will present many dimensions of locally occurring natural hazards and risk problems. The aim of the research is (1) to

  10. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  11. Effects of Anti-Oxidant Migration on Friction and Wear of C/C Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Jarlen; Wang, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    The surfaces of carbon-carbon (C/C) aircraft brakes are usually coated with anti-oxidant to protect them from oxidation. These surfaces do not include the friction surfaces since it is known that when anti-oxidant get onto the friction surface, the friction coefficient decreases. The anti-oxidant migration (AOM), however, happens during processing, heat treatment and application. In this study, phosphorus based anti-oxidants inhibited 3-D C/C aircraft brake system was investigated. The effects of their migration on friction and wear in the 3-D C/C brakes were revealed by sub-scale dynamometer tests and microscopic analysis. Dynamometer results showed that when AOM occurred, both landing and taxi coefficients decreased in humid environment and the wear was slightly lowered. Microscopic study showed that under high humidity conditions there was no formation of the friction film.

  12. Effects of pyrene on antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation level in mangrove plants, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wang, Yu-Tu; Peng, Ya-Lan; Cheng, Hao

    2012-08-01

    The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) (pyrene) on superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline were studied in leaves, stems and roots of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. The results showed that the responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants varied significantly among the three tissues studied. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in PAH-treated stems and roots fluctuated in different stress levels compared to the controls, while the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, APX in leaves increased when stressed by PAH with a significant positive relation between PAH and leaf SOD or APX activity. Low PAH treatments could also stimulate proline in leaves and stems. MDA content was obviously accumulated in stems and roots under PAH stress while decreased in leaves, indicating that the increased antioxidant enzymes in leaves may partly alleviate lipid peroxidation. For pollution monitoring purpose, SOD and APX in leaves may be potential biomarkers of PAH pollution in intertidal estuaries.

  13. Computational design of donor-bridge-acceptor systems exhibiting pronounced quantum interference effects.

    PubMed

    Gorczak, Natalie; Renaud, Nicolas; Galan, Elena; Eelkema, Rienk; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2016-03-01

    Quantum interference is a well-known phenomenon that dictates charge transport properties of single molecule junctions. However, reports on quantum interference in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules are scarce. This might be due to the difficulties in meeting the conditions for the presence of quantum interference in a donor-bridge-acceptor system. The electronic coupling between the donor, bridge, and acceptor moieties must be weak in order to ensure localised initial and final states for charge transfer. Yet, it must be strong enough to allow all bridge orbitals to mediate charge transfer. We present the computational route to the design of a donor-bridge-acceptor molecule that features the right balance between these contradicting requirements and exhibits pronounced interference effects.

  14. Mechanistic analysis of the immunomodulatory effects of a catalytic antioxidant on antigen-presenting cells: implication for their use in targeting oxidation-reduction reactions in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Tse, Hubert M; Milton, Martha J; Piganelli, Jon D

    2004-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have an indispensable role in controlling the growth of pathogens. Recent evidence also suggests that they can function as second messengers and modulators of the immune system. The identification of many redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways that are necessary for initiating the innate proinflammatory immune response suggests that modulation of these oxidation-reduction reactions may provide a means of therapeutic benefit for controlling inflammatory-mediated diseases. In order to test this hypothesis we employed two catalytic antioxidants (AEOL 10113 and 10150) for the determination of the role of oxidation-reduction reactions in innate immune system activation. Catalytic antioxidants prevented the initiation of the innate immune response in LPS-stimulated macrophages as evidenced by the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta) and ROS (NO2- and O2-). The suppression of proinflammatory cytokine and ROS production correlated with the inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA binding, without any effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Catalytic antioxidants prevented NF-kappaB from binding DNA by an oxidation mechanism that was reversible with the addition of DTT. Although the primary use of these agents was to reduce and scavenge ROS, surprisingly, we also observed the ability of these compounds to exhibit oxidoreductase activity and oxidize redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-kappaB. Catalytic antioxidants exhibit antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities and our data further demonstrate the importance of redox balance for the initiation of proinflammation. The coupling of the innate with the adaptive immune response is dependent on TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, NO2-, and O2- generation; therefore, agents like catalytic antioxidants that decrease proinflammatory cytokines and ROS may provide protective effects in diseases in which chronic inflammation plays a pathogenic role.

  15. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  16. Noise-Induced Neural Degeneration and Therapeutic Effect of Antioxidant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Hee

    2015-01-01

    The primary site of lesion induced by noise exposure is the hair cells in the organ of Corti and the primary neural degeneration occurs in synaptic terminals of cochlear nerve fibers and spiral ganglion cells. The cellular basis of noise-induced hearing loss is oxidative stress, which refers to a severe disruption in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense system in the cochlea by excessive production of free radicals induced by noise exposure. Oxidative stress has been identified by a variety of biomarkers to label free radical activity which include four-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome-C, and cascade-3, 8, 9. Furthermore, oxidative stress is contributing to the necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths in the cochlea. To counteract the known mechanisms of pathogenesis and oxidative stress induced by noise exposure, a variety of antioxidant drugs including oxygen-based antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cystein and acetyl-L-carnitine and nitrone-based antioxidants such as phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), disufenton sodium, 4-hydroxy PBN, and 2, 4-disulfonyl PBN have been used in our laboratory. These antioxidant drugs were effective in preventing or treating noise-induced hearing loss. In combination with other antioxidants, antioxidant drugs showed a strong synergistic effect. Furthermore, successful use of antioxidant drugs depends on the optimal timing of treatment and the duration of treatment, which are highly related to the time window of free radical formation induced by noise exposure. PMID:26771008

  17. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry.

  18. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  19. Potent Antioxidative and UVB Protective Effect of Water Extract of Eclipta prostrata L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ying; Wang, Bo Rong

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, including Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage, is involved in numerous diseases. This study demonstrates that water extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (WEP) has a potent effect in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radicals, and chelating ferrous ion, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The WEP total phenol content was 176.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g sample. Chlorogenic acid, a component of the plant's active ingredients, was determined by HPLC and antioxidative assay. However, no caffeic acid, stigmasterol, or wedelolactone was present in WEP. WEP absorbs both UVA and UVB irradiation, and furthermore, the extract shows a dose-dependent response in the protection of HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts 3T3 cells against UVB-induced cytotoxicity, which may result from a synergistic effect between chlorogenic acid and other active components present in WEP. PMID:24683358

  20. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of canadine: biological effects and structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Correché, Estela R; Andujar, Sebastian A; Kurdelas, Rita R; Gómez Lechón, María J; Freile, Mónica L; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2008-04-01

    The cytotoxic effects of four alkaloids, berberine, canadine, anonaine, and antioquine were evaluated using three different cell cultures, a primary culture (rat hepatocytes) and two cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa). Our results indicate that berberine, anonaine, and antioquine possess a significant the cytotoxic effect. In contrast, canadine does not possess cytotoxic effect at concentrations tested here. A molecular modeling study indicates that the quaternary nitrogen, the aromatic polycyclic and planar structure of berberine could be the pharmacophoric patron to produce the cytotoxic effect. In parallel our results demonstrated that canadine possess a significant antioxidant activity. Stereoelectronic aspects of this alkaloid were found to be closely related to those displayed by alpha-tocopherol and its water-soluble analogue trolox. The antioxidant activities of canadine, combined with its low-toxic effect, indicated that the potential of this alkaloid as a novel class of antioxidant agent is very interesting and deserves further research.

  1. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  2. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  3. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  4. Characterization of antioxidant polyphenols from Myrciaria jaboticaba peel and their effects on glucose metabolism and antioxidant status: A pilot clinical study.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Merichel; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta; Östman, Elin; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2016-11-15

    Brazilian berries, such as Myrciaria jaboticaba (jaboticaba), are good sources of polyphenols with a recognized function in oxidative stress attenuation proved in non-clinical studies. In the present study, the polyphenols profile and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the jaboticaba peel were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (DAD), electrochemical (ECD), charged aerosol (CAD), and mass spectrometry (MS) detections. Anthocyanins, ellagitannins and gallotannins, ellagic acid and derivatives, and flavonols were found in jaboticaba. Anthocyanins were the phenolics found in higher concentrations. However, ellagitannins were the main contributors to the total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of jaboticaba peel intake on antioxidant and glucose parameters in a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover study was investigated. The serum antioxidant capacity was significantly higher when the subjects had consumed the test meal containing jaboticaba. Serum insulin decreased subsequent to the second meal at 4h after jaboticaba peel consumption. PMID:27283622

  5. Left- and right-sided video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy exhibit similar effects on myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xuan; Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Huizhong; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background Unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy features less operative trauma, improved cosmesis, and similar efficiency compared with transsternal (TS) thymectomy for treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Unilateral VATS thymectomy can be easily performed from either side of the thorax, because thymus is located in the middle of mediastinum. Nevertheless, the side that provides better outcomes remains controversial. This study presents our experience on treatments for MG and reveals the differences between the unilateral VATS thymectomy performed on each side. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with MG who underwent TS or VATS thymectomy on either side between January 2003 and December 2012 were enrolled in the study. Clinicopathologic data and surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared among different surgical approaches. Results TS thymectomy was administered in 50 patients, whereas unilateral VATS approaches were performed on the remaining 31 patients, 15 on the left side and 16 on the right side. The VATS group exhibited a significantly shorter surgery duration (P<0.001), less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.009), shorter postoperative hospital stay (P=0.025), smaller thoracic drainage volume (P=0.033), shorter thoracic drainage duration (P=0.006), and less postoperative complications (P<0.001) compared with the TS group. However, disease remission rates did not significantly differ among the groups (P=0.988). The left-sided group exhibited considerably longer thoracic drainage duration than the right-sided group (P=0.041). Moreover, surgical time (P=0.736), intraoperative blood loss (P=0.281), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.599), thoracic drainage volume (P=0.571), postoperative complications (P=0.742) and therapeutic effect (P=1.000) did not significantly differ among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ocular type of MG is the only independent factor for clinical remission (P=0

  6. Effects of domestic cooking methods on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Song, Zhen

    2014-09-10

    In this study, effects of boiling, steaming, microwaving, baking, and frying on proximate composition, total and individual polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves were investigated. An increase of 9.44% in total polyphenol content was observed after steaming, whereas decreases of 30.51, 25.70, and 15.73% were noted after boiling, microwaving, and frying, respectively. Decreases of 63.82 and 32.35% in antioxidant activity were observed after boiling and microwaving, respectively, whereas increases of 81.40, 30.09, and 85.82% in antioxidant activity were observed after steaming, baking, and frying, respectively. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in sweet potato leaves. The correlation analysis between content of individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity suggested that antioxidant activity could be mainly attributed to 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. It was suggested that steaming is a preferred method to maintain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

  7. Cellular Antioxidant Effect of Four Bromophenols from the Red Algae, Vertebrata lanosa

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Elisabeth K.; Hansen, Espen; Isaksson, Johan; Andersen, Jeanette H.

    2013-01-01

    Three known bromophenols, 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzylaldehyde (1), 2,2′,3-tribromo-3′,4,4′,5-tetrahydroxy-6′-hydroxymethyldiphenylmethane (2) and bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxylbenzyl) ether (3), and one new one, 5,5″-oxybis(methylene)bis(3-bromo-4-(2′,3′-dibromo-4′,5′-dihydroxylbenzyl)benzene-1,2-diol) (4), were isolated from an extract of the red alga, Vertebrata lanosa. The antioxidant activity of these four bromophenols was examined using one biochemical and two cellular assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) and Cellular Lipid Peroxidation Antioxidant Activity (CLPAA) assays. Compound 2 distinguished itself by showing potent activity, having a better antioxidant effect than luteolin in both the CAA and CLPAA assays and of quercetin in the CLPAA assay. Although several bromophenols are known to be potent antioxidants in biochemical assays, this is the first time their cellular antioxidant activity has been demonstrated. PMID:23921722

  8. In vitro antioxidant effect of Camellia sinensis on human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Humaira; Hasnain, Shahida

    2015-09-01

    Camellia sinensisis traditionally used in many polyherbal preparations for the treatment of different diseases and infections. Its action has been associated with its antioxidant activities. In this study, antioxidant effect of Camellia sinensis on hydrogen peroxide-induced human lymphocyte cell cultures was estimated. Camellia sinensis showed high contents of ascorbic acid, phenols, flavonoids, and flavonols. Good scavenging activity was evident by scavenging assays e.g. 2,2-DiPhenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl Hydrate (DPPH), 2,2-Azinobis (3-ethyl-BenzoThiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical assay and reducing power assay. Moreover, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-UV) chromatographs showed many notable peaks of unidentified bioactive compounds. In vitro antioxidant actions were determined by the activities of catalase (ELISA kit method), superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and total protein contents on lymphocyte cell cultures. In vitro experimental trial showed strong antioxidant repair mechanism of plant against oxidative stress. Results of extraction with solvent methanol showed the highest antioxidant activity. Camellia sinensis is promising source of natural antioxidants and further studies might be a likely source of its use in remedy of different diseases.

  9. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  10. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  11. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  12. Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Properties of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Guk; Shin, Young Jee; Lee, Seongeung; Lee, Junsoo; Yoo, Seon Mi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, stir-frying, and roasting) and three cooking times (5, 10, and 15 min) on the antioxidant properties of red pepper. Raw and cooked peppers were measured for proximate composition, ascorbic acid (AsA) content, total carotenoid content (TCC), total polyphenol content (TP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities. Results showed that the proximate composition, AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activities were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the cooking procedure; the loss rate varied among individual compounds. Boiling and steaming significantly reduced AsA content (24.3~66.5%), TP (13.9~ 54.9%), and antioxidant activity (21.7~60.5%) in red pepper, while stir-frying and roasting slightly reduced AsA content (2.7~25.9%), TP (1.8~4.9%), and antioxidant activity (4.9~17.9%). The highest loss was observed after boiling, followed by steaming, roasting, and stir-frying. Stir-frying and roasting better preserved AsA content, TCC, TP, and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, dry-heat cooking methods such as stir-frying and roasting may be preferred to retain the nutrient compositions and antioxidant properties of red pepper. PMID:24471098

  13. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E in barley: Effect of genotype and storage.

    PubMed

    Do, Thu Dung T; Cozzolino, Daniel; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2015-11-15

    Antioxidants, including vitamin E, may have a positive effect on human health and prolong storage of food items. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity were measured in 25 barley genotypes before and after 4 months storage at 10 °C using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, respectively. As expected, α-tocotrienol (α-T3) and α-tocopherol (α-T) were the predominant tocol isomers. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity varied significantly among genotypes. Vitamin E ranged from 8.5 to 31.5 μg/g dry weight (DW) while ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) varied from 57.2 to 158.1 mg AEAC/100 g fresh weight (FW). Generally, lower vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity was observed in hulless or coloured genotypes. These results suggest that some genotypes are potential candidates for breeding of barley cultivars with high vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity at harvest, even after storage.

  15. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Neuroprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Lin; Lin, Che San

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine phytochemical compositions, chemiluminescence antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells for water, methanol, and 95% ethanol extracts of the air-dried fruit of Terminalia chebula Retzius. The water extract afforded the greatest yield, and total phenolic and tannin content. The methanol extract yielded the greatest total triterpenoid content. Based on four chemiluminescence antioxidant assays, the three extracts showed various degrees of antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed good antioxidant activity based on the horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) assay. The water extract appeared to have good antioxidant activities in cupric sulfate-Phen-Vc-H2O2 and luminol-H2O2 assays. Pyrogallol-luminol assay showed the 95% ethanol extract to have good antioxidant activity. The methanol and water extracts presented neuroprotective activities on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death at 0.5–5.0 μg/mL. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo. PMID:21754945

  16. Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging effects of various extracts from Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Sammia; Kashmiri, Muhammad Akram; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohy-ud-Din, Ayesha

    2010-03-01

    Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) and Abutilon muticum DC. (Malvaceae) are traditional medicinal herbs used for analgesic, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. These effects may be correlated with the presence of antioxidant compounds. Extracts in organic solvents from the aerial parts and roots of both species were prepared and evaluated for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of all the extracts of both plants was found, employing ABTS and FRAP assays. TEAC values ranged from 3.019 to 10.5 muM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon indicum and from 2.247 to 14.208 muM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon muticum, respectively, using the ABTS assay. The FRAP assay showed reducing powers of the fractions in the order of butanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > n-hexane and butanol > chloroform > hexane > ethyl acetate for Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum, respectively. EC(50) and T(EC50) values for the extracts of both plants were determined using the DPPH free radical assay. The reaction kinetics with this free radical indicated the presence of both slow reacting and fast reacting antioxidant components in the extracts of both plants. The antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was found to be a dose-dependent activity. The results obtained in the present study indicate that both Abutilon species are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20645814

  17. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  18. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-01

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The Id-Vg characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0-60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  19. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  20. Fistular onion stalk extract exhibits anti-atherosclerotic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    HE, BENHONG; HAO, JIANJUN; SHENG, WEIWEI; XIANG, YUANCAI; ZHANG, JIEMEIA; ZHU, HAO; TIAN, JINGCHENG; ZHU, XU; FENG, YUNXIA; XIA, HAO

    2014-01-01

    Fistular onion stalk is used as a traditional herbal medicine, and its extract exhibits certain beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this study, the effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the pathological features, circulating inflammatory cytokines, local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and signaling pathway activities were examined using an in vivo model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis of the aorta was induced by loading Sprague Dawley rats with a high-fat diet and vitamin D2. Fistular onion stalk extract administration began five weeks after the induction of atherosclerosis and continued for 12 weeks. Rats treated with fistular onion stalk extract showed a significant reduction in the pathological region compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Inhibition of atherosclerosis was associated with preservation of the vascular wall and immune cell infiltration. The extract also reduced the levels of the local inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the extract downregulated the local activity of the RAAS. In addition, extract treatment inhibited several inflammatory signaling pathways by preventing phosphorylation, including the nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These data indicate that fistular onion stalk extract may be useful for the attenuation of atherosclerosis, and the mechanism includes the regulation of the local inflammatory response. PMID:25120600

  1. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    shellfish, arises from the fact that they are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antibiotic and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry,...

  2. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  3. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  4. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antiproliferative Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Three Mediterranean Brown Seaweeds of the Genus Cystoseira

    PubMed Central

    Mhadhebi, Lamia; Mhadhebi, Amel; Robert, Jacques; Bouraoui, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds have caused an emerging interest in the biomedical area, mainly due to their contents of bioactive substances which show great potential as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-tumoral drugs. Despite the diversity in quality and quantity of the Mediterranean Tunisian coast flora, with its large contains of marine organisms and seaweeds, most of them have not yet been investigated for pharmacological and biological activities. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of the aqueous extracts (AQ) of three brown seaweed respectively, Cystoseira crinita (AQ-Ccri), Cystoseira sedoides (AQ-Csed) and Cystoseira compressa (AQ-Ccom) were investigated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay. Total phenolic contents were measured using Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts was determined in-vivo, using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema assay. The antiproliferative activity was studied on normal cells (MDCK and rat fibroblast) and cancer (A549, MCF7 and HCT15) cell lines by the ability of the cells to metabolically reduce MTT formazan dyes, in comparison to a reference drug the Cisplatin. Results demonstrated that AQ-Ccri, AQ-Csed and AQ-Ccom extracts exhibited significant radical scavenging activity. AQ-Ccom extract had the highest total phenolic content. AQ-Ccri, AQ-Csed and AQ-Ccom extracts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner by comparison to reference drugs. Moreover, AQ-Ccri, AQ-Csed and AQ-Ccom extracts showed an important antiproliferative activity against both Human tumor cell lines HCT15 and MCF7. These pharmacological efficacies of these AQ- extracts of Cystoseira were positively correlated with their total phenol content and their good antioxidant activity. The purification and the determination of chemical structures of compounds of these active aqueous extracts are under investigation. It could have a promising role in the

  5. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  6. Calea zacatechichi dichloromethane extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Kowalczuk, A; Zielinska, M; Błażewicz, A; Fichna, J

    2015-10-01

    Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae) is a Mexican plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of C. zacatechichi extracts in mouse models mimicking the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Powdered C. zacatechichi herb (leaves, stems, and flowers) was extracted with methanol. Methanolic extract was filtered and evaporated giving methanolic fraction. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Methanolic and DCM (200 mg/kg, per os) extracts were screened for their effect on GI motility in several in vitro tests, and the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were assessed using mouse models. The influence of the DCM extract on motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors was also assessed. Finally, the composition of C. zacatechichi DCM extract was qualitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. C. zacatechichi DCM extract significantly inhibited the contractility of mouse colon in vitro (IC50 = 17 ± 2 μg/ml). Administration of the DCM extract in vivo (200 mg/kg, per os) significantly prolonged the time of whole GI transit (46 ± 1 vs. 117 ± 27 min for control and DCM-treated animals, respectively; P = 0.0023), inhibited hypermotility, and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. Our findings suggest that constituents of the C. zacatechichi DCM extract exhibit antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. The extract may thus become an attractive material for isolation of compounds that may be used as a supplementary treatment for pain and diarrhea associated with IBS in the future. PMID:26068703

  7. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaoya; Chao, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Chengyuan; Xu, Chunlan; Niu, Weining

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP) were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4⁺ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent. PMID:27548135

  8. "Cut-off" effect of antioxidants and/or probes of variable lipophilicity in microheterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Carolina; López de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli

    2016-09-01

    The activities of two hydrophilic (ascorbic acid and Trolox) and two hydrophobic (α-tocopherol and BHT) antioxidants were measured by reaction with a series of 4-alkanoyloxyTEMPO radical probes 1 in buffered (pH 7), aqueous, micellar solutions of reduced Triton-X 100. In all cases, a cut-off effect was observed, in line with previous observations of the same effect for the partitioning of probe series 1 in this medium. These results support an interpretation of the cut-off effect in food emulsions, based on the "amphiphobic" nature of either the antioxidants or probes: competition between two molecular moieties, for the micellar hydrophobic core, tends to expose a reacting fragment differently to a more hydrophilic microenvironment, as the probe or antioxidant hydrophobicity increases.

  9. "Cut-off" effect of antioxidants and/or probes of variable lipophilicity in microheterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Carolina; López de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli

    2016-09-01

    The activities of two hydrophilic (ascorbic acid and Trolox) and two hydrophobic (α-tocopherol and BHT) antioxidants were measured by reaction with a series of 4-alkanoyloxyTEMPO radical probes 1 in buffered (pH 7), aqueous, micellar solutions of reduced Triton-X 100. In all cases, a cut-off effect was observed, in line with previous observations of the same effect for the partitioning of probe series 1 in this medium. These results support an interpretation of the cut-off effect in food emulsions, based on the "amphiphobic" nature of either the antioxidants or probes: competition between two molecular moieties, for the micellar hydrophobic core, tends to expose a reacting fragment differently to a more hydrophilic microenvironment, as the probe or antioxidant hydrophobicity increases. PMID:27041306

  10. Effects of heating time and antioxidants on the formation of heterocyclic amines in marinated foods.

    PubMed

    Lan, C M; Kao, T H; Chen, B H

    2004-03-25

    The effect of heating time and antioxidants on the heterocyclic amine (HAs) formation in marinated foods were studied. Food samples were cooked at 98 +/- 2 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 h in a closed pan in the presence of water, soy sauce and rock candy with or without antioxidants. The various HAs in marinated food samples and juice were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode-array detection. Results showed that the amount of HAs formed during heating followed an increased order for each increasing heating time. A larger variety and higher amount of HAs were generated in marinated pork when compared to marinated eggs and bean cake. In marinated juice, the levels of HAs were present in greater amount than in marinated foods. The incorporation of antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E and BHT were found to be effective towards HAs inhibition, however, the effect was minor.

  11. Novel antioxidants are not toxic to normal tissues but effectively kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Aladedunye, Felix; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Li, Dongping; Thomas, James; Kovalchuk, Olga; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Free radicals are formed as a result of cellular processes and play a key role in predisposition to and development of numerous diseases and of premature aging. Recently, we reported the syntheses of a number of novel phenolic antioxidants for possible application in food industry. In the present study, analyses of the cellular processes and molecular gene expression effects of some of the novel antioxidants in normal human tissues and in cancer cells were undertaken. Results indicated that whereas the examined antioxidants showed no effects on morphology and gene expression of normal human oral and gingival epithelial tissues, they exerted a profound cell killing effect on breast cancer cells, including on chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells and on oral squamous carcinoma cells. Among the tested antioxidants, N-decyl-N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide and N-decyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide were the most promising, with excellent potential for cancer treatment. Moreover, our gene expression databases can be used as a roadmap for future analysis of mechanisms of antioxidant action.

  12. Artocarpin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced skin damage in hairless mice by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Ching; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2013-10-01

    Artocarpin, a prenylated flavonoid isolated from an agricultural plant Artocarpus communis, has been documented to possess anti-inflammation and anticancer activities. As oxidative stress and inflammation promote the development of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photodamage, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the photoprotective effect of artocarpin on UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. Artocarpin at a topical dose of 0.05% and 0.1% showed a significant photoprotective effect by decreasing histopathological changes, such as desquamation, epidermal thicken and sunburn cell formation, but 0.1% of artocarpin administration did not show better effect. Regarding the antioxidant activities, artocarpin exhibited a significant effect (P<0.05) by decreasing levels of reactive species oxygen and lipid peroxidation. In addition, artocarpin can significant decrease the level of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β for downregulating the inflammation protein, including the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that artocarpin can prevent skin damage from UVB irradiation-induced photodamage in hairless mice and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation mechanisms. Therefore, we suggested that artocarpin could be a useful photoprotective agent in medicine and/or cosmetics.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of dietary supplement Kang-fu-ling against high-power microwave through antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohua; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Changzhen; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Dong, Ji; Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao; Qiao, Shanyi; Zhang, Shouguo; Wang, Lin; Wen, Xiaoxue

    2014-09-01

    Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg(-1) and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm(-2) HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of KFL against HPM-induced oxidative stress. In summary, the dietary supplement KFL is a promising natural complex, which ameliorates oxidative stress, with neuroprotective effects against HPM.

  14. Tricarboxylate-based Gd(III) coordination polymers exhibiting large magnetocaloric effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Cao, Chen; Xie, Chen-Chao; Zheng, Teng-Fei; Tong, Xiao-Lan; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Jing-Lin; Wen, He-Rui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-05-31

    Two Gd(III) coordination polymers with the formula [Gd(cit)(H2O)]∞ () and [Gd(nta)(H2O)2]∞ () (H4cit = citric acid, H3nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure based on carboxylate-bridged layers, while complex is a double-layer structure containing eight-coordinated Gd(III). Magnetic investigations reveal that weak antiferromagnetic couplings between adjacent Gd(III) ions in both and with different Weiss values result in large cryogenic magnetocaloric effects. It is notable that the maximum entropy changes (-ΔS) of and reach 31.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 32.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2 K for a moderate field change (ΔH = 3 T), and a remarkable -ΔS (41.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) for and 42.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ) could be obtained for ΔH = 7 T.

  15. Toward Effective Shell Modeling of Wrinkled Thin-Film Membranes Exhibiting Stress Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; Sleight, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis has recently been applied to solar-sail membrane problems in order to model the out-of-plane deformations due to structural wrinkling. Whereas certain problems lend themselves to achieving converged nonlinear solutions that compare favorably with experimental observations, solutions to tensioned membranes exhibiting high stress concentrations have been difficult to obtain even with the best nonlinear finite element codes and advanced shell element technology. In this paper, two numerical studies are presented that pave the way to improving the modeling of this class of nonlinear problems. The studies address the issues of mesh refinement and stress-concentration alleviation, and the effects of these modeling strategies on the ability to attain converged nonlinear deformations due to wrinkling. The numerical studies demonstrate that excessive mesh refinement in the regions of stress concentration may be disadvantageous to achieving wrinkled equilibrium states, causing the nonlinear solution to lock in the membrane response mode, while totally discarding the very low-energy bending response that is necessary to cause wrinkling deformation patterns. An element-level, strain-energy density criterion is suggested for facilitating automated, adaptive mesh refinements specifically aimed at the modeling of thin-film membranes undergoing wrinkling deformations.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of high intensity interval training in COPD patients exhibiting exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Nasis, I; Kortianou, E; Vasilopoulou, Μ; Spetsioti, S; Louvaris, Z; Kaltsakas, G; Davos, C H; Zakynthinos, S; Koulouris, N G; Vogiatzis, I

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) has a significant adverse effect on cardiovascular function during exercise in COPD patients. COPD patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 11) exercise-induced DH undertook an incremental (IET) and a constant-load exercise test (CLET) sustained at 75% peak work (WRpeak) prior to and following an interval cycling exercise training regime (set at 100% WRpeak with 30-s work/30-s rest intervals) lasting for 12 weeks. Cardiac output (Q) was assessed by cardio-bio-impedance (PhysioFlow, enduro, PF-O7) to determine Q mean response time (QMRT) at onset (QMRT(ON)) and offset (QMRT(OFF)) of CLET. Post-rehabilitation only those patients exhibiting exercise-induced DH demonstrated significant reductions in QMRT(ON) (from 82.2 ± 4.3 to 61.7 ± 4.2 s) and QMRT(OFF) (from 80.5 ± 3.8 to 57.2 ± 4.9 s ). These post-rehabilitation adaptations were associated with improvements in inspiratory capacity, thereby suggesting that mitigation of the degree of exercise-induced DH improves central hemodynamic responses in COPD patients.

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 exhibits protective effects on lipid, hepatic and renal profiles in obese rat.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Hamden, Khaled; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to first investigate the immuno-modulatory effects of six newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Wistar rats. Except for Lactobacillus plantarum TN8, all the other strains were noted to induce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The strains also generated low ratios of IL-10/IL-12 cytokine. Strain TN8 was, on the other hand, noted to induce an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine secretion rates and a decrease in pro-inflammatory IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production. The oral administration of TN8 improved the hepatic and urinary functions of obese rats by inducing decreases (P < 0.05) in alanine amino transferase (ALAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, creatinine, urea, and body weight when compared to the control group of animals that underwent an increase in aspartate amino transferase (ASAT) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Overall, the findings indicate that strain TN8 exhibited a number of attractive properties that might open new promising opportunities for the improvement of various parameters related to animal health performance and the avoidance of antibiotics and drugs as promoting factors.

  18. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  19. The protective effects of nutritional antioxidant therapy on Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice depend on the type of antioxidant therapy chosen: histology, genotoxicity and hematology evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Portilho, Flávia A; de Araujo, Vitor G B; Estevanato, Luciana L C; Mezzomo, Bélin P; Santos, Maria de Fátima M de Almeida; Lacava, Zulmira G M

    2011-11-01

    Strong evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the initiation as well as the promotion phase of carcinogenesis. Studies support the role of ROS in cancer, in part, by showing that dietary antioxidants act as cancer-preventive agents. Although results are promising, the research on this topic is still controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamins C, E and pequi oil can, individually, provide prevention and/or be used afterward as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice received antioxidant as follows: before tumor inoculation, before and after tumor inoculation (continuous administration), and after tumor inoculation; morphometric analyses of tumor, genotoxicity and hematology were then carried out. Antioxidant administrations before tumor inoculation effectively inhibited its growth in the three experimental protocols, but administrations after the tumor's appearance accelerated tumor growth and favored metastases. Continuous administration of pequi oil inhibited the tumor's growth, while the same protocol with vitamins E and C accelerated it, favoring metastasis and increasing oxidative stress on erythrocytes. Except for continuous administration with vitamin E, the development of ascites tumor metastases was linked with increased inflammation. Results suggest that the efficiency and applicability of antioxidants in the medical clinic can depend not only on the nature of the antioxidant, the type and stage of cancer being treated and the prevailing oxygen partial pressure in the tissues, but also on the type of antioxidant therapy chosen.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide exhibits cardioprotective effects by decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Luo, Jian; Wu, Zhixiong; Xiao, Ting; Zeng, Ou; Li, Lin; Li, Yan; Yang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to be the third gaseous signaling molecule with anti‑ER stress effects. Previous studies have shown that H2S acts as a potent inhibitor of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats. This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC. PMID:27222111

  1. Synergistic ameliorative effects of sesame oil and alpha-lipoic acid against subacute diazinon toxicity in rats: hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Taha, Ramadan; Ghazy, Emad W; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a common organophosphorus insecticide extensively used for agriculture and veterinary purposes. DZN toxicity is not limited to insects; it also induces harmful effects in mammals and birds. Our experiment evaluated the protective and antioxidant potential of sesame oil (SO) and (or) alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against DZN toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DZN-treated animals exhibited macrocytic hypochromic anemia and significant increases in serum biochemical parameters related to liver injury, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), cholesterol, and triglycerides. They also had elevated levels of markers related to cardiac injury, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and increased biomarkers of renal injury, urea and creatinine. DZN also increased hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant biomarker levels. SO and (or) ALA supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of DZN intoxication. Treatment improved hematology and serum parameters, enhanced endogenous antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Importantly, they exerted synergistic hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. Our findings demonstrate that SO and (or) ALA supplementation can alleviate the toxic effects of DZN via their potent antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities.

  2. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Michael; Zarse, Kim; Oberbach, Andreas; Klöting, Nora; Birringer, Marc; Kiehntopf, Michael; Stumvoll, Michael; Kahn, C. Ronald; Blüher, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Exercise promotes longevity and ameliorates type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. However, exercise also increases mitochondrial formation of presumably harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants are widely used as supplements but whether they affect the health-promoting effects of exercise is unknown. We evaluated the effects of a combination of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day) on insulin sensitivity as measured by glucose infusion rates (GIR) during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in previously untrained (n = 19) and pretrained (n = 20) healthy young men. Before and after a 4 week intervention of physical exercise, GIR was determined, and muscle biopsies for gene expression analyses as well as plasma samples were obtained to compare changes over baseline and potential influences of vitamins on exercise effects. Exercise increased parameters of insulin sensitivity (GIR and plasma adiponectin) only in the absence of antioxidants in both previously untrained (P < 0.001) and pretrained (P < 0.001) individuals. This was paralleled by increased expression of ROS-sensitive transcriptional regulators of insulin sensitivity and ROS defense capacity, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and PPARγ coactivators PGC1α and PGC1β only in the absence of antioxidants (P < 0.001 for all). Molecular mediators of endogenous ROS defense (superoxide dismutases 1 and 2; glutathione peroxidase) were also induced by exercise, and this effect too was blocked by antioxidant supplementation. Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, exercise-induced oxidative stress ameliorates insulin resistance and causes an adaptive response promoting endogenous antioxidant defense capacity. Supplementation with antioxidants may preclude these health-promoting effects of exercise in humans. PMID:19433800

  3. Effect of two monoterpene phenols on antioxidant defense system in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmad Khan, Luqman; Padoa, Carolyn J; van Vuuren, Sandy; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2015-03-01

    Thymol and carvacrol from the class of monoterpene phenols are one of the most potent plant essential oil components possessing antimicrobial effects. Known for their wide bioactive spectrum, these positional isomers of isopropyl cresol deplete ergosterol content, compromise membrane permeability, block efflux pumps and restore antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole in resistant Candida strains. Exposure to these natural compounds induces a cascade of stress responses, which are important to comprehend their microbicidal mechanisms. This study evaluates the antioxidant defense response to lower concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in Candida albicans. The antioxidant defense responses in C. albicans are important for developmental mechanisms pertaining to resistance against the immune system, infection establishment and drug resistance. In this view, primary and secondary antioxidant defense enzymes, and oxidative stress markers including glutathione and lipid peroxidation were determined in C. albicans cells exposed to lower concentrations of thymol and carvacrol. These compounds were found to induce oxidative stress and compromised the antioxidant defense system in C. albicans at lower concentrations. This study helps in understanding the 'in cell' antifungal mechanisms of natural monoterpene phenols originating from oxidative stress. Thymol and carvacrol induced membrane deterioration reported earlier, is further explained as a result of a toxic radical cascade mediated by lipid peroxidation. Findings reinforce the observed toxic oxidizing effects of these compounds as a consequence of direct damage to antioxidant components and not to their genetic manipulations. PMID:25681060

  4. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazuru, E. R.; Moreira, A. V. B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  5. Tribological and antioxidation synergistic effect study of sulfonate-modified nano calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Zhongyi, He; Liping, Xiong; Sheng, Han; Aixi, Chen; Jianwei, Qiu; Xisheng, Fu

    2013-01-01

    A middle base number sulphonate-modified nano calcium carbonate (SMC) with an average size of 35 nm was synthesized, and its tribological and antioxidation synergistic behaviors with ashless antioxidant N-phenyl-α-naphthylamine (T531) in hydrogenated oil (5Cst) were evaluated. The results demonstrate that adding this synthesized additive even at a low amount (<2.0 wt.%) can evidently improve its load-carrying capacity by 1.5 times and enhance its antiwear performance; in addition, the friction-reducing effect of additive in the high load was better than that in low load. The SMC have a good synergistic antioxidation effect with T531, which verifies the nano calcium carbonate compound was a kind of multifunctional and high-performance additive. The chemical composition of the rubbing surface which formed on the boundary film was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicating that the excellent antiwear and load-carrying performance could be attributed to the forming of boundary lubrication film which composed of calcium carbonate, oxides, ferrites, sulphide and FeSO4, and so on. Its ability to increase oxidation free energy of base oil is the main reason for increasing its antioxidant collaboration property with ashless antioxidant T531. PMID:23658705

  6. Tribological and Antioxidation Synergistic Effect Study of Sulfonate-Modified Nano Calcium Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Zhongyi, He; Liping, Xiong; Sheng, Han; Aixi, Chen; Jianwei, Qiu; Xisheng, Fu

    2013-01-01

    A middle base number sulphonate-modified nano calcium carbonate (SMC) with an average size of 35 nm was synthesized, and its tribological and antioxidation synergistic behaviors with ashless antioxidant N-phenyl-α-naphthylamine (T531) in hydrogenated oil (5Cst) were evaluated. The results demonstrate that adding this synethesized additive even at a low amount (<2.0 wt.%) can evidently improve its load-carrying capacity by 1.5 times and enhance its antiwear performance; in addition, the friction-reducing effect of additive in the high load was better than that in low load. The SMC have a good synergistic antioxidation effect with T531, which verifies the nano calcium carbonate compound was a kind of multifunctional and high-performance additive. The chemical composition of the rubbing surface which formed on the boundary film was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicating that the excellent antiwear and load-carrying performance could be attributed to the forming of boundary lubrication film which composed of calcium carbonate, oxides, ferrites, sulphide and FeSO4, and so on. Its ability to increase oxidation free energy of base oil is the main reason for increasing its antioxidant collaboration property with ashless antioxidant T531. PMID:23658705

  7. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts, kernels, and testa.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Neel; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-05-11

    The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts, subjected to low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut, kernel, and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. The highest activity, as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), and reducing power, was achieved when nuts were roasted at 130 °C for 33 min. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut, kernel, and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins (PC) except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels. In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic (the predominant one), gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. Flavonoids, namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, were also identified, and their contents increased with increasing temperature. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time (HTST) roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa.

  8. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  9. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice: effects of long-term voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, Lobke M; Speakman, John R; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E; Visser, G Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two responses may underlie beneficial effects of physical activity on aging. Effects of lifelong exercise on antioxidant enzyme activities and fractional synthesis rate of protein (FSRP) were examined at various ages (2-26 mo) in heart, liver, and muscle of mice that had been selectively bred for high wheel-running activity, housed with (S+) or without (S-) a running wheel, and their random-bred controls (C+) housed with running wheels. FSRP decreased with age and increased in muscle of young, but not old, activity-selected mice. Enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased with age and showed a peak at 10 mo of age in liver. Selection for wheel-running activity did not affect antioxidant enzyme activity. Daily energy expenditure correlated positively with antioxidant levels in liver. This might indicate that oxidative stress (ROS production) increases with metabolic rate, driving upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Alternatively, the elevated energy expenditure may reflect the energetic cost of elevated protection, consistent with the disposable-soma hypothesis and with other studies showing positive links between energy expenditure and life span. Long-term elevations in voluntary exercise did not result in elevations in antioxidant enzyme activities or protein synthesis rates.

  10. The antioxidant effects of complexes of tilapia fish skin collagen and different marine oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shuwen; Li, Jing; Guan, Huashi

    2010-12-01

    An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to a variety of chronic health problems. As potent antioxidants, marine bioactive extracts containing oligosaccharides and peptides have been extensively studied. Recently, there is a growing interest in protein-polysaccharide complexes because of their potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. However, only few studies are available on the antioxidant activities of such complexes, in terms of their ROS scavenging capability. In this study, we combined different marine oligosaccharides (isolated and purified) with collagen peptides derived from tilapia fish skin, and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the marine peptide-oligosaccharide complexes vis-à-vis the activity of their original component molecules. Biochemical and cellular assays were performed to measure the scavenging effects on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and to evaluate the influences on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in UV-induced photoaging models. The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of all the complexes were stronger than those of their individual components. Among the 11 complexes tested, two complexes, namely MA1000+CP and κ-ca3000+CP, turned out to be highly effective antioxidants. Although the detailed mechanisms of this improved scavenging ability are not fully understood, this work provides insights into the design of highly efficient peptide-oligosaccharide complexes for potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  11. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  12. Cryoprotective effect of phosphorous-containing phenolic anti-oxidant for the cryopreservation of beluga sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Kolyada, M N; Berberova, N T; Milaeva, E R; Ponomareva, E N; Belaya, M M

    2014-12-01

    A cryoprotective effect of an addition of a new synthetic antioxidant - a representative of phosphorus-containing sterically hindered phenols is presented. The efficiency of the compound was shown to exceed the effect of lipid-soluble antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox in the conditions of cryopreservation of beluga sperm in the presence of the modified Stein's medium. It was shown that the level of carbonyl oxidation by-products, which can react with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), in beluga sperm was inversely proportional to the motility time of sperm cells. The fertility of beluga sperm increased 2 times upon the addition of phosphorus-containing phenol to a modified Stein's medium. The prospects of the new antioxidant application to improve cryoresistance of beluga sperm in the conditions of cryopreservation for its efficient protection from the peroxidation processes are discussed.

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on antioxidant compounds present in cork wastewater.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Melo, R; Botelho, M L; Leal, J P; Fonseca, I M

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary study of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water was carried out. Radiation studies were performed using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 and 2.4 kGy h(-1). The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand. The antioxidant activity was measured by ferric reducing power assay. The total phenolic content was studied using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results show that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. These results highlight the potential of this technology for increasing the added value of cork waters.

  14. Modulatory effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Menon, V P

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine, a pharmacologically active substance in tobacco, has been identified as a major risk factor for lung diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of curcumin on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in nicotine-treated Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (5 days a week, for 22 weeks). Curcumin (80 mg/kg) was given simultaneously by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. The enhanced level of tissue lipid peroxides in nicotine-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Administration of curcumin significantly lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin exerts its protective effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system. PMID:15591646

  15. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  16. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods. PMID:26396332

  17. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Artemisinin Extracts from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Su; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Woo Joong; Lee, Dong Chae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases. PMID:25605993

  18. Cryoprotective effect of phosphorous-containing phenolic anti-oxidant for the cryopreservation of beluga sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Kolyada, M N; Berberova, N T; Milaeva, E R; Ponomareva, E N; Belaya, M M

    2014-12-01

    A cryoprotective effect of an addition of a new synthetic antioxidant - a representative of phosphorus-containing sterically hindered phenols is presented. The efficiency of the compound was shown to exceed the effect of lipid-soluble antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox in the conditions of cryopreservation of beluga sperm in the presence of the modified Stein's medium. It was shown that the level of carbonyl oxidation by-products, which can react with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), in beluga sperm was inversely proportional to the motility time of sperm cells. The fertility of beluga sperm increased 2 times upon the addition of phosphorus-containing phenol to a modified Stein's medium. The prospects of the new antioxidant application to improve cryoresistance of beluga sperm in the conditions of cryopreservation for its efficient protection from the peroxidation processes are discussed. PMID:25445463

  19. Oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide. 3. The effects of chelating agents and phenolic antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, P.K.; Huss, A. Jr.; Eckert, C.A.

    1982-10-14

    The inhibiting effects of chelating agents (1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA) and phenolic antioxidants (phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, phloroglucinol, and pyrogallol) on the catalyzed oxidations of low- and high-pH aqueous S(IV) solutions were investigated. Both the low-pH Mn(II)- and Fe(II)-catalyzed reactions were inhibited by phenolic antioxidants, with the effect on the Mn(II)-catalyzed reaction being much more pronounced. The chelating agents, on the other hand, had a far greater inhibiting influence on the Fe(II)-catalyzed reaction. The high-pH Cu(II)-catalyzed reaction was markedly inhibited by both chelating agents and antioxidants. The results support our previous conclusion that the previously accepted uncatalyzed oxidations of S(IV) were in fact primarily trace-metal catalyzed. 7 figures.

  20. Blood antioxidant enzymes as markers of exposure or effect in coal miners.

    PubMed Central

    Perrin-Nadif, R; Auburtin, G; Dusch, M; Porcher, J M; Mur, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant enzyme activities and total plasma antioxidants were measured in erythrocytes and plasma. Non-parametric tests were completed by analyses of covariance to compare antioxidants between groups, taking into account potential confounding factors (age, smoking history (pack-years)). RESULTS--Erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in the group of underground miners than the group of surface workers. The differences in total plasma antioxidants and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity between both groups were related to age. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis, compared with retired miners without pneumoconiosis. No differences were found either in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities or in total plasma antioxidants between the groups of retired miners without and with pneumoconiosis. CONCLUSIONS--In this study, erythrocyte Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase activity may be considered as a marker of effect of respirable coal mine dust in exposed workers. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species are involved in cell injury induced by coal mine dust, and may be predictive of the degree of inflammation and pneumoconiosis induced by coal mine dust. The increase in glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of retired miners with pneumoconiosis may be the result of a response to the increasing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production due to the disease

  1. Comparing the effects of mitochondrial targeted and localized antioxidants with cellular antioxidants in human skin cells exposed to UVA and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, Anne O; Wilmot, Marie-Claire; Fowler, Mark; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer and aging are linked to increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly following exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in sunlight. As mitochondria are the main source of cellular ROS, this study compared the protective effects of mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (MitoQ and tiron, respectively) with cellular antioxidants against oxidative stress-induced [UVA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human dermal fibroblasts. With the use of a long quantitative PCR assay, tiron (EC50 10 mM) was found to confer complete (100%) protection (P<0.001) against both UVA- and H2O2-induced mtDNA damage, whereas MitoQ (EC50 750 nM) provided less protection (17 and 32%, respectively; P<0.05). This particular protective effect of tiron was greater than a range of cellular antioxidants investigated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway provides cellular protection against oxidative stress. An ELISA assay for the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and studies using Nrf2 small interfering RNA both indicated that tiron's mode of action was Nrf2 independent. The comet assay showed that tiron's protective effect against H2O2-induced nuclear DNA damage was greater than the cellular antioxidants and MitoQ (P<0.001). This study provides a platform to investigate molecules with similar structure to tiron as potent and clinically relevant antioxidants.

  2. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rosyana V.; Malcher, Nívea S.; Amado, Lílian L.; Coleman, Michael D.; dos Santos, Danielle C.; Borges, Rosivaldo Sa.; Valente, Sebastião Aldo S.; Valente, Vera C.; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS) hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV) on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH) mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10–1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET), but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy. PMID:26284371

  4. Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, and Immunomodulatory Effects of Crocus sativus L. and its Main Constituents.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on. Recently, numerous studies have reported such medicinal properties and found that the underlying mechanisms of action may be mediated by antioxidant, inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. C. sativus enhances the antioxidant capacity and acts as a free radical scavenger. As an antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory agent, it modulates inflammatory mediators, humoral immunity, and cell-mediated immunity responses. This review highlights in vitro and animal findings regarding antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. sativus and its constituents. Present review found that the C. sativus and its main constituents such as safranal, crocins, and crocetin could be effective against various diseases because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27098287

  5. Permeability effects on the efficiency of antioxidant nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Louzao, Iria; van Hest, Jan C M

    2013-07-01

    Enzyme-loaded polymeric vesicles, or polymersomes, can be regarded as nanoreactors, which, for example, can be applied as artificial organelles. We implemented a naturally occurring enzymatic cascade reaction in two types of polymersomes, which are known to possess different permeability properties. The selected cascade reaction involved the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) for combating oxidative stress. The activities of both enzymes were investigated by spectrophotometric and electrochemical assays. Whereas the SOD1 substrate (the radical anion superoxide, O2•-) was able to penetrate both membranes equally well, the CAT substrate (H2O2) showed different rates of diffusion. When O2•- was generated inside polymersomes filled with both SOD1 and CAT, the activities of the two systems were comparable again.

  6. [Studying the mechanism of antioxidant effect of vitamins and flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V G; Makarova, M N; Selezneva, A I

    2005-01-01

    In work antiradical activity of vitamins and flafonoids in relation to hydroxyl radical is established. The most antiradical activity is established for flavonoids quercetin, routin, daidzein, biochanin A and luteolin-7glucosid, Among vitamins of group in the most antiradical activity have shown vitamins B12, B2, B5, Bc. In group of fat-soluble vitamins ascorbic palmitat, vitamin K1, vitamin A and beta-carotin have shown activity above, than a known antioxidant vitamin E. The carried out work allows to draw a conclusion that antiradical activity in the relation hydroxyl radical shows the broad audience of vitamins that probably is one of aspects of their therapeutic action. PMID:15822637

  7. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  8. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation.

  9. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J; Falvo, Michael J; Schilling, Brian K; Smith, Webb A

    2007-01-01

    Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning) and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols) and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity), as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides), were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P < 0.0001). Protein carbonyls and peroxides were relatively unaffected by exercise. Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population. PMID:17915021

  10. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  11. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. Methods For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Results Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. Conclusion These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile. PMID:24330337

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sang-Heui; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, So-Yun; Lee, Seon Woo; Chun, Soon-Sil; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    Increased consumption of fresh vegetables that are high in polyphenols has been associated with a reduced risk of oxidative stress-induced disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of spinach in vitro and in vivo in hyperlipidemic rats. For measurement of in vitro antioxidant activity, spinach was subjected to hot water extraction (WE) or ethanol extraction (EE) and examined for total polyphenol content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and antigenotoxic activity. The in vivo antioxidant activity of spinach was assessed using blood and liver lipid profiles and antioxidant status in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 6 weeks. The TPC of WE and EE were shown as 1.5±0.0 and 0.5±0.0 mg GAE/g, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ORAC value, CAA, and antigenotoxic activity for all extracts tested. HFCD-fed rats displayed hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by a significant rise in blood and liver lipid profiles, an increase in plasma conjugated diene concentration, an increase in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and a significant decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity compared with rats fed normal diet. However, administration of 5% spinach showed a beneficial effect in HFCD rats, as indicated by decreased liver TBARS level and DNA damage in leukocyte and increased plasma conjugated dienes and Mn-SOD activity. Thus, the antioxidant activity of spinach may be an effective way to ameliorate high fat and cholesterol diet-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Antioxidant Effects of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Heui; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, So-Yun; Lee, Seon Woo; Chun, Soon-Sil; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    Increased consumption of fresh vegetables that are high in polyphenols has been associated with a reduced risk of oxidative stress-induced disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of spinach in vitro and in vivo in hyperlipidemic rats. For measurement of in vitro antioxidant activity, spinach was subjected to hot water extraction (WE) or ethanol extraction (EE) and examined for total polyphenol content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and antigenotoxic activity. The in vivo antioxidant activity of spinach was assessed using blood and liver lipid profiles and antioxidant status in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 6 weeks. The TPC of WE and EE were shown as 1.5±0.0 and 0.5±0.0 mg GAE/g, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ORAC value, CAA, and antigenotoxic activity for all extracts tested. HFCD-fed rats displayed hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by a significant rise in blood and liver lipid profiles, an increase in plasma conjugated diene concentration, an increase in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and a significant decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity compared with rats fed normal diet. However, administration of 5% spinach showed a beneficial effect in HFCD rats, as indicated by decreased liver TBARS level and DNA damage in leukocyte and increased plasma conjugated dienes and Mn-SOD activity. Thus, the antioxidant activity of spinach may be an effective way to ameliorate high fat and cholesterol diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24772405

  14. Effects of 30 Days Simulated Weightlessness on Antioxidant Defense System in Rat Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Wu, Ping; Kan, Guang-Han; Liu, Xing-hua; Jiang, Shi-zhong; Sun, Xi-qing; Zhang, Shu

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of weightlessness included in long-term spaceflight on antioxidant defense system and briefly to evaluate its potent consequences. Method Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, 30 d suspension, 1 d recovery and 7 d recovery group and each group included 8 rats. Lipid peroxidation, contents of antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver were measured. Results Compared with control group, hydroperoxide (LOOH) contents showed significantly increased (P<0.05), while glutathione (GSH) and total GSH concentration dramatically decreased (P<0.05 or 0.01) in suspension group and 1 d recovery group. Activities of catalase showed significantly decreased (P<0.05). The relative abundance of mRNA for Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and GSH-Px was markedly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion long-term space flight may injure antioxidant defense system and caused oxidative stress and damage. Our study suggested that potent harm to astronauts' health induced by wakened antioxidant defense system should be considered in long-term spaceflight, especially in future trip to Mars.

  15. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  16. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it. PMID:26396378

  17. Effect of sterol esters on lipid composition and antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of coronary heart disease. Erythrocyte membrane is affected during hypercholesterolemia. The effect of EPA-DHA rich sterol ester and ALA rich sterol ester on erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and changes in antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane were studied. Erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility of the membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities was analyzed. Osmotic fragility data suggested that the erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemia was relatively more fragile than that of the normal rats' membrane which could be reversed with the addition of sterol esters in the diet. The increased plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats could also be lowered by the sterol ester administration. There was also marked changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocyte membrane. Antioxidant enzyme levels decreased in the membrane of the hypercholesterolemic subjects were increased with the treatment of the sterol esters. The antioxidative activity of ALA rich sterol ester was better in comparison to EPA-DHA rich sterol ester. In conclusion, rat erythrocytes appear to be deformed and became more fragile in cholesterol rich blood. This deformity and fragility was partially reversed by sterol esters by virtue of their ability to lower the extent of hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  19. The antioxidative effect of Iranian Mentha pulegium extracts and essential oil in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, Abolfazl; Javan, Ashkan Jebelli; Asadi, Farzad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidative activities of the essential oil, methanol and water extracts of Iranian pennyroyal in vegetable oil during storage. Different concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm) of essential oil, water and methanol extracts and beta-hydroxy toluene (BHT; 200 ppm) were added to sunflower oil emulsion in the presence of cupric ions and incubated for 7 days at 60 degrees C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) levels were measured in each day up to day of seven. Furthermore, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and extracts were determined using DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time points using ANOVA. Results showed that DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay findings on the Mentha pulegium extracts were comparable to those found on BHT. Furthermore, in all incubation time points, M. pulegium extracts lowered PVs and TBARS levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). In this respect, water extract was more potent than the methanol extract. Essential oil did not show considerable antioxidative effect. It seems that water extract of M. pulegium is a potent antioxidant which makes it as a potential antioxidant for oil and oily products during storage.

  20. Effect of Packaging and Antioxidant Combinations on Physicochemical Properties of Irradiated Restructured Chicken Rolls

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Ahn, Dong U.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of double packaging (combinational use of aerobic and vacuum conditions) and antioxidants on physicochemical properties in irradiated restructured chicken rolls were determined. Chicken breast treated with antioxidants (none, sesamol+a-tocopherol) was used to process restructured chicken breast rolls. The sliced rolls were vacuum, aerobic, or double packaged (vacuum for 7 d then aerobic for 3 d) and electron beam irradiated at 2.5 kGy. Color, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation reduction potentials (ORP), and volatile profiles of the samples were determined at 0 and 10 d. Irradiation made restructured chicken rolls redder (p<0.05), and the increased redness was more distinct in irradiated vacuum-packaged than irradiated aerobic or double packaged meats. TBARS values of antioxidant-treated double packaged rolls were lower than even nonirradiated vacuum-packaged meat, and those were distinct at 10 d (p<0.05). ORP and lipid oxidation values were lower in irradiated vacuum and double packaged samples than those in irradiated aerobic packaged ones at 0 d (p<0.05). Irradiation of restructured chicken rolls increased the amount of total volatiles. Considerable amounts of off-odor volatiles were reduced or not detected by double packaging and antioxidant treatment at 10 d. Therefore, the combined use of antioxidants and double packaging would be useful to reduce redness and control the oxidative quality changes of irradiated restructured chicken rolls. PMID:26761835

  1. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group.

  2. Antioxidant and protective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury were investigated. Results showed that both inulin and catechin-g-inulin had moderate scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and H2O2, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibition effect. The antioxidant activity decreased in the order of Vc > catechin >catechin-g-inulin > inulin. Administration of inulin and catechin-g-inulin could significantly reduce the elevated levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to CCl4 treatment group. Moreover, inulin and catechin-g-inulin significantly increased the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, whereas markedly decreased the malondialdehyde level when compared with CCl4 treatment group. Notably, catechin-g-inulin showed higher hepatoprotective effect than inulin. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of catechin-g-inulin was comparable to positive standard of silymarin. Our results suggested that catechin-g-inulin had potent antioxidant activity and potential protective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury.

  3. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia. PMID:27630689

  4. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia. PMID:27630689

  5. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia.

  6. Differentiation of the causal characteristics and influences of virtual reality and the effects on learning at a science exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Arlene

    Within the context of the informal science center, exhibits are the main interface for public learning. Essential to the success of a science center is how well exhibits model effective strategies for learning. Virtual Reality (VR) technology with its flexible, adaptive, multimedia, and immersive-learning capabilities is emerging for use by science centers in exhibits; however, research on learning in virtual environments at exhibits is scarce. To support the future development of VR science exhibits it is critical to investigate VR's pedagogical value and effects on science learning. Research investigated the Smoke & Mirrors VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. Inquiry focused on the interplay between elements of the exhibit's design, assessing the separate and interactive effects of visual imagery, moving images, sound, narration, and interactive tools to differentiate the causal characteristics and influences that enhanced and detracted from learning. Case study methodology was employed utilizing visitor observations and interviews with 14 participants. Findings indicated that realistic visual elements with text were the primary sources of content learning; however, positive results were limited to only a few participants. High cognitive load due to interactive tools; instructional design; and movement of visual images were found to be significant detracting characteristics of participant learning. Other characteristics and influences of VR were also found that directly effected learning. Research results will inform the forthcoming design of a new VR exhibit at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center and to the design and development of future VR exhibits at informal science centers. A prior brief mixed-methods evaluation of Smoke & Mirrors was conducted in 2003, contributing background to the study and its future implications and strategies.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131

  8. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products.

  9. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hongyang'). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production. PMID:27607076

  10. Effect of wall material on the antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of Rubus fruticosus juice microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dafne I; Beristain, Cesar I; Azuara, Ebner; Luna, Guadalupe; Jimenez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw < 0.515) in contrast to at a high moisture content (aw > 0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder.

  11. Effect of progressive drought stress on growth, leaf gas exchange, and antioxidant production in two maize cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Khan, Imran; Wang, Longchang

    2016-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the major environmental factors responsible for reduction in crop productivity. In the present study, responses of two maize cultivars (Rung Nong 35 and Dong Dan 80) were examined to explicate the growth, yield, leaf gas exchange, leaf water contents, osmolyte accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity under progressive drought stress. Maize cultivars were subjected to varying field capacities (FC) viz., well-watered (80 % FC) and drought-stressed (35 % FC) at 45 days after sowing. The effects of drought stress were analyzed at 5, 10, 15, 20, ad 25 days after drought stress (DAS) imposition. Under prolonged drought stress, Rung Nong 35 exhibited higher reduction in growth and yield as compared to Dong Dan 80. Maize cultivar Dong Dan 80 showed higher leaf relative water content (RWC), free proline, and total carbohydrate accumulation than Run Nong 35. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion were increased with prolongation of drought stress, with higher rates in cultivar Run Nong 35 than cultivar Dong Dan 80. Higher production of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) resulted in improved growth and yield in Dong Dan 80. Overall, the cultivar Dong Dan 80 was better able to resist the detrimental effects of progressive drought stress as indicated by better growth and yield due to higher antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation, better accumulation of osmolytes, and maintenance of tissue water contents. PMID:27215981

  12. A thioredoxin reductase and/or thioredoxin system-based mechanism for antioxidant effects of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Xu, Jianying; Tian, Lin; Zhong, Liangwei

    2014-02-01

    Long-term treatment with ambroxol (ABX), a bronchial expectorant, was found to prevent acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The underlying mechanism remains unclear. To address this, we have investigated the effect of ABX on critical antioxidant proteins thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) that are decreased in patients with AECOPD. Trx, TrxR and NADP(H) form Trx system, which is involved in regulating numerous oxidative stress-related events. In human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with ABX from 0 to 200 μM gradually increased mRNA and protein levels of TrxR/Trx. At these ABX concentrations, TrxR activity was elevated progressively, whereas Trx activity exhibited a dose-dependent biphasic response, increasing at 50 and 75 μM, but decreasing at ABX over 150 μM. Pre-treatment with 75 μM ABX enhanced the capacity of the cells to eliminate reactive oxygen species, which was largely prevented by knockdown of cytosolic Trx (hTrx1). In a purified system, ABX shortened the initial lag phase during the reduction of insulin disulfide by Trx system. Pre-treatment of NADPH-reduced TrxR with ABX caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in thiolate/selenolate species, i.e. the catalytically active form of TrxR. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the reduction of H2O2 by TrxR or Trx system were enhanced by 100 or 200 μM ABX. When hTrx1 was mixed with ABX in a molar ratio of 1:1 to 1:100 (which could occur in human plasma), changes in intrinsic Trp fluorescence occurred, and the response of reduced hTrx1 was especially remarkable. These data reveal an ABX-sensing mechanism of TrxR/Trx. We therefore conclude that the antioxidant actions of ABX at physiological concentrations are, at least partially, mediated by TrxR and/or Trx system.

  13. A thioredoxin reductase and/or thioredoxin system-based mechanism for antioxidant effects of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Xu, Jianying; Tian, Lin; Zhong, Liangwei

    2014-02-01

    Long-term treatment with ambroxol (ABX), a bronchial expectorant, was found to prevent acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The underlying mechanism remains unclear. To address this, we have investigated the effect of ABX on critical antioxidant proteins thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) that are decreased in patients with AECOPD. Trx, TrxR and NADP(H) form Trx system, which is involved in regulating numerous oxidative stress-related events. In human bronchial epithelial cells, treatment with ABX from 0 to 200 μM gradually increased mRNA and protein levels of TrxR/Trx. At these ABX concentrations, TrxR activity was elevated progressively, whereas Trx activity exhibited a dose-dependent biphasic response, increasing at 50 and 75 μM, but decreasing at ABX over 150 μM. Pre-treatment with 75 μM ABX enhanced the capacity of the cells to eliminate reactive oxygen species, which was largely prevented by knockdown of cytosolic Trx (hTrx1). In a purified system, ABX shortened the initial lag phase during the reduction of insulin disulfide by Trx system. Pre-treatment of NADPH-reduced TrxR with ABX caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in thiolate/selenolate species, i.e. the catalytically active form of TrxR. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the reduction of H2O2 by TrxR or Trx system were enhanced by 100 or 200 μM ABX. When hTrx1 was mixed with ABX in a molar ratio of 1:1 to 1:100 (which could occur in human plasma), changes in intrinsic Trp fluorescence occurred, and the response of reduced hTrx1 was especially remarkable. These data reveal an ABX-sensing mechanism of TrxR/Trx. We therefore conclude that the antioxidant actions of ABX at physiological concentrations are, at least partially, mediated by TrxR and/or Trx system. PMID:24103200

  14. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  15. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  16. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  17. Effect of Compost Socks System on Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoid Content, and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of cultivation practices on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in strawberries var. Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruit used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had prior history of black root rot and red...

  18. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yoke Keong; Tan, Jun Jie; Teh, Soek Sin; Mah, Siau Hui; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN) have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was tested on HepG2, IMR32, NCL-H23, SNU-1, Hela, LS-174T, K562, Raji, and IMR32 cancer cells using MTT assay. Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K-562 (91.28 ± 0.03%) and Raji cell lines (88.97 ± 1.07%) at 100 μg/ml and the other five cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but not on IMR-32 cells. Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography—mass spectra analysis. In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23533485

  19. Protective Effect of Antioxidant Extracts from Grey Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Agaricomycetes), Against Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Aortic Endothelial Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Abidin, Mohamad Hamdi Zainal; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacities of extracts from Pleurotus pulmonarius via Folin-Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Extract compositions were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid; Coomassie Plus (Bradford) protein; Spectroquant zinc, copper, and manganese test assays; and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methanol-dichloromethane extract, water fraction, hot water, aqueous extract and hexane fraction exhibited the most potent extracts in the antioxidant activities. LC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed that the extracts contained ergothioneine, ergosterol, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. The selected potent extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic injury in human aortic endothelial cells. The crude aqueous extract was deemed most potent for the prevention of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial membrane damage. Ergothioneine might be the compound responsible for the activities, as supported by previous reports. Thus, P. pulmonarius may be a valuable antioxidant ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals. PMID:27279533

  20. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective effect on ethanol-mediated liver damage of spray dried Vernonia amygdalina water extract.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, SweeKeong; Liang, Woon San; Beh, Boon Kee; Mohamad, NurulElyani; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina is a strong natural antioxidant that possessed various medicinal properties. In this study, the spray-dried water extract of V. amygdalina was evaluated for its in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect against alcoholic-mediated liver damage. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of spray-dried V. amygdalina water extract were determined. Liver enzyme profiles, liver antioxidant level and nitric oxide level were evaluated in alcohol-induced liver injured mice or co-supplement with spray-dried V. amydalina. Water extract of spray-dried V. amygalina that contained phenolic content of 24.8±1.5 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 25.7±1.3 mg/g catechin equivalent was able to inhibit 50% of xanthine and tyrosinase oxidation at 170 μg/ml and 2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, extracts at both 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight were able to reduce the levels of Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase (AST), triglyceride and total bilirubin content inthe alcohol-mediated liver injury in mice. Furthermore, it also helped to increase levels of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduce the levels of Nitric oxide (NO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of the treated mice. These resultssuggestedthat water extract of spray-dried V. amygdalina exhibited liver protective effect, which could be contributed by its antioxidant properties.

  1. Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramírez, Adela-Leonor; Maldonado-Vega, María; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Hernández, Gerardo; Arévalo-Rivas, Bertha-Isabel; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response of the antioxidant system and the effects of antioxidant supplementation against oxidative insult in lead-exposed workers has not been sufficiently studied. In this work, antioxidants (vitamin E 400 IU+vitamin C 1g/daily) were supplemented for one year to 15 workers exposed to lead (73 μg of lead/dl of blood) and the results were compared with those on 19 non-lead exposed workers (6.7 μg of lead/dl). Lead intoxication was accompanied by a high oxidative damage and an increment in the erythrocyte antioxidant response due to increased activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant supplementations decreased significantly the oxidative damage as well as the total antioxidant capacity induced by lead intoxication with reduction of the antioxidant enzyme activities. We conclude that antioxidant supplementation is effective in reducing oxidative damage and induces modifications in the physiopathological status of the antioxidant response in lead-exposed workers.

  2. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Cleva; Kross, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals. PMID:22408440

  3. Antiepileptic and Antioxidant Effect of Brassica nigra on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Sadeghian, Azam

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rate of epilepsy today, with respect to the insufficiency of the available therapies, new strategies and methods are recommended for medical treatment of epileptic patients. Therefore, the present study experimentally investigated the anticonvulsant effect of a herbal medicine candidate brassica nigra, by using kindling method. Sixty male mice were randomly selected and divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) including: 1-control, 2-pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-kindled mice, 3-positive control group received valproate (100 mg/Kg) as anti-convulsant drug, 4-5 and 6 received brassica nigra seed extract in three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg; IP). All groups except for the control ones were kindled by 11 period injections of PTZ (35 mg/Kg; IP). In the 12th injection, all groups except for the control group were tested for PTZ challenge dose (75 mg/Kg). However, the exhibited phases of seizure (0-6) were observed and noted till 30 min after the PTZ injection. At last, the brains of all the mice were removed and then malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels of the brain tissues were determined. Statistical analysis of the data shows that the seed extract could reduce the intensity, improvement and duration of seizure. In addition, the brassica nigra extract increased the SOD and NO levels and decreased the MDA level in the brain tissues. Attained results show that the extract of Brassica nigra seed can be used in grand mal seizure treatment. Moreover, the antiepileptic effect of this extract is probably caused by its antioxidant properties and acts via enzyme activity mechanism. PMID:24250555

  4. Depletion of Plasma Antioxidants in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Requiring Parenteral Feeding: Effects of Parenteral Nutrition With or Without Alanyl-Glutamine Dipeptide Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Menghua; Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Jones, Dean P.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Alteheld, Birgit; Bazargan, Niloofar; Hao, Li; Griffith, Daniel P.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Antioxidant depletion is common in critically ill patients. This study was designed to determine the effects of PN, with or without glutamine (Gln) supplementation, on systemic antioxidant status in adult patients after major surgery who required parenteral nutrition (PN) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) setting. Methods Fifty-nine SICU patients who required PN following pancreatic surgery or cardiac, vascular or colonic (non-pancreatic) surgery were randomized in a double-blind study to receive standard PN (Gln-free) or Gln-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) in which Gln was provided as alanyl-Gln dipeptide. Conventional PN vitamin and mineral doses were administered to all subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the anti-oxidant nutrients α-tocopherol, vitamin C and zinc were determined at baseline (initiation of study PN) and again after 7 days of study PN. Data were analyzed for the total study cohort and within the pancreatic surgery and non-pancreatic (cardiac, vascular and colonic) surgery patient subgroups. Results Mean plasma antioxidant concentrations were within or slightly below the normal ranges at baseline. However, a high percentage of patients demonstrated below normal baseline plasma concentrations of GSH (59%), vitamin C (59%) and zinc (68%), respectively. A lower percentage of patients exhibited below normal plasma α-tocopherol levels (21%). Study PN significantly improved plasma zinc levels in the entire study group and each surgical subgroup. Gln-PN significantly improved the change in plasma reduced GSH from baseline to day 7 in the non-pancreatic surgery patients (PN: −0.27 µM vs Gln-PN: +0.26 µM; p<0.03). Conclusions Low plasma levels of key antioxidants were common in this group of SICU patients despite administration of PN containing conventional micronutrients. Compared to standard PN, Gln-supplemented PN improved plasma GSH levels in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular or colonic

  5. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  6. Effect of antioxidants on post thaw microscopic, oxidative stress parameter and fertility of Boer goat spermatozoa in Tris egg yolk glycerol extender.

    PubMed

    Memon, Akeel Ahmed; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Goh, Y M; Ebrahimi, M; Nadia, F M

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of antioxidants on standard semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and fertility of Boer goat semen after cryopreservation. Ejaculates from four bucks were collected, evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The pooled semen was diluted with Tris citric acid fructose for washing. Semen samples, which were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the antioxidant ascorbic acid (8.5mg/ml), butylated hydroxytoluene (2mM), cysteine (5mM) and hypotaurine (10mM) and an extender without antioxidant supplementation were cooled to 4°C and frozen in 0.25 straws with programmable freezer and finally stored in liquid nitrogen. Data (10 replicates) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Mean (±SEM) progressive motility was significantly higher in ascorbic acid than other supplement groups and control samples (P>0.05). Best values were observed in ascorbic acid followed by BHT, cysteine, and hypotaurine. Antioxidant supplementation in extender showed significant (P<0.05) better values than the control group for sperm membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability. The ability of antioxidants to reduce the lipid peroxidation (LPO) after freeze thawing was measured by the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the thiobarbituric acid method. Results showed that addition of antioxidants significantly reduced the rate of LPO in comparison to control (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid exhibited better values (1.27±0.28), than butylated hydroxytoluene, cysteine and hypotaurine 1.32±0.42, 2.27±0.16 and 2.38±0.17 respectively, which are significantly better than control (3.52±0.54). Higher pregnancy rate was observed with ascorbic acid followed by butylated hydroxtolune, hypotaurine and cysteine. However, differences in the fertility rate were non-significant with hypotaurine, cysteine and control groups.

  7. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from

  8. Ozone, antioxidant spray and meloidogyne hapla effects on tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisessar, S.; Palmer, K. T.

    The relationship between ozone and the northern root-knot nematode on tobacco was investigated. Seedlings of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Virginia 115 were inoculated and not inoculated with root-knot ( Meloidogyne hapla (Chitwood) prior to transplanting to a field plot. One-half the plants were sprayed at weekly intervals with an antioxidant, EDU at the rate of 1 kg ha -1 to protect against oxidant injury. O 3 concentrations in excess of 80 ppb were recorded 14 times during the summer of 1982. Ambient ozone inhibited growth and yield of tobacco inoculated and not inoculated with M. hapla. Tobacco inoculated with nematode alone developed significantly more ozone injury than other treatments indicating that tobacco infected with M. hapla is more susceptible to ambient O 3. Significantly 20% more galls developed on plants with nematode inoculation compared to plants with nematode inoculation + EDU indicating that EDU indirectly reduced gall development in tobacco. Plants protected with EDU also showed an increase in dry weight of shoot, root and biomass.

  9. Antioxidant effect of fractions from chicken breast and beef loin homogenates in phospholipid liposome systems.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; Cordray, Joseph C; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2011-09-15

    The antioxidant effects of meat fractions from chicken breast and beef loin were compared. Five meat fractions - homogenate (H), precipitate (P), supernatant (S), high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) fractions - were prepared from chicken breast or beef loin. Each of the fractions were added to a phospholipid liposome model system containing catalysts (metmyoglobin, ferrous and ferric ion) or iron chelating agents to determine the effects of each fraction on the development of lipid oxidation during incubation at 37°C for 120min. All fractions from chicken breast showed stronger antioxidant effects against iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation than those from beef loin. Iron chelating capacity of water-soluble LMW and water-insoluble (P) fractions from both meats were responsible for their high antioxidant capacities. High concentration of myoglobin, which served as a source of various catalysts, was partially responsible for the high susceptibility of beef loin to lipid oxidation. Storage-stable ferric ion reducing capacity (FRC) was detected in all fractions from both meats, and was a rate-limiting factor for lipid oxidation in the presence of free ionic iron. Higher antioxidant capacity and lower myoglobin content in chicken breast were primarily responsible for its higher oxidative stability than beef loin. DTPA-unchelatable compounds, such as ferrylmyoglobin and/or hematin were the major catalysts for lipid oxidation in beef loin, but free ionic iron and storage-stable FRC also played important roles during prolonged storage. PMID:25212135

  10. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (P<0.05). For fresh pork sausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P<0.05); there were no significant changes in TBARS or lipid hydroperoxides for treatments containing the antioxidant combination (P<0.05). The actual level of n-3 PUFA incorporation in both meat products was greater than 87%; n-3 PUFA concentrations did not change within any treatment during storage (P>0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  11. Skin penetration and antioxidant effect of cosmeto-textiles with gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C; Martí, M; Barba, C; Lis, M; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the antioxidant gallic acid (GA) has been encapsulated in microspheres prepared with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and incorporated into polyamide (PA) obtaining the cosmeto-textile. The topical application of the cosmeto-textile provides a reservoir effect in the skin delivery of GA. The close contact of the cosmeto-textile, containing microsphere-encapsulated GA (ME-GA), with the skin and their corresponding occlusion, may be the main reasons that explain the crossing of active principle (GA) through the skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, and its penetration into the different compartments of the skin, epidermis and dermis. An ex vivo assessment was performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the ME-GA on the stratum corneum (SC) using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) test. The test is based on a non-invasive ex vivo methodology that evaluates lipid peroxides formed in the outermost layers of the SC from human volunteers after UV radiation to determine the effectiveness of an antioxidant. In this case, a ME-GA cosmeto-textile or ME-GA formulation were applied to the skin in vivo and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the horny layer were determined after UV irradiation. This methodology may be used as a quality control tool to determine ex vivo the percentage of LPO inhibition on human SC for a variety of antioxidants that are topically applied, in this case GA. Results show that LPO formation was inhibited in human SC when GA was applied directly or embedded in the cosmeto-textile, demonstrating the effectiveness of both applications. The percentage of LPO inhibition obtained after both topical applications was approximately 10% for the cosmeto-textile and 41% for the direct application of microspheres containing GA. This methodology could be used to determine the effectiveness of topically applied antioxidants encapsulated in cosmeto-textiles on human SC. PMID:26848532

  12. Skin penetration and antioxidant effect of cosmeto-textiles with gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C; Martí, M; Barba, C; Lis, M; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the antioxidant gallic acid (GA) has been encapsulated in microspheres prepared with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and incorporated into polyamide (PA) obtaining the cosmeto-textile. The topical application of the cosmeto-textile provides a reservoir effect in the skin delivery of GA. The close contact of the cosmeto-textile, containing microsphere-encapsulated GA (ME-GA), with the skin and their corresponding occlusion, may be the main reasons that explain the crossing of active principle (GA) through the skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, and its penetration into the different compartments of the skin, epidermis and dermis. An ex vivo assessment was performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the ME-GA on the stratum corneum (SC) using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) test. The test is based on a non-invasive ex vivo methodology that evaluates lipid peroxides formed in the outermost layers of the SC from human volunteers after UV radiation to determine the effectiveness of an antioxidant. In this case, a ME-GA cosmeto-textile or ME-GA formulation were applied to the skin in vivo and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the horny layer were determined after UV irradiation. This methodology may be used as a quality control tool to determine ex vivo the percentage of LPO inhibition on human SC for a variety of antioxidants that are topically applied, in this case GA. Results show that LPO formation was inhibited in human SC when GA was applied directly or embedded in the cosmeto-textile, demonstrating the effectiveness of both applications. The percentage of LPO inhibition obtained after both topical applications was approximately 10% for the cosmeto-textile and 41% for the direct application of microspheres containing GA. This methodology could be used to determine the effectiveness of topically applied antioxidants encapsulated in cosmeto-textiles on human SC.

  13. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Tarun K.; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. Results AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p < 0.01) altered the extents of ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation ↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ in vitro. Besides, Pb-acetate significantly (p < 0.01) induced apoptosis in the hepatocytes apparent from the altered expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Apaf-1 ↑, Bad ↑, Bcl-2 ↓, Cyt C ↑, cleaved caspases↑, Bid ↑ and Fas ↑. However, AEEF (400 μg/ml) could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuate the Pb-acetate mediated toxic manifestation in vitro. In in vivo assay, Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high intracellular Pb content. A high Pb-burden within the tissues caused significant (p < 0.05–0.01) patho-physiological alterations viz. ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, DNA fragmentation ↑, ATP formation ↑, mitochondrial co-enzymes Q ↓, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ within the selected tissues. The haematological and

  14. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Objective: Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results: Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. Conclusion: The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. SUMMARY Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I PMID

  15. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves

  16. Antioxidant effect of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Martius extracts from Cariri-Ceará State (Brazil): potential involvement in its therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Dubois, Albys Ferrer; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Campos, Adriana Rolim; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a phytotherapic used in the northeast of Brazil for the treatment of inflammatory processes which normally are associated with oxidative stress. Consequently, we have tested the antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic (HAB) and aqueous extracts (AB) from the bark and aqueous extract (AL) from the leaves of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium to determine a possible association between antioxidant activity and the popular use of this plant. Free radical scavenger properties were assessed by the quenching of 1',1'-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the calculated IC(50) were: HAB = 5.4 ± 0.7, AB = 12.0 ± 2.6, and AL = 46.3 ± 12.3 µg/mL. Total phenolic contents were: HAB = 102.7 ± 2.8, AB = 114.4 ± 14.6, and AL = 93.8 ± 9.1 µg/mg plant). HPLC/DAD analyses indicated that gallic acid, catechin, rutin and caffeic acid were the major components of the crude extracts of S. rotundifolium. Plant extracts inhibited Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. Iron chelation was also investigated and only HBA exhibited a weak activity. Taken together, the results suggest that S. rotundifolium could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  17. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  18. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TOORANG, Fatemeh; DJAZAYERY, Abolghassem; DJALALI, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. PMID:27141496

  19. In vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Elçi, Pınar; Sarper, Meral; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of Achillea species are the most important native economic plants of Anatolia. They include highly bioactive compounds, so they have therapeutic applications. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to investigate in vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts (Turkish name: Beyaz civanperÇemi). Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extracts was analyzed by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content methods. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of the extracts onhuman prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. mRNA expression levels of pro-apoptotic (bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (bcl-2) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that extracts exhibited a remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol extract was higher than that of the water extract. As time and concentration were increased, the methanol extract exhibited a more powerful cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer cells, the levels of mRNA expression of the bax and caspase-3 genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In HGF cells, there were no cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction triggered by the extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract had more powerful anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects than the water extract. The extracts could be good anti-oxidant sources, and they might include anti-cancer compounds triggering the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. PMID:26664020

  20. Two novel exopolysaccharides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C-1: antioxidation and effect on oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixia; Deng, Jianjun; Yuan, Yue; Fan, Daidi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruijuan; Han, Bei

    2015-02-01

    Two odorless, water-soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) fractions, EPS-1 and EPS-2, were isolated from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain C-1 and purified by ion exchange and gel chromatography. The purified EPS-1 contained glucose/mannose/galactose/arabinose in a relative proportion of 15:4:2:1, and possessed a molecular weight of 79.6 kDa, while EPS-2 contained only glucose and mannose in a 3:1 ratio, with the molecular weights of 19.8 kDa. The antioxidant activity results showed that EPS-1 exhibited strong reducing power, superoxide radicals (O(2-)·), and hydroxyl free radicals (OH·) scavenging activities. For the H2O2-induced injury in HepG2 cells, EPS-1 significantly decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular malondialdehyde levels, and restored intracellular superoxide dismutase activity. For EPS-2, there had no detectable antioxidant activities. And all these results collectively showed that as a natural antioxidant, only EPS-1 produced by C-1 had considerable potential to be used as medical compounds or functional additives. PMID:25362510

  1. Effect of extraction method on structure and antioxidant activity of Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lu

    2016-02-01

    The impacts of four extraction methods (hot water, enzyme assistance, ultrasonic assistance and ultrasonic-enzyme assistance) on the extraction yields, preliminary structure and antioxidant activities of the Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (HW-HSP, EA-HSP, UA-HSP and UEA-HSP) were systematically investigated. The yield of the polysaccharides (20.70±0.17%) obtained by ultrasonic-enzyme assistance was higher than the polysaccharides by other methods'. Four kinds of polysaccharides possessed the different preliminary structural characteristics including molecular weight distributions, monosaccharide compositions, crystallization and spiral structures, while different surface morphology. Through the measurements of antioxidant activities in vitro, UEA-HSP exhibited the most significant scavenging capacities on non-physiological ABTS free radicals and physiological hydroxyl radicals. These data showed that ultrasonic-enzyme assistance was more beneficial to enhance the extraction yields of the polysaccharides, and obtain higher bioactive polysaccharides. The results also suggested that H. serotina polysaccharides possessed potential healthcare application in food field due to their antioxidant activities.

  2. Age effect on the antioxidant activity of Daphnia magna (Anomopoda: Daphniidae): does younger mean more sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Alberto, Arzate-Cárdenas Mario; Rocío, Ortiz-Butrón; Fernando, Martínez-Jerónimo

    2011-07-01

    It has been accepted that for most species newborns and senescent organisms are more sensitive than other ages to environmental stressors. Nevertheless, it must be considered that there are several biochemical and physiological compensatory processes which are not expressed with the same magnitude during the whole life cycle. With this aim, Daphnia magna individuals of different age were exposed to hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), at two different sublethal concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064 mg l(-1)), and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated during most of the life cycle of this cladoceran. The antioxidant enzymatic activity showed an inverse relationship with respect to age. The activity of CAT, GR and GPx were increased in the two treated groups, at all life stages tested. On the other hand, the activity of SOD decreased in the same groups. Both, increase and decrease in the antioxidant enzymatic activities, showed significant differences with respect to the control group, being higher for the 0.032 mg l(-1) group. The Cr (VI) LC50 was also estimated for these age groups, finding statistical differences among them. Even though adults exhibited higher responses, these enzymatic activity changes should not be interpreted as higher sensitivity, since the daphnids acute chromium toxicity followed a different pattern, with increasing LC50 values according to age.

  3. Two novel exopolysaccharides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C-1: antioxidation and effect on oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haixia; Deng, Jianjun; Yuan, Yue; Fan, Daidi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruijuan; Han, Bei

    2015-02-01

    Two odorless, water-soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) fractions, EPS-1 and EPS-2, were isolated from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain C-1 and purified by ion exchange and gel chromatography. The purified EPS-1 contained glucose/mannose/galactose/arabinose in a relative proportion of 15:4:2:1, and possessed a molecular weight of 79.6 kDa, while EPS-2 contained only glucose and mannose in a 3:1 ratio, with the molecular weights of 19.8 kDa. The antioxidant activity results showed that EPS-1 exhibited strong reducing power, superoxide radicals (O(2-)·), and hydroxyl free radicals (OH·) scavenging activities. For the H2O2-induced injury in HepG2 cells, EPS-1 significantly decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species, intracellular malondialdehyde levels, and restored intracellular superoxide dismutase activity. For EPS-2, there had no detectable antioxidant activities. And all these results collectively showed that as a natural antioxidant, only EPS-1 produced by C-1 had considerable potential to be used as medical compounds or functional additives.

  4. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Doenjang Prepared with Rhizopus, Pichia, and Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Seo, Ji Yeon; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Chang Kwon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities. Further, the mixed culture doenjang reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and protected cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity more efficiently in human hippocampal HT22 neuroblastoma cells than the commercial doenjang. In conclusion, a newly-developed mixed culture doenjang had a strong antioxidant activity in vitro and cultured cell model systems, exhibited a potential to prevent oxidative stress-associated disorders although animal and clinical studies are needed to confirm its in vivo efficacy. PMID:27752498

  5. Triterpenoids of sour jujube show pronounced inhibitory effect on human tumor cells and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Zhang, Zhenxue; He, Xiangjiu

    2014-10-01

    Sour jujube is a common fruit and traditional medicine in China. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of sour jujube was used to determine the chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and antioxidant constituents. Four novel ursane-type triterpenoids, together with 8 known were isolated and identified. The new triterpenoids were elucidated to be 2α,3β,13β,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid (3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-20(30)-en-28-oic acid (9), 2α,3β,28-trihydroxy-urs-20(30)-ene (10), and 3β,12β,13β-trihydroxy-ursan-28-oic acid (11). Among the triterpenoids isolated, 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 9 and 10 showed high potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which the IC50 values were lower than 5 μM. Compounds 9 and 10 also exhibited pronounced activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 value of 0.8 ± 0.03 and 1.5 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Compound 10 showed high antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.8 ± 0.02 μM, which was 18.9 times higher than ascorbic acid in antioxidant capacity.

  6. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, Anne O; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Redox homeostasis is maintained by the antioxidant defense system, which is responsible for eliminating a wide range of oxidants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and metals. Mitochondria-localized antioxidants are widely studied because the mitochondria, the major producers of intracellular ROS, have been linked to the cause of aging and other chronic diseases. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have shown great potential because they cross the mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer and eliminate ROS at the heart of the source. Growing evidence has identified mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ and tiron, as potentially effective antioxidant therapies against the damage caused by enhanced ROS generation. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and their contribution to the body's antioxidant defense system. In addition to addressing the concerns surrounding current antioxidant strategies, including difficulties in targeting antioxidant treatment to sites of pathologic oxidative damage, we discuss promising therapeutic agents and new strategic approaches.

  7. Protective effect of taurine on myocardial antioxidant status in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiny, K S; Kumar, S Hari Senthil; Farvin, K H Sabeena; Anandan, R; Devadasan, K

    2005-10-01

    We have examined the protective effect of taurine on the myocardial antioxidant defense system in isoprenaline (isoproterenol)-induced myocardial infarction in rats, an animal model of myocardial infarction in man. Levels of diagnostic marker enzymes in plasma, lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione, and the activity of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and anti-peroxidative enzymes in the heart tissue were determined. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine significantly prevented the isoprenaline-induced increases in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase in the plasma of rats. Taurine exerted an antioxidant effect against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction by preventing the accumulation of lipid peroxides and by maintaining the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase at near normality. The results indicated that the cardioprotective potential of taurine was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical enzymes, or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature, or to a strengthening of myocardial membrane by its membrane stabilizing property.

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigation effect of flavonols antioxidants on DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Soureshjani, E; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Aghaee, Elham

    2015-08-01

    A new electrochemical biosensor was developed to demonstrate the effect of Acridine Orange (AO) on DNA damage. Then, the biosensor was used to check the inhibitors effect of three flavonols antioxidants (myricetin, fisetin and kaempferol) on DNA damage. Acridine Orange (AO) was used as a damaging agent because it shows a high affinity to nucleic acid and stretch of the double helical structure of DNA. Decreasing on the oxidation signals of adenine and guanine (in the DNA) in the presence of AO were used as probes to study the antioxidants power, using DNA-modified screen printed graphene electrode (DNA/SPGE). The results of our study showed that the DNA-biosensor could be suitable biosensor to investigate the inhibitors ability of the flavonols antioxidants on the DNA damage. The linear dependency was detected in the two regions in the ranges of 1.0-15.0 and 15.0-500.0 pmol L(-1). The detection limit was found 0.5 pmol L(-1) and 0.6 pmol L(-1) for guanine and adenine, respectively. To confirm the electrochemical results, Uv-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used too. Finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the structure of DNA in a water box to study any interaction between the antioxidant, AO and DNA.

  9. Antioxidant effects of pH-regulating agents on the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi; Yamadera, Yuki; Tsukui, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    pH-Regulating agents, such as sodium tartrate, disodium succinate, and trisodium citrate, were investigated for their antioxidant activities during the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils. Refined rapeseed and rice bran oils, supplemented with pH-regulating agents and α-tocopherol (0.1%) were heated at 180℃. After heating, acid values (AVs), carbonyl values (CVs), polar material contents, and color (absorbance at 420 nm) of each sample were measured. All pH-regulating agents gave rise to reduced AVs, CVs, and polar material contents of vegetable oils during heating relative to samples not containing a pHregulating agent. Rapeseed and rice bran oils supplemented with sodium tartrate showed the lowest AVs, CVs, polar material contents and absorbances at 420 nm after heating. Sodium tartrate not only retarded the hydrolysis, thermal oxidation, polymerization, and coloration of both oils while heating at high temperatures, but it also showed antioxidant activity at the supplementation level of 0.01%. The antioxidant activity of sodium tartrate was higher than that of α-tocopherol during the deterioration of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate was particularly effective retarding hydrolysis while heating at high temperatures, resulting in increase of AVs of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate is therefore expected to be an effective antioxidant for the thermal deterioration of fats and oils during deep-fat frying.

  10. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  11. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic effects of Papaver rhoeas L. extract on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Teodora; Pesheva, Margarita; Gregan, Fridrich; Chankova, Stephka

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the antioxidant and antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic capacity of Papaver rhoeas L. water extract against standard mutagen/carcinogen methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and radiomimetic zeocin (Zeo) on a test system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The following assays were used: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, quantitative determination of superoxide anion (antireactive oxygen species [antiROS test]), DNA topology assay, D7ts1 test--for antimutagenic--and Ty1 transposition test--for anticarcinogenic effects. Strong pro-oxidative capacity of Zeo was shown to correlate with its well-expressed mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of MMS were also confirmed. Our data concerning the antioxidant activity of P. rhoeas L. extract revealed that concentration corresponding to IC(50) in the DPPH assay possessed the highest antioxidant activity in the antiROS biological assay. It was also observed that a concentration with 50% scavenging activity expressed the most pronounced antimutagenic properties decreasing Zeo-induced gene conversion twofold, reverse mutation fivefold, and total aberrations fourfold. The same concentration possessed well-expressed anticarcinogenic properties measured as reduction of MMS-induced Ty1 transposition rate fivefold and fourfold when Zeo was used as an inductor. Based on the well-expressed antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties obtained in this work, the P. rhoeas L. extract could be recommended for further investigations and possible use as a food additive.

  12. Biotransformation and nitroglycerin-induced effects on antioxidative defense system in rat erythrocytes and reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Marković, Snežana D; Dorđević, Nataša Z; Curčić, Milena G; Stajn, Andraš S; Spasić, Mihajlo B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate - GTN) are mediated by liberated nitric oxide (NO) and formed reactive nitrogen species, which induces oxidative stress during biotransformation in red blood cells (RBCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of GTN on antioxidative defense system (AOS) in rat erythrocytes (without) and reticulocytes (with functional mitochondria). Rat erythrocyte and reticulocyte-rich RBC suspensions were aerobically incubated (2 h, 37°C) without (control) or in the presence of different concentrations of GTN (0.1-1.5 mM). After incubation, concentrations of non-enzymatic components of AOS, activities of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway activity were followed in RBC suspensions. In rat reticulocytes, GTN decreased the activity of mitochondrial MnSOD and increased the activity of CuZnSOD. In rat RBCs, GTN induced increase of Vit E concentration (at high doses), but decreased glutathione content and activities of all glutathione-dependent antioxidative enzymes; the OPP pathway activity significantly increased. GTN biotransformation and induction of oxidative stress were followed by general disbalance of antioxidative capacities in both kinds of RBCs. We suggest that oxidative stress, MnSOD inhibition and depletion of glutathione pool in response to GTN treatment lead to decreased bioavailability of NO after GTN biotransformation in rat reticulocytes.

  13. Effects of shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Kongbuntad, Watee; Boonsorn, Thongchai

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade, tree shade, and no shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle. Twenty-one cattle were divided into three groups: cattle maintained under artificial shade, under tree shade, and without shade. On days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the experimental period, after the cattle were set in individual stalls for 2 h, physiological changes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant power were investigated. The results revealed that the respiratory rate, heart rate, sweat rate and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the no-shade cattle were significantly higher than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade ( P < 0.05). During the early period of heat exposure, the total antioxidant power of the no-shade cattle was lower than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade, but the total antioxidant power of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade were not different ( P > 0.05). However, rectal temperature and packed cell volume of the cattle in all groups did not differ ( P > 0.05). These results showed that artificial shade and tree shade can protect cattle from sunlight compared to no shade, and that the effectiveness of tree shade for sunlight protection is at an intermediate level.

  14. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yim, Joo Hyuk; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lim, Seong-Il; Kim, Young-Chan

    2010-01-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. PMID:20162002

  15. Polymer/TiO₂ hybrid vesicles for excellent UV screening and effective encapsulation of antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianzhong; Sun, Hui

    2014-08-27

    Presented in this paper is a hybrid polymer/titanium dioxide (TiO2) vesicle that has excellent UV-screening efficacy and strong capacity to encapsulate antioxidant agents. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PDMAEMA-b-PS) triblock terpolymer was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and then self-assembled into vesicles. Those vesicles showed excellent UV-screening property due to the scattering by vesicles and the absorption by PS vesicle membrane. The selective deposition of solvophobic tetrabutyl titanate in the PDMAEMA shell and the PS membrane of the vesicles led to the formation of polymer/TiO2 hybrid vesicles, resulting in an enhanced UV-screening property by further reflecting and scattering UV radiation. The vesicles can effectively encapsulate antioxidant agents such as ferulic acid (up to 57%), showing a rapid antioxidant capability (within 1 min) and a long-lasting antioxidant effect. PMID:25059274

  16. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yim, Joo Hyuk; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lim, Seong-Il; Kim, Young-Chan

    2010-01-06

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index.

  17. Age-Specific Effects on Rat Lung Glutathione and Antioxidant Enzymes after Inhaling Ultrafine Soot

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Kodani, Sean D.; Charrier, Jessie G.; Morin, Dexter; Edwards, Patricia C.; Anderson, Donald S.; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a dominant contributor to urban particulate pollution (PM). Exposure to PM is linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations, such as children. PM can contribute to the development and exacerbation of asthma, and this is thought to occur because of the presence of electrophiles in PM or through electrophile generation via the metabolism of PAHs. Glutathione (GSH), an abundant intracellular antioxidant, confers cytoprotection through conjugation of electrophiles and reduction of reactive oxygen species. GSH-dependent phase II detoxifying enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase facilitate metabolism and conjugation, respectively. Ambient particulates are highly variable in composition, which complicates systematic study. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP)-generating system for in vivo studies. To determine particle effects in the developing lung, 7–day-old neonatal and adult rats inhaled 22 μg/m3 PFP during a single 6-hour exposure. Pulmonary GSH and related phase II detoxifying gene and protein expression were evaluated 2, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. Neonates exhibited significant depletion of GSH despite higher initial baseline levels of GSH. Furthermore, we observed attenuated induction of phase II enzymes (glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase) in neonates compared with adult rats. We conclude that developing neonates have a limited ability to deviate from their normal developmental pattern that precludes adequate adaptation to environmental pollutants, which results in enhanced cytotoxicity from inhaled PM. PMID:23065132

  18. Effect of some antioxidants on canola plants grown under soil salt stress condition.

    PubMed

    Sakr, M T; Arafa, A A

    2009-04-01

    In this study, two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons (2005-2006 and 2006-2007) to investigate the role of some applied antioxidants (spermine 10 mg L(-1) and ascorbic acid 200 mg L(-1)) in counteracting the harmful effect of soil salinity stress (10.1 or 14.6 dS m(-1)) on canola plants. Growth characters, yield and its components as well as biochemical constituents were studied in the two growing seasons. The results showed that all growth characters including; plant height, leaves number and area/plant, shoot and root dry weight as well as yield and its components including; fruit number/plant, number of fruiting branches, seed number/fruit, seed yield/plant and seed oil content of canola plant were decreased with increasing soil salt level (A2) comparing with (A1). On the other hand, applied antioxidants spermine 10 mg L(-1) and ascorbic acid 200 mg L(-1)) increased growth and yield of canola plant during the two growing seasons. However, the applied antioxidants were more effective under the first soil salt condition (A1) soil salt stress levels (A2) decreased each of photosynthetic pigments, K and P contents, while increased proline, soluble sugar, ascorbic acid, Na and Cl contents compared with (A1). On the other hand, applied antioxidants increased each of photosynthetic pigments, proline, soluble sugar, N, K and P contents, while decreased Na and Cl contents in canola plant under soil salt stress (A1 and A2) during the two growing seasons. It could be concluded that applied antioxidants could counteract the harmful effect of salt soil stress on growth, yield and biochemical constituents of canola plant.

  19. Amentoflavone protects hippocampal neurons: anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Tao; Niu, Jian-guo; He, Zhen-quan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Amentoflavone is a natural biflavone compound with many biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We presumed that amentoflavone exerts a neuroprotective effect in epilepsy models. Prior to model establishment, mice were intragastrically administered 25 mg/kg amentoflavone for 3 consecutive days. Amentoflavone effectively prevented pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in a mouse kindling model, suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation and expression, inhibited excessive discharge of hippocampal neurons resulting in a reduction in epileptic seizures, shortened attack time, and diminished loss and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Results suggested that amentoflavone protected hippocampal neurons in epilepsy mice via anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiapoptosis, and then effectively prevented the occurrence of seizures. PMID:26330838

  20. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  1. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    PubMed

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  2. Effects of chronic low-dose cadmium exposure on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovásová, Eva; Rácz, Oliver; Cimboláková, Iveta; Nováková, Jaroslava; Dombrovský, Peter; Ništiar, František

    2013-01-01

    The effects of long-term (1 yr) exposure to low doses of cadmium (Cd) dissolved in drinking water on selected biochemical and antioxidant parameters were studied in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: male control group (C-m), female control group (C-f), male Cd-exposed group (Cd-m), and female Cd-exposed group (Cd-f). Cd groups were exposed to Cd dissolved in drinking water (cadmium dichloride 4.8 mg CdCl2/L, i.e., 2.5 mg Cd/L, 500-fold of maximal allowable concentration for potable water). The experiment was terminated on d 370. In all groups, biochemical parameters (total protein [TP], albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, urea, and creatinine) and antioxidant parameters (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) were measured in the blood. Total protein and albumin concentrations were decreased significantly in the Cd-m group. Other biochemical parameters did not change in Cd groups compared to control groups. Superoxide dismutase fell significantly in both male and female Cd-exposed groups. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was markedly lower in Cd-exposed groups. Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in Cd-f group. These results suggest that chronic low-dose oral Cd exposure induces oxidative stress. PMID:24168039

  3. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food. PMID:24766147

  4. Effect of Thermal Processing and Maceration on the Antioxidant Activity of White Beans

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:24991931

  5. Possible Potentiation by Certain Antioxidants of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diclofenac in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Samah S.; Schaalan, Mona F.; Bahgat, Ashraf K.; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg), selenium (2.5 mg/kg), vitamin C (1 g/kg), vitamin E (300 mg/kg), or zinc (25 mg/kg) on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities) imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se. PMID:24715817

  6. Effects of lead on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in watercress, Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    PubMed

    Keser, Gonca; Saygideger, Saadet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidative effects of lead with increased concentrations by the determination of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (AP)) and lipid peroxidation levels in the stem and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) which was exposed to lead acetate, Pb (CH3COOH)2 regime with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 mg/L Pb in a hydroponic culture. After 14 days, accumulation of lipid peroxidation in stems and leaves and changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The maximum accumulation was observed in the highest concentration group. In this group, lipid peroxidation levels were three times higher than the control group in the stem and leaves. The highest induction in SOD and GR activities were determined at 200 mg/L Pb group in stem, whereas CAT and AP activities were higher than other groups at the concentration of 250 and 100 mg/L Pb, respectively. The increase in CAT activity was found to be greater than GR, SOD, and AP activities in stems of watercress under Pb treatment. Both lead accumulation and antioxidant enzyme responses were higher in stems than in leaves. The results of the present study suggested that the induction in antioxidant responses could be occurring as an adaptive mechanism to the oxidative potential of lead accumulation.

  7. Possible potentiation by certain antioxidants of the anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac in rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samah S; Schaalan, Mona F; Bahgat, Ashraf K; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg), selenium (2.5 mg/kg), vitamin C (1 g/kg), vitamin E (300 mg/kg), or zinc (25 mg/kg) on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities) imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se.

  8. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  9. Effect of thermal processing and maceration on the antioxidant activity of white beans.

    PubMed

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity.

  10. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Doxorubicin Induced Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Antioxidant Action

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Leena; Balaraman, R

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiovascular abnormalities. Green tea extract (GTE) is reported to possess antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (100 mg/kg / day p.o. for 28 days) on DOX induced (3 mg/kg, IP on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28) cardiovascular abnormalities in rat heart. DOX treatment led to significant increase in blood pressure, ST interval, serum levels of LDH, CK, SGOT, lipid peroxidation .The antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced-glutathione were decreased considerably in the heart of DOX treated rats as compared to the normal control. A combined treatment with GTE and DOX showed a considerable decrease in serum markers of cardiotoxicity such as LDH, CK, SGOT and lipid peroxides. There was significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and also showed improvement in hemodynamic parameters and ECG changes as compared to DOX treated animals. DOX treatment caused disorganization of myocardial tissue which was restored in animals treated with GTE along with DOX. Thus it can be concluded that GTE possesses an antioxidant activity and by virtue of this action it can protect the heart from DOX induced cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:24363686

  11. Effects of serum amyloid A on the structure and antioxidant ability of high-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Megumi; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Yoshimoto, Akira; Yano, Kouji; Ichimura, Naoya; Nishimori, Madoka; Okubo, Shigeo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Tozuka, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) levels increase during acute and chronic inflammation and are mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAA on the composition, surface charge, particle size and antioxidant ability of HDL using recombinant human SAA (rhSAA) and HDL samples from patients with inflammation. We confirmed that rhSAA bound to HDL3 and released apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from HDL without an apparent change in particle size. Forty-one patients were stratified into three groups based on serum SAA concentrations: Low (SAA ≤ 8 μg/ml), Middle (8 < SAA ≤ 100 μg/ml) and High (SAA > 100 μg/ml). The ratios of apoA-I to total protein mass, relative cholesterol content and negative charge of HDL samples obtained from patients with high SAA levels were lower than that for samples from patients with low SAA levels. Various particle sizes of HDL were observed in three groups regardless of serum SAA levels. Antioxidant ability of rhSAA, evaluated as the effect on the formation of conjugated diene in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by oxidation using copper sulfate, was higher than that of apoA-I. Consistent with this result, reconstituted SAA-containing HDL (SAA-HDL) indicated higher antioxidant ability compared with normal HDL. Furthermore, HDL samples obtained from High SAA group patients also showed the highest antioxidant ability among the three groups. Consequently, SAA affects the composition and surface charge of HDL by displacement of apoA-I and enhances its antioxidant ability. PMID:27422844

  12. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity. PMID:25314812

  13. Effects of overnight captivity on antioxidant capacity and clinical chemistry of wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Debrincat, Steven; Taggart, David; Rich, Brian; Beveridge, Ian; Boardman, Wayne; Dibben, Ron

    2014-09-01

    An animal's antioxidant capacity is measured by its ability to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). During everyday metabolism, antioxidants and ROS are in equilibrium with one another. In times of stress, an animal produces more ROS and therefore uses its antioxidant capacity more readily in order to maintain this equilibrium. When the production of ROS exceeds the antioxidant capacity, an animal will experience extensive oxidative stress, which can ultimately affect that animal's health. During experimental study of wild animals, it is often necessary to capture them for a short period of time. In order to obtain a measurement of the effects of short-term captivity on oxidative capacity in wild animals, a population of southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in Swan Reach, South Australia (34.57 degrees S, 139.60 degrees E), was studied. To assess the variation in antioxidant capacity, two assays, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, were performed. A third assay, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was used to measure the effects of ROS. Measurements of the specific antioxidants uric acid, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and superoxide dismutase were also performed. The biochemical parameters albumin, total protein, cholinesterase, creatinine, and urea were measured as indicators for health. Results showed a significant reduction in antioxidant capacity during the overnight period of captivity.

  14. Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

  15. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  16. Judgement heuristics and bias in evidence interpretation: The effects of computer generated exhibits.

    PubMed

    Norris, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of multi-media applications, trial presentation software and computer generated exhibits (CGE) has raised questions as to the potential impact of the use of presentation technology on juror decision making. A significant amount of the commentary on the manner in which CGE exerts legal influence is largely anecdotal; empirical examinations too are often devoid of established theoretical rationalisations. This paper will examine a range of established judgement heuristics (for example, the attribution error, representativeness, simulation), in order to establish their appropriate application for comprehending legal decisions. Analysis of both past cases and empirical studies will highlight the potential for heuristics and biases to be restricted or confounded by the use of CGE. The paper will conclude with some wider discussion on admissibility, access to justice, and emerging issues in the use of multi-media in court. PMID:26341308

  17. Judgement heuristics and bias in evidence interpretation: The effects of computer generated exhibits.

    PubMed

    Norris, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of multi-media applications, trial presentation software and computer generated exhibits (CGE) has raised questions as to the potential impact of the use of presentation technology on juror decision making. A significant amount of the commentary on the manner in which CGE exerts legal influence is largely anecdotal; empirical examinations too are often devoid of established theoretical rationalisations. This paper will examine a range of established judgement heuristics (for example, the attribution error, representativeness, simulation), in order to establish their appropriate application for comprehending legal decisions. Analysis of both past cases and empirical studies will highlight the potential for heuristics and biases to be restricted or confounded by the use of CGE. The paper will conclude with some wider discussion on admissibility, access to justice, and emerging issues in the use of multi-media in court.

  18. Prenylated flavonoids from Artocarpus altilis: antioxidant activities and inhibitory effects on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Chun; Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chun-Ching; Yen, Feng-Lin; Ko, Horng-Huey

    2013-05-01

    Flavonoids, 10-oxoartogomezianone (1), 8-geranyl-3-(hydroxyprenyl)isoetin (2), hydroxyartoflavone A (3), isocycloartobiloxanthone (4), and furanocyclocommunin (5), together with 12 known compounds, were isolated from heartwood and cortex of Artocarpus altilis, and their structures were identified by comparing their spectra with those of similar compounds. To identify natural antioxidants and whitening agents, the ability of these prenylated flavonoids was assessed to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+·)) radical cation, and the superoxide anion (O2(-·)), and their abilities to inhibit tyrosinase and melanin production. It was found that compounds 3, 4, and artoflavone A (15) had moderate DPPH(·)-scavenging activity, whereas compound 4 exhibited significant ABTS(+·)-scavenging activity, and that norartocarpetin (7) and artogomezianone (8) exhibited moderate ABTS(+·)-scavenging activity, with compounds 2, 7, and artocarpin (6) displaying good superoxide anion-scavenging activity. In addition, compounds 7, 8, cudraflavone A (14), and artonin M (17), inhibited melanin production by strongly suppressing tyrosinase activity. Compound 6 reduced the melanin content without inhibiting tyrosinase activity. These results suggest that flavonoids isolated from A. altilis may be candidate antioxidants and/or skin-whitening agents. However, further investigations are required to determine their mechanisms of action.

  19. The matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal and milk on polyphenols, antioxidant activity and potential bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Fatma; Şahin-Yeşilçubuk, Neşe

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, ready-to eat breakfast cereals prepared with fruit ingredients have gained particular attention due to their polyphenolic contents and health promoting effects. In this study, the matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal, whole milk or skimmed milk on polyphenols, antioxidative potential as well as their potential bioavailability were investigated. The phenolic properties of whole milk, skimmed milk, blueberry and oat meal were investigated and the changes in combinations of the ingredients were determined. Milk addition decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of samples statistically and had negative effect on antioxidant activity showing differences among different methods. According to HPLC results, it was not possible to detect catechin in mixtures due to milk addition. In vitro digestion method was used to determine potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds. According to in vitro digestion procedure results, whole or skimmed milk did not affect the total phenolic content of the proportion passing to the blood from intestine.

  20. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince.

  1. Synergistic antioxidative effect of astaxanthin and tocotrienol by co-encapsulated in liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kamezaki, Chihiro; Nakashima, Ami; Yamada, Asako; Uenishi, Sachiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Natsumi; Hama, Susumu; Hosoi, Shinzo; Yamashita, Eiji; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin and vitamin E are both effective antioxidants that are frequently used in cosmetics, as food additives, and in to prevent oxidative damage. A combination of astaxanthin and vitamin E would be expected to show an additive anntioxidative effect. In this study, liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and the vitamin E derivatives α-tocopherol (α-T) or tocotrienols (T3) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity of these liposomes toward singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical was evaluated in vitro. Liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and α-T showed no additive anntioxidative effect, while the actual scavenging activity of liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and T3 was higher than the calculated additive activity. To clarify why this synergistic effect occurs, the most stable structure of astaxanthin in the presence of α-T or α-T3 was calculated. Only α-T3 was predicted to form hydrogen bonding with astaxanthin, and the astaxanthin polyene chain would partially interact with the α-T3 triene chain, which could explain why there was a synergistic effect between astaxanthin and T3 but not α-T. In conclusion, co-encapsulation of astaxanthin and T3 induces synergistic scavenging activity by intermolecular interactions between the two antioxidants.

  2. Antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects of zolpidem and several synthesis intermediates.

    PubMed

    García-Santos, Guillermo; Herrera, Federico; Martín, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Blanco, Jezabel; Antolín, Isaac; Fernández-Marí, Felix; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2004-12-01

    Structural relationship between the antioxidant melatonin and the non-benzodiazepine hypnotic zolpidem (ZPD) suggests possible direct antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of this compound. In the present work, these effects were analyzed for zolpidem and four of its synthesis intermediates. In vitro assays include lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation studies in liver and brain homogenates. Intracellular antioxidant effects were analyzed by evaluation of free radical formation prevention in HT-22 hippocampal cells treated with glutamate 10mM and measured by flow cytometer DCF fluorescence. The neuroprotective effect of these compounds was evaluated as neuronal death prevention of HT-22 cells treated with the same concentration of glutamate. Zolpidem was found to prevent induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and brain homogenates showing figures similar to melatonin, although it failed to prevent protein oxidation. ZPD-I was the most effective out of the several zolpidem intermediates studied as it prevented lipid peroxidation with an efficiency higher than melatonin or zolpidem and with an effectiveness similar to estradiol and trolox. ZPD-I prevents protein oxidation, which trolox is known to be unable to prevent. When cellular experiments were undertaken, ZPD-I prevented totally the increase of intracellular free radicals induced by glutamate 10mM in culture medium for 12h, while zolpidem and ZPD-III partially prevented this increase. Also the three compounds protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced death in the same conditions, being their comparative efficacy, ZPD-III > ZPD-I = ZPD.

  3. Synergistic antioxidative effect of astaxanthin and tocotrienol by co-encapsulated in liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kamezaki, Chihiro; Nakashima, Ami; Yamada, Asako; Uenishi, Sachiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Natsumi; Hama, Susumu; Hosoi, Shinzo; Yamashita, Eiji; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin and vitamin E are both effective antioxidants that are frequently used in cosmetics, as food additives, and in to prevent oxidative damage. A combination of astaxanthin and vitamin E would be expected to show an additive anntioxidative effect. In this study, liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and the vitamin E derivatives α-tocopherol (α-T) or tocotrienols (T3) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity of these liposomes toward singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical was evaluated in vitro. Liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and α-T showed no additive anntioxidative effect, while the actual scavenging activity of liposomes co-encapsulating astaxanthin and T3 was higher than the calculated additive activity. To clarify why this synergistic effect occurs, the most stable structure of astaxanthin in the presence of α-T or α-T3 was calculated. Only α-T3 was predicted to form hydrogen bonding with astaxanthin, and the astaxanthin polyene chain would partially interact with the α-T3 triene chain, which could explain why there was a synergistic effect between astaxanthin and T3 but not α-T. In conclusion, co-encapsulation of astaxanthin and T3 induces synergistic scavenging activity by intermolecular interactions between the two antioxidants. PMID:27698536

  4. An Investigation of the Life Experiences and Beliefs of High School Teachers Exhibiting Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the life experiences and beliefs of high school teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management skills. The research for this phenomenological study utilized the narrative inquiry method of data collection. This study investigates the life experiences and beliefs of nine teachers…

  5. Implementation of a School/Home Based Model to Promote Effective Management of Problem Behaviors Exhibited by Preschool Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Fifer, Edith

    The project was designed to develop, implement, and evaluate an effective management system to modify and reduce inappropriate behaviors exhibited by preschool handicapped children. The writer (1) provided in-service training to school personnel to increase their expertise and skills in changing behavior, (2) encouraged parent education and…

  6. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  7. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  8. [Antioxidant properties of dihydroquercetin].

    PubMed

    Teselkin, Iu O; Zhambalova, B A; Babenkova, I V; Tiukavkina, N A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of dihydroquercetin on peroxidation process of liposome membranes from egg phospholipids induced by ferrous sulfate or Fe(2+)-ascorbate system was studied. It was shown that dihydroquercetin antioxidant activity matches antioxidant activity of alpha-tocopherol. It was suggested that the mechanism dihydroquercetin antioxidant action consists in scavenging of lipids radicals. PMID:8924461

  9. Antioxidants in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Shukla, Pankaj; Kikkeri, Naveen Narayanshetty

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology. PMID:24860765

  10. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of "Chorizo", a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts) on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured "chorizo", as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the addition of antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p < 0.05) the oxidation, showing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values below 0.4 mg MDA/kg. Natural antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis, hardness values significantly (p < 0.001) decreased with the addition of antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05) release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation. PMID:26785337

  11. Effects of ferulic acid on antioxidant activity in Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Yan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Min; Tao, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei-Xia; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at exploring different roles of the same compound in different environment, using preparative HPLC, and the significance to investigating bio-active constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the basis of holism. In this study, the depletion of target component ferulic acid (FA) by using preparative HPLC followed by antioxidant activity testing was applied to investigate the roles of FA in Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX) and their combination (GX). The antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity testing. FA was successfully and exclusively depleted from DG, CX, and GX, respectively. By comparing the effects of the samples, it was found that FA was one of the main antioxidant constituents in DG, CX and GX, and the roles of FA were DG > CX > GX. Furthermore, the effects of FA varied at different doses in these herbs. This study provided a reliable and effective approach to clarifying the contribution of same compound in different TCMs to their bio-activities. The role of a constituent in different TCMs might be different, and a component with the same content might have different effects in different chemical environments. Furthermore, this study also suggested the potential utilization of preparative HPLC in the characterization of the roles of multi-ingredients in TCM. PMID:26073335

  12. Consistent antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite in DOCA-salt hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Jefferson H.; Ferreira, Graziele C.; Pinheiro, Lucas C.; Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disease that includes oxidative stress as a major feature, and oxidative stress impairs physiological nitric oxide (NO) activity promoting cardiovascular pathophysiological mechanisms. While inorganic nitrite and nitrate are now recognized as relevant sources of NO after their bioactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways, thus lowering blood pressure, mounting evidence suggests that sodium nitrite also exerts antioxidant effects. Here we show for the first time that sodium nitrite exerts consistent systemic and vascular antioxidant and antihypertensive effects in the deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertension model. This is particularly important because increased oxidative stress plays a major role in the DOCA-salt hypertension model, which is less dependent on activation of the renin-angiotensin system than other hypertension models. Indeed, antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite were associated with increased plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations, and completely blunted hypertension-induced increases in plasma 8-isoprostane and lipid peroxide levels, in vascular reactive oxygen species, in vascular NADPH oxidase activity, and in vascular xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Together, these findings provide evidence that the oral administration of sodium nitrite consistently decreases the blood pressure in association with major antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. PMID:26119848

  13. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin and capsaicin in induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-12-01

    Health beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of dietary spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin alone and in combination included in the diet for 8 weeks were evaluated in induced hypercholesterolemic rats, in order to verify if there is any additive or synergistic effect of these two bioactive compounds. Dietary curcumin (0.2%), capsaicin (0.015%) or their combination significantly countered the hypercholesterolemia brought about by high cholesterol feeding. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary spice principles only in normal rats. Liver triglyceride levels were lowered in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rats by capsaicin. Curcumin and capsaicin lowered hepatic and blood lipid peroxides in hypercholesterolemic rats, while the effect in blood was additive with their combination. Hepatic ascorbic acid was enhanced by dietary spice principles in normal rats; glutathione was enhanced by their combination only in hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of serum glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and catalase and hepatic glutathione reductase in normal rats and serum glutathione peroxidase in hypercholesterolemic rats were enhanced by dietary spice principles. While dietary curcumin and capsaicin normalized the changes in the levels of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes to a significant extent, this effect was not generally additive when given in combination, and was higher than the individual effects only in a few instances.

  14. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  15. Antioxidant-mediated preventative effect of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenol extract on reserpine-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    YI, RUOKUN; WANG, RUI; SUN, PENG; ZHAO, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Dragon-pearl tea is a type of green tea commonly consumed in Southwest China. In the present study, the antioxidative and anti-gastric ulcer effects of Dragon-pearl tea crude polyphenols (DTCP) were determined in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with 25, 50 or 100 µg/ml DTCP resulted in notable antioxidant effects in vitro, which manifested as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and OH radical-scavenging activity. Furthermore, using an in vivo mouse model, DTCP was shown to reduce the gastric ulcer area in the stomach, in which the 200 mg/kg DTCP dose exhibited the most marked effect, with a gastric ulcer index inhibitory rate of 72.63%. In addition, DTCP was demonstrated to improve stomach acidity conditions in vivo by increasing the pH and reducing the level of gastric juice, as compared with the reserpine-induced gastric ulcer control mice. Furthermore, DTCP altered the serum levels of a number of oxidation-related biomolecules, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase (CAT), to subsequently exert an anti-gastric ulcer effect. Treatment with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg DTCP increased the SOD, GSH-Px and CAT levels and reduced the MDA and LPO levels in the mouse model of gastric ulcers. These serum level alterations resulted in the modified serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), which are associated with gastric mucosal protection. A reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is a molecular biology experiment which could determine the changes of mRNA in tissues. Using the RT-PCR assay, DTCP was observed to increase the mRNA expression levels of certain genes associated with gastric ulcers: Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, while reducing gastrin expression levels. Therefore, the results indicated that DTCP induced a marked

  16. Antidepressant-Like and Antioxidant Effects of Plinia trunciflora in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sacchet, Cassia; Mocelin, Ricieri; Sachett, Adrieli; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; Chitolina, Rafael; Kuhn, Fernanda; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Roman Junior, Walter Antonio; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Dal Magro, Jacir; Conterato, Greicy Michelle Marafiga; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-01-01

    The jaboticaba tree, Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel, is popularly named "jabuticabeira" in Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and chronic inflammation of the tonsils, but studies evaluating the central effects of this species are limited. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and antioxidant effects of P. trunciflora (PT) aqueous extract, in which five different anthocyanins were identified. PT showed significant ferric-reduction power and DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro and reduced lipid peroxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. At the behavioural level, PT (400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test in Swiss male mice. The identification of bioactive compounds accompanied by the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of PT suggests that these activities might be related to the antidepressant-like activity of P. trunciflora.

  17. Morphological Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum crispum (Natre) In Vitro Assayed on Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Ramírez, Patricia; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Barriga, Andrés; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant properties of Solanum crispum, aqueous extracts of its leaves were assayed on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. Phenolics and alkaloids were detected by HPLC-MS. Scanning electron and defocusing microscopy showed that S. crispum changed erythrocytes from the normal shape to echinocytes. These results imply that molecules present in the aqueous extracts were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that S. crispum preferentially interacted with DMPC bilayers. Experiments regarding its antioxidant properties showed that S. crispum neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPE bilayers; defocusing microscopy and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of S. crispum against the oxidant effects of HClO on human erythrocytes. PMID:26809653

  18. Antidepressant-Like and Antioxidant Effects of Plinia trunciflora in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sacchet, Cassia; Mocelin, Ricieri; Sachett, Adrieli; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; Chitolina, Rafael; Kuhn, Fernanda; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Roman Junior, Walter Antonio; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Dal Magro, Jacir; Conterato, Greicy Michelle Marafiga; Piato, Angelo L.

    2015-01-01

    The jaboticaba tree, Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel, is popularly named “jabuticabeira” in Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and chronic inflammation of the tonsils, but studies evaluating the central effects of this species are limited. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and antioxidant effects of P. trunciflora (PT) aqueous extract, in which five different anthocyanins were identified. PT showed significant ferric-reduction power and DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro and reduced lipid peroxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. At the behavioural level, PT (400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test in Swiss male mice. The identification of bioactive compounds accompanied by the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of PT suggests that these activities might be related to the antidepressant-like activity of P. trunciflora. PMID:26229543

  19. Antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiko; Ohishi, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuto; Yokoi, Wakae; Sawada, Haruji

    2003-07-16

    The antioxidative effects of lactic acid bacteria on lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa were investigated. Among 49 strains of lactic acid bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus YIT 2001 showed the highest inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation in liposomes induced by ferrous iron. Feeding a diet containing 0.4% St. thermophilus YIT 2001 (2 x 10(8) colony-forming units per mouse per day) for 2 weeks caused a significant decrease of lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) in the colonic mucosa of iron-overloaded mice (0.07% Fe in the diet). The mucosal lipid peroxide level did not correlate with the soluble iron concentration of the cecal contents. Therefore, it is suggested that the antioxidative effect of St. thermophilus YIT 2001 in the colonic mucosa was not due to the removal of ferrous iron from the reaction system of lipid peroxidation. PMID:12848525

  20. Intracellular Redox State as Target for Anti-Influenza Therapy: Are Antioxidants Always Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbanti, Rossella; Amatore, Donatella; Celestino, Ignacio; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Fraternale, Alessandra; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Magnani, Mauro; Saladino, Raffaele; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Nencioni, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections represent a big issue for public health since effective treatments are still lacking. In particular, the emergence of strains resistant to drugs limits the effectiveness of anti-influenza agents. For this reason, many efforts have been dedicated to the identification of new therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting the virus-host cell interactions. Oxidative stress is a characteristic of some viral infections including influenza. Because antioxidants defend cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species induced by different stimuli including pathogens, they represent interesting molecules to fight infectious diseases. However, most of the available studies have found that these would-be panaceas could actually exacerbate the diseases they claim to prevent, and have thus revealed "the dark side" of these molecules. This review article discusses the latest opportunities and drawbacks of the antioxidants used in anti-influenza therapy and new perspectives. PMID:25478883

  1. Do plants mediate their anti-diabetic effects through anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions? an in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems. Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia are three such plants widely used in Ayurveda for their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Additionally their anti-oxidant properties have been scientifically validated in various experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Hence the present in vitro study was planned to assess whether the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Curcuma longa (Cl) and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) are mediated through their antioxidant and/or anti-apoptotic property in a streptozotocin induced stress model. Methods RINm5F cell line was used as a model of pancreatic β-cells against stress induced by streptozotocin (2 mM). Non-toxic concentrations of the plant extracts were identified using MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation through MDA release, modulation of apoptosis and insulin release were the variables measured to assess streptozotocin induced damage and protection afforded by the plant extracts. Results All 3 plants extracts significantly inhibited MDA release from RIN cells indicating protective effect against STZ induced oxidative damage. They also exhibited a dose dependent anti-apoptotic effect as seen by a decrease in the sub G0 population in response to STZ. None of the plant extracts affected insulin secretion from the cells to a great extent. Conclusion The present study thus demonstrated that the protective effect of the selected medicinal plants against oxidative stress induced by STZ in vitro

  2. Enzyme-mimetic effects of gold@platinum nanorods on the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Ting; He, Weiwei; Wamer, Wayne G.; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Lo, Y. Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge DPPH radicals and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that Au@Pt nanorods can reduce the antioxidant activity of AA. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the effects of using Pt nanoparticles together with other reducing agents or antioxidants such as AA due to the oxidase-like property of Au@Pt nanorods.Au@Pt nanorods were prepared by growing platinum nanodots on gold nanorods. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we determined that the mechanisms for oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) by Au@Pt nanorods and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) were kinetically similar and yielded similar products. In addition we observed that Au@Pt nanorods were stable with respect to temperature and pH. Using UV-VIS spectroscopy, the apparent kinetics of enzyme-mimetic activity of Au@Pt nanorods were studied and compared with the activity of AAO. With the help of ESR, we found that Au@Pt nanorods did not scavenge hydroxyl radicals but inhibited the antioxidant ability of AA for scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by photoirradiating solutions containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Moreover, the Au@Pt nanorods reduced the ability of AA to scavenge

  3. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:27679827

  4. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  5. The hop constituent xanthohumol exhibits hepatoprotective effects and inhibits the activation of hepatic stellate cells at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Weiskirchen, Ralf; Mahli, Abdo; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the principal prenylated flavonoid of the female inflorescences of the hop plant. In recent years, various beneficial xanthohumol effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic activities, and anticancer effects have been revealed. This review summarizes present studies indicating that xanthohumol also inhibits several critical pathophysiological steps during the development and course of chronic liver disease, including the activation and pro-fibrogenic genotype of hepatic stellate cells. Also the various mechanism of action and molecular targets of the beneficial xanthohumol effects will be described. Furthermore, the potential use of xanthohumol or a xanthohumol-enriched hop extract as therapeutic agent to combat the progression of chronic liver disease will be discussed. It is notable that in addition to its hepatoprotective effects, xanthohumol also holds promise as a therapeutic agent for treating obesity, dysregulation of glucose metabolism and other components of the metabolic syndrome including hepatic steatosis. Thus, therapeutic xanthohumol application appears as a promising strategy, particularly in obese patients, to inhibit the development as well as the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25999863

  6. Ni-Mn-Ga Single Crystal Exhibiting Multiple Magnetic Shape Memory Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, Oleg; Veřtát, Petr; Vronka, Marek; Kopecky, Vít; Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2016-09-01

    Both magnetically induced phase transformation and magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) effects were observed in one Ni50Mn28Ga22 single crystal sample by direct measurement of the magnetic field-induced strain. We investigated various twinning microstructures ranged from single twin interface to fine twinning and crossing twins to evaluate what controls the apparent twinning stress crucial for MIR. The main challenges for the applications of these effects are outlined.

  7. Antioxidant and Preventive Effects of Extract from Nymphaea candida Flower on In Vitro Immunological Liver Injury of Rat Primary Hepatocyte Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Tao; Ma, Long; Yan, Ming; Gu, Zhengyi; Huang, Yi; Xu, Fang; Zhao, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Nymphaea candida is traditional Uighur medicine that is commonly used to treat head pains, cough, hepatitis and hypertension in Xinjiang of China. In this article, the extract of N. candida was measured for antioxidant activity, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging assay and reducing power determination, and compared with those of the positive controls of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and gallic acid (GA). The active extract was further purified by liquid-liquid partition to afford four fractions, of which the ethyl acetate-soluble (EA) fraction (NCE) exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity with IC50 value of 12.6 μg/mL for DPPH. Thirteen phenolic compounds were isolated from this fraction, and they all showed significant antioxidant activities in DPPH model system. Furthermore, NCE showed potent antioxidant capacity with IC50 value of 59.32 μg/mL, 24.48 μg/mL and 86.85 μg/mL, for O2−, ·OH and H2O2 radicals, respectively. Moreover, NCE on BCG plus LPS-induced immunological liver injury was evaluated using primary cultured rat hepatocytes. NCE produced significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased supernatant enzyme activities (AST—aspartate transaminase, P <  .01; ALT—alanine transferase, P <  .01) and nitric oxide (NO, P <  .01) production. These results revealed the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of NCE against immunological liver injury. Further investigations are necessary to verify these activities in vivo. PMID:19196740

  8. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  9. Antioxidant effect of hydroxytyrosol (DPE) and Mn2+ in liver of cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Sblano, Cesare; Landriscina, Vito; Felice Tecce, Mario; Landriscina, Clemente

    2002-12-01

    Liver TBARS formation in cadmium-intoxicated rats was completely reduced by administering a low amount of MnCl(2) (2 mg/kg b.w.) 1 h before intoxication. A similar antioxidant effect was first shown by hydroxytyrosol (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol, (DPE), a phenolic compound present in olive oil, given twice to rats (9 mg/kg b.w.) after cadmium administration. The antioxidant properties shown in vivo by both Mn(2+) and DPE were also active in vitro when rat liver microsomes were subjected to lipid peroxidation by cadmium or other prooxidant systems. The increase in liver glutathione concentrations occurring in cadmium-intoxicated rats, was also found, for the first time, 24 h after MnCl(2) administration. Unlike cadmium intoxication, which caused a higher formation of both glutathione and TBARS, Mn(2+) induced glutathione synthesis without any TBARS formation. The same situation was also observed when cadmium plus Mn(2+) or cadmium plus DPE was given to rats. Our data show that: (a). both DPE and low Mn(2+) concentrations may have an antioxidant effect in the livers of cadmium-intoxicated rats and (b). Mn(2+), like cadmium, induces liver glutathione synthesis and this effect is probably independent of TBARS formation. PMID:12458190

  10. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Keisuke; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Yamano, Noriko; Urushihara, Maki; Sakurada, Takumi; Imanishi, Masaki; Fujii, Shoko; Nuno, Asami; Miyamoto, Licht; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF) is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice), NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  11. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  12. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects