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Sample records for antioxidant rich diet

  1. The effect of cardioprotective diet rich with natural antioxidants on chronic inflammation and oxidized LDL during cardiac rehabilitation in patients after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Polona; Salobir, Barbara; Čobo, Nusret; Strašek, Janja; Prezelj, Marija; Debevc, Ana; Jug, Borut; Terčelj, Marjeta; Šabovič, Mišo

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation, the fundamental pathogenetic process of atherosclerosis, can be modified by pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures as a part of secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of our study was to determine the effect of diet, rich with natural antioxidants, added to physical activity (as a part of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program) on inflammatory markers and ox-LDL, a marker of oxidative stress, closely involved in the process of chronic inflammation. 41 male patients after AMI undergoing CR were divided into a diet group (supervised cardioprotective diet throughout the CR), and control group (CR without diet). We measured hsCRP, leucocytes, neutrophils, IL-6, oxLDL, exercise capacity and classic risk factors before and after CR program. Patients from the diet group presented with a significant decline in classic risk factors (BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, TAG) and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, leucocytes, neutrophils) compared to control group. Furthermore, when studying nonsmokers, we observed significant decline of oxLDL in the diet group. The addition of cardioprotective diet, rich with natural antioxidants, to physical activity as a part of a CR program, positively modifies not just classic risk factors and exercise capacity, but also diminishes chronic inflammation markers. These effects, and oxLDL decline were most prominent in nonsmoking patients.

  2. A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Razquin, C; Martinez, J A; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Mitjavila, M T; Estruch, R; Marti, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) after 3 years of intervention and the associations with adiposity indexes in a randomized dietary trial (PREDIMED trial) with high cardiovascular risk patients. 187 subjects were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-UNAV center after they completed 3-year intervention program. Participants were following a Mediterranean-style diet with high intake of virgin olive oil or high intake of nuts, or a conventional low-fat diet. Adiposity indexes were measured at baseline and at year 3. Plasma TAC was evaluated using a commercially available colorimetric assay kit. Plasma TAC in the control, olive oil and nuts groups was 2.01+/-0.15, 3.51+/-0.14 and 3.02+/-0.14 mM Trolox, respectively after adjusting for age and sex. The differences between the Mediterranean diet and control groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). Moreover higher levels of TAC were significantly associated with a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention among subjects allocated to the virgin olive oil group (B=-1.306; 95% CI=-2.439 to -0.173; P=0.025, after adjusting for age, sex and baseline body mass index). Mediterranean diet, especially rich in virgin olive oil, is associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma TAC is related to a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population with a Mediterranean-style diet rich in virgin olive oil.

  3. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Hänninen; Kaartinen, K; Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Törrönen, R; Häkkinen, A S; Adlercreutz, H; Laakso, J

    2000-11-30

    Plants are rich natural sources of antioxidants in addition to other nutrients. Interventions and cross sectional studies on subjects consuming uncooked vegan diet called living food (LF) have been carried out. We have clarified the efficacy of LF in rheumatoid diseases as an example of a health problem where inflammation is one of the main concerns. LF is an uncooked vegan diet and consists of berries, fruits, vegetables and roots, nuts, germinated seeds and sprouts, i.e. rich sources of carotenoids, vitamins C and E. The subjects eating LF showed highly increased levels of beta and alfa carotenes, lycopen and lutein in their sera. Also the increases of vitamin C and vitamin E (adjusted to cholesterol) were statistically significant. As the berry intake was 3-fold compared to controls the intake of polyphenolic compounds like quercetin, myricetin and kaempherol was much higher than in the omnivorous controls. The LF diet is rich in fibre, substrate of lignan production, and the urinary excretion of polyphenols like enterodiol and enterolactone as well as secoisolaricirecinol were much increased in subjects eating LF. The shift of fibromyalgic subjects to LF resulted in a decrease of their joint stiffness and pain as well as an improvement of their self-experienced health. The rheumatoid arthritis patients eating the LF diet also reported similar positive responses and the objective measures supported this finding. The improvement of rheumatoid arthritis was significantly correlated with the day-to-day fluctuation of subjective symptoms. In conclusion the rheumatoid patients subjectively benefited from the vegan diet rich in antioxidants, lactobacilli and fibre, and this was also seen in objective measures.

  4. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  5. The Beneficial Effect of Anthocyanidin-Rich Vitis vinifera L. Grape Skin Extract on Metabolic Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice Involves Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant Actions.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Gisele França; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Resende, Angela Castro; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich extract from Vitis vinifera L. grape skin (GSE) may exert beneficial effects on obesity and related metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). C57/BL6 mice were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control, and GSE groups) or an HFD (60% fat, high fat (HF), and HF + GSE) with or without GSE (200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. GSE prevented weight gain; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; the alterations in plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin; and the deregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. These beneficial effects of GSE may be related to a positive modulation of insulin signaling proteins (IR, pIRS, PI3K, pAKT), pAMPK/AMPK ratio, and GLUT4 expression in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, GSE prevented the oxidative damage, evidenced by the restoration of antioxidant activity and decrease of malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in muscle and adipose tissue. Finally, GSE showed an anti-inflammatory action, evidenced by the reduced plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6). Our results suggest that GSE prevented the obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF-fed mice by regulating insulin sensitivity and GLUT4 expression as well as by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  7. Antioxidant status in vivo: the case for regular consumption of antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since metabolism of energy is a major source of reactive oxygen species, the quantity of dietary antioxidants needed may be related to energy consumption. Antioxidant status in vivo can be altered by diet, but the postprandial response is dependent upon factors such as 1) antioxidant capacity (AOC) ...

  8. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cotinus coggyria: a rich source of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tauheeda; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Aziz-ur-Rehman; Rubab, Kaniz; Shahzadi, Tayyaba; Ajaib, Muhammad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extract of Cotinus coggyria Scop. was mixed in distilled water and partitioned first with the n-hexane, then with chloroform, then ethyl acetate and at the end with n-butanol. The phytochemical screening of plant showed presence of the phenolics, cardiac glycosides and flavonoides in large amount in the chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble fraction. Antioxidant activity of these four fractions and the left behind aqueous fraction was measured by four methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric thiocyanate assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and total antioxidant activity. Total phenolics were also measured. Noteworthy antioxidant potential was shown by the chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest % inhibition of the DPPH radical when compared with the other studied fractions i.e. 81.64 ± 1.29% inhibition of the DPPH radical at the concentration of 30 μg/ml. Its IC(50) value was found to be 15.58 ± 0.09 μg/ml, comparative to the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which has IC(50) value 12.6 ± 0.85μg/ml. This fraction also showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition (61.41 ± 1.16%), as well as highest values of FRAP (697.76 ± 1.98 μg of trolox equivalents) total antioxidant activity (1.02 ± 0.09) and total phenolic contents (229.34 ± 0.57) comparative to the other studied fractions. The chloroform and n-butanol soluble fraction also showed good results for all the studied antioxidant assays.

  10. Mediterranean diet and non enzymatic antioxidant capacity in the PREDIMED study: evidence for a mechanism of antioxidant tuning.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, R; Serafini, M; Estruch, R; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Martínez-González, M A; Salas-Salvadó, J; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Arós, F; Covas, M I; Andres-Lacueva, C

    2013-12-01

    The intake of antioxidant-rich foods may increase the blood levels of non enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). NEAC takes into account all antioxidants from food and synergistic effects between them. We examined the effect of a 1-year intervention with Mediterranean diet on plasma NEAC and assessed whether it was related to baseline NEAC levels. Five hundred sixty-four participants at high cardiovascular risk were randomly selected from the PREDIMED (Prevención con DIeta MEDiterránea) Study, a large 3-arm randomized clinical trial. Blood NEAC levels were measured at baseline and after 1-year of dietary intervention with 1) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil (MED + VOO); 2) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (MED + nuts), or 3) a control low-fat diet. Plasma NEAC was analyzed using FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter) assays. Plasma FRAP levels increased after 1-year of intervention with MED + VOO [72.0 μmol/L (95% CI, 34.2-109.9)] and MED + nuts [48.9 μmol/L (24.3-73.5)], but not after the control low-fat diet [13.9 μmol/L (-11.9 to 39.8)]. Participants in the lowest quartile of plasma FRAP at baseline significantly increased their levels after any intervention, while those in the highest quartile decreased. Similar results occurred with TRAP levels. This study shows that a 1-year of MED diet intervention increases plasma TAC level in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with antioxidants may be related to baseline levels of plasma NEAC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter.

  12. Effect of the antioxidants composition in diet on the sensory and physical properties of frozen farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Latorre, Mónica; Gajardo, Mónica; Bunger, Andrea; Munizaga, Alejandro; López, Luis; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2015-04-01

    Great attention has been paid to the antioxidants present in farmed fish feeds, with the replacement of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones being a main objective. In the present study, Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was fed a conventional diet that was enriched with different kinds of antioxidants: synthetic antioxidants (butylated-hydroxy toluene and ethoxyquin; diet I), a tocopherols-rich mixture (diet II) and a tocopherols-rosemary extract mixture (diet III). A comparative study of the sensory and physical changes observed in the corresponding frozen products was undertaken. After 18 months at -18 °C, fish previously fed on diet I showed higher putrid and rancid odours and rancid taste scores, while lower mean typical odour and taste values were attained. Dripping and expressible moisture values obtained for diet II-fish were lower when compared with their counterparts belonging to the diet I; additionally, microstructure analysis revealed that Z-lines integration was better preserved in fish corresponding to diets II and III. Diet II has been recognised as being the most profitable to be employed to maintain the sensory and physical properties of the frozen product when long-term storage is considered. Further research is to be continued to optimise the natural antioxidants profile. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Postprandial antioxidant gene expression is modified by Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q(10) in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Gonzalez-Guardia, Lorena; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Caballero, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Villalba, Jose M; Tunez, Isaac; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2013-02-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial gene expression and protein levels involved in oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ) improves this situation in an elderly population. Twenty participants were randomized to receive three isocaloric diets each for 4 weeks: Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med + CoQ diet), Mediterranean diet (Med diet), saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). After 12-h fast, volunteers consumed a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets. Nrf2, p22(phox) and p47(phox), superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), thiorredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene expression and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap-1) and citoplasmic and nuclear Nrf2 protein levels were determined. Med and Med + CoQ diets induced lower Nrf2, p22(phox), p47(phox), SOD1, SOD2 and TrxR gene expression and higher cytoplasmic Nrf2 and Keap-1 protein levels compared to the SFA diet. Moreover, Med + CoQ diet produced lower postprandial Nrf2 gene expression and lower nuclear Nrf2 protein levels compared to the other diets and lower GPx1 gene expression than the SFA diet. Our results support the antioxidant effect of a Med diet and that exogenous CoQ supplementation has a protective effects against free radical overgeneration through the lowering of postprandial oxidative stress modifying the postprandial antioxidant protein levels and reducing the postprandial expression of antioxidant genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of an iron-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    2002-03-01

    A review by invitation about advantages and disadvantages of an iron-rich diet by analyzing physiological iron requirements, dietary factors influencing iron absorption and the regulatory systems available to control iron absorption according to needs. The control to prevent iron deficiency is good but not perfect, as observed in previously described studies on relationships between individual iron requirements and the probability of iron deficiency developing in relation to diet. The control to prevent iron overload seems to be perfect except in the few subjects being homozygotes for hereditary hemochromatosis. A diet rich in easily available iron is important for covering basal iron losses, menstrual iron losses and the high iron requirements for growth from infancy to adolescence and for pregnancy.

  15. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  16. Development and validation of an algorithm to establish a total antioxidant capacity database of the US diet.

    PubMed

    Floegel, Anna; Kim, Dae-Ok; Chung, Sang-Jin; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Bruno, Richard S; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2010-09-01

    Estimation of total antioxidant intake is the first step to investigate the protective effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress-mediated disease. The present study was designed to develop an algorithm to estimate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the US diet. TAC of individual antioxidants and 50 popular antioxidant-rich food items in the US diet were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Theoretical TAC of foods was calculated as the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of compounds. The top 10 TAC food items in the US diet according to standard serving size were blueberry > plum > green tea > strawberry > green tea (decaffeinated) > red wine > grape juice > black tea > cherry > grape. Major contributors to TAC were the total phenolic content (r = 0.952, P < 0.001) and flavonoid content (r = 0.827, P < 0.001) of 50 foods. Theoretical TAC was positively correlated to experimental TAC of 50 foods determined by the ABTS assay (r = 0.833, P < 0.001) and the DPPH assay (r = 0.696, P < 0.001), and to TAC from the USDA database for the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (r = 0.484, P = 0.001, n = 44). The TAC database of the US diet has been established and validated. In future studies, TAC of the US diet can be linked to biomarkers of chronic disease.

  17. Women with endometriosis improved their peripheral antioxidant markers after the application of a high antioxidant diet

    PubMed Central

    Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aburto-Soto, Tania; Burrola-Méndez, Soraya; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luis; Tolentino, Mari C; Casanueva, Esther; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been identified in the peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. However, there is little information on the antioxidant intake for this group of women. The objectives of this work were 1) to compare the antioxidant intake among women with and without endometriosis and 2) to design and apply a high antioxidant diet to evaluate its capacity to reduce oxidative stress markers and improve antioxidant markers in the peripheral blood of women with endometriosis. Methods Women with (WEN, n = 83) and without endometriosis (WWE, n = 80) were interviewed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire to compare their antioxidant intake (of vitamins and minerals). Then, the WEN participated in the application of a control (n = 35) and high antioxidant diet (n = 37) for four months. The high antioxidant diet (HAD) guaranteed the intake of 150% of the suggested daily intake of vitamin A (1050 μg retinol equivalents), 660% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of vitamin C (500 mg) and 133% of the RDI of vitamin E (20 mg). Oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (vitamins and antioxidant enzymatic activity) were determined in plasma every month. Results Comparison of antioxidant intake between WWE and WEN showed a lower intake of vitamins A, C, E, zinc, and copper by WEN (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney Rank test). The selenium intake was not statistically different between groups. During the study, the comparison of the 24-hour recalls between groups showed a higher intake of the three vitamins in the HAD group. An increase in the vitamin concentrations (serum retinol, alpha-tocopherol, leukocyte and plasma ascorbate) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) as well as a decrease in oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) were observed in the HAD group after two months of intervention. These phenomena were not observed in the control group. Conclusion WEN had a lower

  18. Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective seeds mixture diet rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Makni, Mohamed; Fetoui, Hamadi; Garoui, El Mouldi; Gargouri, Nabil K; Jaber, Hazem; Makni, Jamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2010-01-01

    In vitro physicochemical and antioxidant properties of mixture of Flax/Sesame (LS) and Flax/Peanut (LA) and in vivo hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities were carried out to ascertain the claim of its utilisation against diseases. The seeds mixture rich in unsaturated fatty acids were prepared with 5/1 ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids and were orally administered ad libitum to rats by standard diet for 30 days. High cholesterol fed diet rats (CD-chol) exhibited a significant increase in total plasma and liver lipid parameters and atherogenicity and a significant decrease in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and HDL/TC ratio (HTR). Administration of (LS) or (LA) seeds mixture to hypercholesterolemic rats (MS-LSchol and MS-LAchol groups respectively) significantly ameliorated lipid parameters and showed an increase of PUFAs (ALA and LA) and MUFAs and a decrease of SFAs in plasma and liver of MS-LSchol and MS-LAchol groups. Furthermore, malondialdehyde levels decreased and the efficiency of antioxidant defense system was improved compared to CD-chol group. Liver histological sections showed lipid storage in hepatocytes of CD-chol group and an improvement was noted in both supplemented groups. Our results suggested that seeds mixtures of Flax/Sesame and Flax/Peanut have anti-atherogenic and hepatoprotective effects. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential fatty acid-rich diets protect against striatal oxidative damage induced by quinolinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Morales-Martínez, Adriana; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Pineda-Farías, Jorge Baruch; Montes, Sergio; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Martínez-Gopar, Pablo Eliasib; Tristán-López, Luis; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Castro, Nelly; Ríos, Camilo; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca

    2017-09-01

    Essential fatty acids have an important effect on oxidative stress-related diseases. The Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurologic disorder in which oxidative stress caused by free radicals is an important damage mechanism. The HD experimental model induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN) has been widely used to evaluate therapeutic effects of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to test whether the fatty acid content in olive- or fish-oil-rich diet prevents against QUIN-related oxidative damage in rats. Rats were fed during 20 days with an olive- or a fish-oil-rich diet (15% w/w). Posterior to diet period, rats were striatally microinjected with QUIN (240 nmol/µl) or saline solution. Then, we evaluated the neurological damage, oxidative status, and gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) expression. Results showed that fatty acid-rich diet, mainly by fish oil, reduced circling behavior, prevented the fall in GABA levels, increased PPARγ expression, and prevented oxidative damage in striatal tissue. In addition none of the enriched diets exerted changes neither on triglycerides or cholesterol blood levels, nor or hepatic function. This study suggests that olive- and fish-oil-rich diets exert neuroprotective effects.

  20. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  1. Cocoa-enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats.

    PubMed

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2007-08-08

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and procyanidins. This article reports the effect of continuous cocoa intake on antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues, including lymphoid organs and liver, from young rats. Weaned Wistar rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake) for three weeks, corresponding to their infancy. Flavonoid absorption was confirmed through the quantification of epicatechin metabolites in urine. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, were examined. Cocoa intake enhanced TAC in all tissues especially in thymus. Moreover, thymus SOD and catalase activities were also dose-dependently increased by cocoa. It was also analyzed whether the enhanced antioxidant system in thymus could influence its cellular composition. An increase in the percentage of thymocytes in advanced development stage was found. In summary, cocoa diet enhances thymus antioxidant defenses and influences thymocyte differentiation.

  2. Postprandial antioxidant effect of the Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Tasset-Cuevas, Inmaculada; Santos-Gonzalez, Monica; Caballero, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M; Fuentes, Francisco; Villalba, Jose M; Tunez, Isaac; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial cellular oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ) lowers postprandial oxidative stress in an elderly population. In this randomized crossover study, 20 participants were assigned to receive three isocaloric diets for periods of 4 week each: (1) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), (2) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). After a 12-h fast, the volunteers consumed a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets. CoQ, lipid peroxides (LPO), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), protein carbonyl (PC), total nitrite, nitrotyrosine plasma levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and ischemic reactive hyperaemia (IRH) were determined. Med diet produced a lower postprandial GPx activity and a lower decrease in total nitrite level compared to the SFA diet. Med and Med+CoQ diets induced a higher postprandial increase in IRH and a lower postprandial LPO, oxLDL, and nitrotyrosine plasma levels than the SFA diet. Moreover, the Med+CoQ diet produced a lower postprandial decrease in total nitrite and a greater decrease in PC levels compared to the other two diets and lower SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the SFA diet.In conclusion, Med diet reduces postprandial oxidative stress by reducing processes of cellular oxidation and increases the action of the antioxidant system in elderly persons and the administration of CoQ further improves this redox balance.

  3. Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Rich Supplements Containing Microelements Have Antioxidant Effects on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukahori, Suguru; Baba, Shinji; Ueno, Takato; Sivakumar, Ramadoss; Yagi, Minoru; Asagiri, Kimio; Ishii, Shinji; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the administration of antioxidant-rich nutrients, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), microelements, and vitamins, both alone and in combination, has a positive impact on liver function in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model and identify the mechanisms underlying these effects. Seven-week-old male KKAy mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 4 weeks were divided into 7 groups and fed the following planned diets for another 4 weeks: group A (normal diet), group B (MCD; control), group C (MCD with rich microelements), group D (MCD with rich BCAAs), group E (MCD with rich microelements and BCAAs), and group F (MCD with rich microelements, BCAAs, and vitamins). We then conducted biochemical assays, histological analyses, immunohistochemistry for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxy-2'-nonenal (4-HNE), and Western blotting for insulin glucose signaling, lipid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related signaling in liver specimens obtained from mice in each group. The morphometric grades of all NASH-related findings and the mean degree of 8-OHdG immunolocalization in groups D-F were significantly lower than those observed in group B. The expression levels of insulin receptor β subunit (IRβ) and p-elF in groups E and F and those of phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K85), p-AcelCoA, and PERK in group F were similar to those noted in group A. The administration of a combination of antioxidant-rich nutrients, including BCAAs and microelements, is likely to suppress the progression of NASH by reducing oxidative stress, primarily via the downregulation of the ER stress pathway. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Health effect of vegetable-based diet: lettuce consumption improves cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Catherine; Cardinault, Nicolas; Gueux, Elyett; Jaffrelo, Lydia; Rock, Edmond; Mazur, Andrzej; Amouroux, Pierre; Rémésy, Christian

    2004-08-01

    It is often assumed that fruits and vegetables contribute to protect against degenerative pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Besides epidemiological observations, scientific evidences for their mechanism of action are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the mean term and post-prandial effects of lettuce ingestion on lipid metabolism and antioxidant protection in the rat. Feeding rats a 20% lettuce diet for 3 weeks resulted in a decrease cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio and a marked decrease of liver cholesterol levels (-41%). Concurrently, fecal total steroid excretion increased (+44%) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-37%) by the lettuce diet. Lettuce diet also displayed an improvement of vitamin E/TG ratio in plasma and limited lipid peroxidation in heart as evidenced by TBARS. In post-prandial experiment, lettuce intake significantly increased both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol plasma levels which contribute to improve plasma antioxidant capacity within 2 h of consumption. Other lipid-soluble antioxidants (lutein and vitamin E) may also improve the plasma antioxidant capacity. Lettuce consumption increases the total cholesterol end-products excretion and improves antioxidant status due to the richness in antioxidants (vitamins C, E and carotenoids). In our model, lettuce clearly shows a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and on tissue oxidation. Therefore regular consumption of lettuce should contribute to improve protection against cardiovascular diseases. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  8. Effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa - dietary supplements vs. local diet.

    PubMed

    Nkengfack, Germaine N; Torimiro, Judith N; Englert, Heike

    2012-02-01

    In sub-Sahara Africa, micronutrient deficiency, especially of antioxidant micronutrients including vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols is very common in HIV-positive patients. Amongst adults, women are the most vulnerable. Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the immune system, reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is induced by excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to the HIV infection. Such damage may be prevented or moderated through adequate oral intake of antioxidants, scavenging ROS, as well as protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can be provided to the body through locally available antioxidant rich-diets such as fruit-and-vegetable-based diets and/or dietary supplements. Provision of antioxidants through local diets or dietary supplements exercise beneficial effects on biological markers of the immune system (CD4 and viral load). However, while dietary supplements represent a costly and short-term strategy to limiting antioxidant deficiency, local diets, combined with adequate nutritional education, can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV disease progression. The former can be applicable in countries around the West, Central, and South coast of Africa, which are rich in natural food resources. In contrast with significant evidence that dietary supplements confer benefits in HIV patients, fewer data are available relating to the benefits of local diets. Thus the need to do more research in this area arises. This review compares available data on effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-positive women noneligible for antiretroviral therapy. Intake of antioxidants though dietary supplements and local diet, associated with nutritional education, is compared. Studies conducted in sub-Sahara Africa are considered.

  9. Antioxidant effects of proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts from grape seed and cupuassu on gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pinent, Montserrat; Castell-Auví, Anna; Genovese, Maria Inés; Serrano, Joan; Casanova, Angela; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna

    2016-01-15

    The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is constantly exposed to reactive species released by the GI tract itself, and those present in food and beverages. Phenolic compounds may help in protecting the GI tract against damage produced by the reactive species. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in two different intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco-2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. We show that GSPE prevents tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in both cell lines, and that the effects are dose and time dependent. We have also analyzed whether GSPE has any in vivo effect, and found that 25 mg kg(-1) body weight cannot counteract the increase in intestinal ROS induced by the cafeteria diet. However, an acute (1 h) treatment of 1 g GSPE kg(-1) body weight reduced ROS in fasted animals and also decreased ROS induction by food. These effects were found only after a short-term treatment. Furthermore, we have compared the in vitro GSPE effects with those of another proanthocyanidin-rich extract from cupuassu seeds, though it has compounds with different structures. Cupuassu extract also shows antioxidant effects in both cell types, which suggests different mechanisms from those of GSPE. Natural proanthocyanidin-rich extracts have an antioxidant effect in the GI tract, acting on absorptive cells and enterohormone-secreting cells, although the effects depend on the dose and period of treatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  11. Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Myhrstad, Mari C; Thoresen, Magne; Holden, Marit; Karlsen, Anette; Tunheim, Siv Haugen; Erlund, Iris; Svendsen, Mette; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Moskaug, Jan O; Duttaroy, Asim K; Laake, Petter; Arnesen, Harald; Tonstad, Serena; Collins, Andrew; Drevon, Christan A; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-09-16

    Plant-based diets rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent development of several chronic age-related diseases. However, the mechanisms behind this protective effect are not elucidated. We have tested the hypothesis that intake of antioxidant-rich foods can affect groups of genes associated with cellular stress defence in human blood cells. NCT00520819 http://clinicaltrials.gov. In an 8-week dietary intervention study, 102 healthy male smokers were randomised to either a diet rich in various antioxidant-rich foods, a kiwifruit diet (three kiwifruits/d added to the regular diet) or a control group. Blood cell gene expression profiles were obtained from 10 randomly selected individuals of each group. Diet-induced changes on gene expression were compared to controls using a novel application of the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on transcription profiles obtained using Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus 2.0 whole genome arrays. Changes were observed in the blood cell gene expression profiles in both intervention groups when compared to the control group. Groups of genes involved in regulation of cellular stress defence, such as DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia, were significantly upregulated (GSEA, FDR q-values < 5%) by both diets compared to the control group. Genes with common regulatory motifs for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) were upregulated by both interventions (FDR q-values < 5%). Plasma antioxidant biomarkers (polyphenols/carotenoids) increased in both groups. The observed changes in the blood cell gene expression profiles suggest that the beneficial effects of a plant-based diet on human health may be mediated through optimization of defence processes.

  12. Antioxidant Diet Protects Against Emphysema, but Increases Mortality in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nyunoya, Toru; March, Thomas H.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Seagrave, JeanClare

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and emphysema. We produced an enriched diet by adding freeze-dried fruits and vegetables and additional supplements to the 8604 Teklad Rodent Diet, a standard rodent diet. In this study, we examined the effects of the antioxidant-enriched diet on cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and emphysema. CH3/HeN mice were fed either a regular diet or an antioxidant diet. These mice were exposed to filtered air, a low concentration of cigarette smoke (total particulate matter: 100 mg/m3) or a high concentration of cigarette smoke (total particulate matter: 250mg/m3) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for total 16 weeks. Surprisingly, increased mortality (53%) was observed in the high concentration of cigarette smoke-exposed mice fed the antioxidant diet compared to the high concentration of cigarette smoke-exposed mice that were fed a regular diet (13%). The necropsy analysis revealed nasal passage obstruction due to mucous plugging in cigarette smoke-exposed mice on the antioxidant diet. However, the antioxidant diet significantly reduced neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema in the high concentration of cigarette smoke-exposed mice as compared to the regular diet /high concentration of cigarette smoke controls. The antioxidant capacity in the bronchoalveolar fluid or oxidative damage to the lung tissue was not affected by the antioxidant diet. Pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 activity did not correlate with the protective effects of AOD on cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. These data suggest that the antioxidant diet reduced cigarette smoke -induced inflammation and emphysema, but increased mortality in the obligate nose-breathing mice. PMID:21834692

  13. Antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) and antioxidant activity of its extracts.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqing; Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-06-15

    Miracle berry is known for its unique characteristic of modifying sour flavours to sweet. Twelve phenolics were identified and quantified in the miracle berry flesh at a level from 0.3 for kaempferol to 17.8 mg/100g FW for epicatechin. Lutein and α-tocopherol were also quantified at a level of 0.4 and 5.8 mg/100g FW, respectively. The TP and TF contents were 1448.3 GA and 9.9 QR mg Equiv/100g FW for the flesh, respectively, compared with 306.7 GA and 3.8 mg QR mg Equiv/100g FW of the seeds. The free radical scavenging and reducing percentage of the flesh extract was 96.3% and 32.5% in DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Additionally, the flesh extract had a high FRAP of 22.9 mmol/100g. It significantly inhibited the oxidation of PUFA in fish oil as well. Thus, miracle berry could also serve as an antioxidant-rich fruit to provide health promoting function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ergothioneine - a diet-derived antioxidant with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Barry; Cheah, Irwin K; Tang, Richard M Y

    2018-05-31

    Ergothioneine is a thiol/thione molecule synthesised only by some fungi and bacteria. Nonetheless, it is avidly taken up from the diet by humans and other animals through a transporter, OCTN1, and accumulates to high levels in certain tissues. Ergothioneine is not rapidly metabolised, or excreted in urine and is present in many, if not all, human tissues and body fluids. Ergothioneine has powerful antioxidant and cytoprotective properties in vitro and there is evidence that the body may concentrate it at sites of tissue injury by raising OCTN1 levels. Decreased blood and/or plasma levels of ergothioneine have been observed in some diseases, suggesting that a deficiency could be relevant to the disease onset or progression. This brief Review explores the possible roles of ergothioneine in human health and disease. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    ... carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin E Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. ... of lung cancer in smokers. High doses of vitamin E may increase risks of prostate cancer and one ...

  16. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, P<0.001). Both antioxidants were more concentrated in pileus than stipe tissues in selected mushrooms species. Agaricus bisporus harvested during the third cropping flush contained higher levels of ergothioneine and glutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal antioxidant supplementation prevents adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet. Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

  18. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  19. Influences of rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids diets in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, Matheus Fécchio; Silva, Maeli Dal-Pai; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; Novelli, Yeda Santana Diniz; Sant'ana, Lea Sílvia; Aragon, Flávio Ferrari; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2007-03-01

    To study the influence of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8), a SFA (n=8), or a UFA-rich diet (n=8) for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25 mM calcium chloride) and after 5.2 mM calcium chloride and beta-adrenergic stimuli with 1.0 microM isoproterenol. Left ventricle fragments were used to study oxidative stress and morphology under light and electron microscopy. SFA and UFA-rich diets did not change myocardium mechanical function. Both diets caused oxidative stress, with high lipid hydroperoxide and low superoxide-dismutase concentrations. UFA rich diet decreased catalase expression and SFA rich diet decreased the amount of myocardial glutathione-peroxidase. Both diets promoted light ultrastructural injuries such as lipid deposits and cell membrane injuries. Results suggest that SFA and UFA rich diets do not alter isolated muscle mechanical function, but promote light myocardial morphological injuries and oxidative stress.

  20. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    PubMed

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats ( n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  3. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity. PMID:28098768

  4. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  5. Naringin prevents the inhibition of intestinal Ca2+ absorption induced by a fructose rich diet.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, V; Rivoira, M; Guizzardi, S; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2017-12-15

    This study tries to elucidate the mechanisms by which fructose rich diets (FRD) inhibit the rat intestinal Ca 2+ absorption, and determine if any or all underlying alterations are prevented by naringin (NAR). Male rats were divided into: 1) controls, 2) treated with FRD, 3) treated with FRD and NAR. The intestinal Ca 2+ absorption and proteins of the transcellular and paracellular Ca 2+ pathways were measured. Oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation parameters were evaluated. FRD rats showed inhibition of the intestinal Ca 2+ absorption and decrease in the protein expression of molecules of both Ca 2+ pathways, which were blocked by NAR. FRD rats showed an increase in the superoxide anion, a decrease in the glutathione and in the enzymatic activities of the antioxidant system, as well as an increase in the NO content and in the nitrotyrosine content of proteins. They also exhibited an increase in both IL-6 and nuclear NF-κB. All these changes were prevented by NAR. In conclusion, FRD inhibit both pathways of the intestinal Ca 2+ absorption due to the oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation. Since NAR prevents the oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation, it might be a drug to avoid alteration in the intestinal Ca 2+ absorption caused by FRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (P<0.001) increase in the lipid profile across the board and equally significantly altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. Supplementation with Piper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebral microvascular changes induced by rich cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Stănescu, R; Stănescu, M R; Bold, Adriana; Mateescu, Garofiţa Olivia

    2013-01-01

    The impact of an excess of fatty acids in the diet on cardiovascular diseases has been studied and discussed both in human and animal studies. Generally, excessive saturated fats increase the risk, while unsaturated fats are considered less harmful. Our aim was to perform an experimental study in order to analyze how fatty diet quality (unsaturated vs. saturated fatty acids) influences atherogenesis. In our experimental study, 18 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was subjected to a rich unsaturated fatty acid diet (untar) and the other group to a rich saturated one (palm oil). Three animals from each group were sacrificed after 12, 18, and 48 weeks. The brain was removed and microscopically examined after Hematoxylin-Eosin, Orcein and Masson's trichrome classical staining, and after immunohistochemical marking using the anti-alpha smooth muscle actin antibody. Rats sacrificed after 12 weeks revealed modicum lesions, as intimal vacuoles or minute intraluminal thrombosis, and cerebral parenchymal edema. After 18 weeks, some of rats subjected to a rich saturated fatty acid diet presented vacuoles found in all arteriolar wall layers, and a tendency towards parietal thrombosis. In rats subjected to a rich unsaturated fatty acid diet, the subintimal arteriolar vacuolization was associated with an intramural and adventitial fibrosis. In rats sacrificed after 48 weeks, lesional polymorphism was pronounced, but in rats subjected to a rich unsaturated fatty acid diet complete luminal thrombosis was followed by a an organized thrombus with multiple capillary channels. Although in Wistar rats atherosclerosis appeared only after intensive changes in diet, different experimental studies showed that, in transgenic rats, rich saturated fatty acid diet induced progressive atherosclerotic lesions, resembling those observed by us, but also some aspects described in human pathology. Our experimental study reveals differences in atherogenesis

  8. Antioxidant-restricted diet reduces plasma nonesterified fatty acids in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Trent A; Blake, Robert J; Callister, Robin; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Nonesterified FA (NEFA) are a major fuel source for humans at rest and during moderate exercise. The effect of dietary antioxidant restriction on plasma NEFA levels and exercise performance in trained athletes was examined. Seventeen athletes followed a 2-wk restricted-antioxidant (R-AO) diet, which resulted in a threefold reduction in antioxidant intake (ascorbic acid, 139 to 49 mg; beta-carotene, 5093 to 1142 microg) and a significant (P = 0.001) reduction in the plasma NEFA. The amount and types of fat consumed were not different between the R-AO and habitual diets. Exercise time to exhaustion was not affected by the R-AO diet, but rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly (P = 0.03) elevated. The increase in RPE may have occurred as a result of the R-AO diet and subsequent reduction in plasma NEFA; however, further research is required to confirm this conclusion.

  9. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidative diet supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced increases of cardiovascular risk factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Rios, Amelia; Arellano-Mendoza, Monica; Escalante, Bruno A; Schnoor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion) would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  11. Antioxidant-rich food intakes and their association with blood total antioxidant status and vitamin C and E levels in community-dwelling seniors from the Quebec longitudinal study NuAge.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Abdelouahed; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Cherki, Mounia; Wagner, Richard; Tessier, Daniel M; Fulop, Tamas; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the association between current consumption of a series of 26 common antioxidant-rich foods (ARF) with serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and plasma vitamin C and E levels in community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of the first 94 non-smoking Caucasian men (54%) and women (46%) enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study NuAge were selected. The "Functional Foods Consumption Frequency Questionnaire" (FFCFQ) was administered at recruitment (T1) to ascertain patterns of consumption of ARF over the lifetime. The total Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC) of 25 ARF reported by subjects was estimated using published values. Serum TAS was determined based on the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay while plasma vitamins C and E (α- and γ-tocopherol) levels were analyzed by HPLC. The numbers of ARF eaten daily at T1, estimated from the FFCFQ and calculated from the diet recalls, were significantly correlated (r=0.51, P<0.0001) and each measure was associated with total ORAC content (r=0.34, P<0.001 and r=0.59, P<0.0001 for FFCFQ and recalls, respectively). No significant association was found between TAS and the total ORAC value of ARF determined from the quantitative 24-h diet recalls. However, daily ARF consumption at T1 obtained from the FFCFQ was significantly and positively correlated with TAS (r=0.26, P<0.05) and circulating levels of vitamin C (r=0.25, P<0.02) and α-tocopherol (r=0.22, p<0.05) and negatively correlated with plasma γ-tocopherol (r=-0.25, P<0.025). These results highlight associations between ARF consumption and circulating levels of antioxidants in the elderly and suggest benefits from antioxidant-rich foods during aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential for polyphenol-rich cocoa extract obtained by agroindustrial residue.

    PubMed

    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Pinheiro Arruda, Mara Silvia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Converti, Attilio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-11-10

    Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract. The extract has a total polyphenol content of 229.64 mg/g and high antioxidant activity according to ABTS 225.0 μM/g. HTPLC analysis confirmed the presence in the extract, residue of terpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. These results, as a whole, suggest that the extract from the cocoa residue has interesting characteristics to alternative crops with potential industrial uses.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ordoudi, Stella A; Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2015-09-25

    The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs), is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9-22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion) and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%-88.6%) than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%). The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid) on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  15. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Rich Extracts from Blueberry and Blackcurrant Juice

    PubMed Central

    Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Leopold, Loredana; Rugină, Dumitriţa; Ayvaz, Huseyin; Socaciu, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative potential of anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs) obtained from two commercially available juices (blueberry and blackcurrant juices) on three tumor cell lines; B16F10 (murine melanoma), A2780 (ovarian cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer). Individual anthocyanin determination, identification and quantification were done using HPLC-MS. Antioxidant activity of the juices was determined through different mechanism methods such as DPPH and ORAC. For biological testing, the juices were purified through C18 cartridges in order to obtain fractions rich in anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins identified were glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. The antiproliferative activity of the fractions was tested using the MTT assay. The antiproliferative potential of ARF was found to be associated with those bioactive molecules, anthocyanins due to their antioxidant potential. The results obtained indicated that both blueberry and blackcurrants are rich sources of antioxidants including anthocyanins and therefore these fruits are highly recommended for daily consumption to prevent numerous degenerative diseases. PMID:25622252

  16. Early Low Protein Diet Aggravates Unbalance between Antioxidant Enzymes Leading to Islet Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Nicolas; Clippe, André; Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Reusens, Brigitte; Remacle, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Islets from adult rat possess weak antioxidant defense leading to unbalance between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymatic activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) rending them susceptible to oxidative stress. We have shown that this vulnerability is influenced by maternal diet during gestation and lactation. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated if low antioxidant activity in islets is already observed at birth and if maternal protein restriction influences the development of islet antioxidant defenses. Rats were fed a control diet (C group) or a low protein diet during gestation (LP) or until weaning (LPT), after which offspring received the control diet. We found that antioxidant enzymatic activities varied with age. At birth and after weaning, normal islets possessed an efficient GPX activity. However, the antioxidant capacity decreased thereafter increasing the potential vulnerability to oxidative stress. Maternal protein malnutrition changed the antioxidant enzymatic activities in islets of the progeny. At 3 months, SOD activity was increased in LP and LPT islets with no concomitant activation of CAT and GPX. This unbalance could lead to higher hydrogen peroxide production, which may concur to oxidative stress causing defective insulin gene expression due to modification of critical factors that modulate the insulin promoter. We found indeed that insulin mRNA level was reduced in both groups of malnourished offspring compared to controls. Analyzing the expression of such critical factors, we found that c-Myc expression was strongly increased in islets from both protein-restricted groups compared to controls. Conclusion and Significance Modification in antioxidant activity by maternal low protein diet could predispose to pancreatic islet dysfunction later in life and provide new insights to define a molecular mechanism responsible for intrauterine programming of endocrine

  17. Grape skin improves antioxidant capacity in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Jin; Choi, Soo-Kyong

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary grape skin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control (5% fat) diet or high fat (25% fat) diet which was based on AIN-93 diet for 2 weeks, and then they were grouped as control group (C), control + 5% grape skin group (CS), high-fat group (HF), high fat + 5% grape skin group (HFS) with 10 rats each and fed corresponding diets for 4 weeks. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were increased in high fat group as compared with control group, but reduced by grape skin. The serum total antioxidant status, and activities of hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase and glucose-6-phosphatase were increased by supplementation of grape skin. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in CS group than in C group. Grape skin feeding tended to increase the concentration of total glutathione, especially in control group. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione was lower in high fat groups than in control groups. The ratio was increased by dietary supplementation of grape skin in control group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of grape skin would be effective on protection of oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation through improvement of antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet as well as rats with low fat diet. PMID:20098580

  18. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  19. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich microalgae improves performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid profile of broilers.

    PubMed

    Long, S F; Kang, S; Wang, Q Q; Xu, Y T; Pan, L; Hu, J X; Li, M; Piao, X S

    2018-06-01

    This experiment was conducted with 126 as-hatched male Arbor Acres chicks (1-d-old, weighing 45.3 ± 0.72 g) to determine the effects of microalgae [MA, containing 29% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid deposition of birds. The birds were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment (6 birds per pen). The dietary treatments included a control diet [corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 3% soybean oil (SO), CON], 1% MA diet (basal diet supplemented with 1% MA and 2% SO, 1MA), and 2% MA diet (basal diet supplemented with 2% MA and 1% SO, 2MA). All birds were raised in wire-floored cages. The trial consists of a starter phase from d 1 to 21 and a grower phase from d 22 to 42. Compared with CON, birds supplemented with MA (1MA or 2MA) had greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain, liver percentage (liver weight/body weight), and serum glucose, as well as lower (P < 0.05) feed conversation ratio, abdominal fat percentage (abdominal fat weight/body weight), and total serum cholesterol. Moreover, due to the high concentration of DHA in MA, birds fed MA showed increased (P < 0.05) concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio, and malondialdehyde in the breast and thigh muscle compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% or 2% DHA-rich microalgae had positive effects on performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid deposition in birds.

  20. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine; Bjørnshave, Ann; Bohl, Mette; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2018-03-01

    Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD). Nineteen subjects completed the randomised, crossover study with HCD and WCD for 4-week. Postprandial metabolism was evaluated by a meal-challenge test and insulin sensitivity was assessed by HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Furthermore, fasting cholesterols, serum-fructosamine, circulating inflammatory markers, ambulatory blood pressure and intrahepatic lipid content were measured. We found no diet effects on postprandial lipaemia. However, there was a significant diet × statin interaction on total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). HCD decreased total cholesterol (-0.72 mmol/l, 95% CI (-1.29; -0.14) P = 0.03) and LDL cholesterol (-0.61 mmol/l, 95% CI (-0.86; -0.36) P = 0.002) compared with WSD in subjects on but not without statin treatment. We detected no other significant diet effects. In subjects with metabolic syndrome on statins a 4-week diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch improved fasting LDL and total cholesterol compared to subjects not being on statins. However, we observed no diet related impact on postprandial lipaemia or features of the metabolic syndrome. The dietary fibre x statin interaction deserves further elucidation.

  1. Influence of omega-6/omega-3 rich dietary oils on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in normal and stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Benson, M K; Devi, Kshama

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of omega-6/omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) containing oils on lipid profile and endogenous antioxidant enzymes in normal and stressed (immobilization) rats, 28 day old male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with fat enriched special diet (10% fat) prepared with sunflower oil (SO)--omega-6 rich, mustard oil (MO)--omega-3 rich and groundnut oil--control respectively. SO treated normal rats have significantly reduced total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and catalase thereby significantly increased the atherogenic index (AI) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). However, treatment with MO increased superoxide dismutase; decreased LPO significantly. Under stress conditions AI and LPO were significantly high with SO and significantly less with MO. In addition, SO decreased HDL-C whereas MO decreased non-HDL-C significantly. Results suggest a protective role against AI and LPO in normal and stress conditions in MO. The quantity of omega-3 fatty acids in dietary oil may play a crucial role in the body against atherogenicity. The findings signify that not just PUFA, but type of PUFA present in dietary oil used is important.

  2. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kochikuzhyil, Benson Mathai; Devi, Kshama; Fattepur, Santosh Raghunandan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N) and diabetic (D) male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10%) prepared with coconut oil (CO) – lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO) – palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO) – control (N and D). Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results: D rats fed with CO (D + CO) exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO). D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion: The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia. PMID:20871763

  4. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  5. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  6. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  7. No effect of 14 day consumption of whole grain diet compared to refined grain diet on antioxidant measures in healthy, young subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Enright, Lynda; Slavin, Joanne

    2010-03-19

    Epidemiological evidence supports that a diet high in whole grains is associated with lowered risk of chronic diseases included coronary heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer. One potential mechanism for the protective properties of whole grains is their antioxidant content. The aim of this study was to compare differences in antioxidant measures when subjects consumed either refined or whole grain diets. Twenty healthy subjects took part in a randomized, crossover dietary intervention study. Subjects consumed either a refined grain or whole grain diet for 14 days and then the other diet for the next 14 days. Male subjects consumed 8 servings of grains per day and female subjects consumed 6 servings of grains per day. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of each diet. Antioxidant measures included oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in blood, and isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. The whole grain diet was significantly higher in dietary fiber, vitamin B6, folate, selenium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium and cystine compared to the refined grain diet. Despite high intakes of whole grains, no significant differences were seen in any of the antioxidant measures between the refined and whole grain diets. No differences in antioxidant measures were found when subjects consumed whole grain diets compared to refined grain diets.

  8. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Leite, João Paulo Viana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  9. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. PMID:27418954

  10. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  11. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P < 0.001; 17.7%) and serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels (P < 0.001; 18.0%). LDL-C and LDL-Apo B concentrations were higher (P < 0.001, 4.33+/-0.94 mmol/L and P < 0.01, 1.08+/-0.20 g/L, respectively) following this period than following the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet (3.56+/-0.85 mmol/L, 0.93+/-0.16g/L, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio between the two dietary periods. Serum and LDL-peroxides were lower (P < 0.01, 49.5%, and P < 0.001, 69.0%, respectively) after the palmolein diet than after the oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet. The palmolein diet significantly increased TC, LDL-C, Apo B, VLDL-ApoB, LDL-ApoB in women with TC > or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but the increase in Apo B, LDL-C and LDL-Apo B was greater among the women with high TC. The palmolein diet increased HDL-C in women with high or with low TC but this rise was on the borderline of statistical significance (P = 0.06) only in normocholesterolemics. Serum and LDL

  12. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770

  13. Reduced mortality risk by a polyphenol-rich diet: An analysis from the Moli-sani study.

    PubMed

    Pounis, George; Costanzo, Simona; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; de Curtis, Amalia; Ruggiero, Emilia; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the polyphenol content of the human diet on mortality risk is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of a polyphenol-rich diet with mortality rate and a possible mediation effect by inflammation, in what we believe to be a novel, holistic approach. We analyzed 21 302 participants (10 980 women and 10 322 men, aged ≥35 y) from the Moli-sani cohort. The participants were followed up for a median of 8.3 y. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary assessment. Flavonol, flavone, flavanone, flavanol, anthocyanin, isoflavone, and lignan intakes were calculated using European Food Information Resource-Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems and the polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC)-score was constructed to assess the total content of these nutrients in the diet. Participants included in the highest quintile of intake of various polyphenol classes and subclasses presented a significant lower all-cause mortality risk compared with those in the lowest group of consumption (hazard ratio [HR] < 1; P <0.05). Cox regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders indicated that participants in higher quintiles of PAC-score had lower all-cause mortality risk (HR <1; P <0.05). When cause-specific mortality rates were considered, similar effects were observed for cardiocerebrovascular and cancer mortality (HR <1; P <0.05). The polyphenol content of the diet was associated with reduced mortality risk in a Mediterranean population, possibly through an antiinflammatory mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    PubMed

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  15. Diet rich in date palm fruits improves memory, learning and reduces beta amyloid in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Braidy, Nady; Awlad-Thani, Kathyia; Vaishnav, Ragini; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    At present, the treatment options available to delay the onset or slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not effective. Recent studies have suggested that diet and lifestyle factors may represent protective strategies to minimize the risk of developing AD. Date palm fruits are a good source of dietary fiber and are rich in total phenolics and natural antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. These polyphenolic compounds have been shown to be neuroprotective in different model systems. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with 2% and 4% date palm fruits (grown in Oman) could reduce cognitive and behavioral deficits in a transgenic mouse model for AD (amyloid precursor protein [APPsw]/Tg2576). The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 2% and 4% date fruits. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in all the animals at the age of 4 months and after 14 months of treatment using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. We have also analyzed the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein (1-40 and 1-42) in plasma of control and experimental animals. Standard diet-fed Tg mice showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination when compared to wild-type on the same diet and Tg mice fed 2% and 4% date supplementation at the age of 18 months. The levels of both Aβ proteins were significantly lowered in date fruits supplemented groups than the Tg mice without the diet supplement. The neuroprotective effect offered by 4% date fruits diet to AD mice is higher than 2% date fruits diet. Our results suggest that date fruits dietary supplementation may have beneficial effects in lowering the

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanins-rich extract: Chemical stability, in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Laércio Galvão; do Carmo, Mariana Araújo Vieira; Azevedo, Luciana; Daguer, Heitor; Molognoni, Luciano; de Almeida, Mereci Mendes; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2018-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx is a rich source of anthocyanins and other bioactive compounds but no study reported the effects of experimental conditions on the extraction of these chemical compounds. Therefore, the effects of time and extraction temperature on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx were evaluated. In addition, the effects of copigmentation and pH on the stability of anthocyanins were assessed and the cytotoxic effects (LC 50 , IC 50 , and GC 50 ) of the extracts were determined in relation to tumor cell lines - Caco-2, HepG-2, HCT8, and A549. The temperature significantly influenced the total anthocyanins and flavonoids contents. The interaction between time/temperature influenced the total phenolic content and ascorbic acid. The t 1/2 and the percentage of colour retention decreased markedly at temperatures above 80 °C. Variations in pH conserved the antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins, and the protonation-deprotonation process of the extract was reversible. The treatment of cells with purified anthocyanin extract or crude extracts at 5-800 μg mL -1 did not show significant cytotoxic effects on the cell lines, corroborating the chemical antioxidant effect of the extracts (DPPH assay). Cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were identified in the extracts by LC-ESI-MS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process optimization for the preparation of antioxidant rich ginger candy using beetroot pomace extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Kushwaha, Rinku; Goyal, Ankit; Tanwar, Beenu; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2018-04-15

    Now-a-days, there is an increased interest in fruits and vegetables processing by-products due to potential source of phytochemicals and pigments. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) pomace extract is a rich source of betalain, phenolics and other bioactive components, which possess significant antioxidant activities. In the present study, process optimization was performed for developing ginger (Zingiber officinale) candy enriched with beetroot pomace extract using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of two process variables: blanching time (0-10 min) and beetroot pomace extract (0-10%) was evaluated on physicochemical characteristics and phytochemicals content of the developed product. Maximum phytochemicals' activities were obtained under optimum conditions of 7.81 min blanching time and 9.24% beetroot pomace extract. FTIR analysis also confirmed the significant effect of beetroot pomace extract and it's blanching on the phytochemical potential of ginger candy. The study would be useful for developing similar novel and antioxidants rich food products supplemented with beetroot pomace extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    PubMed

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  19. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers

    PubMed Central

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M.; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  20. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

  1. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with consumption of high fruit-juice and vegetable diet affect antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Jian; Li, Nan; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no data have yet shown the combined effects of GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with high consumption of a fruit and vegetable diet on the body's antioxidant capacity. A 2-wk dietary intervention in healthy participants was conducted to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant biomarkers in individuals with different glutathione-S-transferases (GST) genotypes will be different in response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet. In our study, 24 healthy volunteers with different GST genotypes (12 GSTM1+/GSTT1+ and 12 GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants) consumed a controlled diet high in fruit-juice and vegetables for 2 wk. Blood and first-void urine specimens were obtained at baseline, 1-wk, and 2-wk intervals. The antioxidant capacity-related biomarkers in blood and urine were observed and recorded at the scheduled times. Erythrocyte GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet are GST genotype-dependent. Two weeks on the high fruit-juice and vegetable diet increased GST and GR activities in the GSTM1+/GSTT1+ group (P < 0.05 compared with baseline or GSTM1-/GSTT1- group), although no effects were observed on GST and GR activities in GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. Dietary intervention increased total antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma malondialdehyde content in all participants (P < 0.05 compared with baseline), whereas GSTM1+/GSTT1+ participants respond more quickly to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet than GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. The diet intervention was effective in enhancing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in all participants (P < 0.05 compared with baseline), although there was no influence on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (P > 0.05). The effects of a diet rich in fruit-juice and vegetables on antioxidant capacity were dependent on GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary species richness as a measure of food biodiversity and nutritional quality of diets

    PubMed Central

    Raneri, Jessica E.; Smith, Katherine Walker; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick; Verzelen, Kaat; Penafiel, Daniela; Vanhove, Wouter; Kennedy, Gina; Hunter, Danny; Odhiambo, Francis Oduor; Ntandou-Bouzitou, Gervais; De Baets, Bernard; Ratnasekera, Disna; Ky, Hoang The; Remans, Roseline; Termote, Céline

    2018-01-01

    Biodiversity is key for human and environmental health. Available dietary and ecological indicators are not designed to assess the intricate relationship between food biodiversity and diet quality. We applied biodiversity indicators to dietary intake data from and assessed associations with diet quality of women and young children. Data from 24-hour diet recalls (55% in the wet season) of n = 6,226 participants (34% women) in rural areas from seven low- and middle-income countries were analyzed. Mean adequacies of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, calcium, iron, and zinc and diet diversity score (DDS) were used to assess diet quality. Associations of biodiversity indicators with nutrient adequacy were quantified using multilevel models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and test sensitivity and specificity. A total of 234 different species were consumed, of which <30% were consumed in more than one country. Nine species were consumed in all countries and provided, on average, 61% of total energy intake and a significant contribution of micronutrients in the wet season. Compared with Simpson’s index of diversity and functional diversity, species richness (SR) showed stronger associations and better diagnostic properties with micronutrient adequacy. For every additional species consumed, dietary nutrient adequacy increased by 0.03 (P < 0.001). Diets with higher nutrient adequacy were mostly obtained when both SR and DDS were maximal. Adding SR to the minimum cutoff for minimum diet diversity improved the ability to detect diets with higher micronutrient adequacy in women but not in children. Dietary SR is recommended as the most appropriate measure of food biodiversity in diets. PMID:29255049

  3. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and antiatherogenic property of sardine by-products proteins in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Affane, Fouad; Louala, Sabrine; El Imane Harrat, Nour; Bensalah, Fatima; Chekkal, Hadjera; Allaoui, Amine; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem

    2018-04-15

    Fish by-products valorization on account of their richness in bioactive compounds may represent a better alternative to marine products with a view to economic profitability and sustainable development. In this study, we compared the effect of sardine by-product proteins (SBy-P), with those of the fillets (SF-P) or casein (Cas), on growth parameters, serum leptin level, lipids disorders, lipid peroxidation and reverse cholesterol transport, in diet-induced obese rats. Obesity was induced by feeding rats a high-fat diet (20% sheep fat), during 12 weeks. At body weight (BW) of 400 ± 20 g, eighteen obese rats were divided into three homogenous groups and continue to consume the high-fat diet for 4 weeks containing either, 20% SBy-P, SF-P or Cas. The results showed that SBy-P, compared to SF-P and Cas, efficiently reduced food intake (FI), BW gain and serum leptin level, and improved blood lipids levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-HDL 1 -C) serum levels, increasing the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL 2 -C and HDL 3 -C), and enhancing lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. Furthermore, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing atheroprotective activity of the paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Sardine by-product proteins due to their richness in certain essential amino acids, highlight weight-loss, lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-atherogenic potentials, contributing to the improvement of the complications associated with obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of anthocyanin-rich wheat diet on the oxidative status and behavior of rats

    PubMed Central

    Janšáková, Katarína; Bábíčková, Janka; Havrlentová, Michaela; Hodosy, Július; Kraic, Ján; Celec, Peter; Tóthová, Ľubomíra

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of food containing anthocyanin-rich wheat on oxidative status and behavior of healthy rats. Methods Twenty male rats were divided into the control and anthocyanin group. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and proteinuria and creatinine clearance were measured. Behavioral analysis was performed in Phenotyper cages. Serum and tissues were collected to measure the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Results Anthocyanins significantly increased total antioxidant capacity in serum (P = 0.039), decreased advanced oxidation protein products in the kidney (P = 0.002), but increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the kidney compared to the control group. No significant difference between the groups was found in the markers of oxidative stress in the liver and colon, as well as in renal functions and glucose metabolism. The anthocyanin group spent significantly less time in the spotlight zone of the Phenotyper cages (P = 0.040), indicating higher anxiety-like behavior. Conclusion Food containing anthocyanin-rich wheat had positive effects on serum antioxidant status and kidney protein oxidation, but increased lipid peroxidation in the kidney and modified animal behavior related to anxiety. The molecular mechanisms leading to observed effects should be further elucidated. PMID:27106354

  5. Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders.

    PubMed

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-05-01

    Lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the brain elicit sugar craving, while ingestion of sugar rich diet improves mood and alleviates anxiety. Gender differences occur not only in brain serotonin metabolism but also in a serotonin mediated functional responses. The present study was therefore designed to investigate gender related differences on the effects of long term consumption of sugar rich diet on the metabolism of serotonin in the hypothalamus and whole brain which may be relevant with the hyperphagic and anxiety reducing effects of sugar rich diet. Male and female rats were fed freely on a sugar rich diet for five weeks. Hyperphagic effects were monitored by measuring total food intake and body weights changes during the intervention. Anxiolytic effects of sugar rich diet was monitored in light-dark transition test. The results show that ingestion of sugar rich diet decreased serotonin metabolism more in female than male rats. Anxiolytic effects were elicited only in male rats. Hyperphagia was comparable in both male and female rats. Finings would help in understanding the role of sugar rich diet-induced greater decreases of serotonin in sweet craving in women during stress.

  6. The in vivo antioxidant action and the reduction of oxidative stress by boysenberry extract is dependent on base diet constituents in rats.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Laura E; Broomfield, Anne M; Hendriks, Wouter H; Hunt, Martin B; McGhie, Tony K

    2007-06-01

    Dietary antioxidants are often defined by in vitro measures of antioxidant activity. Such measures are valid indicators of the antioxidant potential, but provide little evidence of activity as a dietary antioxidant. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo antioxidant efficacy of a berry fruit extract by measuring biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein (carbonyls), lipids (malondialdehyde), and DNA (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine urinary excretion) and plasma antioxidant status (antioxidant capacity, vitamin E) in rats when fed basal diets containing fish and soybean oils, which are likely to generate different levels of oxidative stress. Boysenberry (Rubus loganbaccus x baileyanus Britt) extract was used as the dietary antioxidant. The basal diets (chow, synthetic/soybean oil, or synthetic/fish oil) had significant effects on the biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status, with rats fed the synthetic/fish oil diet having the lowest levels of oxidative damage and the highest antioxidant status. When boysenberry extract was added to the diet, there was little change in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in urine, oxidative damage to proteins decreased, and plasma malondialdehyde either increased or decreased depending on the basal diet. This study showed that boysenberry extract functioned as an in vivo antioxidant and raised the antioxidant status of plasma while decreasing some biomarkers of oxidative damage, but the effect was highly modified by basal diet. Our results are further evidence of complex interactions among dietary antioxidants, background nutritional status as determined by diet, and the biochemical nature of the compartments in which antioxidants function.

  7. Effects of Hypericum scabrum extract on learning and memory and oxidant/antioxidant status in rats fed a long-term high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Ahmad; Salehi, Iraj; Nazari, Masoumeh; Taheri, Masoumeh; Komaki, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) causes deficits in learning and memory by increasing oxidative stress. Antioxidants are known to improve learning and memory. Since Hypericum scabrum (H. scabrum) extract is rich in antioxidants, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of H. scabrum extract on passive avoidance learning (PAL), novel object recognition (NOR), and locomotor activity in male rats on a HFD. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (weighing 220 ± 10 g) were divided into the following six groups: (1) Control (standard diet), (2) Ext100 (standard diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg extract once/day), (3) Ext300 (standard diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg extract once/day), (4) HFD (high-fat diet), (5) HFD + Ext100, and (6) HFD + Ext300. Rats in these groups were maintained on their respective diets for 3 months. In the PAL test, the step-through latencies in the retention test (STLr) were significantly higher in the HFD + extract group than in the HFD group. The time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) was significantly lesser and the time spent in exploring the novel object was significantly greater in the HFD + extract group than in the HFD group. In the HFD-fed rats, the activity of catalase had significantly decreased, and level of malondialdehyde had significantly increased; H. scabrum extract administration significantly reversed these changes. In conclusion, these results suggested that the administration of H. scabrum extract and its strong antioxidant properties enhanced learning and memory and reversed the memory impairment induced by chronic HFD consumption.

  8. Inoculation of tannin-degrading bacteria into novel hosts increases performance on tannin-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Stengel, Ashley; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that herbivores host tannin-degrading bacteria (TDB) to overcome the toxic challenges posed by plant tannins. While TDB have been isolated from the guts of numerous mammals, their functional significance to their hosts has never been explicitly tested. We introduced TDB into lab rats, which do not host TDB, and measured host performance on tannin-rich diets. We first isolated three species of TDB, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis, from the guts of the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), which regularly feeds on tannin-rich plants. Then, we inoculated isolated TDB, as well as full woodrat microbial communities into laboratory rats. A control group was inoculated with sterilized woodrat faeces. Recipient lab rats were fed increasing concentrations of tannic acid, and we monitored tannic acid intake, body mass and liver damage as measured by serum alanine aminotransferase activity. Lab rats given TDB as isolates or full communities exhibited increased tannic acid intake, higher maintenance of body mass and lower indicators of liver damage compared with control animals. These differences were maintained when the trial was repeated after 6 weeks of feeding on tannin-free diets. Our results are the first to demonstrate that TDB significantly increase host performance on tannin-rich diets. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  10. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC 50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC 50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe 2+ chelating ability having an IC 50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any cytotoxicity were found while treating with ethyl acetate fraction (EAF

  11. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  12. Effect of Mediterranean Diet and Antioxidant Formulation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Greco, Marta; Milic, Natasa; Accattato, Francesca; Foti, Daniela; Gulletta, Elio; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-08-12

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, characterized by liver fatty acid accumulation and fibrosis, not due to excessive alcohol consumption. Notably, nutritional habits have been reported to be implicated in the onset and severity of the hepatic damage, while the Mediterranean diet has shown beneficial effects on NAFLD. Free radicals and oxidative stress were suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD, and several data highlighted the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in its treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Mediterranean diet, with or without an antioxidant complex supplement, in overweight patients suffering from NAFLD. In this prospective study, fifty Caucasian overweight patients were randomized into three groups (Groups A-C). A personalized moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet was prescribed to all patients included in the A and B groups. In addition to the diet, Group B was administered antioxidant supplementation daily and for the period of six months. Group C did not have any type of treatment. The study proved that the Mediterranean diet alone or in association with the antioxidant complex improved anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and reduced hepatic fat accumulation and liver stiffness. However, Group B patients, in which the diet was associated with antioxidant intake, showed not only a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, but also a more consistent reduction of anthropometric parameters when compared with Group A patients. Taken together, these results support the benefit of antioxidant supplementation in overweight patients with NAFLD.

  13. Cynarin-rich sunflower (Helianthus annuus) sprouts possess both antiglycative and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Chen, Jingnan; Ma, Jinyu; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Mingfu; Ren, Guixing; Chen, Feng

    2012-03-28

    The present study examined the antiglycative and antioxidant properties of four edible sprouts popular in Chinese markets. In a protein-reducing sugar model, the sunflower sprout Helianthus annuus exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). At a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, its inhibitory rate achieved 83.29%, which is stronger than that of aminoguanidine (1 mM), a well-known synthetic antiglycative agent (with an inhibitory rate of 80.88%). The antioxidant capacity of H. annuus was also much stronger than other sprout samples in terms of free radical scavenging and reducing properties. An active ingredient contributing to the observed activities was identified as cynarin (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid). This is the first report of the novel function of cynarin to intervene against glycoxidation. Given the key roles of AGEs and oxidation in the pathogenesis of diabetes, the sunflower sprout H. annuus rich in cynarin may be regarded as a beneficial food choice for diabetic patients.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of phenolic rich fraction of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yogendra Kumar, M S; Tirpude, R J; Maheshwari, D T; Bansal, Anju; Misra, Ksipra

    2013-12-15

    Phenolic rich fraction (PRF) from Seabuckthorn leaves was prepared by sequential fractionation. Total phenolic content of PRF estimated as gallic acid equivalent was found to be 319.33±7.02 mg/g of PRF. Its major constituents gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, were found in the range of 1.551-196.89 mg/g of PRF as determined by RP-HPLC. Antioxidant activity of PRF evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Reducing power of PRF increased with increasing amount of PRF; the equation of reducing power (y) and amount of PRF (x) was y=8.004x (r(2)=0.99), indicating that reducing ability correlated well with amount of PRF. Antibacterial activity of PRF, tested against certain medically important bacterial species showed growth inhibiting effect against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, PRF has potent antioxidant and broad spectrum antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Tenuta, Maria Concetta; Menichini, Francesco; Xiao, Jianbo; Tundis, Rosa

    2016-03-30

    Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.

  16. Diet supplementation during early lactation with non-alcoholic beer increases the antioxidant properties of breastmilk and decreases the oxidative damage in breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Hernández-Aguilar, María T; Navarro-Ruiz, Almudena; López-Jaén, Ana B; Borja-Herrero, Cintia; Valls-Bellés, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    After delivery and birth, mothers and neonates are exposed to oxidative stress. We tested whether supplementing the diet of breastfeeding mothers with non-alcoholic beer, a product rich in antioxidants, could improve their oxidative status and the antioxidant content of their milk. A prospective trial begun on Day 2 postpartum was conducted in mother-infant dyads. Sixty breastfeeding mothers and their infants were allocated to either a control group (n=30) on a free diet or a study group (n=30) on a free diet supplemented with 660 mL of non-alcoholic beer/day. The oxidative status of the mothers' breastmilk, plasma, and urine and the infant's urine was analyzed on Days 2 and 30 postpartum. The before-after difference was compared within and between the groups. The increase in antioxidant capacity and coenzyme Q10 content in the breastmilk of the study group at Day 30 was higher than in that of the control group (p<0.001). There was also a change in the oxidative status of the mothers' plasma in the supplemented group regarding the control group; higher values of total antioxidant capacity (p<0.05) and lower levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (p<0.05), indicative of DNA oxidative damage, were found. These results indicate a positive effect of non-alcoholic beer supplementation on oxidative stress in mothers. However, no difference in oxidant markers was found in the infant's urine. The consumption of non-alcoholic beer appears to enhance the antioxidant capacity of breastmilk and decrease oxidative damage in breastfeeding mothers.

  17. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Atheroprotective effects of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. in New Zealand rabbits fed with cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Lorena Neris; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Budel, Jane Manfron; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Acco, Alexandra; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto, Arquimedes

    2016-07-01

    Although Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. is used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders, no study evaluating these effects has been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the ethanol soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ES-CC) in an experimental atherosclerosis model using New Zealand (NZ) rabbits undergoing cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by administration of standard commercial diet increased of 1% cholesterol (CRD) for 8 weeks. ES-CC was orally administered at doses of 10, 30 and 100mg/kg, once daily for four weeks, starting from the 4th week of CRD diet. Body weight measurements were weekly carried out from the beginning of experiments for 8 weeks. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and their fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C) were measured at the beginning of experiments and at weeks four and eight. After euthanasia of rabbits, aorta segments (aortic arc, thoracic, abdominal and iliac segments) were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated and the intima and media layers of the arteries were measured. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of ES-CC and its influence on the functioning of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also determined. CRD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction of hepatic glutathione and serum nitrite levels were observed. Treatment with ES-CC was able to prevent the increase in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and triglycerides and promoted an increase in HDL-C levels in NZ rabbits. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and modulation of the catalase and superoxide dismutase function. Moreover, the intima and media layers of the arterial segments were significantly reduced by ES-CC treatment. This study

  19. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  20. The effects of high walnut and cashew nut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Stonehouse, Welma; Loots, Du Toit; Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Hanekom, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C

    2007-04-01

    Nut consumption is associated with a protective effect against coronary heart disease, partly due to its high antioxidant content. It is hypothesized that the inclusion of nuts in the diet will improve the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome who may be vulnerable to impaired antioxidant status. The effects of high cashew nut and high walnut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome are investigated. Sixty-four volunteers (29 male and 35 female, 45 +/- 10y) with metabolic syndrome (diagnosed by using the ATP III criteria) received a prudent control diet, prepared in the metabolic kitchen of the North-West University, Potchefstroom campus (NWU-PC) for a period of 3 weeks (run-in). The participants were grouped according to gender and age and randomized into three groups, receiving either the walnut, cashew nut or the control diets for 8 weeks, while maintaining a stable body weight. Nuts provided 20% of daily energy intake. Fasting blood samples were taken after the run-in period (baseline) and at the end of the intervention period and analyzed for various antioxidant capacity markers. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the walnut and cashew nut diets were significantly higher than the control diet. Despite this, the walnut and cashew nut diets had no significant effects on serum ORAC, reduced (GSH), oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, GSH:GSSG or diacron reactive metabolites (dRom) (total oxidant status) levels compared to the control group. However, all three groups showed significant improvements in antioxidant status from baseline to end (GSSG and dRom levels decreased; GSG:GSSG ratio and ORAC levels increased). This may be due to a general increased antioxidant intake from the prudent diet compared to the habitual diets. Although the inclusion of walnuts and cashew nuts into a prudent diet resulted in an increased antioxidant capacity (ORAC) of the nut diets, compared to the control diet, it did not improve the

  1. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to high-fructose diet in the period from weaning to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Glban, Alhadi M; Vasiljević, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Blagojević, Duško; Matić, Gordana; Nestorov, Jelena

    2015-08-30

    Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of a fructose-rich diet on the young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high-fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. High-fructose diet increased only SOD2 (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation or accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. The results show that fructose-induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose-derived energy overload. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  3. Total antioxidant capacity of diet and risk of stroke: a population-based prospective cohort of women.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Larsson, Susanna; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods may reduce the risk of stroke by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) takes into account all antioxidants and the synergistic effects between them. We examined the association between dietary TAC and stroke incidence in cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free women and in women with CVD history at baseline. The study included women (31,035 CVD-free and 5680 with CVD history at baseline), aged 49 to 83 years, from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary TAC was calculated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity values. Stroke cases were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. During follow-up (September 1997 to December 2009), we identified 1322 stroke cases (988 cerebral infarctions, 226 hemorrhagic strokes, and 108 unspecified strokes) among CVD-free women and 1007 stroke cases (796 cerebral infarctions, 100 hemorrhagic strokes, and 111 unspecified strokes) among women with a CVD history. The multivariable hazard ratio of total stroke comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of dietary TAC was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P for trend=0.04) in CVD-free women. Among women with a CVD history, the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile of TAC were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.75-1.07; P for trend=0.30) for total stroke and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.32-0.95; P for trend=0.03) for hemorrhagic stroke. These findings suggest that dietary TAC is inversely associated with total stroke among CVD-free women and hemorrhagic stroke among women with CVD history.

  4. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  5. Effect of fat- and carbohydrate-rich diets on metabolism and running performance in trained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes Couto, Patricia; Marani Lima, Hessel; Pinheiro Soares, Ruda; Bertuzzi, Romulo; De-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    A randomized crossover trial was designed to analyze the impact of a short-term, isoenergetic fat-rich or carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet on substrate oxidation rates during submaximal exercise and on performance in a 10,000-m running time trial in trained, mid- to late-pubertal boys. An incremental test was performed to determine the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). After 2 days on a fat-rich (24.2% ± 0.8% CHO, 60.4% ± 0.3% fat, and 15.5% ± 1.0% protein), CHO-rich (69.3% ± 1.2% CHO, 15.9% ± 2.1% fat, and 15.1% ± 1.1% protein), or habitual (56.1% ± 7.0% CHO, 27.5% ± 4.9% fat, and 16.5% ± 4.0% protein) diet, 19 trained adolescent boys (15.2 ± 1.5 years) performed a 10-minute constant run at 65% VO2peak to determine the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during exercise and 10,000-m running on an outdoor track. During the constant run, the RER and CHO contribution to energy expenditure were lower, and fat contribution higher, in the fat-rich diet than in the CHO-rich diet (P < 0.05), but the results were not different from those of the habitual diet. Performance in the 10,000-m run after consuming CHO- and fat-rich diets was similar to performance after a habitual diet (50.0 ± 7.0, 51.9 ± 8.3, and 50.9 ± 7.4 minutes, respectively), but consuming a CHO-rich diet enhanced performance compared with that after a fat-rich diet (P = 0.03). These findings indicate that a CHO-rich diet provides additional benefits to 10,000-m running performance in trained adolescent boys compared with a fat-rich diet.

  6. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the Impact of Omega-3 Rich Diet on the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Blanca S.; Salyakina, Daria; Coffman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recently, the importance of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several disorders has gained clinical interests. Among exogenous factors affecting gut microbiome, diet appears to have the largest effect. Fatty acids, especially omega-3 polyunsaturated, ameliorate a range of several diseases, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory and cancer. Fatty acids associated beneficial effects may be mediated, to an important extent, through changes in gut microbiota composition. We sought to understand the changes of the gut microbiota in response to an omega-3 rich diet. Case Presentation. This case study investigated changes of gut microbiota with an omega-3 rich diet. Fecal samples were collected from a 45-year-old male who consumed 600 mg of omega-3 daily for 14 days. After the intervention, species diversity was decreased, but several butyrate-producing bacteria increased. There was an important decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp. Gut microbiota changes were reverted after the 14-day washout. Conclusion. Some of the health-related benefits of omega-3 may be due, in part, to increases in butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms explaining the effects of omega-3 in several chronic diseases and may also serve as an existing foundation for tailoring personalized medical treatments. PMID:27065349

  8. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed.

  9. [Influence of vegetarian diet on serum values of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in children].

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-09-01

    The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury. The oxidant-antioxidant imbalance depends not only on the amount of enhanced free oxygen species but also insufficiency of antioxidant defence system. Total antioxidant status (TAS) expresses capacity for scavenging of free radicals minimizes oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to asses concentrations of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in serum of children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We also studied levels of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) particular components of TAS. The study included 35 children, aged 5-16 who had been referred to Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 17 were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 18 omnivores. Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2 and completed with supplementation data. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS by colorimetric method. Levels of vitamin A and E were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean concentration of homocysteine was similar in both studied groups (vegetarians: 6.13 +/- 1.01 micromol/l vs. omnivores: 5.45 +/- 0.98 micromol/l). In vegetarian children serum level of TAS was significantly lower (1.21 +/- 0.06 mmol/I) as compared to those in non-vegetarian ones (1.30 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), but remained within the physiological range (1.16-1.40 mmol/l). The

  10. Impact of ovariectomy, high fat diet, and lifestyle modifications on oxidative/antioxidative status in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Rosemary; Blažetić, Senka; Oršolić, Ivana; Heffer, Marija; Vari, Sandor G; Gajdoš, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Has-Schön, Elizabeta

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the impact of high fat diet and estrogen deficiency on the oxidative and antioxidative status in the liver of the ovariectomized rats, as well as the ameliorating effect of physical activity or consumption of functional food containing bioactive compounds with antioxidative properties on oxidative damage in the rat liver. The study was conducted from November 2012 to April 2013. Liver oxidative damage was determined by lipid peroxidation levels expressed in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while liver antioxidative status was determined by catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. Sixty-four female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sham operated and ovariectomized rats that received either standard diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet supplemented with cereal selenized onion biscuits or high fat diet together with introduction of physical exercise of animals. High fat diet significantly increased TBARS content in the liver compared to standard diet (P=0.032, P=0.030). Furthermore, high fat diet decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and GST, as well as the content of GSH (P<0.050). GPx activity remained unchanged in all groups. Physical activity and consumption of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed protective effect through increased GR activity in sham operated rats (P=0.026, P=0.009), while in ovariectomized group CAT activity was increased (P=0.018) in rats that received cereal selenized onion biscuits. Feeding rats with high fat diet was accompanied by decreased antioxidative enzyme activities and increased lipid peroxidation. Bioactive compounds of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed potential to attenuate the adverse impact of high fat diet on antioxidative status.

  11. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation ( p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats ( p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation ( p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  12. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:29849908

  13. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P < 0.05) ω-3 PUFAs, lower (P < 0.05) ω-6/ω-3 ratio, and depending on oil added, a higher (P < 0.05) unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio compared to mixed whole egg. Triglycerides were the main lipid class in all experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P < 0.05) or similar (P > 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of the antioxidant, ethyoxquin compared to all other egg samples. However, experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying

  14. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P < 0.05) the body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  15. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011.

  16. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Scope Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. Methods and results One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: –1.8%, –12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, –7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: –2.1%, –8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, –5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Conclusion Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. PMID:25851421

  17. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G) and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose). The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS) in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol). Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol), and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT) and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease. PMID:20946638

  19. Antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of standardized brazilin-rich Caesalpinia sappan extract.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Brazilin is a major active principle of Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). For industry aspects, brazilin-rich extract (BRE) has been prepared and standardized to contain 39% w/w brazilin. BRE may have more advantages than brazilin in term of a lower-cost production process. To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of BRE. BRE was prepared by a simple one-step purification of the crude ethanol extract of C. sappan heartwood (CSE) using a Diaion® HP-20 column. The antioxidant activities were determined using three methods, including DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching assays, at concentration ranges of 1-10, 10-100, and 10-100 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of BRE (15.6-1000 µg/mL) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were determined by the broth microdilution method. Anti-inflammatory activity of BRE (0.1-5 µg/mL) was evaluated as anti-denaturation activity using bovine serum albumin as a substrate. On the basis of β-carotene bleaching assay, BRE showed antioxidant activity with an EC50 value of 60.5 µg/mL, which was almost equal to that of pure brazilin (52.1 µg/mL). Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all tested samples than Gram-negative bacteria. BRE possessed higher antibacterial activities than CSE, but lower than brazilin. MIC/MBC values of 62.5-125/125 and 250-500/250-500 µg/mL were obtained for BRE against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. A low concentration (0.1 µg/mL) of brazilin, BRE, and CSE showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting protein denaturation up to 46.8, 54.1, and 61.9%, respectively.

  20. Overnutrition in spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus): beta-cell expansion leading to rupture and overt diabetes on fat-rich diet and protective energy-wasting elevation in thyroid hormone on sucrose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, E

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of diabetes propensity in spiny mice, performed in Geneva and Jerusalem colonies, is reviewed. Spiny mice live in semi-desert regions of the eastern Mediterranean countries. Those transferred to Geneva in the 1950s were maintained on a rodent diet supplemented by fat-rich seeds. They became obese, exhibited pancreatic islet hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Low insulin secretion response was characteristic of this species, despite ample pancreatic content of insulin. After a few months, diabetes with ketosis occurred, often suddenly, in association with islet cell disintegration. In Jerusalem the spiny mice were collected from their native habitat and placed on diets containing 50% sucrose or fat-rich seed diets. On a sucrose-rich diet, spiny mice developed hepatomegaly, lipogenic enzyme hyperactivity, and elevation in very low density lipoproteins as a result of metabolism of the fructose component mainly in the liver. No overt diabetes or pancreatic islet disintegration were observed, although insulin content and beta-cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were apparent. On a fat-rich diet, spiny mice exhibited marked weight gain, adipose tissue growth and low hepatic lipogenesis. The obesity was accompanied by mild hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with glucose intolerance leading to an occasional glucosuria after several months on the diet. The sucrose diet induced an extrathyroidal elevation of triiodothyronine (T(3)). Serum T(3) level and hepatic T(4)-T(3) conversion were increased, while serum T(4) levels tended to decrease. The activity of the T(3)-inducible hepatic mitochondrial FAD-glycerophosphate oxidase and K(+)/Na(+)-ATPase, as well as body temperature were increased, indicating that the sucrose diet was associated with enhanced thermogenesis and energy-wasting metabolic cycling. The sucrose-rich diet might exert an adaptive thermogenesis-mediated defense mechanism, protecting against excessive weight gain and disruptive pancreatic islet

  1. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  2. An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean; Eliasson, Pernilla; Mogensen, Pernille; Hag, Anne Mette F; Kjær, Michael; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig P; Couppé, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) ( n  = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) ( n  = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon was measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and pentosidine with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection. AGEs in Achilles tendon were higher than in tail tendon for CML ( P  < 0.0001), CEL ( P  < 0.0001), MG-H1 and pentosidine (for both ND and HFD) ( P  < 0.0001). The AGE-rich diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML ( P  < 0.0001), MG-H1 ( P  < 0.001) and pentosidine ( P  < 0.0001) but not CEL, in Achilles and tail tendon. This is the first study to provide evidence for AGE accumulation in injury-prone, weight-bearing Achilles tendon associated with intake of an AGE-rich diet. This indicates that food-derived AGEs may alter tendon properties and the development of tendon injuries. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. The Ameliorative Effects of a Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction on the AGE-RAGE Axis and Hypertension in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ton, So Ha; Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil in high-fat-diet-treated rats. Male, post-weaning Sprague Dawley rats were provided high-fat (60% kcal) diet for eight weeks followed by a TRF (60 mg/kg) treatment for another four weeks. Physical, metabolic, and histological changes were compared to those on control and high-fat diets respectively. High-fat feeding for eight weeks induced all hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. The TRF reversed systolic and diastolic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic steatosis, impaired antioxidant defense, and myeloperoxidase hyperactivity triggered by the high-fat diet. It also conferred an inhibitory effect on protein glycation to reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c and advanced glycation end products (AGE). This was accompanied by the suppression of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) expression in the liver. The treatment effects on visceral adiposity, glycemic control, triglyceride level, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ expression were negligible. To conclude, treatment with a TRF exhibited protective effects on the cardiovascular and liver health in addition to the amelioration of plasma redox imbalance and AGE-RAGE activation. Further investigation as a therapy for metabolic syndrome is therefore worthwhile. PMID:28880217

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial of a MUFA or Fiber-Rich Diet on Hepatic Fat in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Errazuriz, Isabel; Dube, Simmi; Slama, Michael; Visentin, Roberto; Nayar, Sunita; O’Connor, Helen; Cobelli, Claudio; Das, Swapan Kumar; Basu, Ananda; Kremers, Walter Karl; Port, John

    2017-01-01

    Context: Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes worldwide is attributed in part to an unhealthy diet. Objective: To evaluate whether 12 weeks of high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or fiber-rich weight-maintenance diet lowers hepatic fat and improves glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes. Design: Subjects underwent a [6, 6-2H2]–labeled 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to estimate hepatic insulin sensitivity and liver fat fraction (LFF) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after intervention. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Trials Unit. Participants: 43 subjects with prediabetes. Intervention: Subjects were randomized into three isocaloric weight-maintaining diets containing MUFA (olive oil), extra fiber, and standard US food (control-habitual diet). Outcome Measures: LFF, glucose tolerance, and indices of insulin action and secretion. Results: Body weight was maintained constant in all groups during the intervention. Glucose and hormonal concentrations were similar in all groups before, and unchanged after, 12 weeks of intervention. LFF was significantly lower after intervention in the MUFA group (P < 0.0003) but remained unchanged in the fiber (P = 0.25) and control groups (P = 0.45). After 12 weeks, LFF was significantly lower in the MUFA than in the control group (P = 0.01), but fiber and control groups did not differ (P = 0.41). Indices of insulin action and secretion were not significantly different between the MUFA and control groups after intervention (P ≥ 0.11), but within-group comparison showed higher hepatic (P = 0.01) and total insulin sensitivity (P < 0.04) with MUFA. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of a MUFA diet decreases hepatic fat and improves both hepatic and total insulin sensitivity. PMID:28323952

  5. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  6. Antioxidant, Antiproliferative, and Antiangiogenesis Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Seaweed (Sargassum muticum)

    PubMed Central

    Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Baharara, Javad; Zafar-Balanejad, Saeedeh; Fargahi, Fahimeh; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum methanolic extract (SMME), against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines proliferation. This algae extract was also evaluated for reducing activity and total polyphenol content. The MTT assay results indicated that the extracts were cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 22 μg/ml for MCF-7 and 55 μg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The percentages of apoptotic MCF-7-treated cells increased from 13% to 67% by increasing the concentration of the SMME. The antiproliferative efficacy of this algal extract was positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents, suggesting a causal link related to extract content of phenolic acids. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of SMME-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by SMME. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Hoechst 33342 and AO/PI staining. Also SMME implanted in vivo into fertilized chicken eggs induced dose-related antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of Sargassum muticum polyphenol-rich seaweed in cancer research by induction of apoptosis, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis effects. PMID:24078922

  7. Rats Fed a Diet Rich in Fats and Sugars Are Impaired in the Use of Spatial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dominic M D; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2015-12-01

    A diet rich in fats and sugars is associated with cognitive deficits in people, and rodent models have shown that such a diet produces deficits on tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. Spatial navigation is guided by two distinct types of information: geometrical, such as distance and direction, and featural, such as luminance and pattern. To clarify the nature of diet-induced spatial impairments, we provided rats with standard chow supplemented with sugar water and a range of energy-rich foods eaten by people, and then we assessed their place- and object-recognition memory. Rats exposed to this diet performed comparably with control rats fed only chow on object recognition but worse on place recognition. This impairment on the place-recognition task was present after only a few days on the diet and persisted across tests. Critically, this spatial impairment was specific to the processing of distance and direction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Fructose-rich diet and insulin action in female rat heart: Estradiol friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Bundalo, Maja; Romic, Snjezana; Tepavcevic, Snezana; Stojiljkovic, Mojca; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Maja; Koricanac, Goran

    2017-09-15

    Increased intake of fructose in humans and laboratory animals is demonstrated to be a risk factor for development of metabolic disorders (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, estradiol is emphasized as a cardioprotective agent. The main goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on damaging cardiac effects of fructose-rich diet in females, mostly experimental animals, and to evaluate protective capacity of estradiol. Published results of our and other research groups indicate mostly detrimental effects of fructose-rich diet on cardiac insulin signaling molecules, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, nitric oxide production and ion transport, as well as renin-angiotensin system and inflammation. Some of these processes are involved in cardiac insulin signal transmission, others are regulated by insulin or have an influence on insulin action. Administration of estradiol to ovariectomized female rats, exposed to increased intake of fructose, was mostly beneficial to the heart, but sometimes it was ineffective or even detrimental, depending on the particular processes. We believe that these data, carefully translated to human population, could be useful for clinicians dealing with postmenopausal women susceptible to metabolic diseases and hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Microbial Biotransformation of a Polyphenol-Rich Potato Extract Affects Antioxidant Capacity in a Simulated Gastrointestinal Model

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Joelle; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Sabally, Kebba; Iskandar, Michèle M.; Hussain, Raza; Sleno, Lekha; Rodes, Laetitia; Prakash, Satya

    2018-01-01

    A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons. The most abundant microbial phenolic metabolites in all colonic reactors included derivatives of propionic acid, acetic acid, and benzoic acid. As compared to the baseline, an earlier increase in antioxidant capacity (T = 8 h) was seen in the stomach and small intestine vessels as compared to the AC (T = 16 h) and TC and DC (T = 24 h). The increase in antioxidant capacity observed in the DC and TC can be linked to the accumulation of microbial smaller-molecular-weight phenolic catabolites, as the parent polyphenolics had completely degraded in those vessels. The colonic microbial digestion of potato-based polyphenols could lead to improved colonic health, as this generates phenolic metabolites with significant antioxidant potential. PMID:29558385

  10. Monounsaturated fatty acids-rich diets in hypercholesterolemic-growing rats.

    PubMed

    Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Alsina, Estefania; Juiz, Natalia; Zago, Valeria; Lezón, Christian; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Schreier, Laura; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2015-01-01

    The effects of replacing dietary saturated fat by different monounsaturated fatty acid (ω-9MUFA) sources on serum lipids, body fat and bone in growing hypercholesterolemic rats were studied. Rats received one of the six different diets: AIN-93G (control, C); extra virgin olive oil (OO) + C; high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) + C or atherogenic diet (AT) for 8 weeks; the remaining two groups received AT for 3 weeks and then, the saturated fat was replaced by an oil mixture of soybean oil added with OO or HOSO for 5 weeks. Rats consuming MUFA-rich diets showed the highest body fat, hepatic index and epididymal, intestinal and perirenal fat, and triglycerides. T-chol and non-HDL-chol were increased in HOSO rats but decreased in OO rats. Bone mineral content and density were higher in both OO and HOSO groups than in AT rats. This study casts caution to the generalization of the benefits of MUFA for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Nicotinamide-rich diet improves physical endurance by up-regulating SUR2A in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Sukhodub, Andriy; Sudhir, Rajni; Du, Qingyou; Jovanović, Sofija; Reyes, Santiago; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract SUR2A is an ATP-binding protein that serves as a regulatory subunit of cardioprotective ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. Based on signalling pathway regulating SUR2A expression and SUR2A role in regulating numbers of fully assembled KATP channels, we have suggested that nicotinamide-rich diet could improve physical endurance by stimulating SUR2A expression. We have found that mice on nicotinamide-rich diet significantly improved physical endurance, which was associated with significant increase in expression of SUR2A. Transgenic mice with solely overexpressed SUR2A on control diet had increased physical endurance in a similar manner as the wild-type mice on nicotinamide-rich diet. The experiments focused on action membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ concentration have demonstrated that increased SUR2A expression was associated with the activation of sarcolemmal KATP channels and steady Ca2+ levels in cardiomyocytes in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. In contrast, the same challenge in the wild-type was characterized by a lack of the channel activation and rise in intracellular Ca2+. Nicotinamide-rich diet was ineffective to increase physical endurance in mice lacking KATP channels. This study has shown that nicotinamide-rich diet improves physical endurance by increasing expression of SUR2A and that this is a sole mechanism of the nicotinamide-rich diet effect. The obtained results suggest that oral nicotinamide is a regulator of SUR2A expression and has a potential as a drug that can improve physical endurance in conditions where this effect would be desirable. PMID:20731746

  12. Diets naturally rich in polyphenols improve fasting and postprandial dyslipidemia and reduce oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Annuzzi, Giovanni; Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Costabile, Giuseppina; Giacco, Rosalba; Mangione, Anna; Anniballi, Gaia; Vitale, Marilena; Vetrani, Claudia; Cipriano, Paola; Della Corte, Giuseppina; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2014-03-01

    The postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) concentration is a recognized independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. Diet is the natural approach for these postprandial alterations. Dietary polyphenols and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3s) are associated with a lower cardiovascular disease risk. This randomized controlled study evaluated, in persons with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine LCn3s on plasma TRLs and urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, a biomarker of oxidative stress. According to a 2 × 2 factorial design, 86 overweight/obese individuals with a large waist circumference and any other component of the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to an isoenergetic diet 1) poor in LCn3s and polyphenols, 2) rich in LCn3s, 3) rich in polyphenols, or 4) rich in LCn3s and polyphenols. The diets were similar in all other components. Before and after the 8-wk intervention, fasting and postmeal TRLs and 8-isoprostane concentrations in 24-h urine samples were measured. Dietary adherence was good in all participants. Polyphenols significantly reduced fasting triglyceride concentrations (2-factor ANOVA) in plasma (P = 0.023) and large very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (P = 0.016) and postprandial triglyceride total area under the curve in plasma (P = 0.041) and large VLDLs (P = 0.004). LCn3s reduced postprandial chylomicron cholesterol and VLDL apolipoprotein B-48. The concentrations of urinary 8-isoprostane decreased significantly with the polyphenol-rich diets. Lipoprotein changes induced by the intervention significantly correlated with changes in 8-isoprostane. Diets naturally rich in polyphenols positively influence fasting and postprandial TRLs and reduce oxidative stress. Marine LCn3s reduce TRLs of exogenous origin. Through their effects on postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress, polyphenols may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle.

  14. A phytoestrogen-rich diet increases energy expenditure and decreases adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cederroth, Christopher R; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Kühne, Françoise; Madani, Rime; Doerge, Daniel R; Visser, Theo J; Foti, Michelangelo; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Vassalli, Jean-Dominique; Nef, Serge

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent health problem, and natural effective therapeutic approaches are required to prevent its occurrence. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds with estrogenic activities; they can bind to both estrogen receptors alpha and beta and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of soy-derived phytoestrogens on energy balance and metabolism. Male outbred mice (CD-1) were allowed ad libitum access to either a high soy-containing diet or a soy-free diet from conception to adulthood. We measured circulating serum isoflavone levels using reverse-phase solid-phase extraction for subsequent liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Adult animals were analyzed for body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, locomotor activity by running-wheel experiments, respiratory exchange rate by indirect calorimetry, and food intake using metabolic cages. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes. We found that adult mice fed a soy-rich diet had reduced body weight, adiposity, and resistance to cold. This lean phenotype was associated with an increase in lipid oxidation due to a preferential use of lipids as fuel source and an increase in locomotor activity. The modulation of energy balance was associated with a central effect of phytoestrogens on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, including agouti-related protein. The data suggest that dietary soy could have beneficial effects on obesity, but they also emphasize the importance of monitoring the phytoestrogen content of diets as a parameter of variability in animal experiments.

  15. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Maznah; Al-Naqeeb, Ghanya; Mamat, Wan Abd Aziz Bin; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2010-03-24

    Gamma-oryzanol (OR), a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF) extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC) and the unstressed and untreated group (NC), seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers.

  16. Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gamma-oryzanol (OR), a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties. Methods The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF) extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes. Results Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC) and the unstressed and untreated group (NC), seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group. Conclusions Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers. PMID:20331906

  17. Phytochemical analysis of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rich source of luteolin-derived flavonoids with antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; Levi, Marisa; Guzzo, Flavia; Avato, Pinarosa

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the flavonoid composition of the aerial parts (young leaves, YL; adult leaves, AL; stems, ST) of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rare species native to Brazil, where it is traditionally used as food. Antioxidant potential has also been evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical and biological study on this species has been reported previously. Compositional data have been acquired combining HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and Electrospary ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses. Antioxidant activity has been evaluated by the 2,2'-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Glycosylated flavones, with luteolin as the main aglycone, can be regarded as biomarkers for this drug. Qualitative composition of the extracts from YL, AL and ST was similar. The bulk of the constituents was made up by 8-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin (orientin), 7-O-α-rhamnosyl-6-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin and 6-C-α-rhamnosyl luteolin, which totally amounted to 16.57 (73%), 10.77 (74%) and 5.07 (77%) μg/mg in YL, AL and ST, respectively. P. loefgrenii showed a good antioxidant activity (IC50 of 350 μg/ml), higher than generally reported for other passifloras. P. loefgrenii, rich in luteolin glycosides, can be regarded as a good candidate to be explored for therapeutic properties other than the sedative one since it represents a rich source of valuable flavonoids with antioxidant potential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  19. Effects of Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet on androgens, antioxidant status and body composition in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Azadi-Yazdi, M; Karimi-Zarchi, M; Salehi-Abargouei, A; Fallahzadeh, H; Nadjarzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in reproductive age women. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on reproductive hormones, plasma total antioxidant status and anthropometric indices in overweight and obese PCOS women. In this randomised controlled clinical trial, 60 women with PCOS were randomly assigned to one of two diets with energy restriction: the DASH diet and a control diet. The DASH and control diets consisted of 50-55% carbohydrate, 15-20% protein and 25-30% total fat. The DASH diet was designed to be rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, as well as low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains and sweets. In the present study, the anthropometric indices, body composition, total testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were measured before and after 3 months. The consumption of DASH diet compared to the control diet was associated with a significant reduction in weight [-5.78 (1.91) kg versus -4.34 (2.87) kg, P = 0.032], body mass index (BMI) [-2.29 (0.15) kg m -2 versus -1.69 (0.20) kg m -2 , P = 0.02], fat mass [-3.23(1.66) kg versus -2.13 (1.26) kg, P = 0.008] and serum androstenedione [-1.75 (1.39) ng mL -1 versus -1.02 (0.72) ng mL -1 , P-value = 0.019]. Increased concentrations of SHBG [28.80 (21.71) versus 11.66(18.82) nmol L -1 , P = 0.003) and DPPH scavenging activity [30.23% (19.09) versus 12.97% (25.12) were also found in the DASH group. The DASH diet could improve weight loss, BMI and fat mass. Furthermore, it could result in a significant reduction in serum androstenedione and a significant increase in antioxidant status and SHBG. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Effects of an immuno-enhanced diet containing antioxidants in esophageal cancer surgery following neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiko, S; Kumano, I; Yamanaka, N; Tsujimoto, H; Takahata, R; Maehara, T

    2012-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy-induced immunological deterioration may be a key factor in postoperative morbidity in patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to determine the effects of perioperative feeding with an immuno-enhanced diet on immune competence in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Because an immuno-enhanced diet that contained several antioxidants was used, perioperative oxidative stress and the effects of the immuno-enhanced diet on this stress were also investigated. Of 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent similar surgical procedures, 26 patients who received chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy before surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (n= 14) was given an immuno-enhanced diet for 5 days before surgery, and group 2 (n= 12) received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Group 3 (n= 13) consisted of patients that did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Several markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were determined and immunological assessments were performed for each patient. To measure reactive oxygen metabolites and the total antioxidant capacity, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and OXY-adsorbent tests were performed using a free radical elective evaluator. Significant depression in lymphocyte numbers was observed in groups 1 and 2 before and early after surgery as compared to group 3. Numbers of B cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation tests were also significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 on postoperative day 1. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products were significantly elevated in group 2 compared to group 1. d-ROMs and OXY-adsorbent test values were elevated before surgery and were decreased transiently early after surgery. Compared to groups 2 and 3, d-ROMs values were significantly lower in group 1 patients throughout the postoperative period, while OXY

  1. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Ameliorates Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and Improves Replicative Senescence-Associated Oxidative Stress in Human Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Abdul Karim, Norwahidah

    2017-01-01

    During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. Our data showed that replicative senescence increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation in myoblasts. Treatment with TRF significantly diminished ROS production and decreased lipid peroxidation in senescent myoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was modulated by TRF treatment, with increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione peroxidase in senescent myoblasts. In comparison to ATF and NAC, TRF was more efficient in heightening the antioxidant capacity and reducing free radical insults. These results suggested that TRF is able to ameliorate antioxidant defense mechanisms and improves replicative senescence-associated oxidative stress in myoblasts. PMID:28243354

  3. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

  4. Effect of co-administration of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rich diet and alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Boby, R G; Indira, M

    2004-01-01

    The effects of co-administration of a cassava rich diet and alcohol in rats were investigated. The animals were divided into four groups (1) Control, (2) Alcohol, (3) Cassava and (4) Alcohol + Cassava. Consumption of alcohol along with cassava reduced the alcohol induced toxicity which was evidenced by the lower activities of GOT, GPT, GGT, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver and serum of co-administered group. The pyruvate content in the blood increased while the lactate content, lactate/pyruvate ratio and the activity of LDH decreased in the blood due to co-administration. The blood cyanide content, serum thiocyanate content and the activities of rhodanase and beta-glucuronidase increased on co-administration. The histopathological studies also revealed that co-administration reduced the alcohol induced toxicity.

  5. Fructose-rich diet-induced abdominal adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in normal male rats.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Raschia, Agustina; Madrid, Viviana; Gaillard, Rolf C; Rebolledo, Oscar; Gagliardino, Juan J; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    We have currently studied the changes induced by administration of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to normal rats in the mass and the endocrine function of abdominal (omental) adipose tissue (AAT). Rats were fed ad libitum a standard commercial chow and tap water, either alone (control diet, CD) or containing fructose (10%, w/vol) (FRD). Three weeks after treatment, circulating metabolic markers and leptin release from adipocytes of AAT were measured. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in FRD than in CD rats. AAT mass was greater in FRD than in CD rats and their adipocytes were larger, they secreted more leptin and showed impaired insulin sensitivity. While leptin mRNA expression increased in AAT from FRD rats, gene expression of insulin receptor substrate, IRS1 and IRS2 was significantly reduced. Our study demonstrates that administration of a FRD significantly affects insulin sensitivity and several AAT endocrine/metabolic functions. These alterations could be part of a network of interacting abnormalities triggered by FRD-induced oxidative stress at the AAT level. In view of the impaired glucose tolerance observed in FRD rats, these alterations could play a key role in both the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) and beta-cell failure.

  6. The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Erik; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Arendt, Maja-Louise; Maqbool, Khurram; Webster, Matthew T; Perloski, Michele; Liberg, Olof; Arnemo, Jon M; Hedhammar, Ake; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2013-03-21

    The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.

  7. Beneficial effect of a polyphenol-rich diet on cardiovascular risk: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Noad, Rebecca L; Rooney, Ciara; McCall, Damian; Young, Ian S; McCance, David; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V; McKeown, Pascal P

    2016-09-01

    There is previous epidemiological evidence that intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of increasing dietary polyphenol intake on microvascular function in hypertensive participants. All participants completed a 4-week run-in phase, consuming <2 portions of fruit and vegetables (F&V) daily and avoiding berries and dark chocolate. Subjects were then randomised to continue with the low-polyphenol diet for 8 weeks or to consume a high-polyphenol diet of six portions F&V (including one portion of berries/day and 50 g of dark chocolate). Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilator responses were assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography. Compliance with the intervention was measured using food diaries and biochemical markers. Final analysis of the primary endpoint was conducted on 92 participants. Between-group comparison of change in maximum % response to ACh revealed a significant improvement in the high-polyphenol group (p=0.02). There was a significantly larger increase in vitamin C, carotenoids and epicatechin in the high-polyphenol group (between-group difference p<0.001; p<0.001; p=0.008, respectively). This study has shown that increasing the polyphenol content of the diet via consumption of F&V, berries and dark chocolate results in a significant improvement in an established marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive participants. NCT01319786. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) dried into antioxidant-rich value-added foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a significant source of antioxidants from polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherol and ascorbic acid. In this study, retention of total antioxidants in fresh colored potatoes and processed potato flakes prepared as potential ingredients for snack foods was stu...

  9. Synergistic Interplay between Curcumin and Polyphenol-Rich Foods in the Mediterranean Diet: Therapeutic Prospects for Neurofibromatosis 1 Patients.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Teresa; Schettino, Carla; Polverino, Paola; Allocca, Salvatore; Adelfi, Laura; D'Amico, Alessandra; Capaldo, Guglielmo; Varriale, Bruno; Di Salle, Anna; Peluso, Gianfranco; Sorrentino, Giuseppe; Lus, Giacomo; Sampaolo, Simone; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Melone, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice

    2017-07-21

    Neurofibromas are the hallmark lesions in Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1); these tumors are classified as cutaneous, subcutaneous and plexiform. In contrast to cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas can grow quickly and progress to malignancy. Curcumin, a turmeric-derived polyphenol, has been shown to interact with several molecular targets implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the impact of different dietary patterns, namely Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) compared to the Western diet (WesDiet), both with or without curcumin, on NF1 patients' health. After six months, patients adopting a traditional MedDiet enriched with 1200 mg curcumin per day (MedDietCurcumin) presented a significant reduction in the number and volume of cutaneous neurofibromas; these results were confirmed in subsequent evaluations. Notably, in one patient, a large cranial plexiform neurofibroma exhibited a reduction in volume (28%) confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Conversely, neither unenriched MedDiet nor WesDiet enriched with curcumin exhibited any significant positive effect. We hypothesize that the combination of a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and curcumin was responsible for the beneficial effect observed on NF1. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first experience with curcumin supplementation in NF1 patients. Our report suggests that an integrated nutritional approach may effectively aid in the management of NF1.

  10. Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cotman, Carl W; Head, Elizabeth; Muggenburg, Bruce A; Zicker, S; Milgram, Norton W

    2002-01-01

    Animal models that simulate various aspects of human brain aging are an essential step in the development of interventions to manage cognitive dysfunction in the elderly. Over the past several years we have been studying cognition and neuropathology in the aged-canine (dog). Like humans, canines naturally accumulate deposits of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the brain with age. Further, canines and humans share the same Abeta sequence and also first show deposits of the longer Abeta1-42 species followed by the deposition of Abeta1-40. Aged canines like humans also show increased oxidative damage. As a function of age, canines show impaired learning and memory on tasks similar to those used in aged primates and humans. The extent of Abeta deposition correlates with the severity of cognitive dysfunction in canines. To test the hypothesis that a cascade of mechanisms centered on oxidative damage and Abeta results in cognitive dysfunction we have evaluated the cognitive effects of an antioxidant diet in aged canines. The diet resulted in a significant improvement in the ability of aged but not young animals to acquire progressively more difficult learning tasks (e.g. oddity discrimination learning). The canine represent a higher animal model to study the earliest declines in the cognitive continuum that includes age associated memory impairments (AAMI) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) observed in human aging. Thus, studies in the canine model suggest that oxidative damage impairs cognitive function and that antioxidant treatment can result in significant improvements, supporting the need for further human studies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  12. Sericin ameliorated dysmorphic mitochondria in high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat by antioxidative property

    PubMed Central

    Ampawong, Sumate; Isarangkul, Duangnate

    2016-01-01

    Sericin has been implicated in lower cholesterolemic effect due to its properties with several mechanisms. Mitochondria are one of the most important targets to be affected in high blood cholesterol and glucose conditions. The protective role of sericin on mitochondria remains doubtful. To examine this role, electron microscopic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies were performed in a high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat model. The results demonstrated that sericin reduced blood cholesterol without hypoglycemic effect. Sericin alleviated dysmorphic mitochondria in heart and liver but not in kidney and also decreased peculiar endoplasmic reticulum in the exocrine pancreas. In addition, sericin decreased hepatic steatosis and preserved zymogen granule referable to the decline of reactive oxygen species production in hepatic mitochondrial extraction and down-regulation of malondialdehyde expression in the liver and exocrine pancreas however irrelevant to lipase activity. This study suggests that sericin has antioxidative property to reduce blood cholesterol by means of diminishing fat deposit in hepatocyte and improves mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum integrities. Impact statement The present work provides new insights regarding the antioxidative effect of sericin in (i) reducing blood cholesterol, (ii) improving liver and heart mitochondrial structures, (iii) maintaining endoplasmic reticulum integrity in exocrine pancreatic glands, and (iv) inhibiting fat deposition in the liver. Electron microscopic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies were performed. All of the results demonstrate the efficacy of sericin as a candidate for development of a functional food or adjunctive therapeutic agent against non-communicable diseases such as hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27903836

  13. Antioxidant status, metabolic profile and immune response of lambs supplemented with tannin rich Ficus infectoria leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; Dutta, Narayan; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kusumakar

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tanniferous tree leaves Ficus infectoria on antioxidant status and immune response, twenty four lambs were randomly divided into four groups of six each in a completely randomized design and fed either a conventional supplement (CON) or experimental supplements (FILM-I, FILM-II and FILM-III) containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% condensed tannins (CT), respectively by replacement of wheat bran of supplement CON with Ficus infectoria leaf meal (FILM). Blood biochemical profile was monitored in all lambs at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 days of feeding. Although haemato-biochemical parameters remained similar, there was significant (p < 0.05) improvement in catalase activity, total thiol and protein thiol groups with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in lambs fed FILM diet irrespective of levels. However, intracellular status of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was improved (p < 0.05) only in FILM-II and FILM-III supplemented lambs. The cell-mediated immune response was significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all the lambs fed FILM supplemented diets. Improved antioxidant status and immunity in FILM supplemented lambs increased voluntary feed intake irrespective of level. However, the average daily gain for a period of 180 d showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase by the supplementation of FILM-II diet containing 1.5% CT. The present study reveals that the supplementation of Ficus infectoria leaf meal up to 21.2% in the concentrate mixture could improve the antioxidant status and immunity in lambs. However, as feed efficiency was reduced at higher levels due to presence of CT, 15.9% supplementation containing 1.5% condensed tannins in concentrate mixture is suggested to improve the health and production performance of lambs.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging effect of polyphenol rich Mallotus philippenensis fruit extract on human erythrocytes: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B; Goel, R K; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Radical Scavenging Effect of Polyphenol Rich Mallotus philippenensis Fruit Extract on Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Yamini B.; Goel, R. K.; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Mallotus philippinensis is an important source of molecules with strong antioxidant activity widely used medicinal plant. Previous studies have highlighted their anticestodal, antibacterial, wound healing activities, and so forth. So, present investigation was designed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of 50% ethanol fruit glandular hair extract (MPE) and its role on Human Erythrocytes. MPE was tested for phytochemical test followed by its HPLC analysis. Standard antioxidant assays like DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide radical, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation assay were determined along with total phenolic and flavonoids content. Results showed that MPE contains the presence of various phytochemicals, with high total phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of rottlerin, a polyphenolic compound in a very rich quantity. MPE exhibits significant strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS assay. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration absorption compared to standard, Quercetin. Superoxide, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide assay showed a comparable scavenging activity compared to its standard. Our finding further provides evidence that Mallotus fruit extract is a potential natural source of antioxidants which have a protective role on human Erythrocytes exhibiting minimum hemolytic activity and this justified its uses in folklore medicines. PMID:25525615

  16. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the skeletal muscles are useful energy sources during exercise or systemic stresses. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke and changes in BCAA levels in the plasma and skeletal muscles of rats. Furthermore, the effects of BCAA-rich diet on muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke were also investigated. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats that were fed with a control or a BCAA-rich diet were exposed to cigarette smoke for four weeks. After the exposure, the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in plasma and the skeletal muscles were measured. Cigarette smoke significantly decreased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet increased the skeletal muscle weight and BCAA levels in both plasma and skeletal muscles that had decreased by cigarette smoke exposure. In conclusion, skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke was related to the decrease of BCAA levels in the skeletal muscles, while a BCAA-rich diet may improve cases of cigarette smoke-induced skeletal muscle wasting.

  17. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen-rich water alleviate ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Chuang, Wen-Chen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2017-07-21

    To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced early fatty liver in mice. In vitro reduction of hydrogen peroxide by HRW was determined with a chemiluminescence system. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, EtOH, EtOH + silymarin, EtOH + HRW and EtOH + silymarin + HRW. Each group was fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH or isocaloric maltose dextrin (control diet). Silymarin was used as a positive control to compare HRW efficacy against chronic EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. HRW was freshly prepared and given at a dosage of 1.2 mL/mouse trice daily. Blood and liver tissue were collected after chronic-binge liquid-diet feeding for 12 wk. The in vitro study showed that HRW directly scavenged hydrogen peroxide. The in vivo study showed that HRW increased expression of acyl ghrelin, which was correlated with food intake. HRW treatment significantly reduced EtOH-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerol and total cholesterol levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. HRW attenuated malondialdehyde level, restored glutathione depletion and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver. Moreover, HRW reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels but increased IL-10 and IL-22 levels. HRW protects against chronic EtOH-induced liver injury, possibly by inducing acyl ghrelin to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and induce IL-10 and IL-22, thus activating antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress.

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen-rich water alleviate ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Chuang, Wen-Chen; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced early fatty liver in mice. METHODS In vitro reduction of hydrogen peroxide by HRW was determined with a chemiluminescence system. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, EtOH, EtOH + silymarin, EtOH + HRW and EtOH + silymarin + HRW. Each group was fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing EtOH or isocaloric maltose dextrin (control diet). Silymarin was used as a positive control to compare HRW efficacy against chronic EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity. HRW was freshly prepared and given at a dosage of 1.2 mL/mouse trice daily. Blood and liver tissue were collected after chronic-binge liquid-diet feeding for 12 wk. RESULTS The in vitro study showed that HRW directly scavenged hydrogen peroxide. The in vivo study showed that HRW increased expression of acyl ghrelin, which was correlated with food intake. HRW treatment significantly reduced EtOH-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerol and total cholesterol levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. HRW attenuated malondialdehyde level, restored glutathione depletion and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the liver. Moreover, HRW reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels but increased IL-10 and IL-22 levels. CONCLUSION HRW protects against chronic EtOH-induced liver injury, possibly by inducing acyl ghrelin to suppress the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and induce IL-10 and IL-22, thus activating antioxidant enzymes against oxidative stress. PMID:28785146

  19. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  20. Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome-an open label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Atsunori; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Sharma, Prachi; Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla

    2010-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by cardiometabolic risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Oxidative stress is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of hydrogen rich water (1.5-2 L/day) in an open label, 8-week study on 20 subjects with potential metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen rich water was produced, by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (hydrogen concentration; 0.55-0.65 mM), by the following chemical reaction; Mg + 2H(2)O --> Mg (OH)(2) + H(2). The consumption of hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase (p<0.05) in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease (p<0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Further, subjects demonstrated an 8% increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol from baseline to week 4. There was no change in fasting glucose levels during the 8 week study. In conclusion, drinking hydrogen rich water represents a potentially novel therapeutic and preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome. The portable magnesium stick was a safe, easy and effective method of delivering hydrogen rich water for daily consumption by participants in the study.

  1. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-07-04

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat) Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD. PMID:22548048

  3. Polyphenol-rich diets improve glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk: a controlled randomised intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Bozzetto, Lutgarda; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Pacini, Giovanni; Costabile, Giuseppina; Vetrani, Claudia; Vitale, Marilena; Griffo, Ettore; Giacco, Angela; De Natale, Claudia; Cocozza, Sara; Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Tura, Andrea; Riccardi, Gabriele; Rivellese, Angela A

    2015-07-01

    Dietary polyphenols and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. This may relate to their influence on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols and/or LCn3 of marine origin on glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk. According to a 2 × 2 factorial design, individuals with high waist circumference and at least one more component of the metabolic syndrome were recruited at the obesity outpatient clinic. Eighty-six participants were randomly assigned by MINIM software to an isoenergetic diet: (1) control, low in LCn3 and polyphenol (analysed n = 20); (2) rich in LCn3 (n = 19); (3) rich in polyphenols (n = 19); or (4) rich in LCn3 and polyphenols (n = 19). The assigned diets were known for the participants and blinded for people doing measurements. Before and after the 8 week intervention, participants underwent a 3 h OGTT and a test meal with a similar composition as the assigned diet for the evaluation of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations, and indices of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. During OGTT, polyphenols significantly reduced plasma glucose total AUC (p = 0.038) and increased early insulin secretion (p = 0.048), while LCn3 significantly reduced beta cell function (p = 0.031) (two-factor ANOVA). Moreover, polyphenols improved post-challenge oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS; p = 0.05 vs control diet by post hoc ANOVA). At test meal, LCn3 significantly reduced GLP-1 total postprandial AUC (p < 0.001; two-factor ANOVA). Diets naturally rich in polyphenols reduce blood glucose response, likely by increasing early insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects may favourably influence diabetes and cardiovascular risk. The implications of the decrease in insulin secretion and postprandial GLP-1 observed with diets rich in marine LCn3 need further clarification

  4. Effect of high fat diet enriched with unsaturated and diet rich in saturated fatty acids on sphingolipid metabolism in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Gorski, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of high fat diet leads to muscle lipid accumulation which is an important factor involved in induction of insulin resistance. Ceramide is likely to partially inhibit insulin signaling cascade. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different high fat diets on ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats fed for 5 weeks: (1) a standard chow and (2) high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (3) diet enriched with saturated fatty acids (SAT). Assays were performed on three types of muscles: slow-twitch oxidative (soleus), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, and fast-twitch glycolytic (red and white section of the gastrocnemius, respectively). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (n- and aSMase), and neutral and alkaline ceramidase (n- and alCDase) was examined. The content of ceramide, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate was also measured. The ceramide content did not change in any muscle from PUFA diet group but increased in the SAT diet group by 46% and 52% in the soleus and red section of the gastrocnemius, respectively. Elevated ceramide content in the SAT diet group could be a result of increased SPT activity and simultaneously decreased activity of nCDase. Unchanged ceramide content in the PUFA diet group might be a result of increased activity of SPT and alCDase and simultaneously decreased activity of SMases. We conclude that regulation of muscle ceramide level depends on the diet and type of skeletal muscle. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Diets rich in starch increase the posthepatic availability of amino acids in dairy cows fed diets at low and normal protein levels.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Lemosquet, S; Rodriguez-Lopez, J M; Messad, F; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2014-01-01

    Five mid-lactation multicatheterized Jersey cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate whether the increase in milk N yield associated with diets rich in starch versus fiber could originate from changes in the splanchnic AA metabolism and if these changes depended upon the dietary crude protein (CP) content. Four isoenergetic diets were formulated to provide 2 different carbohydrate compositions [diets rich in starch (350g of starch and 310g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of dry matter) versus rich in fiber (45g of starch and 460g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of dry matter)] crossed by 2 different CP contents (12.0 vs. 16.5% CP). At the end of each treatment period, 6 hourly blood samples were collected from the portal and hepatic veins as well as the mesenteric artery to determine net nutrient fluxes across the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver, and total splanchnic tissues. Dry matter and calculated energy intake as well as total absorbed energy were similar across treatments. However, the net portal appearance (NPA) of acetate, total volatile fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher with diets rich in fiber versus starch, whereas that of oxygen, glucose, butyrate, and insulin were lower. Concomitant to these changes, the percentage of N intake recovered as total AA (TAA) in the portal vein was lower for diets rich in fiber versus starch (42.3 vs. 51.4%, respectively), without, however, any difference observed in the NPA of the main AA used as energy fuels by the PDV (Glu, Gln, and Asp). Despite a higher NPA of TAA with starch versus fiber diets, no differences in the net hepatic flux of TAA, essential and nonessential AA were observed, resulting in a higher (+22%) net splanchnic release of AA and, hence, a greater (+7%) milk N yield. The net hepatic flux and hepatic fractional removal of none of the individual AA was affected as the main carbohydrate changed from fiber to starch, except for Gly and Lys, which were higher for the latter

  6. Protective Effects of Ellagitannin-Rich Strawberry Extracts on Biochemical and Metabolic Disturbances in Rats Fed a Diet High in Fructose.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Jurgoński, Adam; Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Ognik, Katarzyna; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2018-04-04

    The present study compares the effects of two dietary strawberry extracts rich in monomeric (ME) or dimeric (DE) ellagitannins (ETs) on gastrointestinal, blood and tissue biomarkers in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diets. Both strawberry extracts beneficially affect the antioxidant status and lipid profile of the liver and serum. The ME extract shows a greater ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in kidneys, more effectively decreases serum and liver triglycerides, and exerts greater anti-inflammatory effects in blood serum than the DE extract. The DE extract significantly reduces the activity of microbial enzymes in the cecum. These effects might be associated with higher cecum and urine levels of ET metabolites in rats fed with ME than in rats fed with DE. In conclusion, the diet-induced fructose-related disturbances observed in biochemical parameters are regulated by both extracts; nevertheless, the beneficial effects of the ME extract are mostly associated with systemic parameters, while those of the DE extracts are associated with local microbial activity.

  7. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  8. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Rabin, Bernard M; Bielinski, Donna F; Kelly, Megan E; Miller, Marshall G; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56 Fe, within 24-48h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56 Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56 Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56 Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure. Published by

  9. Role of the flavonoid-rich fraction in the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Bauhinia forficata Link. (Fabaceae) leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natalizia; Buongiorno, Luigina Pasqualina; Celi, Maria Grazia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Taviano, Maria Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Bauhinia forficata Link. is utilised as an antidiabetic in Brazilian folk-medicine; furthermore, its antioxidant properties suggest a potential usefulness in the prevention of diabetes complications associated with oxidative stress. The contribution of a flavonoid-rich fraction (FRF), HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS characterised, to the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of B. forficata hydro-alcoholic leaves extract was evaluated for the first time. Both extract and FRF showed radical-scavenging activity and reducing power with a strong relationship with the flavonoid content found; hence, flavonoids are mainly responsible for the primary antioxidant activity of B. forficata extract. The extract significantly decreased FO-1 cell viability at the higher concentrations. FRF did not exert any effect; thus, flavonoids do not appear to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extract. The extract resulted virtually non-toxic against both Artemia salina and normal human lymphocytes, demonstrating potential selectivity in inhibiting cancer cell growth. Finally, no antimicrobial activity was observed against the bacteria and yeasts tested.

  10. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Eliasziw, Misha; Chen, C Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-11

    Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet ( p < 0.05). Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  11. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Diane L.; Eliasziw, Misha; Chen, C. Y. Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet (p < 0.05). Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:29534487

  12. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  13. Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and Total Phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ella...

  14. Effect of vitamin E supplement in diet on antioxidant ability of testis in Boer goat.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhu; Hailing, Luo; Hui, Meng; Guijie, Zhang; Leyan, Yan; Dubing, Yue

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin E in diet on the antioxidant capacity of testis in Boer goat. Twenty-four healthy, Boer male kids of similar body weight (BW) were selected at 3 months of age from the kid flock. Kids were born from does treated with simultaneous flushing and artificial insemination technology. The Boer kids were divided into four groups randomly, supplemented with 0, 80, 320 and 880 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E, which were labeled as Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for 150 days (5 months). Blood samples were collected at the 15th-, 30th-, 60th-, 90th-, 120th-, and 150th-day during the experimental period, and the serums were used to determine Vitamin E content. Three Boer goats in each group were slaughtered at the age of eight months at the end of the experiment. Liver and testis were collected to test the Vitamin E content and the antioxidant capacity of testis. Results showed that the content of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis increased with the increasing addition of Vitamin E. However, the content of Vitamin E in the serum, liver and testis, in the control, was significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3, respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control Group and Group 4. When high levels of Vitamin E (880 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) were added, contents of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis were decreased and compared with the controls. Adding a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E can increase activity of total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and decrease content of nitric oxide (NO) in testis. MDA (malondialdehyde) content was decreased significantly in Group 3 (P<0.05). Supplementing a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) and middle level (320 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E decreased activity of nitric oxide syntha (NOS) in testis (P<0.05). Vitamin E can increase activity of GSH-PX (glutathione peroxidase). These results indicate that supplementing

  15. Broad bean and pea by-products as sources of fibre-rich ingredients: potential antioxidant activity measured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli; Villanueva-Suárez, María-José

    2012-02-01

    By-products generated during the processing of plant food can be considered a promising source of dietary fibre as a functional compound. The dietary fibre composition, soluble sugars and antioxidant activity of the extractable polyphenols of pea and broad bean by-products have been analysed in this study. Total dietary fibre using AOAC methods plus hydrolysis (broad bean pod: 337.3 g kg⁻¹; pea pod: 472.6 g kg⁻¹) is higher (P < 0.05) in both by-products than with the Englyst method (broad bean pod: 309.7 g kg⁻¹; pea pod: 434.6 g kg⁻¹). The main monomers are uronic acids, glucose, arabinose and galactose in broad bean pods. However, pea pods are very rich in glucose and xylose. The soluble sugars analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography in both by-products have glucose as the most important component, followed by sucrose and fructose. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (broad bean pod: 406.4 µmol Trolox equivalents g⁻¹; pea pod: 25.9 µmol Trolox equivalents g⁻¹) and scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (EC₅₀ of broad bean pod: 0.4 mg mL⁻¹; EC₅₀ of pea pod: 16.0 mg mL⁻¹) were also measured. Broad bean and pea by-products are very rich in dietary fibre, particularly insoluble dietary fibre and their extractable polyphenols demonstrate antioxidant activity. Therefore they might be regarded as functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain. These changes in neuronal funct...

  17. Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain, similar to those seen in aging....

  18. A mineral and antioxidant-rich extract from the red marine Algae Alsidium corallinum exhibits cytoprotective effects against potassium bromate-induced erythrocyte oxidative damages in mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, Hajer; Nasri, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Krayem, Najeh; Jarraya, Raoudha; Kallel, Choumous; Zeghal, Najiba; Amara, Ibtissem Ben

    2014-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate potassium bromate toxicity in mice and the corrective effects of marine algae Alsidium corallinum. The red algae demonstrated its rich composition in phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, tropolones, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. To confirm its antioxidant potential, an in vivo study was performed on adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups: group I were used as controls, group II received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) via drinking water, group III received potassium bromate (0.5 g/L) by the same route as group II and 7% of A. corallinum ethanolic extract via their diet, and group IV received only 7% of algae. The potassium bromate-treated group showed a significant decrease in erythrocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values and a significant increase in total white blood cells, compared to those of controls. While, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C values were decreased by potassium bromate treatment, lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte osmotic fragility values were increased. Interestingly, potassium bromate treatment showed significant genotoxic effects, as demonstrated by DNA degradation. These changes were confirmed by blood smears histopathological observations which were marked by a necrosis and a decrease of erythrocytes number. A. corallinum extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by potassium bromate, as evidenced by the improvement of the parameters cited above.

  19. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  20. Efficacy of protein rich pearl powder on antioxidant status in a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Hsiao, Su-Chun; Lu, Yan-Ying; Han, Yi-Chun; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2018-01-01

    Pearl is one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribed for treating various skin and bone related disorders due to its abundant proteins and mineral contents. The present investigation focused on antioxidation and life span prolonging effects from different extracts of pearl powder. During in vitro studies, various oxidative indices were evaluated, along with lifespan-prolonging effect were checked using wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. For the clinical trial, 20 healthy middle-aged subjects were recruited and separated into 2 groups as experimental and placebo group, who received 3 g of pearl powder/d (n = 10) and 3 g of placebo/d (n = 10) for 8 weeks, respectively. During the initial, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th weeks the blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The protein extract of pearl powder recorded maximum (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity (20-68%) as well as efficiently prolonged the life span of C. elegans by 18.87%. Pearl powder supplemented subjects showed a substantial increase (p < 0.05) in total antioxidant capacity from 0.45 to 0.69 mM, total thiols from 0.23 to 0.29 mM, Glutathione content from 5.89 to 9.19 μM, enzymic antioxidant activity (SOD-1248 to 1308; Gpx-30 to 32; GR-2.4 to 2.9) as well as considerably suppressed the lipid peroxidation products from 4.95 to 3.27 μM. The outcome of both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity inferred that protein extract of pearl powder was a potent antioxidant and thereby prolonged the lifespan of C. elegans. Hence, pearl powder could be recommended for treating various age-related degenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulki; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Kawakami, Sakura; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Hayakawa, Touru; Onoue, Hirotake; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    L-cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control rats. These results suggest that dietary L-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.

  2. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  3. Sericin ameliorated dysmorphic mitochondria in high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat by antioxidative property.

    PubMed

    Ampawong, Sumate; Isarangkul, Duangnate; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-02-01

    Sericin has been implicated in lower cholesterolemic effect due to its properties with several mechanisms. Mitochondria are one of the most important targets to be affected in high blood cholesterol and glucose conditions. The protective role of sericin on mitochondria remains doubtful. To examine this role, electron microscopic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies were performed in a high-cholesterol diet/streptozotocin rat model. The results demonstrated that sericin reduced blood cholesterol without hypoglycemic effect. Sericin alleviated dysmorphic mitochondria in heart and liver but not in kidney and also decreased peculiar endoplasmic reticulum in the exocrine pancreas. In addition, sericin decreased hepatic steatosis and preserved zymogen granule referable to the decline of reactive oxygen species production in hepatic mitochondrial extraction and down-regulation of malondialdehyde expression in the liver and exocrine pancreas however irrelevant to lipase activity. This study suggests that sericin has antioxidative property to reduce blood cholesterol by means of diminishing fat deposit in hepatocyte and improves mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum integrities. [Box: see text].

  4. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Antioxidant effects of a supplemented very low protein diet in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Peuchant, E; Delmas-Beauvieux, M C; Dubourg, L; Thomas, M J; Perromat, A; Aparicio, M; Clerc, M; Combe, C

    1997-01-01

    Increased peroxidation of lipids in red blood cells (RBC) in patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF) reflects increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to the metabolic damage induced by CRF and to its progression. We have evaluated parameters indicative of lipoperoxidation (LPO) of RBC at baseline in patients with CRF compared to controls, and the effects of a very low protein diet supplemented with amino and keto acids and vitamins A, C, E (VLPD) over a 6-month period. The presence of peroxidation damage in CRF patients before the administration VLPD was demonstrated by elevated levels of free malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < .0003) and decreased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly C20:4 (p < .001), C22:4 (p < .0001) and C22:5 (p < .0001) when compared to controls. Similarly, RBC vitamin E content was significantly decreased (p < .0001) while enzymatic activities were unalterated. VLPD reduced erythrocyte LPO as suggested by (a) decreased levels of free and total RBC MDA (p < .003 and p < .03, respectively), (b) increased levels of PUFA, particularly C22:4 and C22:5 (p < .003 and p < .03, respectively), and (c) increased levels of vitamins A and E (p < .001 and p < .04, respectively) as compared to prediet results. Antioxidant enzyme activities were not modified. These results suggest that VLPD has a protective role against LPO of erythrocytes in patients with CRF.

  6. Effects of complete water fasting and regeneration diet on kidney function, oxidative stress and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Mojto, V; Gvozdjakova, A; Kucharska, J; Rausova, Z; Vancova, O; Valuch, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the influence of 11-days complete water fasting (WF) and regeneration diet (RD) on renal function, body weight, blood pressure and oxidative stress. Therapeutic WF is considered a healing method. Ten volunteers drank only water for 11 days, followed by RD for the next 11 days. Data on body weight, blood pressure, kidney functions, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, cholesterols, triacylglycerols and selected biochemical parameters were obtained. WF increased uric acid and creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. After RD, the parameters were comparable to baseline values. Urea was not affected. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) decreased and maintained stable after RD. Fasting decreased α-tocopherol and increased γ-tocopherol, no significant changes were found after RD. Coenzyme Q10 decreased after RD. HDL-cholesterol decreased in WF. Total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased after RD. Other biochemical parameters were within the range of reference values. The effect of the complete fasting on kidney function was manifested by hyperuricemia. Renal function was slightly decreased, however maintained within the reference values. After RD, it returned to baseline values. The positive effect of the complete water fasting was in the reduction of oxidative stress, body weight and blood pressure (Tab. 3, Ref. 25).

  7. Rat liver uncoupling protein 2: changes induced by a fructose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Castro, María C; Massa, María L; Del Zotto, Héctor; Gagliardino, Juan J; Francini, Flavio

    2011-10-24

    To evaluate the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the response of liver to glycoxidative stress triggered by administration of a fructose-rich diet (FRD). We assessed blood glucose in the fasting state and after a glucose load (glucose-oxidase method), serum triglyceride (enzymatic measurement), insulin (radioimmunoassay), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (colorimetric kits) in control and FRD animals. In liver, we measured UCP2, PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ gene (real-time PCR) and protein (Western blot) expression, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene expression, as well as triglyceride content. Blood glucose, serum insulin and triglyceride levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indexes and impaired glucose tolerance were higher in FRD rats. Whereas UCP2 and PPARδ gene and protein expression increased in these animals; PPARγ levels were lower and those of PPARα remained unchanged. FRD also increased the mRNA expression of PPARδ target genes FAS and GPAT. Our results suggest that a) the increased UCP2 gene and protein expression measured in FRD rats could be part of a compensatory mechanism to reduce reactive oxygen species production induced by the fructose overload, and b) PPARs expression participates actively in the regulation of UCP2 expression, and under the metabolic condition tested, PPARδ played a key role. This knowledge would help to better understand the mechanisms involved in liver adaptation to fructose-induced glycoxidative stress, and to develop appropriate prevention strategies in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide-rich diet on fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Lu, J; Lin, W; Wei, X; Li, H; Zhao, X; Jiang, A; Yuan, J

    2018-03-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics that positively affect the host's gut microbiota, which is important for the health of the host. Most previous studies focused on specific flora components (e.g. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus); very few have investigated the relationship between flora and metabolites. Here, we used 16S rRNA analysis and metabolomics to analyze the effect of GOS on microbiota and metabolites. Results show that the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Oscillibacter decreased significantly in GOS-fed mice. Twenty-one metabolites, including oleic acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid, decreased significantly in the GOS-fed mice. Fatty acid synthesis and blood triglyceride content significantly decreased in the GOS-fed mice compared with those in the control mice, suggesting that GOS may improve lipid metabolism in mice. Additionally, after three weeks of a GOS-rich diet, the mouse microbiota was significantly enriched in Alloprevotella, Bacteroides, and Parasutterella. The blood glucose level of the GOS-fed group was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas the abundance of Coprococcus and Odoribacter (butyrate-producing bacteria) was significantly decreased. The metabolism of butyrate, known to reduce plasma glucose levels, was significantly downregulated in the GOS-fed mice, an effect potentially detrimental to the glucose metabolism of the host. This dual-omics analysis provided important information on the changes in host-microbe-metabolite interactions resulting from GOS supplementation. Our results provide evidence that GOS may improve lipid metabolism, and that long-term GOS supplementation had a detrimental effect on the host's glucose metabolism, which could be important for optimizing methods of prebiotic supplementation and developing approaches to prevent diseases using prebiotic interventions.

  9. Beneficial effect of an omega-6 PUFA-rich diet in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihide; Hokari, Ryota; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Yasutake, Yuichi; Maruta, Koji; Kurihara, Chie; Tomita, Kengo; Komoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Usui, Shingo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro

    2015-01-07

    To investigate the effect of a fat rich diet on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine. C57BL6 mice were fed 4 types of diets with or without indomethacin. One group was fed standard laboratory chow. The other groups were fed a fat diet consisting of 8% w/w fat, beef tallow (rich in SFA), fish oil, (rich in omega-3 PUFA), or safflower oil (rich in omega-6 PUFA). Indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally from day 8 to day 10. On day 11, intestines and adhesions to submucosal microvessels were examined. In the indomethacin-treated groups, mucosal damage was exacerbated by diets containing beef tallow and fish oil, and was accompanied by leukocyte infiltration (P < 0.05). The mucosal damage induced by indomethacin was significantly lower in mice fed the safflower oil diet than in mice fed the beef tallow or fish oil diet (P < 0.05). Indomethacin increased monocyte and platelet migration to the intestinal mucosa, whereas safflower oil significantly decreased monocyte and platelet recruitment (P < 0.05). A diet rich in SFA and omega-3 PUFA exacerbated NSAID-induced small intestinal damage via increased leukocyte infiltration. Importantly, a diet rich in omega-6-PUFA did not aggravate inflammation as monocyte migration was blocked.

  10. Beneficial effect of an omega-6 PUFA-rich diet in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Toshihide; Hokari, Ryota; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Yasutake, Yuichi; Maruta, Koji; Kurihara, Chie; Tomita, Kengo; Komoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Usui, Shingo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a fat rich diet on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine. METHODS: C57BL6 mice were fed 4 types of diets with or without indomethacin. One group was fed standard laboratory chow. The other groups were fed a fat diet consisting of 8% w/w fat, beef tallow (rich in SFA), fish oil, (rich in omega-3 PUFA), or safflower oil (rich in omega-6 PUFA). Indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally from day 8 to day 10. On day 11, intestines and adhesions to submucosal microvessels were examined. RESULTS: In the indomethacin-treated groups, mucosal damage was exacerbated by diets containing beef tallow and fish oil, and was accompanied by leukocyte infiltration (P < 0.05). The mucosal damage induced by indomethacin was significantly lower in mice fed the safflower oil diet than in mice fed the beef tallow or fish oil diet (P < 0.05). Indomethacin increased monocyte and platelet migration to the intestinal mucosa, whereas safflower oil significantly decreased monocyte and platelet recruitment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A diet rich in SFA and omega-3 PUFA exacerbated NSAID-induced small intestinal damage via increased leukocyte infiltration. Importantly, a diet rich in omega-6-PUFA did not aggravate inflammation as monocyte migration was blocked. PMID:25574090

  11. Influence of juniper (Juniperus communis) oil on growth performance and meat quality as a natural antioxidant in quail diets.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Cengiz, S S; Cetin, I; Meral, Y; Biricik, H

    2014-01-01

    1. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper oil on growth performance and meat quality in quails to determine its use as a safe and natural method to reduce overdependence on the use of antibiotic. 2. A total of 1000 1-d-old Pharaoh (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) quails, including both males and females, were divided into 4 groups containing 250 quails and treated as follows: (1) a control group with 0 mg volatile oil/kg diet; (2) 100 mg/kg juniper oil; (3) 150 mg/kg juniper oil and (4) 200 mg/kg juniper oil. The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experiment was carried out for 42 d. 3. The results of the study showed that supplementation with juniper oil (100 and 150 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in live weight, live weight gain and carcass yields during the growing and finishing periods. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by treatments. 4. The quails given rations containing juniper oil had reduced thiobarbituric acid levels in raw thigh meat samples at different storage times. Juniper oil was found to have significant antioxidant activity and prevented lipid oxidation in stored meat. 5. In conclusion, natural antioxidants such as a juniper oil can be used instead of synthetic antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in animal diets to improve meat product quality and animal performance.

  12. Trifluoroacetylated tyrosine-rich D-tetrapeptides have potent antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sandomenico, Annamaria; Severino, Valeria; Apone, Fabio; De Lucia, Adriana; Caporale, Andrea; Doti, Nunzianna; Russo, Anna; Russo, Rosita; Rega, Camilla; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Falcigno, Lucia; Ruvo, Menotti; Chambery, Angela

    2017-03-01

    The term "oxidative stress" indicates a set of chemical reactions unleashed by a disparate number of events inducing DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, which are responsible of altering the physiological status of cells or tissues. Excessive Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels may accelerate ageing of tissues or induce damage of biomolecules thus promoting cell death or proliferation in dependence of cell status and of targeted molecules. In this context, new antioxidants preventing such effects may have a relevant role as modulators of cell homeostasis and as therapeutic agents. Following an approach of peptide libraries synthesis and screening by an ORAC FL assay, we have isolated potent anti-oxidant compounds with well-defined structures. Most effective peptides are N-terminally trifluoroacetylated (CF 3 ) and have the sequence tyr-tyr-his-pro or tyr-tyr-pro-his. Slight changes in the sequence or removal of the CF 3 group strongly reduced antioxidant ability, suggesting an active role of both the fluorine atoms and of peptide structure. We have determined the NMR solution structures of the active peptides and found a common structural motif that could underpin the radical scavenging activity. The peptides protect keratinocytes from exogenous oxidation, thereby from potential external damaging cues, suggesting their use as skin ageing protectant and as cell surviving agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (<10% SFA, 22% PUFA and 6% MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates. Size and body composition, glucose, insulin, HOMA, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL.C were measured; dietary Anamnesis/24 hours, daily food record. ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical analysis (SPSS 20) was applied. The age was 56 ± 5 years, BMI 29.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2, waist circumference: 93.2 ± 10.1 cm, waist/hip ratio: 0.86 ± 0.14, waist/height: 0.59 ± 0.06 and 38.6 ± 4% body fat (NS). Lipid profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expression changes accompanying a sugar-only diet in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-08-17

    Diet composition (yeast:carbohydrate ratio) is an important determinant of growth, development, and reproduction. Recent studies have shown that decreased yeast intake elicits numerous transcriptomic changes and enhances somatic maintenance and lifespan, which in turn reduces reproduction in various insects. However, our understanding of the responses leading to a decrease in yeast ratio to 0% is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a sugar-only diet (SD) on the gene expression patterns of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae. RNA sequencing analyses showed that flies reared on an SD induced significant changes in the expression levels of genes associated with specific metabolic as well as cell growth and death pathways. Moreover, the observed upregulated genes in energy production and downregulated genes associated with reproduction suggested that SD affects somatic maintenance and reproduction in B. dorsalis. As expected, we observed that SD altered B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress (starvation and desiccation) resistance, decreasing reproduction, but did not extend lifespan compared to those that received a normal diet (ND) regime. In addition, administration of an SD resulted in a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and an increase in MDA concentrations, thereby suggesting that antioxidants cannot keep up with the increase in oxidative damage induced by SD regime. The application of an SD diet induces changes in phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expressions in B. dorsalis. Previous studies have associated extended lifespan with reduced fecundity. The current study did not observe a prolongation of lifespan in B. dorsalis, which instead incurred oxidative damage. The findings of the present study improve our understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and phenotypic response of B. dorsalis to an SD diet.

  16. Reduced serum non-enzymatic antioxidant defense and increased lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients on a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Zortea, Karine; Fernandes, Brisa Simões; Guimarães, Lísia Rejane; Francesconi, Lenise Petter; Lersch, Camila; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Schroeder, Rafael; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Claudio; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo Silva

    2012-03-14

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress (OS) may be associated with the pathophysiology underlying schizophrenia (SZ). Some studies indicate that nutritional supplements offer protection from OS, but there is no data about the effect of a hypocaloric diet on OS in this population. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of a hypocaloric dietary intervention on OS in subjects with SZ. A cross-sectional study of 96 participants in outpatient treatment for SZ comprised patients separated into two groups: one group of subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (HD) program (n=42), while the other group followed a regular diet (RD) with no nutritional restrictions (n=54). The serum total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels were assessed. TRAP levels were lower and TBARS levels were higher in the HD group than in the RD group (p=0.022 and p=0.023, respectively). There were no differences in TAR levels between the groups. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between TRAP and TBARS levels after adjusting for BMI and clozapine dose (partial correlation=0.42, p<0.001). There were no correlations among the length of illness or diet and the levels of TRAP, TBARS, and TAR. Subjects with SZ on a hypocaloric diet displayed different OS parameters than those not following a HD. Serum TRAP levels were lower and TBARS levels were higher among SZ subjects with HD compared to SZ subjects without HD. Lower TRAP levels may reflect decreased oxidative stress, whereas higher TBARS levels most likely reflect a biochemical reaction to the decreased TRAP levels. Additionally, TAR levels were similar between groups, suggesting a similar quality of antioxidant defenses, despite quantitative differences between the two dietary protocols in SZ patients under outpatient care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet.

  19. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Curcumin supplementation ameliorated vascular dysfunction and improved antioxidant status in rats fed a high-sucrose, high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Jung; Chen, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Shin-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Owaga, Eddy; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2018-01-29

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the effect of curcumin on factors associated with vascular dysfunction using rats fed a high-sucrose, high-fat (HSF) diet. The experiment included 2 animal feeding phases. In the first feeding phase, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 8) was fed a standard diet (AIN-93G) and the HSF group (n = 24) was fed an HSF diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. In the second feeding phase, lasting 4 weeks, the HSF group was randomly divided into 3 subgroups: the O group (n = 8) continued feeding on the HSF diet, the OA group (n = 8) had the HSF diet replaced with AIN-93G, and the OC group (n = 8) was fed the HSF diet supplemented with curcumin (300 mg/kg body weight daily). After 8 weeks, the HSF diet significantly elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), homocysteine (Hcy), C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) but significantly reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). After dietary intervention, the OA and OC groups exhibited significantly lower levels of AST, ALT, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, LDL-C, Hcy, CRP, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 and higher levels of NO and catalase (CAT) activity compared with the O group. Superoxide dismutase, CAT, and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the OA group, while CAT levels were enhanced in the OC group. In conclusion, this study showed that curcumin supplementation and diet modification can inhibit HSF diet-induced vascular dysfunction potentially by enhancing NO production and antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby suppressing inflammation and oxidative damage in the vascular endothelium.

  1. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings12

    PubMed Central

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns’ health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring’s health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. PMID:26374180

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of the ethanol extract of a functional formula diet in mice fed with a fructose/fat-rich combination diet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ruojun; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma dioscorea, Lycium barbarum, Prunella vulgaris and hawthorn are well known in both traditional food and folk medicine. Each of these plants reportedly possesses beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes. In this study an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet was formulated by mixing the herbs in a ratio of 6:4:2:3, and the anti-diabetic effect and underlying mechanism were elucidated in vivo. Compared with the model control group, the formula, especially its ethanol extract (EF), could improve glucose intolerance and normalize the lipid profile. The mechanisms responsible for the amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice were an increase in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, a decrease in serum free fatty acid level, enhanced hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen content and improved serum antioxidant activity. Hepatic histopathological examination also showed that EF administration markedly decreased fatty deposits in the liver of mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that the prepared functional formula diet is a potent alternative as an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. An extra virgin olive oil rich diet intervention ameliorates the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat "Western-type" diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Ruiz, Enrique; Varela, Lourdes M; Luque, Amparo; Berná, Genoveva; Cahuana, Gladys; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Soria, Bernat; de Roos, Baukje; Romero Gómez, Manuel; Martín, Franz

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 wk to develop NAFLD. HFD-fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 wk with the following: HFD-L, HFD-EVOO, HFD based on phenolics-rich EVOO, and reversion (standard diet). HFD-L-induced metabolic disorders were alleviated by replacement of lard with EVOO. EVOO diets improved plasma lipid profile and reduced body weight, plasma and epididymal fat INF-γ, IL-6 and leptin levels, and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, NAFLD activity scores were reduced. The liver lipid composition showed an increase in MUFAs, especially oleic acid, and a decrease in saturated fatty acids. Hepatic adiponutrin and Cd36 gene expression was upregulated in the EVOO groups. Liver ingenuity pathway analysis revealed in EVOO groups regulation of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, gastrointestinal disease, and liver regeneration. Dietary EVOO could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via an anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and modifications in the liver lipid composition and signaling pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Anna; Klinger, Andrew; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Bell, Emmy K.; Darnell, Betty; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Phosphorus-based food additives increase total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. Design, setting, and measurements In order to examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate four-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to United States Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (~2,000 kcal per day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day) and contained minimally-processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly-processed foods were substituted for minimally-processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. Results Both the low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided ~2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared to the low-additive. When averaged over the four menu days, measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured vs. estimated phosphorus contents. Conclusion Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of phosphorus content in

  5. Increase of antioxidative potential of rat plasma by oral administration of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Moro, K; Nakamori, K; Yamakoshi, J; Hosoyama, H; Kataoka, S; Ariga, T

    1999-05-01

    The effect of a single oral administration of proanthocyanidins, oligomeric and polymeric polyhydroxyflavan-3-ol units, on the antioxidative potential of blood plasma was studied in rats. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was administered by intragastric intubation to fasted rats at 250 mg/kg of body weight. The plasma obtained from water- or proanthocyanidin-administered rats was oxidized by incubation with copper sulfate or 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) at 37 degrees C, and the formation of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) was followed. The plasma obtained from proanthocyanidin-administered rats was significantly more resistant against both copper ion-induced and AAPH-induced formation of CE-OOH than that from control rats. The lag phase in the copper ion-induced oxidation of rat plasma was remarkably increased at 15 min after administration of proanthocyanidins and reached a maximum level at 30 min. When the plasma from proanthocyanidin-administered rat was hydrolyzed by sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase following analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, metabolites of proanthocyanidins occurred in rat plasma at 15 min after administration, three peaks of which were identified as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin. These results suggest that the intake of proanthocyanidins, the major polyphenols in red wine, increases the resistance of blood plasma against oxidative stress and may contribute to physiological functions of plant food including wine through their in vivo antioxidative ability.

  6. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  7. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  8. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  9. Bioactive characteristics and optimization of tamarind seed protein hydrolysate for antioxidant-rich food formulations.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Mayuri B; Sonawane, Sachin K; Arya, Shalini S

    2018-04-01

    Tamarind seed has been a source of valuable nutrients such as protein (contains high amount of many essential amino acids), essential fatty acids, and minerals which are recognized as additive to develop perfect balanced functional foods. The objective of present work was to optimize the process parameters for extraction and hydrolysis of protein from tamarind seeds. Papain-derived hydrolysates showed a maximum degree of hydrolysis (39.49%) and radical scavenging activity (42.92 ± 2.83%) at optimized conditions such as enzyme-to-substrate ratio (1:5), hydrolysis time (3 h), hydrolysis temperature (65 °C), and pH 6. From this study, papain hydrolysate can be considered as good source of natural antioxidants in developing food formulations.

  10. Selenium-Rich Ricegrass Juice Improves Antioxidant Properties and Nitric Oxide Inhibition in Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Puttarak, Panupong; Brantner, Adelheid; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa

    2018-01-01

    Ricegrass juice (Oryza sativa L.) was introduced as a functional food as the consumption of sprouts or seedlings has been claimed to provide high nutritive value. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that plays a key role in the human antioxidation scheme. Supplementation of Se into plants is one strategy to enhance plant bioactivities, and the consumption of Se plant foods may confer superior health benefits. In this study, ricegrass juice extract was analyzed for its major phenolic components. The effect of ricegrass juice extracts bio-fortified with 0, 10 and 40 mg Se/L named as RG0, RG10, and RG40, respectively, were investigated for a percentage of cell viability, changes of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide inhibition in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Flavone glycosides, namely chrysoeriol arabinosyl arabinoside derivatives, were found to be the foremost bioactive components in ricegrass juice extract indicated by UHPLC-MS. The results of cell culture assessment revealed that RG40 showed an ability to promote macrophage cell proliferation at low concentration. Ricegrass juice extract in all treatments possessed the ability to reduce malondialdehyde content, which may be regarded as the bioactivity of phenolic compounds. Moreover, Se also played a role in this effect since RG40 showed the greatest ability via increasing the level of GPx enzyme. It was also discovered that phenolic compounds in the extracts played a role in inhibiting nitric oxide in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, RG40 expressed significantly higher NO inhibition properties at IC50 118.76 µg/mL compared to RG0 and RG10, at 147.02 and 147.73 µg/mL, respectively. Se bio-fortified ricegrass juice could be considered as a new potent functional food that can lower the risk of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation diseases. PMID:29652839

  11. Antioxidant-Chemoprevention Diet Ameliorates Late Effects of Total-Body Irradiation and Supplements Radioprotection by MnSOD-Plasmid Liposome Administration

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Wang, Hong; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Dixon, Tracy; Montesinos, Carlos A.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Many acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which deplete antioxidant stores, leading to cellular apoptosis, stem cell depletion and accelerated aging. C57BL/6NHsd mice receiving intravenous MnSOD-PL prior to 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) show increased survival from the acute hematopoietic syndrome, and males demonstrated improved long-term survival (Epperly et al., Radiat. Res. 170, 437–444, 2008). We evaluated the effect of an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet compared to a regular diet on long-term survival in female mice. Twenty-four hours before the LD50/30 dose of 9.5 Gy TBI, subgroups of mice were injected intravenously with MnSOD-PL (100 μg plasmid DNA in 100 μl of liposomes). Mice on either diet treated with MnSOD-PL showed decreased death after irradiation compared to irradiated mice on the house diet alone (P = 0.031 for the house diet plus MnSOD-PL or 0.015 for antioxidant diet plus MnSOD-PL). The mice on the antioxidant-chemoprevention diet alone or with MnSOD-PL that survived 30 days after irradiation had a significant increase in survival compared to mice on the regular diet (P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively). In addition, mice treated with MnSOD-PL only and surviving 30 days after radiation also had increased survival compared to those on the regular diet alone (P = 0.02). Survivors of acute ionizing radiation damage have ameliorated life shortening if they are fed an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet. PMID:21466381

  12. Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Anna; Klinger, Andrew; Choquette, Suzanne S; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Bell, Emmy K; Darnell, Betty; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives increase the total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. To examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate 4-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (∼2,000 kcal/day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day), and it contained minimally processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly processed foods were substituted for minimally processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. The low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided approximately 2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium, and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared with the low-additive diet. When averaged over the 4 menu days, the measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured versus estimated phosphorus contents. Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of the phosphorus content in processed foods. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney

  13. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p<0.001) and plasma tHcy decreased (p<0.001) with both therapies. Folate-rich foods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: –15.9 to –1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: –13.3 to –2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:15968341

  14. Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil and nuts enhance plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and decrease xanthine oxidase activity in people with metabolic syndrome: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Martorell, Miquel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Marti, Amelia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea] study). Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Antioxidative and antihypertensive effects of Welsh onion on rats fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukiko; Aoyama, Sakiko; Hamaguchi, Noriko; Rhi, Gyou-Sei

    2005-07-01

    The effects of Welsh onion on the development of hypertension and autoxidation were studied in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed with a control diet or a high-fat high-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without 5% Welsh onion (green-leafy type or white-sheath type) for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure was elevated and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma were increased in the rats fed with the HFS diet without Welsh onion. The rats fed with the HFS diet containing Welsh onion, especially the green-leafy type, had lower blood pressure. They also had a higher level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in both the urine and plasma, lower activity of NADH/NADPH oxidase in the aorta, and suppressed angiotensin II production. The effect of white Welsh onion on decreasing the blood pressure was not significant, although the effects on increasing NO metabolites in the urine and decreasing NADH oxidase activity in the aorta were significant. The TBARS value in the plasma was lowered in the rats fed with either green or white Welsh onion, but the in vitro radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidative activities were much higher with green Welsh onion than with the white type. These results suggest that the green-leafy Welsh onion, but not the white type, reduced superoxide generation by suppressing the angiotensine II production and then the NADH/NADPH oxidase activity, increasing the NO availability in the aorta, and consequently lowering the blood pressure in the rats fed with the HFS diet. The radical scavenging and reducing antioxidative activities of green Welsh onion may also be effective in decreasing superoxide.

  16. Honey bee diet in intensive farmland habitats reveals an unexpectedly high flower richness and a major role of weeds.

    PubMed

    Requier, Fabrice; Odoux, Jean-François; Tamic, Thierry; Moreau, Nathalie; Henry, Mickaël; Decourtye, Axel; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    In intensive farmland habitats, pollination of wild flowers and crops may be threatened by the widespread decline of pollinators. The honey bee decline, in particular, appears to result from the combination of multiple stresses, including diseases, pathogens, and pesticides. The reduction of semi-natural habitats is also suspected to entail floral resource scarcity for bees. Yet, the seasonal dynamics and composition of the honey bee diet remains poorly documented to date. In this study, we studied the seasonal contribution of mass-flowering crops (rapeseed and sunflower) vs. other floral resources, as well as the influence of nutritional quality and landscape composition on pollen diet composition over five consecutive years. From April to October, the mass of pollen and nectar collected by honey bees followed a bimodal seasonal trend, marked by a two-month period of low food supply between the two oilseed crop mass-flowerings (ending in May for rapeseed and July for sunflower). Bees collected nectar mainly from crops while pollen came from a wide diversity of herbaceous and woody plant species in semi-natural habitats or from weeds in crops. Weed species constituted the bulk of the honey bee diet between the mass flowering crop periods (up to 40%) and are therefore suspected to play a critical role at this time period. The pollen diet composition was related to the nutritional value of the collected pollen and by the local landscape composition. Our study highlights (1) a food supply depletion period of both pollen and nectar resources during late spring, contemporaneously with the demographic peak of honey bee populations, (2) a high botanical richness of pollen diet, mostly proceeding from trees and weeds, and (3) a pollen diet composition influenced by the local landscape composition. Our results therefore support the Agri-Environmental Schemes intended to promote honey bees and beekeeping sustainability through the enhancement of flower availability in

  17. Investigation of Chitosan for Prevention of Diabetic Progression Through Gut Microbiota Alteration in Sugar Rich Diet Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Bhumika; Rajput, Parth; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Sugar rich diet induces inflammation and insulin resistance mainly through gut microbiota alteration. Gut microflora dysbiosis increases plasma lipopolysaccharide and reduces short chain fatty acids to impair the insulin signaling cascades by different molecular pathways to progress into diabetes. Chitosan based formulations have major significance in insulin delivery system due to their ability to protect the insulin from enzymatic degradation and its efficient inter-epithelial transport. This study was designed to investigate the effect of chitosan administration on gut microflora mediated signaling pathways to prevent the diet induced diabetes. Male wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic group with a normal diet (CD), diabetic group with high sucrose diet (HSD) and treatment group with HSD and chitosan (60 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of the study, significant alterations in two major gut dominant microbial phyla i.e Firmicutes and Bacteroides and four dominant microbial species i.e. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia and Clostridia were observed in HSD group compared to CD. This microbial dysbiosis in dominant phyla was significantly prevented in chitosan administrated HSD group. Chitosan administration had also reduced the HSD induced activation of Toll like receptors and Nod like receptors signaling pathways compared to HSD control group to reduce the inflammation. These suggest that chitosan can prevent the progression of Type 2 Diabetes through gut microbiota alteration, reducing endotoxin and microbes mediated inflammation.

  18. Successful treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia with a formula diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hauenschild, Annette; Bretzel, Reinhard G; Schnell-Kretschmer, Henning; Kloer, Hans-Ulrich; Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Patients with highly increased plasma triglyceride levels are at risk of developing serious complications such as pancreatitis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore it is important to rapidly decrease plasma triglyceride levels. A sufficient control of triglyceride levels with drugs like fibrates, statins or nicotinic acid can usually only be attained after a couple of weeks. Plasma exchange appears to be a fast but expensive method to reduce triglyceride levels. In this study we describe the use of a new omega-3 fatty acid and medium-chain triglyceride-rich formula diet as a therapeutic concept to reduce plasma triglyceride levels fast and effectively. Thirty-two patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia were treated with the especially composed formula diet for a period of 7 days. Within this period of time, plasma triglycerides decreased from 1,601 (402-4,555) to 554 (142-2,382) mg/dl (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol levels were reduced from 417 (211-841) to 287 (165-457) mg/dl (p < 0.001). Fasting glucose and uric acid levels also slightly decreased (-8%; -12%). The formula diet as a 1-week treatment was well tolerated and accepted by the patients. This diet was successfully used as an acute treatment in severe hypertriglyceridemia and showed effectiveness in rapidly and safely lowering plasma triglyceride levels. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Histological characteristics following a long-term nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dengsheng; Qu, Xingmin; Tran, Simon D; Schmidt, Laura L; Qin, Lizheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Cui, Xiuyu; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the histological characteristics following a 2-year nitrate-rich diet in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy. Using averages collected data from three time points at 6, 12, and 24 months following the induction of parotid gland atrophy, salivary nitrate levels of the nitrate-diet parotid-atrophied group (17.3±3.9 ng/µl) were close to those of the control group (19.6±5.1 ng/µl). Compared to the control group, the nitrate-diet group had significantly higher nitrate levels in blood (P < 0.05) and urine (P < 0.001). Histological and electron microscopy analyses showed no abnormalities in the organs of experimental or control animals. No significant differences on apoptosis rate were found in liver and kidney tissues between the standard- and nitrate-diet groups. Therefore, dietary nitrate supplementation could restore salivary nitrate levels. High-dose nitrate loading for 2 years had no observed systemic toxicity in miniature pigs with parotid atrophy. PMID:26261499

  20. Assay Dilution Factors Confound Measures of Total Antioxidant Capacity in Polyphenol-Rich Juices

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Ya-Yen; Kamil, Alison G.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which sample dilution factor (DF) affects total antioxidant capacity (TAC) values is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the impact of DF on the ORAC, FRAP, DPPH, and total phenols (TP) assays using pomegranate juice (PJ), grape juice (GJ), selected flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and ellagic acid. For ORAC, GJ was comparable to PJ at DF 750, but at DF 2000, the ORAC value of GJ was 40% more than PJ. Increasing DF increased GJ and PJ, DPPH, TP, and FRAP values 11% and 14%, respectively. Increased test concentrations of quercetin and catechin resulted in 51% and 126% greater ORAC values, but decreased naringenin by 68%. Flavonoids, but not ellagic acid or ascorbic acid, may contribute to the dilution effect on the variation of final TAC values. Thus, reporting TAC or TP using a single DF may introduce uncertainty about the confidence of TAC assay values, especially when comparing different juices. These results underscore the importance of using compatible test standards for reporting TAC values. PMID:22251245

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging.

  2. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during

  3. Anthocyanin-rich Phytochemicals from Aronia Fruits Inhibit Visceral Fat Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-fat Diet-induced Dietary Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Shimizu, Hisae; Okazaki, Yukako; Sakaguchi, Hirohide; Taira, Toshio; Suzuki, Takashi; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aronia fruits (chokeberry: Aronia melanocarpa E.) containing phenolic phytochemicals, such as cyanidin 3-glycosides and chlorogenic acid, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential human health benefits in humans including antioxidant activities and ability to improved vision. In the present study, the effects of anthocyanin-rich phytochemicals from aronia fruits (aronia phytochemicals) on visceral fat accumulation and fasting hyperglycemia were examined in rats fed a high-fat diet (Experiment 1). Total visceral fat mass was significantly lower in rats fed aronia phytochemicals than that in both the control group and bilberry phytochemicals-supplemented rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue mass in rats fed aronia phytochemicals was significantly lower than that in both the control and bilberry phytochemicals group. Additionally, the mesenteric adipose tissue mass in aronia phytochemicals-fed rats was significantly low (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the fasting blood glucose levels significantly decreased in rats fed aronia phytochemicals for 4 weeks compared to that in the control rats (p < 0.05). Therefore, we investigated the effects of phytochemicals on postprandial hyperlipidemia after corn oil loading in rats, pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and the plasma glycemic response after sucrose loading in order to elucidate the preventive factor of aronia phytochemical on visceral fat accumulation. In the oral corn oil tolerance tests (Experiment 2), aronia phytochemicals significantly inhibited the increases in plasma triglyceride levels, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.50 mg/mL. However, the inhibitory activity was similar to that of bilberry and tea catechins. In the sucrose tolerance tests (Experiment 3), aronia phytochemicals also significantly inhibited the increases in blood glucose levels that were observed in the control animals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that anthocyanin-rich

  4. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser 307 . Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  5. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  6. Effects of total fibre or resistant starch-rich diets within lifestyle intervention in obese prediabetic adults.

    PubMed

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna V; Djordjevic, Brizita I

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the evidence-based health benefits that resistant starch (RS) shows when added to the diet, our aim in this study was to evaluate the effects of increased fibre intake with two different levels of RS coming from regular daily consumed foods on normalization of glycaemia within lifestyle intervention in the population with risk factors for developing diabetes. Study included 47 overweight and obese men and women with disordered glucoregulation and dyslipidaemia, aged between 45-74, divided into RS and Fibre group. Participants were subjected to the lifestyle and dietary intervention with low-fat and high-fibre (>25 g/day) diet for 12 months and were offered two different dietary advices aimed at increasing total fibre intake in Fibre group and at increasing RS intake in RS group. The intake of macronutrients and total fibre was similar between groups at the end of the study, but achieved RS intake was two times higher in the RS group. Decrease in total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol was more pronounced in RS group in comparison with Fibre group (p = 0.010, p = 0.031, respectively), whereas in Fibre group, a more pronounced effect on glucoregulation was observed: significant fall in glycaemia after 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (7.93 vs 6.96 mmol/L, p = 0.034). At the end of the study, RS-rich diet failed to affect glycaemic control in prediabetic obese individuals in contrast to the regular fibre-rich diet, which indicated that fibre profile could be an important determinant of the effect of dietary intervention.

  7. Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (μmol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at

  8. Effect of antioxidant-enriched diets on glutathione redox status in tissue homogenates and mitochondria of the senescence-accelerated mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rebrin, Igor; Zicker, Steven; Wedekind, Karen J.; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Packer, Lester; Sohal, Rajindar S.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether consumption of diets enriched in antioxidants attenuates the level of oxidative stress in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). In separate and independent studies, two different dietary mixtures, one enriched with vitamin E, vitamin C, L-carnitine, and lipoic acid (Diet I) and another diet including vitamins E and C and 13 additional ingredients containing micronutrients with bioflavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids (Diet II), were fed for 8 and 10 months, respectively. The amounts of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfides (GSSG) and GSH:GSSG ratios were determined in plasma, tissue homogenates, and mitochondria isolated from five different tissues of SAM (P8) mice. Both diets had a reductive effect in plasma; however Diet I had relatively little effect on the glutathione redox status in tissue homogenates or mitochondria. Remarkably, Diet II caused a large increase in the amount of glutathione and a marked reductive shift in glutathione redox state in mitochondria. Overall, the effects of Diet II were tissue and gender specific. Results indicated that the glutathione redox state in mitochondria and tissues can be altered by supplemental intake of a relatively complex mixture of dietary antioxidants that contains substances known to induce phase 2 enzymes, glutathione, and antioxidant defenses. Whether corresponding attenuations occur in age-associated deleterious changes in physiological functions or life span remains unknown. PMID:16043026

  9. Effect of antioxidant-enriched diets on glutathione redox status in tissue homogenates and mitochondria of the senescence-accelerated mouse.

    PubMed

    Rebrin, Igor; Zicker, Steven; Wedekind, Karen J; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Packer, Lester; Sohal, Rajindar S

    2005-08-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether consumption of diets enriched in antioxidants attenuates the level of oxidative stress in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). In separate and independent studies, two different dietary mixtures, one enriched with vitamin E, vitamin C, L-carnitine, and lipoic acid (Diet I) and another diet including vitamins E and C and 13 additional ingredients containing micronutrients with bioflavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids (Diet II), were fed for 8 and 10 months, respectively. The amounts of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfides (GSSG) and GSH:GSSG ratios were determined in plasma, tissue homogenates, and mitochondria isolated from five different tissues of SAM (P8) mice. Both diets had a reductive effect in plasma; however Diet I had relatively little effect on the glutathione redox status in tissue homogenates or mitochondria. Remarkably, Diet II caused a large increase in the amount of glutathione and a marked reductive shift in glutathione redox state in mitochondria. Overall, the effects of Diet II were tissue and gender specific. Results indicated that the glutathione redox state in mitochondria and tissues can be altered by supplemental intake of a relatively complex mixture of dietary antioxidants that contains substances known to induce phase 2 enzymes, glutathione, and antioxidant defenses. Whether corresponding attenuations occur in age-associated deleterious changes in physiological functions or life span remains unknown.

  10. In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chi; Wu, Yi-Long; Liu, Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin extracted from Pomacea canaliculata eggs was made into free-form astaxanthin powder (FFAP) and its effects on lipid metabolism, liver function, antioxidants activities and astaxanthin absorption rate were investigated. 45 hamsters were split into 5 groups and fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol control (0.2% cholesterol), 1.6FFAP (control+1.6% FFAP), 3.2FFAP (control+3.2% FFAP) and 8.0FFAP (control+8.0% FFAP), respectively, for 6 weeks. FFAP diets significantly decreased the liver total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and increased liver fatty acids (C20:5n3; C22:6n3) compositions. It decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In terms of anti-oxidative activities, we found 8.0 FFAP diet significantly decreased plasma and liver malonaldehyde (4.96±1.96 μg TEP eq./mL and 1.56±0.38 μg TEP eq./g liver) and liver 8-isoprostane levels (41.48±13.69 μg 8-ISOP/g liver). On the other hand, it significantly increased liver catalase activity (149.10±10.76 μmol/min/g liver), Vitamin C (2082.97±142.23 μg/g liver), Vitamin E (411.32±81.67 μg/g liver) contents, and glutathione levels (2.13±0.42 mg GSH eq./g liver). Furthermore, 80% of astaxanthin absorption rates in all FFAP diet groups suggest FFAP is an effective form in astaxanthin absorption. Finally, astaxanthin was found to re-distribute to the liver and eyes in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggested that the appropriate addition of FFAP into high cholesterol diets increases liver anti-oxidative activity and reduces the concentration of lipid peroxidase and therefore, it may be beneficial as a material in developing healthy food. PMID:26262684

  11. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-08-27

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. This is the

  12. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following

  13. Amelioration of CCl4 induced liver injury in swiss albino mice by antioxidant rich leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Somit; Chakraborty, Arnab Kumar; Dey, Priyankar; Kar, Pallab; Guha, Pokhraj; Sen, Subhajit; Kumar, Anoop; Sen, Arnab; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The progress in industrialization has blessed mankind with a technologically superior lifestyle but poor management of industrial waste has in turn poisoned nature. One such chemical is carbon tetra chloride (CCl4), which is a potent environmental toxin emitted from chemical industries and its presence in the atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate. Presence of CCl4 in human body is reported to cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. Kupffer cells present in the liver are potentially more sensitive to oxidative stress than hepatocytes. Kuffer cells produced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), that might further cause inflammation or apoptosis. In this study hepatoprotective capacity of antioxidant rich extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. (CBL) was evaluated on CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity in murine model. Hydro-methanolic extract of C. bonplandianus leaf was used for evaluation of free radical scavenging activity. Liver cells of experimental mice were damaged using CCl4 and subsequently hepatoprotective potential of the plant extract was evaluated using series of in-vivo and in-vitro studies. In the hepatoprotective study, silymarin was used as a positive control. Antioxidant enzymes, pro-inflammatory markers, liver enzymatic and biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of Croton bonplandianus leaf extract. Free radical scavenging activity of CBL extract was also observed in WRL-68 cell line. The phytochemicals identified by GCMS analysis were scrutinized using in-silico molecular docking procedure. The results showed that CBL extract have potent free radical scavenging capacity. The biochemical parameters were over expressed due to CCl4 administration, which were significantly normalized by CBL extract treatment. This finding was also supported by histopathological evidences showing less hepatocellularnecrosis, inflammation and fibrosis in CBL

  14. Amelioration of CCl4 induced liver injury in swiss albino mice by antioxidant rich leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill.

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Somit; Chakraborty, Arnab Kumar; Dey, Priyankar; Kar, Pallab; Guha, Pokhraj; Sen, Subhajit; Kumar, Anoop; Sen, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    The progress in industrialization has blessed mankind with a technologically superior lifestyle but poor management of industrial waste has in turn poisoned nature. One such chemical is carbon tetra chloride (CCl4), which is a potent environmental toxin emitted from chemical industries and its presence in the atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate. Presence of CCl4 in human body is reported to cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. Kupffer cells present in the liver are potentially more sensitive to oxidative stress than hepatocytes. Kuffer cells produced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), that might further cause inflammation or apoptosis. In this study hepatoprotective capacity of antioxidant rich extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. (CBL) was evaluated on CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity in murine model. Hydro-methanolic extract of C. bonplandianus leaf was used for evaluation of free radical scavenging activity. Liver cells of experimental mice were damaged using CCl4 and subsequently hepatoprotective potential of the plant extract was evaluated using series of in-vivo and in-vitro studies. In the hepatoprotective study, silymarin was used as a positive control. Antioxidant enzymes, pro-inflammatory markers, liver enzymatic and biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of Croton bonplandianus leaf extract. Free radical scavenging activity of CBL extract was also observed in WRL-68 cell line. The phytochemicals identified by GCMS analysis were scrutinized using in-silico molecular docking procedure. The results showed that CBL extract have potent free radical scavenging capacity. The biochemical parameters were over expressed due to CCl4 administration, which were significantly normalized by CBL extract treatment. This finding was also supported by histopathological evidences showing less hepatocellularnecrosis, inflammation and fibrosis in CBL

  15. The mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, increases liver mitochondrial cardiolipin content in obesogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Fouret, Gilles; Tolika, Evanthia; Lecomte, Jérôme; Bonafos, Béatrice; Aoun, Manar; Murphy, Michael P; Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Dubreucq, Eric; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), a unique mitochondrial phospholipid, plays a key role in several processes of mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as in mitochondrial membrane stability and dynamics. The present study was designed to determine the effect of MitoQ, a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, on the content of liver mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, in particular CL, and its fatty acid composition in obesogenic diet-fed rats. To do this, twenty-four 6week old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups of 8 animals and fed for 8weeks with either a control diet, a high fat diet (HF), or a HF diet with MitoQ (HF+MitoQ). Phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition were assayed by chromatographic methods in liver and liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial bioenergetic function was also evaluated. While MitoQ had no or slight effects on total liver fatty acid composition and phospholipid classes and their fatty acid composition, it had major effects on liver mitochondrial phospholipids and mitochondrial function. Indeed, MitoQ both increased CL synthase gene expression and CL content of liver mitochondria and increased 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) content of mitochondrial phospholipids by comparison to the HF diet. Moreover, mitochondrial CL content was positively correlated to mitochondrial membrane fluidity, membrane potential and respiration, as well as to ATP synthase activity, while it was negatively correlated to mitochondrial ROS production. These findings suggest that MitoQ may decrease pathogenic alterations to CL content and profiles, thereby preserving mitochondrial function and attenuating the development of some of the features of metabolic syndrome in obesogenic diet-fed rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-fat diets rich in ω-3 or ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have distinct effects on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness.

    PubMed

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Gerd; Renne, Ulla; Nuernberg, Karin; Langhammer, Martina; Huber, Korinna; Breier, Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the response of muscle lipid peroxidation and the fatty-acid profile of three groups of mice-high body weight (DU6) obesity-prone mice, high treadmill performance (DUhTP) lean mice, and unselected control mice (DUK) fed high-fat diets (HFDs) rich in ω-3 or ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The isocaloric HFDs were enriched with either ω-3 PUFA (27% fish oil, ω-3 HFD) or ω-6 PUFA (27% sunflower oil, ω-6 HFD), and the control group was fed standard chow (7.2% fat). Statistical calculations were done with procedure GLM of SAS. As expected, the ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA-rich HFDs showed significant effects on fatty-acid concentrations of skeletal muscle in all three lines of mice compared with the standard chow. The investigations of muscle lipid peroxidation revealed that the ω-3 PUFA-rich HFD caused the highest lipid peroxidation values in muscle of lean DUhTP mice and unselected control DUK mice. However, lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in the obesity-prone DU6 mice. In contrast, the ω-6 PUFA-rich HFD did not influence lipid peroxidation in muscle of any of the different lines of mice. The present study suggests that a higher overall antioxidant capacity in the muscle tissue of obesity-prone DU6 mice may lead to lower levels of reactive oxygen species formation by ω-3 PUFA-rich HFDs in comparison with lean DUhTP mice. These studies raise the possibility that obesity per se may be protective against oxidative damage when high ω-3 PUFA diets are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of carotene rich diet with hypogonadism in a male athlete.

    PubMed

    Adamopoulos, Dimitrios; Venaki, Evangelia; Koukkou, Eftychia; Billa, Evangelia; Kapolla, Niki; Nicopoulou, Stamatina

    2006-07-01

    To report on a unique case of hypogonadism associated with excessive carotene intake in a young male athlete. A 20-year-old patient presented with a gradual decline in muscular and physical activity, sexual interest and erectile ability associated with a high in carotene and low in animal fat diet of his own design a year prior to the clinical manifestations. Clinically, he presented with very overt signs of carotene excess: his palms and soles were yellow. Moreover, 2 weeks after normalization of his diet, carotene B levels were at the upper end of the normal range. Repeated stimulation tests of hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular function were performed before and at 3, 6 and 12 months after the introduction of a balanced diet. Very low basal and stimulated values for gonadotropins and gonadal steroids were found at the initial evaluation with a progressive recovery shown after months of a balanced diet and carotene B restoration. Complete androgen secretion and sexual response recovery were observed only after 9-12 months from diagnosis. This is the first report associating excessive carotene intake with a hypothalamic form of hypogonadism in a young man.

  18. Functional-drink rich in antioxidant cardamom-rhizome (Amomum cardamomum willd) suppresses inflammation and improves lipid profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarsi, H.; Susilowati, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of functional drink rich in antioxidant cardamom rhizome (Fd-Carrhi) on level of IL-6, C-RP, and lipid profile of atherosclerotic. A total of 30 women with atherosclerosis, age 40-65 years old, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lived in Purwokerto, Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia, and were willing to sign informed consent, recruited as research subjects. They consumed simvastatin from doctors, divided by 3 groups of 10 people each. Group I, given Fd-Carrhi; II, placebo; and III, only simvastatin, for 2 months. As many as 100 ml of Fd-Carrhi or placebo were given every morning. Blood samples were taken 3 times, 1 ml, at baseline, 1 and 2 months after intervention. Blood plasma was determined levels of IL-6, C-RP, as well as total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TG), LDL-c, and HDL-c. Result showed Fd-Carrhi versus placebo significantly decreased plasma level of IL-6, C-RP, total-c, and LDL-c, and otherwise increased HDL-c, but no differences were seen in TG. The findings clearly support Fd-Carrhi inhibit the development of atherosclerosis towards cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) by suppressing IL-6 and CRP levels, and improving lipid profile.

  19. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation.

  20. Oral metformin treatment prevents enhanced insulin demand and placental dysfunction in the pregnant rat fed a fructose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Del Zotto, Hector; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Romero, Jose; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The intake of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in the normal female rat induces features similar to those observed in the human metabolic syndrome phenotype. We studied the impact of FRD administration to mothers on pregnancy outcome. On gestational day (Gd) zero rats were assigned to either group: ad libitum drinking tap water alone (normal diet, ND) or containing fructose (10% w/vol; FRD) through pregnancy; all rats were fed a Purina chow diet ad libitum ND and FRD rats were daily cotreated or not with metformin (60 mg/Kg/day oral; ND + MF and FRD + MF) and submitted to a high glucose load test on Gd 14. Additionally, placentas from different groups were studied on Gd 20. Data indicated that: (1) although FRD rats well tolerated glucose overload, their circulating levels of insulin were significantly higher than in ND rats; (2) the mesometrial triangle blood vessel area was significantly lower in placentas from FRD than ND dams; (3) the detrimental effects of FRD administration to mothers were ameliorated by metformin cotreatment. Our study suggests that excessive intake of fructose during pregnancy enhanced the risk for developing gestational diabetes and subsequent preeclampsia, and that metformin prevented the poor pregnancy outcome induced by FRD.

  1. Oral Metformin Treatment Prevents Enhanced Insulin Demand and Placental Dysfunction in the Pregnant Rat Fed a Fructose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Del Zotto, Hector; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Romero, Jose; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The intake of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in the normal female rat induces features similar to those observed in the human metabolic syndrome phenotype. We studied the impact of FRD administration to mothers on pregnancy outcome. On gestational day (Gd) zero rats were assigned to either group: ad libitum drinking tap water alone (normal diet, ND) or containing fructose (10% w/vol; FRD) through pregnancy; all rats were fed a Purina chow diet ad libitum ND and FRD rats were daily cotreated or not with metformin (60 mg/Kg/day oral; ND + MF and FRD + MF) and submitted to a high glucose load test on Gd 14. Additionally, placentas from different groups were studied on Gd 20. Data indicated that: (1) although FRD rats well tolerated glucose overload, their circulating levels of insulin were significantly higher than in ND rats; (2) the mesometrial triangle blood vessel area was significantly lower in placentas from FRD than ND dams; (3) the detrimental effects of FRD administration to mothers were ameliorated by metformin cotreatment. Our study suggests that excessive intake of fructose during pregnancy enhanced the risk for developing gestational diabetes and subsequent preeclampsia, and that metformin prevented the poor pregnancy outcome induced by FRD. PMID:22957268

  2. Metabolism, health and fillet nutritional quality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing n-3-rich microalgae.

    PubMed

    Kousoulaki, Katerina; Østbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter; Krasnov, Aleksei; Torgersen, Jacob Seilø; Mørkøre, Turid; Sweetman, John

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.

  3. Diet-induced thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are not different between lean and obese women after two different isocaloric meals, one rich in protein and one rich in fat.

    PubMed

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Pavlatos, Spyridon; Kokkinos, Alexander; Perrea, Despoina; Pagoni, Stamata; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    Reduction in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) may promote weight gain and maintenance. Data on differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese subjects are conflicting. In this study, we sought for differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese women after consumption of 2 different isocaloric meals, one rich in protein and one rich in fat. Fifteen lean and 15 obese women were studied on 2 occasions, 1 week apart. In one visit, they consumed a protein-rich meal; in the other visit, a fat-rich meal. The 2 meals were isocaloric ( approximately 2026 kJ each), of equal volume, and given in random order. Resting energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation rates were measured and calculated in the fasting state and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meal consumption. Diet-induced thermogenesis was not significantly different between lean and obese subjects after consumption of either the protein-rich (P = .59) or the fat-rich meal (P = .68). Diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly higher (by almost 3-fold) after consumption of the protein-rich meal in comparison with the fat-rich meal in both study groups. In addition, no significant differences in macronutrient oxidation rates were found between lean and obese women after the test meals. The results indicate that DIT is higher after protein intake than after fat intake in both lean and obese participants; however, DIT and macronutrient oxidation rate are not different between lean and obese subjects after consumption of either a protein-rich or a fat-rich meal. Over the long term, a low DIT after regular or frequent fat intake may contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity.

  4. High-fat diets rich in saturated fat protect against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Enos, Reilly T; Velázquez, Kandy T; McClellan, Jamie L; Cranford, Taryn L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Davis, J Mark; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-06-01

    High-fat-diet (HFD) consumption is associated with colon cancer risk. However, little is known about how the lipid composition of a HFD can influence prooncogenic processes. We examined the effects of three HFDs differing in the percentage of total calories from saturated fat (SF) (6, 12, and 24% of total caloric intake), but identical in total fat (40%), and a commercially available Western diet (26 and 41% saturated and total fat, respectively) on colon cancer development using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) murine model. A second dose-response experiment was performed using diets supplemented with the saturated-fatty-acid (SFA)-rich coconut oil. In experiment 1, we found an inverse association between SF content and tumor burden. Furthermore, increased SF content was associated with reduced inflammation, increased apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. The second dose-response experiment was performed to test whether this effect may be attributed to the SF content of the diets. Consistent with the initial experiment, we found that high SF content was protective, at least in male mice; there was a decrease in mortality in mice consuming the highest concentration of SFAs. To explore a potential mechanism for these findings, we examined colonic mucin 2 (Muc2) protein content and found that the HFDs with the highest SF content had the greatest concentration of Muc2. Our data suggest that high dietary SF is protective in the AOM/DSS model of colon cancer, which may be due, at least in part, to the ability of SF to maintain intestinal barrier integrity through increased colonic Muc2. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  6. Effect of GPR84 deletion on obesity and diabetes development in mice fed long chain or medium chain fatty acid rich diets.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, Eugene; Browne, Liam; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Massa, Helen M; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R

    2017-04-20

    Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice. Wild type (WT) and GPR84 knockout (KO) mice were fed a control, MCFA or LCFA diet, and body mass, heart, liver and epididymal fat mass was assessed, as well as glucose tolerance and adipocyte size. LCFA diets increased body mass and decreased glucose tolerance in both WT and GPR84 KO animals while MCFA diets had no effect on these parameters. There were no differences in body weight when comparing WT and GPR84 KO mice on the respective diets. Glucose tolerance was also similar in WT and GPR84 KO mice irrespective of diet. Liver mass was increased following LCFA feeding in WT but not GPR84 KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed MCFA, and myocardial triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed LCFA. GPR84 deletion had no effects on body weight or glucose tolerance in mice fed either a high MCFA or LCFA diet. GPR84 may influence lipid metabolism, as GPR84 KO mice had smaller livers and increased myocardial triglyceride accumulation when fed LCFA diets, and increased liver triglyceride accumulation in responses to increased dietary MCFAs.

  7. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  8. Effects of high-fat diet and fructose-rich diet on obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in the WBN/Kob-Leprfa rat, a new model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, Junichi; Takagi, Yoshiichi; Wakabayashi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuki; Watanabe, Ayaka; Nagakubo, Dai; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2017-06-10

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are occurring at epidemic-like rates, and these epidemics appear to have emerged largely from changes in daily diet. In the present study, we compared effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and fructose-rich diet (FRD) in WBN/Kob-Lepr fa (WBKDF) rats that spontaneously develop obesity, dyslipidemia and T2DM. After a 4-week feeding of each diet, WBKDF-HFD and WBKDF-FRD rats exhibited aggravated obesity and dyslipidemia compared with WBKDF rats fed standard diet (STD). In contrast, hyperglycemia developed in WBKDF-STD rats was significantly inhibited in WBKDF-FRD rats, but not in WBKDF-HFD rats. The present study demonstrated that the 4-week feeding of HFD and FRD caused diet-induced obesity with a distinct phenotype in the glucose metabolism in WBKDF rats.

  9. Effects of high-fat diet and fructose-rich diet on obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in the WBN/Kob-Leprfa rat, a new model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    NAMEKAWA, Junichi; TAKAGI, Yoshiichi; WAKABAYASHI, Kaoru; NAKAMURA, Yuki; WATANABE, Ayaka; NAGAKUBO, Dai; SHIRAI, Mitsuyuki; ASAI, Fumitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are occurring at epidemic-like rates, and these epidemics appear to have emerged largely from changes in daily diet. In the present study, we compared effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and fructose-rich diet (FRD) in WBN/Kob-Leprfa (WBKDF) rats that spontaneously develop obesity, dyslipidemia and T2DM. After a 4-week feeding of each diet, WBKDF-HFD and WBKDF-FRD rats exhibited aggravated obesity and dyslipidemia compared with WBKDF rats fed standard diet (STD). In contrast, hyperglycemia developed in WBKDF-STD rats was significantly inhibited in WBKDF-FRD rats, but not in WBKDF-HFD rats. The present study demonstrated that the 4-week feeding of HFD and FRD caused diet-induced obesity with a distinct phenotype in the glucose metabolism in WBKDF rats. PMID:28442647

  10. Low DHA and plasmalogens associated with a precise PUFA-rich diet devoid of DHA.

    PubMed

    Glick, Norris R; Fischer, Milton H

    2010-11-01

    Fatty acids, being multi-functional and partially diet-dependent, are crucial for health yet optimal dietary composition remains controversial. Previous work suggests that nutritionally-dependent populations live with significant fatty acid abnormalities despite abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. An analysis of fasting plasma phospholipids, including plasmalogens, and total fatty acids was conducted on twelve tube-fed people receiving a uniform diet which meets current polyunsaturated fatty acid intake recommendations, specifically, linoleic acid as 8.1% of energy and alpha-linolenic acid as 1.3% of energy for at least two years. Eicosapentaenoic- and docosahexaenoic acid-related phospholipids were low. In addition, C16:0- and C18:0-related plasmalogens, components of phospholipids, were low. Essential fatty acid deficiency as classically defined was not present. Based upon extensive clinical investigations in neuro-typical people, abnormalities of these key cell-membrane components may have undesirable clinical consequences. In particular, docosahexaenoic acid sufficiency needs to be assured. Comprehensive re-evaluation of current recommendations may be necessary. Copyright © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fructose-rich diet differently affects angiotensin II receptor content in the nucleus and a plasma membrane fraction of visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bundalo, Maja; Djordjevic, Ana; Bursac, Biljana; Zivkovic, Maja; Koricanac, Goran; Stanković, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is proposed to be a pathophysiological link between adipose tissue dysregulation and metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD). RAS can act intracellularly. We hypothesized that adipocyte nuclear membranes possess angiotensin receptor types 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R), which couple to nuclear signaling pathways and regulate oxidative gene expression under FRD conditions. We analyzed the effect of consumption of 10% fructose solution for 9 weeks on biochemical parameters, adipocyte morphology, and expression of AT1R, AT2R, AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in adipose tissue of Wistar rats. We detected AT1R and AT2R in the nuclear fraction. FRD reduced the level of angiotensin receptors in the nucleus, while increased AT1R and decreased AT2R levels were observed in the plasma membrane. FRD increased the ATRAP mRNA level and decreased MnSOD mRNA and protein levels. No significant differences were observed for MMP-9 and NOX4 mRNA levels. These findings coincided with hyperleptinemia, elevated blood pressure and triglycerides, and unchanged visceral adipose tissue mass and morphology in FRD rats. Besides providing evidence for nuclear localization of angiotensin receptors in visceral adipose tissue, this study demonstrates the different effects of FRD on AT1R expression in different cellular compartments. Elevated blood pressure and decreased antioxidant capacity in visceral fat of fructose-fed rats were accompanied by an increased AT1R level in the plasma membrane, while upregulation of ATRAP and a decrease of nuclear membrane AT1R suggest an increased capacity for attenuation of excessive AT1R signaling and visceral adiposity.

  12. Fatal hyperkalemia related to combined therapy with a COX-2 inhibitor, ACE inhibitor and potassium rich diet.

    PubMed

    Hay, Emile; Derazon, Hashmonai; Bukish, Natalia; Katz, Leonid; Kruglyakov, Igor; Armoni, Michael

    2002-05-01

    We describe the case of a 77-year old mildly hypertensive woman with no underlying renal disease who was admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) in a comatose state with fever. The patient had been on low dose enalapril and a potassium rich diet. Five days before admission, rofecoxib, a new selective COX-2 inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), was added for leg pain. She was found to have severe hyperkalemia and died 90 min after her arrival. We cannot absolutely determine whether the COX-2 inhibitor was the dominant contributor to the development of hyperkalemia or the combination itself, with an intercurrent infection and some degree of dehydration. Physicians should be aware of this possible complication and only prescribe NSAIDs, including the new COX-2 drugs, to the elderly under close monitoring of kidney function and electrolyte tests.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    PubMed

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  14. [The inhibitory effect of elastase on calcium increase in brain and spinal cord of rabbits with atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol-rich diet].

    PubMed

    Yasui, M; Yano, I; Yoshida, H; Yoshimasu, F; Ota, K; Oshima, A

    1989-08-01

    The aim of present experiment was to investigate the decalcified effects of exogenous elastase in liver, kidney and central nervous system (CNS) of rabbits with atherosclerosis experimentally induced by the modified procedure of Kritchevsky et al. Twenty five male rabbits, weighing approximately 2 kg, were divided into 6 groups. Animals were fed for 3 months with standard diet (group A), standard diet containing 1.5% cholesterol (group B) and 1.5% cholesterol-rich diet plus intraperitoneal (ip) daily administration of elastase 450 EL. U/kg (group C). Another groups were kept for 6 months with standard diet (group D), standard diet containing 0.67% cholesterol (group E) and 0.67% cholesterol-rich diet plus same dose of elastase (group F). The rabbits treated with cholesterol-rich diet were confirmed to be induced atherosclerosis biochemically as well as histologically. All groups were maintained under these conditions for experimental periods and allowed tap water. After 3 and 6 months, blood collected by cardiocentesis using ether anesthesia and then sacrificed to remove CNS and internal organs. Blood had stood for 1 hour at room temperature. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 10 min to determine total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, HDL-cholesterol, and so on. Calcium contents in the cerebral frontal lobe, cerebellum, pons, spinal cord, liver and kidney were measured by neutron activation analysis method. In this experiment the amelioration of atherosclerosis by ip administration of elastase was ascertained. In rabbits given cholesterol-rich diet, calcium content in CNS tissues was higher than that of another tissues and paralleled to a rise of serum cholesterol level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Inulin supplementation reduces the negative effect of a high-fat diet rich in SFA on bone health of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet, rich in SFA, causes deterioration of bone properties. Some studies suggest that feeding inulin to animals may increase mineral absorption and positively affect bone quality; however, these studies have been carried out only on rodents fed a standard diet. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of inulin on bone health of pigs (using it as an animal model for humans) fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA, having an unbalanced ratio of lysine:metabolisable energy. It was hypothesised that inulin reduces the negative effects of such a diet on bone health. At 50 d of age, twenty-one pigs were randomly allotted to three groups: the control (C) group fed a standard diet, and two experimental (T and TI) groups fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA. Moreover, TI pigs consumed an extra inulin supply (7 % of daily feed intake). After 10 weeks, whole-body bone mineral content (P=0·0054) and bone mineral density (P=0·0322) were higher in pigs of groups TI and C compared with those of group T. Femur bone mineral density was highest in pigs in group C, lower in group TI and lowest in group T (P=0·001). Femurs of pigs in groups TI and C had similar, but higher, maximum strength compared with femurs of pigs in group T (P=0·0082). In conclusion, consumption of a high-fat diet rich in SFA adversely affected bone health, but inulin supplementation in such a diet diminishes this negative effect.

  16. Anchovy mince (Engraulis ringens) enriched with polyphenol-rich grape pomace dietary fibre: In vitro polyphenols bioaccessibility, antioxidant and physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Solari-Godiño, A; Pérez-Jiménez, J; Saura-Calixto, F; Borderías, A J; Moreno, H M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate technological and antioxidant properties, including in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols, conferred on raw anchovy mince by the addition of polyphenol-rich grape pomace dietary fibre at different concentrations. For this purpose, headed and gutted anchovy was heat-flayed, deboned and mixed with 0%, 2%, 3%, 4% grape pomace dietary fibre. A significant increase (P<0.05) in the concentration of polyphenols and associated antioxidant capacity was detected when grape pomace dietary fibre was incorporated in a proportion of at least 2% of the final mixture. In vitro digestion showed that the higher the grape pomace dietary fibre content, the higher was the proportion of polyphenols reaching the large intestine. Additionally, it was observed that the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay seems to be more suitable for evaluating antioxidant capacity in this kind of samples than FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assay. Technological properties such as mechanical and water holding, as well as sensory scores, indicated excellent qualities and acceptability of all samples. Hence, given the good acceptance of these samples, it should be feasible to make fish products based on mince anchovy as a means of increasing dietary intake of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity, especially considering the high concentration of polyphenols bioaccessible in the large intestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-property studies on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids present in diet.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Susana; Siquet, Christophe; Alves, Carla; Boal, Isabel; Marques, M Paula; Borges, Fernanda; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette

    2005-10-15

    The screening of natural flavonoids for their bioactivity as antioxidants is usually carried out by determinination of their profile as chain-breaking antioxidants, by the evaluation of their direct free radical-scavenging activity as hydrogen- or electron-donating compounds. Since this may not be the only mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity it is important to check the ability of these compounds to act as chelators of transition metal ions. Accordingly, in the present study the acidity constants of catechin and taxifolin, as well as the formation constants of the corresponding copper (II) complexes, were investigated by potentiometry and/or spectrophotometry. Moreover, a detailed quantitative examination of the coordination species formed is presented. In addition, the partition coefficients of both catechin and taxifolin in a biomimetic system (micelles) were determined, since these properties may also contribute to the antioxidant behavior of this type of compound. The log P values determined depend on the electrostatic interactions of the compounds with the differently charged micelles (the highest values were obtained for zwitterionic and cationic micelles). The prooxidant behavior of the compounds was assessed through the oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine, induced by a Fenton reaction, catalyzed by copper. The data obtained reveal that the flavonoids under study did not present prooxidant activity, in this particular system. The results obtained are evidence of a clear difference among the pKa, the complexation properties, and the lipophilicity of the flavonoids studied, which can partially explain their distinct antioxidant activity. The most stable geometries of the free compounds were determined by theoretical (ab initio) methods, in order to properly account for the electron correlation effects which occur in these systems, thus allowing a better interpretation of the experimental data.

  18. Effect of dietary antioxidants, training, and performance correlates on antioxidant status in competitive rowers.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Hopkins, Will G; Lowe, Timothy E

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance. To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes. Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization. With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (-.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24). Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does.

  19. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Iselde; Medeiros, Niara; dos Santos Lacerda, Denise; Normann, Carlos Augusto B. M.; Gemelli, Tanise; Rigon, Paula; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ) or organic (OGJ) grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD) for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), catalase (CAT) activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations. PMID:26784874

  20. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A diet low in animal fat and rich in N-hexacosanol and fisetin is effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Renoudet, Virginia V; Costa-Mallen, Paola; Hopkins, Elwood

    2012-08-01

    This study describes how foods rich in fisetin and hexacosanol added to a strict diet reversed most symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in one patient. This is a case report involving outpatient care. The subject was a dietitian diagnosed with idiopathic PD in 2000 at the age of 53 years old, with a history of exposure to neurotoxins and no family history of PD. A basic diet started in 2000 consisted of predominantly fruits, vegetables, 100% whole grains, extra virgin olive oil, nuts, seeds, nonfat milk products, tea, coffee, spices, small amounts of dark chocolate, and less than 25 g of animal fat daily. The basic diet alone failed to prevent decline due to PD. In 2009, the basic diet was enhanced with a good dietary source of both fisetin and hexacosanol. Six months after the patient started the enhanced diet rich in fisetin and hexacosanol, a clinically significant improvement in symptoms was noted; the patient's attending neurologist reported that the clinical presentation of cogwheel rigidity, micrographia, bradykinesia, dystonia, constricted arm swing with gait, hypomimia, and retropulsion appeared to be resolved. The only worsening of symptoms occurred when the diet was not followed precisely. Little improvement in tremor or seborrhea was observed. The clinical improvement has persisted to date. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case where adjunctive diet therapy resulted in a significant reduction of symptoms of PD without changing the type or increasing the amount of medications.

  2. Fat-soluble vitamins and plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in chylothorax pediatric patients receiving a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Wongarn, Renu; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Phuangphan, Phakkanan; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2014-11-01

    Post-operative chylothorax can be cured by a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-rich diet. However, there is concern that an MCT-rich diet results in clinical and biochemical deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. We compared fat-soluble vitamins status and fatty acids status before and after administration of an MCT-rich diet. Nine children with congenital heart disease developed chylothorax after cardiac surgery. Blood samples were drawn from each subject twice, first prior to administration of an MCT-rich diet and secondly when the chylothorax was clinically cured and the MCT diet discontinued. Both blood samples were analyzed for retinol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, the ratio of α-tocopherol to total lipids (α-TE/TL), coagulogram, and the fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. In spite of a decrease in the α-TE/TL ratio (3.78 ± 0.89 vs 2.36 ± 0.44 mg/g, p<0.05), this decrease did not reach the deficiency cut-off level. Linoleic acid in both plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids decreased significantly (25.25 ± 8.06 vs 14.25 ± 2.88%, and 11.19 ± 2.15 vs 6.89 ± 2.45%, respectively). Administration of an MCT-rich diet for treatment of postoperative chylothorax caused a reduction in vitamin E status and linoleic acid, but without any symptoms of deficiency.

  3. Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    High energy diets have been shown to impair cognition however, the rapidity of these effects, and the dietary component/s responsible are currently unclear. We conducted two experiments in rats to examine the effects of short-term exposure to a diet rich in sugar and fat or rich in sugar on object (perirhinal-dependent) and place (hippocampal-dependent) recognition memory, and the role of inflammatory mediators in these responses. In Experiment 1, rats fed a cafeteria style diet containing chow supplemented with lard, cakes, biscuits, and a 10% sucrose solution performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task, than chow fed control rats when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. In Experiment 2, rats fed the cafeteria style diet either with or without sucrose and rats fed chow supplemented with sucrose also performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. Rats fed the cafeteria diets consumed five times more energy than control rats and exhibited increased plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations; these were not affected in the sucrose only rats. Rats exposed to sucrose exhibited both increased hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA) and oxidative stress, as indicated by an upregulation of NRF1 mRNA compared to control rats. In contrast, these markers were not significantly elevated in rats that received the cafeteria diet without added sucrose. Hippocampal BDNF and neuritin mRNA were similar across all groups. These results show that relatively short exposures to diets rich in both fat and sugar or rich in sugar, impair hippocampal-dependent place recognition memory prior to the emergence of weight differences, and suggest a role for oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in this impairment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mineral-Rich Extract from the Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Preserves Bone Structure and Function in Female Mice on a Western-Style Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; DaSilva, Marissa; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of bone mineral loss. Sixty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet: the first group received a high-fat Western-style diet (HFWD), the second group was fed the same HFWD along with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement, and the third group was used as a control and was fed a low-fat rodent chow diet (AIN76A). Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Then, long bones (femora and tibiae) from both males and females were analyzed by three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and (bones from female mice) concomitantly assessed in bone strength studies. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteocalcin, and N-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were assessed in plasma samples obtained from female mice at the time of sacrifice. To summarize, female mice on the HFWD had reduced bone mineralization and reduced bone strength relative to female mice on the low-fat chow diet. The bone defects in female mice on the HFWD were overcome in the presence of the mineral-rich supplement. In fact, female mice receiving the mineral-rich supplement in the HFWD had better bone structure/function than did female mice on the low-fat chow diet. Female mice on the mineral-supplemented HFWD had higher plasma levels of TRAP than mice of the other groups. There were no differences in the other two markers. Male mice showed little diet-specific differences by micro-CT. PMID:20180099

  5. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  6. Orange juice, a marker of diet quality, contributes to essential micronutrient and antioxidant intakes in the United States population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Wang, Ying; Lloyd, Beate; Chung, Sang-Jin; Song, Won O; Chun, Ock K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of 100% orange juice (OJ) on the healthy diet and micronutrient intakes of the United States population. Cross-sectional study of 13,971 people in the United States aged ≥ 4 years using 2 24-hour diet recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. Consumption of OJ was higher among 4- to 8-year-old children, older adults (> 50 y old), non-Hispanic blacks, those with lower body mass index, those of lower income level, nonsmokers, dietary supplement users, and those participating in regular exercise (P < .05). Consumption of OJ was positively associated with the percentage of participants meeting MyPyramid recommendations for fruit consumption. Increased OJ consumption was correlated with increased daily intakes of certain micronutrients and antioxidants (P < .05). Percentages of participants with intakes below Estimated Average Requirements for these micronutrients decreased with increased OJ consumption (P < .001). The implicated nutritional and potential health benefits of OJ warrant further investigation in clinical research studies. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Mineral-Rich Red Algae Extract Inhibits Polyp Formation and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas), could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. Sixty C57bl/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat “Western style” diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Autopsies were performed at the time of death or at the completion of the study. To summarize, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in mice on the HFWD during the 15 month period (55%) than in mice from the low-fat diet or the extract-supplemented high-fat diet groups (20% and 30%, respectively; p<0.05 with respect to both). Autopsies revealed colon polyps in 20% of the animals on the HFWD and none in animals of the other two groups (p<0.05). In addition to the grossly visible polyps, areas of hyperplasia in the colonic mucosa and inflammatory foci throughout the gastrointestinal tract were observed histologically in animals on the high-fat diet. Both were significantly reduced in animals on the low-fat diet and animals on the extract-supplemented HFWD. These data suggest that the mineral-rich algae extract may provide a novel approach to chemoprevention in the colon. PMID:20150219

  8. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  9. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  11. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Makpol, Suzana; Yeoh, Thong Wei; Ruslam, Farah Adilah Che; Arifin, Khaizurin Tajul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2013-08-16

    Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs.

  12. Perinatal low-protein diet alters brainstem antioxidant metabolism in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Liu, Yuri; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans and animal models have established a close relationship between early environment insult and subsequent risk of development of non-communicable diseases, including the cardiovascular. Whereas experimental evidences highlight the early undernutrition and the late cardiovascular disease relation, the central mechanisms linking the two remain unknown. Owing to the oxidative balance influence in several pathologies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal undernutrition (i.e. a low-protein (LP) diet) on oxidative balance in the brainstem. Male rats from mothers fed with an LP diet (8% casein) throughout the perinatal period (i.e. gestation and lactation) showed 10× higher lipid peroxidation levels than animals treated with normoprotein (17% casein) at 100 days of age. In addition, we observed the following reductions in enzymatic activities: superoxide dismutase, 16%; catalase, 30%; glutathione peroxidase, 34%; glutathione-S-transferase, 51%; glutathione reductase, 23%; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 31%; and in non-enzymatic glutathione system, 46%. This study is the first to focus on the role of maternal LP nutrition in oxidative balance in a central nervous system structure responsible for cardiovascular control in adult rats. Our data observed changes in oxidative balance in the offspring, therefore, bring a new concept related to early undernutrition and can help in the development of a new clinical strategy to combat the effects of nutritional insult. Wherein the central oxidative imbalance is a feasible mechanism underlying the hypertension risk in adulthood triggered by maternal LP diet.

  13. Exome Sequencing Provides Evidence of Polygenic Adaptation to a Fat-Rich Animal Diet in Indigenous Siberian Populations.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Hallmark, Brian; Watkins, Joseph; Karafet, Tatiana M; Osipova, Ludmila P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F

    2017-11-01

    Siberia is one of the coldest environments on Earth and has great seasonal temperature variation. Long-term settlement in northern Siberia undoubtedly required biological adaptation to severe cold stress, dramatic variation in photoperiod, and limited food resources. In addition, recent archeological studies show that humans first occupied Siberia at least 45,000 years ago; yet our understanding of the demographic history of modern indigenous Siberians remains incomplete. In this study, we use whole-exome sequencing data from the Nganasans and Yakuts to infer the evolutionary history of these two indigenous Siberian populations. Recognizing the complexity of the adaptive process, we designed a model-based test to systematically search for signatures of polygenic selection. Our approach accounts for stochasticity in the demographic process and the hitchhiking effect of classic selective sweeps, as well as potential biases resulting from recombination rate and mutation rate heterogeneity. Our demographic inference shows that the Nganasans and Yakuts diverged ∼12,000-13,000 years ago from East-Asian ancestors in a process involving continuous gene flow. Our polygenic selection scan identifies seven candidate gene sets with Siberian-specific signals. Three of these gene sets are related to diet, especially to fat metabolism, consistent with the hypothesis of adaptation to a fat-rich animal diet. Additional testing rejects the effect of hitchhiking and favors a model in which selection yields small allele frequency changes at multiple unlinked genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of a metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose-rich diet on bone metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Felice, Juan Ignacio; Gangoiti, María Virginia; Molinuevo, María Silvina; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were: first, to evaluate the possible effects of a fructose rich diet (FRD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS) on different aspects of long bone histomorphometry in young male rats; second, to investigate the effects of this diet on bone tissue regeneration; and third, to correlate these morphometric alterations with changes in the osteogenic/adipogenic potential and expression of specific transcription factors, of marrow stromal cells (MSC) isolated from rats with fructose-induced MS. MS was induced in rats by treatment with a FRD for 28 days. Halfway through treatment, a parietal wound was made and bone healing was evaluated 14 days later. After treatments, histomorphometric analysis was performed in dissected femoral and parietal bones. MSC were isolated from the femora of control or fructose-treated rats and differentiated either to osteoblasts (evaluated by type 1 collagen, Alkaline phosphatase and extracellular nodule mineralization) or to adipocytes (evaluated by intracellular triglyceride accumulation). Expression of Runx2 and PPARγ was assessed by Western blot. Fructose-induced MS induced deleterious effects on femoral metaphysis microarchitecture and impaired bone regeneration. Fructose treatment decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and Runx2 expression. In addition, it increased the adipogenic commitment of MSC and PPARγ expression. Fructose-induced MS is associated with deleterious effects on bone microarchitecture and with a decrease in bone repair. These alterations could be due to a deviation in the adipogenic/osteogenic commitment of MSC, probably by modulation of the Runx2/PPARγ ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-03-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  16. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    PubMed

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  18. Production of proline-rich proteins by the parotid glands of rats is enhanced by feeding diets containing tannins from faba beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Jansman, A J; Frohlich, A A; Marquardt, R R

    1994-02-01

    Feeding a casein-based diet with either 400 g/kg of tannin-containing faba bean hulls (Vicia faba L.) (1.41% condensed tannins) or 60 g/kg of a tannin-rich hull extract of faba beans (1.99% condensed tannins) to rats over a period of 7 d resulted in a 2.6 and 1.5 fold increase in weight of the parotid glands, respectively, (P < 0.05) and a corresponding 5.5 and 3.7 fold increase in the level of proline-rich proteins in the glands (P < 0.05). In a dose-response experiment, increasing the level of tannin-rich hull extract in the diet (0.0, 3.8, 7.5, 15.0, 30.0 and 60.0 g/kg) resulted in a linear increase in both the relative size of parotid glands (R2 = 0.90; P < 0.05) and the quantity of proline-rich proteins in the glands (R2 = 0.89; P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of total (R2 = 0.97) and individual amino acids (R2 varied from 0.27 to 0.99) decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The quantity of proline-rich proteins in the cecum of rats was estimated from the decrease in digestibility of proline, glycine and glutamic acid. The estimated secretions of proline-rich proteins, when calculated on the basis of the three respective amino acids, were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.9 mg of proline-rich proteins per 10 mg of additional hull extract (21.8% condensed tannins). The results indicate that tannins from faba beans stimulate the parotid glands to increase the secretion of proline-rich proteins in rats. The proline-rich proteins then interact with dietary condensed tannins to reduce their antinutritional effects.

  19. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  20. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  1. The hypolipidemic action of a diet supplemented with p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide is not directly related to its antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Sartori Oliveira, Carla Elena; Pinton, Simone; da Rocha, Juliana Trevisan; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated whether a p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet causes toxicity in rats. A second aim of this study was to determine whether a 10 ppm (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet has hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. To rule out the antioxidant property of (MeOPhSe)2 in its hypolipidemic action, parameters of oxidative stress were carried out. Wistar rats were fed with 3, 10, or 30 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet for 30 days. None of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diets caused alteration in general parameters of toxicity and lipid profile of rats. The hypolipidemic effect of 10 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet on rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was investigated. The (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet partially protected against the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-C and reduced the atherogenic index (AI) increased by Triton WR-1339 in rats. A positive correlation between TC and triglyceride levels (r = 0.679) and non-HDL-C levels (r = 0.929) and AI (r = 0.889) was demonstrated. Triton WR-1339 altered parameters of oxidative stress in livers of rats but (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet did not protect against these alterations. The results demonstrated that the hypolipidemic action of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet is not directly related to its antioxidant property and devoid of systemic toxicity in rats at the parameters analyzed.

  2. Transient feeding of a concentrate-rich diet increases the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Qumar, M; Wetzels, S U; Klevenhusen, F; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pattern of concentrate-rich feeding on subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), its severity, and the corresponding changes in VFA concentration. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were assigned to a 2 × 2 crossover design with 2 SARA challenge models and 2 experimental runs ( = 8 per treatment). Each run lasted for 40 d, consisting of a 6-d baseline, a 6-d gradual grain adaptation, and a 28-d SARA challenge period. The 2 SARA challenge models were transient (TRA) and persistent (PER) SARA. Initially, all cows were subjected to a forage-only diet (baseline) and gradually switched to 60% concentrate (DM basis). Then, cows in the PER model were continuously challenged for 28 d, whereas cows in the TRA model had a 7-d break from the SARA diet and were fed the forage-only diet after the first 7 d of SARA challenge. Thereafter, the TRA cows were rechallenged with the SARA diet. Wireless ruminal pH sensors were used to obtain ruminal pH profiles and temperature over the experimental period. For the determination of VFA, free ruminal liquid (FRL) and particle-associated ruminal liquid (PARL) were collected once for the baseline and twice (d 20 and 40 for the PER model) or 3 times (d 13, 30, and 40 for the TRA model) during SARA, each time at 0, 4, and 8 h after the morning feeding. Cows in both models experienced SARA albeit with day-to-day variation. From the start until the first 7-d SARA, cows of both models had similar pH profiles, but during the rechallenge, SARA was more severe in the TRA model than in the PER model based on lower daily mean ruminal pH (5.93 vs. 6.15; SEM 0.058) and double the amount of time at pH < 5.8 (497 vs. 278 min; SEM 68.61, < 0.05). Mean ruminal temperature was raised during SARA compared with the baseline (38.9 vs. 38.7°C; SEM 0.057, < 0.001). Concentrations of VFA increased with increasing time after feeding ( < 0.001). In general, SARA challenge (d 40 vs. the baseline), but not

  3. Volatile N-nitrosamine inhibition after intake Korean green tea and Maesil (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZACC.) extracts with an amine-rich diet in subjects ingesting nitrate.

    PubMed

    Choi, S Y; Chung, M J; Sung, N J

    2002-07-01

    The formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines under simulated gastric conditions was studied during the incubation of amine rich food and nitrate, and its possible inhibition by adding kumquat, sweet orange, strawberry, garlic, kale juices, Maesil (Prunus mume) and green tea extracts. The strawberry, kale juices, Maesil and green tea extracts were equally effective in reducing the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The fruits of P. mume SIEB. et ZACC. (Korean name, Maesil) have been used as a traditional drug and health food in Korea. During four weeks of test (designated EW1, EW2, EW3 and EW4; experiment week 1, 2, 3 and 4 diets) volunteers consumed a diet of low nitrate and amine (EW1) and consumed a fish meal rich in amines as nitrosatable precursors in combination with intake of nitrate-containing drinking water without (EW2) or with Maesil and green tea extracts (EW3 and EW4, respectively). The intake of nitrate-containing drinking water (340 mg nitrate/100 ml) resulted in a significant rise in mean salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations and in mean urinary nitrate levels. Mean urinary nitrate was increased to 455.0+/-66.2, 334.6+/-67.8 and 333.4+/-50.7 mg/18 h after the nitrate intake of EW2, EW3 and EW4, respectively. Significant increases in urinary dimethylamine and trimethylamine levels were observed in consumption of diets (EW2, EW3, and EW4) rich in amine and nitrate. Maesil and green tea extract in EW3 and EW4 enhanced the increase of urinary dimethylamine and trimethylamine levels. Urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in consumption of diet rich in nitrate and amine (EW2) increased to 6504.4+/-2638.7 ng/18 h from 257.0+/-112.0 ng/18 h of low nitrate and amine diet (EW1). Korean green tea and Maesil extracts in nitrate and amine rich diet reduced the excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine to 249.7+/-90.6 and 752.7+/-595.3 ng/18 h, respectively, compared with 6504.4+/-2638.7 ng /18 h after ingestion of TD1 diet.

  4. Vegetarian diets and public health: biomarker and redox connections.

    PubMed

    Benzie, Iris F F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2010-11-15

    Vegetarian diets are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals. However, they may not act as antioxidants in vivo, and yet still have important signaling and regulatory functions. Some may act as pro-oxidants, modulating cellular redox tone and oxidizing redox sensitive sites. In this review, evidence for health benefits of vegetarian diets is presented from different perspectives: epidemiological, biomarker, evolutionary, and public health, as well as antioxidant. From the perspective of molecular connections between diet and health, evidence of a role for plasma ascorbic acid as a biomarker for future disease risk is presented. Basic concepts of redox-based cell signaling are presented, and effects of antioxidant phytochemicals on signaling, especially via redox tone, sulfur switches and the Antioxidant Response Element (ARE), are explored. Sufficient scientific evidence exists for public health policy to promote a plant-rich diet for health promotion. This does not need to wait for science to provide all the answers as to why and how. However, action and interplay of dietary antioxidants in the nonequilibrium systems that control redox balance, cell signaling, and cell function provide rich ground for research to advance understanding of orthomolecular nutrition and provide science-based evidence to advance public health in our aging population.

  5. Influence of boron supplementation on performance, immunity and antioxidant status of lambs fed diets with or without adequate level of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Verma, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about biological significance of effects of dietary Boron (B) and Calcium (Ca) interaction on health and production of farm animals. This is a preliminary investigation to evaluate the effects of B supplementation in lambs fed diets with (normal) or without adequate (low) levels of Ca. Twenty-four crossbred ram lambs were randomly distributed into four groups with six animals each in a 2x2 factorial design namely, normal-Ca diet (NCa) and low-Ca diet (LCa) fed without or with 40 ppm B (NCaB-40 and LCaB-40). The lambs were fed paddy straw and hybrid napier hay-based total mixed ration (60 roughage: 40 concentrate) during 180 days experimental period. Compared to control, the LCa diet lowered (P<0.01) average daily gain of lambs, but B-supplementation (LCaB-40) of the same nullified the effect. The lowered (P<0.05) total antioxidant activity and humoral immune response in lambs fed LCa diet were restored (P>0.05) to become at par with the control (NCa) upon supplementation of B (LCaB-40). The mRNA expression of SOD1 was lowered (P<0.05) due to LCa diet feeding which too was normalized on B-supplementation to become at par (P>0.05) with the control (NCa). Further, B-supplementation restored lowered (P<0.05) SOD1 gene expression on LCa diet, but enhanced (P<0.05) that in NCaB-40 group, when compared to the control (NCa) diet fed animals. However, these variations were not reflected in the SOD activity in the erythrocytes. The cell-mediated immune response was higher (P<0.05) in lambs fed LCa and LCaB-40 groups and there was no significant interaction between the levels of either Ca or B in diets with the period of immune response measurement. B- supplementation of LCa diet ameliorated tissue degenerative changes in liver and kidney. It was concluded that feeding LCa diet to lambs resulted in reduced growth rate, total antioxidant activity, humoral immune response along with degenerative changes in liver and kidney tissues, but B-supplementation of such

  6. Instant coffee as a source of antioxidant-rich and sugar-free coloured compounds for use in bakery: Application in biscuits.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cláudia P; Kukurová, Kristína; Basil, Eva; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Neto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Murkovic, Michael; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-09-15

    Ammonia caramels are the most common antioxidant colour agent used in bakery formulations, although their high sugars content. An alternative could be coffee melanoidins, which are brown coloured compounds with antioxidant properties, readily available from instant coffee. However, high caffeine content is limiting its direct application. To evaluate the possibility of obtaining coloured melanoidin-rich, sugars- and caffeine-poor fractions from instant coffee, in this work, simple procedures based on their ethanol insolubility (fraction EtPp) or retention by ultrafiltration (fraction HWSn) were exploited. Melanoidins incorporation into biscuits formulation (amounts of 1, 5 and 10% w/w related to flour content) resulted in acceptable coloured products with higher antioxidant activity. The biscuits supplemented with 1% EtPp or HWSn had a low caffeine content. The caffeine of one espresso coffee was equivalent to 130 biscuits containing EtPp and 31 biscuits containing HWSn. Besides, both fractions did not promote extra formation of acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during baking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and cross-cultural consumer rejection threshold in white and red wines functionally enhanced with catechin-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yung J; Saliba, Anthony J; Prenzler, Paul D; Ryan, Danielle

    2012-01-11

    White and red wines spiked with catechin-rich green tea extract and grape seed extract were assessed for phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and cross-cultural consumer rejection thresholds in relation to wine as a functional food. Health functionality is an important factor in functional foods, and spiking pure compounds or plant extracts is an effective method to increase or control functionality. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured in wines spiked to different extract concentrations, namely, control and 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/L, to confirm the dose-response curves in both white and red wines. Consumer rejection thresholds (CRTs) were established for spiked wines in a Korean and in an Australian population. Our results showed that the green tea extract and grape seed extract increased the antioxidant activity dose dependently, and the CRTs varied considerably between the Korean and the Australian groups, with Koreans preferring wines spiked with green tea extract and Australians showing a preference for wines spiked with grape seed extract. These results have implications for producing wine products that are enhanced in phenolic compounds and targeted to different cultural groups.

  8. Antioxidant potential of Haematococcus pluvialis extract rich in astaxanthin on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Brodowska, Marta; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Astaxanthin is proven to be one of the most potent, naturally occurring antioxidants. A rich source of astaxanthin is algae Haematoccocus pluvialis (H. pluvialis). The aim of the study was to investigate antioxidant effect of H. pluvalis extract added in different levels (0.15, 0.3 or 0.45g/kg of meat) on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (7days). Obtained data revealed that DPPH scavenging activity of the extract at the concentration of 0.45g/kg of meat was as high as 85%. Moreover, application of higher extract doses (0.3 and 0.45g/kg) delayed lipids oxidation (lower TBARS value than control) and improved colour stability (increased a* colour parameter). Additionally, usage of 0.3 and 0.45g/kg had a positive effect on meat acceptance declared by consumers' at the final day of storage. However, the extract of H. pluvialis had no antimicrobial or antioxidative activity against myoglobin oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioavailability of phenolics from an oleuropein-rich olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract and its acute effect on plasma antioxidant status: comparison between pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, R; Larrosa, M; Possemiers, S; Tomás-Barberán, F A; Espín, J C

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical studies suggest a potential protective effect of oleuropein in osteoporosis, and one of the proposed mechanisms is the modulation of the oxidative stress. Oleuropein bioavailability and its effect on antioxidant status in pre- and postmenopausal women are unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oral bioavailability of an olive leaf extract rich in oleuropein (40 %) and its effect on antioxidant status in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women. Premenopausal (n = 8) and postmenopausal women (n = 8) received 250 mg of olive leaf extract, blood samples (t = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h) were taken, and 24-h urine divided into five fractions was collected. Olive-leaf-extract-derived metabolites were analyzed in plasma and urine by HPLC-ESI-QTOF and UPLC-ESI-QqQ, and pharmacokinetics parameters were determined. Ferric reducing antioxidant ability and malondialdehyde levels were measured in plasma. Plasma levels of hydroxytyrosol glucuronide, hydroxytyrosol sulfate, oleuropein aglycon glucuronide and oleuropein aglycon derivative 1 were higher in postmenopausal women. MDA levels were significantly decreased (32%) in postmenopausal women and inversely correlated with hydroxytyrosol sulfate levels. Postmenopausal women excreted less sulfated metabolites in urine than premenopausal women. Our results suggest that postmenopausal women could be a target population for the intake of olive phenolics in order to prevent age-related and oxidative stress-related processes such as osteoporosis.

  10. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (P<0.05 in both cases). Diets supplemented with peeled red and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their peels have increased the plasma antioxidant capacity and improved plasma lipid levels, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  11. Employing photoacoustic spectroscopy in the evaluation of the skin permeation profile of emulsion containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of Melochia arenosa.

    PubMed

    Tunin, Luana Magri; Borghi, Fernanda Belincanta; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Higachi, Luciana; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Diniz, Andréa; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important factor modulating skin alterations. Melochia arenosa Benth. (Malvaceae) is a Brazilian plant with antimicrobial activity and antioxidant potential. The objective of this study is to develop a topical formulation containing antioxidant phenolic-rich extract of M. arenosa and to evaluate its skin permeation profile. Response surface methodology was used to maximize the total phenolic (TP) content of the extract and its antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and respiratory burst methods. An emulsion containing 1% optimized extract (OE) was developed and employed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for the determination of its skin permeation profile. The morphology of the skin was studied in histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The optimum conditions predicted for the major extractive efficiency of the phenolics with 100% ethanol led extraction time 101 h and plant:solvent proportion 1:13.5 (w/v). OE presented TP = 724.6 ± 8.2 mg GAE/g extract and scavenging capacity of DPPH (IC50 value = 11.43 ± 0.14 µg/mL) and ABTS radicals (IC50 value = 35.42 ± 0.48 µg/mL). The production of ROS by neutrophils after stimulation with phorbol miristate acetate was lower when the OE was present in the reaction medium, endorsing its high antioxidant capacity. The data obtained by PAS indicated that the OE present in the emulsion has permeated and was distributed in the whole skin. No histopathological alterations were observed in the histological analysis. The formulation developed is a promising tool for skin care and could prevent the damage caused by oxidative stress.

  12. Consumption of a diet rich in Brassica vegetables is associated with a reduced abundance of sulphate‐reducing bacteria: A randomised crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Kellingray, Lee; Tapp, Henri S.; Saha, Shikha; Doleman, Joanne F.; Narbad, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    Scope We examined whether a Brassica‐rich diet was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of intestinal lactobacilli and sulphate‐reducing bacteria (SRB), or alteration to the composition of the gut microbiota, in healthy adults. Methods and results A randomised crossover study was performed with ten healthy adults who were fed a high‐ and a low‐Brassica diet for 2‐wk periods, with a 2‐wk washout phase separating the diets. The high‐Brassica diet consisted of six 84 g portions of broccoli, six 84 g portions of cauliflower and six 300 g portions of a broccoli and sweet potato soup. The low‐Brassica diet consisted of one 84 g portion of broccoli and one 84 g portion of cauliflower. Faecal microbiota composition was measured in samples collected following 2‐wk Brassica‐free periods (consumption of all Brassica prohibited), and after each diet, whereby the only Brassica consumed was that supplied by the study team. No significant changes to the relative abundance of lactobacilli were observed (p = 0.8019). The increased consumption of Brassica was associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of SRB (p = 0.0215), and members of the Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiales (p < 0.01). Conclusion The increased consumption of Brassica vegetables was linked to a reduced relative abundance of SRB, and therefore may be potentially beneficial to gastrointestinal health. PMID:28296348

  13. Consumption of a diet rich in Brassica vegetables is associated with a reduced abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria: A randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kellingray, Lee; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Doleman, Joanne F; Narbad, Arjan; Mithen, Richard F

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether a Brassica-rich diet was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of intestinal lactobacilli and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), or alteration to the composition of the gut microbiota, in healthy adults. A randomised crossover study was performed with ten healthy adults who were fed a high- and a low-Brassica diet for 2-wk periods, with a 2-wk washout phase separating the diets. The high-Brassica diet consisted of six 84 g portions of broccoli, six 84 g portions of cauliflower and six 300 g portions of a broccoli and sweet potato soup. The low-Brassica diet consisted of one 84 g portion of broccoli and one 84 g portion of cauliflower. Faecal microbiota composition was measured in samples collected following 2-wk Brassica-free periods (consumption of all Brassica prohibited), and after each diet, whereby the only Brassica consumed was that supplied by the study team. No significant changes to the relative abundance of lactobacilli were observed (p = 0.8019). The increased consumption of Brassica was associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of SRB (p = 0.0215), and members of the Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiales (p < 0.01). The increased consumption of Brassica vegetables was linked to a reduced relative abundance of SRB, and therefore may be potentially beneficial to gastrointestinal health. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. [Influence of the lutein-rich products consumption on its supply in diet of individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)].

    PubMed

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was analysis of the influence of the lutein-rich products consumption on its supply in diet of individuals with age-related macular degeneration The object of conducted analysis were 127 nutrition questionnaires from 64 individuals with AMD (44 female, 20 male) and 63 without AMD--control group (49 female, 14 male). The age of participants was 50-88. The nutrition questionnaire concerned: AMD and its course, consumption of lutein-rich products and lutein supplementation. Lutein supply was assessed on the base of most often consumed products and lutein content in typical servings as well as on the base of applied supplementation. Patients with AMD, in comparison with control group, were significantly more often choosing green bean, parsley, dill (Anethum graveolens) and young beetroot leaves, as well as were consuming more diversified lutein-rich products. Lutein supply from diet was significanly increased in case of spinach consumption (very high in lutein) and broccoli consumption (high in lutein and chosen relatively often). Other products did not cause increase of lutein supply from diet, even if they evoked increase of lutein content in the typical serving or of quantity of servings. Patients with AMD, in comparison with healthy individuals, more often consume lutein-rich products, but lutein supply from diet in both groups do not differ. Significant increase of lutein supply may be achieved only by consumption of products characterized by the highest content of it. Patients with AMD, in comparison with healthy individuals, more often apply lutein supplementation, that influences lutein daily supply.

  15. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lee-Young, Robert S; Mayes, Wesley H; James, Freyja D; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2(Tg)), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcat(Tg)), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H(2)O(2) emitting potential (JH(2)O(2)) in muscle fibers. sod2(Tg) did not decrease JH(2)O(2) in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH(2)O(2) in HF-fed mice. mcat(Tg) and mtAO decreased JH(2)O(2) in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2(Tg) in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and both chow- and HF-fed mcat(Tg) and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and mcat(Tg) mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state.

  16. Diets high in total antioxidant capacity improve risk biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: a 9-month observational study among overweight/obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S; Chun, Ock K

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of typical diets is associated with higher plasma TAC and antioxidant enzyme activities. At present, however, little is known for the association between dietary TAC and inflammatory biomarkers. The present study was designed to examine the association between dietary TAC and inflammatory biomarkers in a group of overweight/obese postmenopausal women, a population with high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, during a 9-month period. Thirty-five postmenopausal, overweight or obese, but apparently healthy women aged 40-70 years were recruited for a 9-month observational study. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study for dietary and plasma biomarker assessments. Dietary TAC was calculated theoretically for taking account of both diet and dietary supplements, and energy-adjusted values were obtained using residual method. At baseline, subjects consuming diets with high dietary TAC had lower levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.05) compared with those with low dietary TAC. Over the 9-month period, change in dietary TAC had a negative partial correlation with plasma CRP levels (p < 0.01) when age, ethnicity, and changes in BMI, blood total cholesterol and triglyceride were adjusted. Findings suggest that consumption of diets high in TAC are inversely associated with plasma CRP levels cross-sectionally and dynamically and may contribute to CVD protection.

  17. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  18. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  19. A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulating mitochondrial function123

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Defernez, Marianne; Janssens, Astrid; Leung, Wing; Doleman, Joanne F; Potter, John F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g standard broccoli, 400 g HG broccoli, or 400 g peas each week for 12 wk, with no other dietary restrictions. Biomarkers of CVD risk and 347 plasma metabolites were quantified before and after the intervention. Results: No significant differences in the effects of the diets on biomarkers of CVD risk were found. Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolites identified 2 discrete phenotypic responses to diet in individuals within the HG broccoli arm, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the PAPOLG gene. Univariate analysis showed effects of sex (P < 0.001), PAPOLG genotype (P < 0.001), and PAPOLG genotype × diet (P < 0.001) on the plasma metabolic profile. In the HG broccoli arm, the consequence of the intervention was to reduce variation in lipid and amino acid metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and acylcarnitines between the 2 PAPOLG genotypes. Conclusions: The metabolic changes observed with the HG broccoli diet are consistent with a rebalancing of anaplerotic and cataplerotic reactions and enhanced integration of fatty acid β-oxidation with TCA cycle activity. These modifications may contribute to the reduction in cancer risk associated with diets that are rich in cruciferous vegetables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01114399. PMID:23964055

  20. Effects of high-fat, low-cholesterol diets on hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ferré, N; Camps, J; Paul, A; Cabré, M; Calleja, L; Osada, J; Joven, J

    2001-02-01

    The present study describes the effects of several high-fat low-cholesterol antiatherogenic diets on the hepatic lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant systems in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Eighty mice were distributed into five groups and fed with regular mouse chow or chow supplemented with coconut, palm, olive and sunflower seed oils. After ten weeks, they were sacrificed and the livers were removed so that lipid peroxidation and alpha-tocopherol concentrations, and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities could be measured. The size of the atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas was also measured. Results showed that the diets supplemented with olive oil, palm oil or sunflower seed oil significantly decreased the size of the lesion. However, there was an association between those mice that were on diets supplemented with palm or coconut oils and a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation. This association was not found in animals fed with olive or sunflower seed oils, the diets with the highest content of vitamin E. The dietary content of vitamin E was significantly correlated (r = 0.98; p < 0.05) with the hepatic concentration of this compound. Our study suggests that the high content of vitamin E in olive oil or sunflower seed oil may protect from the undesirable hepatotoxic effects of high-fat diets in apo E-deficient mice and that this should be taken into account when these diets are used to prevent atherosclerosis.

  1. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Stukelj, Marina; Valencak, Zdravko; Krsnik, Mladen; Svete, Alenka Nemec

    2010-03-06

    The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on

  3. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower

  4. Effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, liver function, and inflammatory response in broiler chickens fed a diet high in oxidants.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Corl, B A; LeRoith, T; Dalloul, R A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend and vitamin E on fatty acid profile, inflammatory response, and liver function. Cobb 500 male broilers (n = 1,200, d 0) were randomly distributed into 6 treatments with 10 replicate floor pens. Treatments included (1) a high-oxidant diet, with vitamin E at 10 IU/kg, 3% oxidized oil, 3% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) source (HO); (2) the HO diet with vitamin E at 200 IU/kg (VE); (3) the HO diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (AOX); (4) the HO diet with both vitamin E at 200 IU/kg and an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg (VE+AOX); (5) standard control (SC); and (6) a positive control, which was the SC diet with an antioxidant blend at 135 mg/kg. The concentrations of 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, 22:6, and all the n-3 fatty acids were greater in the abdominal fat of HO, VE, AOX, and VE+AOX birds than SC and positive control birds on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.001). Compared with HO treatment, AOX and VE+AOX preserved the deposition of PUFA better (P < 0.001). The HO birds had greater concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase on d 21 and 42, and γ-glutamyl transferase on d 21, whereas AOX and VE+AOX chickens had restored γ-glutamyl transferase concentration (P < 0.01). The inflammation scores of abdominal fat of AOX and VE+AOX birds were lower than the HO on d 21 (P < 0.001). Compared with SC, the VE and VE+AOX birds exhibited greater vacuole scores on d 21 and 42 (P < 0.01). The lower vacuoles score in SC was associated with a greater expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -γ and -α (P < 0.05). The expression of inflammatory genes in the liver did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, the AOX and AOX+VE diets were effective in preserving PUFA in the abdominal fat, moderately improved liver function, and reduced inflammation in fat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Kang, Bin; Tao, Linli; Rong, Hua; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally increased the serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activities, but decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Further, the hepatic CAT and serum SOD, CAT, and TAC activities were significantly higher in fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol compared to those fed the control diet, whereas the serum and hepatic MDA contents were significantly lower. The respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, and hepatic lysozyme activity increased steadily when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1.2% and then declined with further addition. The serum lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity increased steadily with increasing dietary supplemental cholesterol level up to 0.9% and then declined with further addition. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally enhanced the protection against A. hydrophila infection, and fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol exhibited the highest post-challenge survival rate. The results indicated that cholesterol may be under-supplied in rainbow trout fed soybean meal-based diets, and dietary cholesterol supplementation (0.9-1.2%) contributed to improved immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout against A. hydrophila. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Attenuation of diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits with a highly selective 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor lacking significant antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Sendobry, Sandra M; Cornicelli, Joseph A; Welch, Kathryn; Bocan, Thomas; Tait, Bradley; Trivedi, Bharat K; Colbry, Norman; Dyer, Richard D; Feinmark, Steven J; Daugherty, Alan

    1997-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis because of its localization in lesions and the many biological activities exhibited by its products. To provide further evidence for a role of 15-LO, the effects of PD 146176 on the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits were assessed. This novel drug is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme in vitro and lacks significant non specific antioxidant properties.PD 146176 inhibited rabbit reticulocyte 15-LO through a mixed noncompetitive mode with a Ki of 197 nM. The drug had minimal effects on either copper or 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (ABAP) induced oxidation of LDL except at concentrations 2 orders higher than the Ki.Control New Zealand rabbits were fed a high-fat diet containing 0.25% wt./wt. cholesterol; treated animals received inhibitor in this diet (175 mg kg−1, b.i.d.). Plasma concentrations of inhibitor were similar to the estimated Ki (197 nM). During the 12 week study, there were no significant differences in weight gain, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol concentrations, or distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol.The drug plasma concentrations achieved in vivo did not inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. Furthermore, LDL isolated from PD 146176-treated animals was as susceptible as that from controls to oxidation ex vivo by either copper or ABAP.PD 146176 was very effective in suppressing atherogenesis, especially in the aortic arch where lesion coverage diminished from 15±4 to 0% (P<0.02); esterified cholesterol content was reduced from 2.1±0.7 to 0 μg mg−1 (P<0.02) in this region. Immunostainable lipid-laden macrophages present in aortic intima of control animals were totally absent in the drug-treated group.Results of these studies are consistent with a role for 15-LO in atherogenesis. PMID:9105693

  8. Beta-Cryptoxanthin- and alpha-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than beta-carotene-rich foods in Western diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Beta-carotene (BC), beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and alpha-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form vitamin A (VA). Conversion ratios for VA formation have been set at 12:1 for BC- and 24:1 for CX- and AC-rich foods, respectively. These conversion ratios are based on chemical structure...

  9. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  10. Effects of feeding polyphenol-rich winery wastes on digestibility, nitrogen utilization, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and oxidative stress in wethers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyohei; Kishi, Yosuke; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of two types of winery wastes, winery sediment and grape pomace, as ruminant feeds possessing antioxidant activities. Each wether was assigned to one of the following four treatments: (i) 75 g/kg winery sediment (WS) on a dry matter (DM) basis; (ii) 166 g/kg DM winery grape pomace (WP); (iii) control diet (CD; 17 g/kg DM soybean meal);and (iv) only tall fescue hay (TFH; no additive). Winery sediment and grape pomace had high levels of polyphenols and of radical scavenging activities. Feeding with winery sediment and grape pomace did not negatively affect the intake, but it depressed crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with CD (P = 0.052 and P < 0.01 for WS and WP, respectively). Polyphenols in winery wastes decreased ruminal ammonia production (P = 0.089 and P < 0.05), likely due to their inhibitive effect on microbial activities in the rumen. The addition of winery sediment and grape pomace decreased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; an index of oxidative damages) excretion per day (P < 0.05 and P = 0.059). The results indicated that winery sediment and grape pomace could alter nitrogen metabolism and/or act as new antioxidants for ruminants. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Long-term exposure to a butter-rich diet induces mild-to-moderate steatosis in Chang liver cells and Swiss albino mice models.

    PubMed

    Nalloor, Thomas John Philip; Kumar, Nitesh; Narayanan, Kasinathan; Palanimuthu, Vasanth Raj

    2017-05-01

    Butter is one of the widely used fats present in the diet. However, there is no satisfactory study available that evaluates the effect of a high-fat diet containing butter as the principal fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, butter was used for the development of steatosis in Chang liver cells in an in vitro study and Swiss albino mice in an in vivo study. In vitro steatosis was established, and butter was compared with oleic acid in Chang liver cells using an oil red O (ORO)-based colorimetric assay. In the in vivo study, a butter-rich special diet was fed for 15 weeks to mice, who showed no significant change in body weight. The expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and miR-21 was compared by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Special diet-fed animals showed downregulated PTEN compared to normal diet-fed animals, while levels of miR-21 remained the same. Elevations in biochemical parameters, viz., triglycerides and liver function tests showed symptoms of onset of NAFLD. Histophathological study of livers of test animals confirmed mild-to-moderate degree of NAFLD.

  12. Antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial activities of tannin-rich fractions, ellagitannins and phenolic acids from Punica granatum L.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Gupta, Sashi K; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Ferreira, Daneel

    2007-05-01

    The Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) by-product POMx was partitioned between water, EtOAc and n-BuOH, and the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts were purified by XAD-16 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to afford ellagic acid (1), gallagic acid (2), punicalins (3), and punicalagins (4). Compounds 1 - 4 and the mixture of tannin fractions (XAD-16 eluates) were evaluated for antioxidant, antiplasmodial, and antimicrobial activities in cell-based assays. The mixture of tannins (TPT), XAD-EtOAc, XAD-H2O, XAD-PJ and XAD-BuOH, exhibited IC50 values against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at 0.8 - 19 microg/mL. Compounds 1 - 4 showed IC50 values of 1.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 microM, respectively, against ROS generation and no toxicity up to 31.25 microg/mL against HL-60 cells. Gallagic acid (2) and punicalagins (4) exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 clones with IC50 values of 10.9, 10.6, 7.5 and 8.8 microM, respectively. Fractions XAD-EtOAc, XAD-BuOH, XAD-H2O and XAD-PJ compounds 1 - 4 revealed antimicrobial activity when assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus fumigatus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Compounds 2 and 4 showed activity against P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, and MRSA. This is the first report on the antioxidant, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of POMx isolates, including structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the free radical inhibition activity of compounds 1 - 4. Our results suggest a beneficial effect from the daily intake of POMx and pomegranate juice (PJ) as dietary supplements to augment the human immune system's antioxidant, antimalarial and antimicrobial capacities.

  13. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potato Wound-Healing Tissues: A Rich Source of Natural Antioxidant Molecules with Potential for Food Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS•+ radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. PMID:27211673

  15. Leucine-rich diet alters the 1H-NMR based metabolomic profile without changing the Walker-256 tumour mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, Laís Rosa; Canevarolo, Rafael; Luiz, Anna Caroline Perina; Soares, Raquel Frias; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-10-03

    Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia). After 21 days feeding Wistar female rats a leucine-rich diet, distributed in L-leucine and LW-leucine Walker-256 tumour-bearing groups, we examined the metabolomic profile of serum and tumour tissue samples and compared them with samples from tumour-bearing rats fed a normal protein diet (C - control; W - tumour-bearing groups). We utilised 1 H-NMR as a means to study the serum and tumour metabolomic profile, tumour proliferation and tumour protein synthesis pathway. Among the 58 serum metabolites examined, we found that 12 were altered in the tumour-bearing group, reflecting an increase in activity of some metabolic pathways related to energy production, which diverted many nutrients toward tumour growth. Despite displaying increased tumour cell activity (i.e., higher Ki-67 and mTOR expression), there were no differences in tumour mass associated with changes in 23 metabolites (resulting from valine, leucine and isoleucine synthesis and degradation, and from the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies) in the leucine-tumour group. This result suggests that the majority of nutrients were used for host maintenance. A leucine rich-diet, largely used to prevent skeletal muscle loss, did not affect Walker 256 tumour growth and led to metabolomic alterations that may partially explain the positive effects of leucine for the whole tumour-bearing host.

  16. Diets rich in fructose, fat or fructose and fat alter intestinal barrier function and lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease over time.

    PubMed

    Sellmann, Cathrin; Priebs, Josephine; Landmann, Marianne; Degen, Christian; Engstler, Anna Janina; Jin, Cheng Jun; Gärttner, Stefanie; Spruss, Astrid; Huber, Otmar; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-11-01

    General overnutrition but also a diet rich in certain macronutrients, age, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function may be critical factors in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here the effect of chronic intake of diets rich in different macronutrients, i.e. fructose and/or fat on liver status in mice, was studied over time. C57BL/6J mice were fed plain water, 30% fructose solution, a high-fat diet or a combination of both for 8 and 16 weeks. Indices of liver damage, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling cascade, macrophage polarization and insulin resistance in the liver and intestinal barrier function were analyzed. Chronic exposure to a diet rich in fructose and/or fat was associated with the development of hepatic steatosis that progressed with time to steatohepatitis in mice fed a combination of macronutrients. The development of NAFLD was also associated with a marked reduction of the mRNA expression of insulin receptor, whereas hepatic expressions of TLR-4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and markers of M1 polarization of macrophages were induced in comparison to controls. Bacterial endotoxin levels in portal plasma were found to be increased while levels of the tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens 1 were found to be significantly lower in the duodenum of all treated groups after 8 and 16 weeks. Our data suggest that chronic intake of fructose and/or fat may lead to the development of NAFLD over time and that this is associated with an increased translocation of bacterial endotoxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aging and walnut-rich diet supplementation affects the expression of immediate-early genes in critical brain regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence indicates a direct link between age-associated changes in epigenetic mechanisms and onset of neurodegenerative diseases, and that these genomic modulations are directly affected by diet. Diets deficient in folate, choline and methionine, or the trace elements zinc and selenium, are...

  18. Intestinal Microbiota Ecological Response to Oral Administrations of Hydrogen-Rich Water and Lactulose in Female Piglets Fed a Fusarium Toxin-Contaminated Diet.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weijiang; Ji, Xu; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Wen

    2018-06-16

    The objective of the current experiment was to explore the intestinal microbiota ecological response to oral administrations of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) and lactulose (LAC) in female piglets fed a Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated diet. A total of 24 individually-housed female piglets (Landrace × large × white; initial average body weight, 7.25 ± 1.02 kg) were randomly assigned to receive four treatments (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control, NC), mycotoxin-contaminated diet (MC), MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW), and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC) for 25 days. Hydrogen levels in the mucosa of different intestine segments were measured at the end of the experiment. Fecal scoring and diarrhea rate were recorded every day during the whole period of the experiment. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) profiles in the digesta of the foregut and hindgut samples were assayed. The populations of selected bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of total bacteria and methanogenic Archaea were also evaluated. Results showed that Fusarium mycotoxins not only reduced the hydrogen levels in the caecum but also shifted the SCFAs production, and populations and communities of microbiota. HRW treatment increased the hydrogen levels of the stomach and duodenum. HRW and LAC groups also had higher colon and caecum hydrogen levels than the MC group. Both HRW and LAC protected against the mycotoxin-contaminated diet-induced higher diarrhea rate and lower SCFA production in the digesta of the colon and caecum. In addition, the DGGE profile results indicated that HRW and LAC might shift the pathways of hydrogen-utilization bacteria, and change the diversity of intestine microbiota. Moreover, HRW and LAC administrations reversed the mycotoxin-contaminated diet-induced changing of the populations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bifidobacterium in ileum digesta and hydrogen-utilizing bacteria in colon digesta.

  19. Growth and development of skeletal anomalies in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed phosphorus-rich diets with fish meal and hydrolyzed fish protein

    PubMed Central

    Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Riesen, Guido; Seim, Rudi Ripman; Hagen, Ørjan; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Falk-Petersen, Inger-Britt; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Jobling, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    Diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar were fed high-protein, phosphorus-rich diets (56–60% protein; ca 18g phosphorus kg-1 diet) whilst being reared at low temperature from start-feeding until parr-smolt transformation. Performances of salmon fed diets based on fish meal (STD) or a mix of fishmeal and hydrolysed fish proteins (HFM) as the major protein sources were compared in terms of mortality, diet digestibility, growth and skeletal deformities. Separate groups of diploids and triploids were reared in triplicate tanks (initially 3000 fish per tank; tank biomass ca. 620 g) from 0–2745 degree-days post-start feeding (ddPSF). Growth metrics (weight, length, condition factor) were recorded at ca. 4 week intervals, external signs of deformities to the operculum, jaws and spinal column were examined in parr sampled at 1390 ddPSF, and external signs of deformity and vertebral anomalies (by radiography) were examined in fish sampled at the end of the trial (2745 ddPSF). The triploid salmon generally had a lower mass per unit length, i.e. lower condition factor, throughout the trial, but this did not seem to reflect any consistent dietary or ploidy effects on either dietary digestibility or the growth of the fish. By the end of the trial fish in all treatment groups had achieved a weight of 50+ g, and had completed the parr-smolt transformation. The triploids had slightly, but significantly, fewer vertebrae (Triploids STD 58.74 ± 0.10; HFM 58.68 ± 0.05) than the diploids (Diploids STD 58.97 ± 0.14; HFM 58.89 ± 0.01), and the incidence of skeletal (vertebral) abnormalities was higher in triploids (Triploids STD 31 ± 0.90%; HFM 15 ± 1.44%) than in diploids (Diploids STD 4 ± 0.80%; HFM 4 ± 0.83%). The HFM diet gave a significant reduction in the numbers of triploid salmon with vertebral anomalies in comparison with the triploids fed the STD diet possibly as a result of differences in phosphorus bioavailability between the two diets. Overall, the

  20. Chocolate is a powerful ex vivo and in vivo antioxidant, an antiatherosclerotic agent in an animal model, and a significant contributor to antioxidants in the European and American Diets.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Joe A; Proch, John; Bose, Pratima; Muchler, Sean; Taffera, Pamela; Shuta, Donna; Samman, Najwa; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2006-10-18

    Chocolate today is often viewed as a food or snack with little nutritional value. The high saturated fat content of chocolate has also contributed to the belief that its consumption increases the risk of heart disease. However, recent human studies have proven that chocolate has beneficial effects on some pathogenic mechanisms of heart disease such as endothelial function and blood pressure. Although the antioxidant properties of chocolate have been known for some time, there has been no examination of its place in the U.S. diet as a source of antioxidants. This paper demonstrates that chocolate makes a significant contribution to U.S. per capita dietary antioxidants and by inference the European Community's. In the U.S. diet chocolate is the third highest daily per capita antioxidant source. An ex vivo study shows that epicatechin, a major polyphenol in chocolate and chocolate extracts, is a powerful inhibitor of plasma lipid oxidation due to polyphenols' ability to bind to lower density lipoproteins. Conversely, the fat from chocolate alone is a pro-oxidant in this model. This is also demonstrated in an in vivo human study. After consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa powder, the lower density lipoproteins isolated from plasma were protected from oxidation compared to the lipoproteins isolated after cocoa butter consumption, which were put under oxidative stress. In an animal model of atherosclerosis, cocoa powder at a human dose equivalent of two dark chocolate bars per day significantly inhibited atherosclerosis, lowered cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides, raised high-density lipoprotein, and protected the lower density lipoproteins from oxidation. Chocolate has thus been shown to have potential beneficial effects with respect to heart disease.

  1. Effect of Treadmill Exercise and Hydrogen-rich Water Intake on Serum Oxidative and Anti-oxidative Metabolites in Serum of Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    TSUBONE, Hirokazu; HANAFUSA, Masakazu; ENDO, Maiko; MANABE, Noboru; HIRAGA, Atsushi; OHMURA, Hajime; AIDA, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify changes of oxidative stress and antioxidative functions in treadmill-exercised Thoroughbred horses (n=5, 3 to 7 years old), using recently developed techniques for measurement of serum d-ROMs for oxidative stress, and BAP for antioxidative markers. Also, the effect of nasogastric administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) or placebo water preceding the treadmill exercise on these parameters was examined. Each horse was subjected to a maximum level of treadmill exercise in which the horses were exhausted at an average speed of 13.2 ± 0.84 m/sec. Blood samples were taken 4 times, immediately before the intake of HW or placebo water at 30 min preceding the treadmill exercise, immediately before the exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after the exercise (post-exercise) and at 30 min following the exercise. In all horses, both d-ROMs and BAP values significantly increased at post-exercise. The increase in d-ROMs tended to be lower in the HW trial, as compared to the placebo trial at pre-exercise. The increase in BAP was considerable at approximately 150% of the pre-exercise values in both the HW and placebo treatment trials. The BAP/d-ROMs ratio was significantly elevated at post-exercise in both treatment trials, while a significant elevation was also observed at pre-exercise in the HW trial. BAP, d-ROM, and the BAP/d-ROM ratio tended to decline at 30 min after the exercise, except BAP and BAP/d-ROMs in the placebo trial. These results demonstrate that the marked elevation of oxidative stress and anitioxidative functions occurred simultaneously in the intensively exercised horses, and suggest a possibility that HW has some antioxidative efficacy. PMID:24833996

  2. Effect of Treadmill Exercise and Hydrogen-rich Water Intake on Serum Oxidative and Anti-oxidative Metabolites in Serum of Thoroughbred Horses.

    PubMed

    Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Endo, Maiko; Manabe, Noboru; Hiraga, Atsushi; Ohmura, Hajime; Aida, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify changes of oxidative stress and antioxidative functions in treadmill-exercised Thoroughbred horses (n=5, 3 to 7 years old), using recently developed techniques for measurement of serum d-ROMs for oxidative stress, and BAP for antioxidative markers. Also, the effect of nasogastric administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) or placebo water preceding the treadmill exercise on these parameters was examined. Each horse was subjected to a maximum level of treadmill exercise in which the horses were exhausted at an average speed of 13.2 ± 0.84 m/sec. Blood samples were taken 4 times, immediately before the intake of HW or placebo water at 30 min preceding the treadmill exercise, immediately before the exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after the exercise (post-exercise) and at 30 min following the exercise. In all horses, both d-ROMs and BAP values significantly increased at post-exercise. The increase in d-ROMs tended to be lower in the HW trial, as compared to the placebo trial at pre-exercise. The increase in BAP was considerable at approximately 150% of the pre-exercise values in both the HW and placebo treatment trials. The BAP/d-ROMs ratio was significantly elevated at post-exercise in both treatment trials, while a significant elevation was also observed at pre-exercise in the HW trial. BAP, d-ROM, and the BAP/d-ROM ratio tended to decline at 30 min after the exercise, except BAP and BAP/d-ROMs in the placebo trial. These results demonstrate that the marked elevation of oxidative stress and anitioxidative functions occurred simultaneously in the intensively exercised horses, and suggest a possibility that HW has some antioxidative efficacy.

  3. Studies on antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, B; Wachowicz, B; Nowak, P; Kedzierska, M; Tomczak, A; Stochmal, A; Oleszek, W; Jeziorski, A; Piekarski, J

    2008-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) containing: anthocyanidines, phenolic acids and quercetine glycosides on oxidative/nitrative stress induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), a powerful physiological oxidant, nitrating species and inflammatory mediator) in human blood platelets were studied in vitro. The extract from A. melanocarpa (5 - 50 microg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet protein carbonylation (measured by ELISA method) and thiol oxidation estimated with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) (DTNB) induced by peroxynitrite (0.1 mM) (IC(50)--35 microg/mL for protein carbonylation, and IC(50)--33 microg/mL for protein thiol oxidation). The tested extract only slightly reduced platelet protein nitration (measured by C- ELISA method). The extract also caused a distinct reduction of platelet lipid peroxidation induced by peroxynitrite. Moreover, in our preliminary experiments we observed that the extract (50 microg/mL) reduced oxidative/nitrative stress in blood platelets from patients with breast cancer. The obtained results indicate that in vitro the extract from A. melanocarpa has the protective effects against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative/nitrative damage to the human platelet proteins and lipids. The extract from A. melanocarpa seems to be also useful as an antioxidant in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Inhibitory activity on type 2 diabetes and hypertension key-enzymes, and antioxidant capacity of Veronica persica phenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Sharifi-Rad, J; Iriti, M; Varoni, E M; Razazi, S

    2016-05-30

    Veronica genus (Plantaginaceae) is broadly distributed in different habitats. In this study, the inhibitory activity of free soluble and conjugated phenolic extracts of Veronica persica on key enzymes associated to type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme, ACE) was assessed, as well as their antioxidant power. Our results showed that both the extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, free phenolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 532.97 µg/mL), whereas conjugated phenolic extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited α-amylase (IC50 489.73 µg/mL) and ACE (290.06 µg/mL). The enzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Anyway, the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE, along with the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic-rich extracts, could represent a putative mechanism through which V. persica exerts its antidiabetes and antihypertension effects.

  5. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of BM-21, a bioactive extract rich in polyphenolic metabolites from the sea Grass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Menendez, Roberto; Valdés, Olga; Morales, Ruth A; Laguna, Abilio; Thomas, Olivier P; Hernandez, Yasnay; Nogueiras, Clara; Kijjoa, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous ethanol extract of Thalassia testudinum leaves (BM-21) is now being developed in Cuba as an herbal medicine due to its promising pharmacological properties. Although some interesting biological activities of BM-21 have already been reported, its chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Thus, we now describe the qualitative and quantitative analyzes of BM-21 using standard phytochemical screening techniques, including colorimetric quantification, TLC and HPLC analyses. Phytochemical investigation of BM-21 resulted in the isolation and identification of a new phenolic sulfate ester (1), along with ten previously described phenolic derivatives (2-11), seven of which have never been previously reported from the genus Thalassia. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric (HRMS) data, as well as by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, BM-21 was found to exhibit strong antioxidant activity in four different free radical scavenging assays (HO*, RO2*, O2-* and DPPH*). Consequently, this is the first study which highlights the phytochemical composition of BM-21 and demonstrates that this product is a rich source of natural antioxidants with potential applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the increase of the carotenoid antioxidant concentration in human skin after a 1-week diet with ecological eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2009-03-01

    Skin aging is mainly caused by the destructive action of free radicals, produced by the UV light of the sun. The human skin has developed a protection system against these highly reactive molecules in the form of the antioxidative potential. Carotenoids are one of the main components of the antioxidants of the human skin. From former studies, it is known that skin aging is reduced in individuals with high levels of carotenoids. Because most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism, they must be up taken by nutrition. Using noninvasive Raman spectroscopic measurements it is demonstrated that not only fruits and vegetables but also eggs contain high concentrations of antioxidants including carotenoids, which are even doubled in the case of ecological eggs. After a 1-week diet with ecological eggs performed by six volunteers, it is found that the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers increased by approx. 20%. Our study does not intend to recommend exorbitant egg consumption, as eggs also contain harmful cholesterol. But in the case of egg consumption, ecological eggs from hens kept on pasture should be preferred to also receive a benefit for the skin.

  7. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  8. Carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens fed diet containing purslane meal rich in omega-3 fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikasari, LR; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. MP

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of diets containing Portulaca oleraceae (purslane) as a source of omega-3 fats on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens. One-day old unsexed Lohmann broiler chickens (n = 180) were used and randomly allocated into 30 pens (each pen contained 6 birds). The pens were randomly assigned to five experimental diets with 6 replicates (36 birds per treatment). The diets were formulated by supplementing a basal diet with purslane meal at a level of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%. For a period of 42 days, water and diets were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and body weight gain were collected weekly to determine feed conversion ratio. The collected data were analysed using analysis of variance. If there were significant differences between treatment means, the analysis was continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Findings showed that diets enriched with omega-3 fats, alpha-linolenic acid did not change body weight and carcass percentage of broilers. In terms of cuts yield, there was no significant different on the percentage of breast, back and wings by feeding diets supplemented with purslane meal. However, the inclusion levels of dietary purslane meal significantly affected the percentage of thighs (P<0.05) with the highest weight achieved for diets supplemented with 3% purslane meal. Drumsticks tended to increase (P = 0.056) by feeding the experimental diets. It was concluded that the inclusion level of 6% purslane meal didn’t have negative effect on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens.

  9. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p < 0.01). Total lipids in liver decreased and enzymes of lipid metabolism viz. HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects.

  10. Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Keen, Carl L; Holt, Roberta R; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, César G; Schmitz, Harold H

    2005-01-01

    An increasing body of epidemiologic evidence supports the concept that diets rich in fruits and vegetables can promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases. Epidemiologic data support the idea that these health benefits are causally linked to the consumption of certain flavonoids present in fruit and vegetables. In the context of cardiovascular health, a particular group of flavonoids, namely, the flavan-3-ols (flavanols), has received attention. Flavanol-rich, plant-derived foods and beverages include wine, tea, and various fruits and berries, as well as cocoa and cocoa products. Numerous dietary intervention studies in humans and animals indicate that flavanol-rich foods and beverages might exert cardioprotective effects with respect to vascular function and platelet reactivity. This review discusses the bioactivity of flavanols in the context of cardiovascular health, with respect to their bioavailability, their antioxidant properties, and their vascular effects.

  11. [Enrichment effect of vitamin-deficient diet of rats by polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on vitamin biomarkers and antioxidant status].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, V M; Kodentsova, O G; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kulakova, S N; Baturina, V A; Soto, S Kh

    2013-01-01

    Using the model of combined vitamin deficiency based on 5-fold reduction of the amount of vitamin mixture in semi-synthetic diet and on vitamin E exclusion from the mixture, the influence of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on vitamin and antioxidant status has been investigated. The enrichment of rat diet with PUFA was achieved by replacing of sunflower oil (4.5% of the diet) on linseed oil. This substitute led to omega-3 PUFA elevation from 0.03 to 2.4 g per 100 g of food and PUFA and saturated fatty acids diet ratio increased from 1.3 to 1.9. The diet treatment with PUFA did not affect blood plasma retinol concentration and total vitamin A (retinol palmitate and retinol) rat liver content, while liver retinol significantly 1,5-fold elevated. Despite of preliminary equation of tocopherols content in vegetable oils (up to 60 IU per 100 g by adding dl-alpha-tocopherol to linseed oil) the consuming of linen oil deteriorated animal vitamin E supply. The liver alpha-tocopherol content significantly decreased by 14%, its blood plasma concentration insignificantly decreased by 26%, while the amount of beta - and gamma-tocopherol significantly increased in 5,4-fold. At the same deprivation of vitamin D in the diet of rats treated with linseed oil 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration was 1,3-fold higher compared with the animals treated with sunflower oil, but the difference did not reach significance reliable. In this case, this index had significant differences from that of the receiving adequate diet rats in control group, having 2-fold higher concentration of vitamin D transport form in blood plasma. PUFA enrichment of the combined vitamin-deficit diet did not affect liver level of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2. Contrary to the assumptions, the enrichment with PUFA of vitamin-deficient diet did not lead to a further increase of liver MDA level and a decrease of liver ascorbic acid content, which is typical for animals in combined vitamin deficiency. The

  12. Early Effects of a Low Fat, Fructose-Rich Diet on Liver Metabolism, Insulin Signaling, and Oxidative Stress in Young and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Cigliano, Luisa; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cancelliere, Rosa; Carotenuto, Rosa; Tussellino, Margherita; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i.e., young (30 days old) and adult (90 days old) rats. The fructose-rich diet increased whole body lipid content in adult, but not in young rats. The analysis of liver markers of inflammation suggests that different mechanisms depending on the age might be activated after the fructose-rich diet. In fact, a pro-inflammatory gene-expression analysis showed just a minor activation of macrophages in young rats compared to adult rats, while other markers of low-grade metabolic inflammation (TNF-alpha, myeloperoxidase, lipocalin, haptoglobin) significantly increased. Inflammation was associated with oxidative damage to hepatic lipids in young and adult rats, while increased levels of hepatic nitrotyrosine and ceramides were detected only in young rats. Interestingly, fructose-induced hepatic insulin resistance was evident in young but not in adult rats, while whole body insulin sensitivity decreased both in fructose-fed young and adult rats. Taken together, the present data indicate that young rats do not increase their body lipids but are exposed to metabolic perturbations, such as hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress, in line with the finding that increased fructose intake may be an important predictor of metabolic risk in young people, independently of weight status. These results indicate the need of corrective nutritional

  13. Early Effects of a Low Fat, Fructose-Rich Diet on Liver Metabolism, Insulin Signaling, and Oxidative Stress in Young and Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Cigliano, Luisa; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cancelliere, Rosa; Carotenuto, Rosa; Tussellino, Margherita; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i.e., young (30 days old) and adult (90 days old) rats. The fructose-rich diet increased whole body lipid content in adult, but not in young rats. The analysis of liver markers of inflammation suggests that different mechanisms depending on the age might be activated after the fructose-rich diet. In fact, a pro-inflammatory gene-expression analysis showed just a minor activation of macrophages in young rats compared to adult rats, while other markers of low-grade metabolic inflammation (TNF-alpha, myeloperoxidase, lipocalin, haptoglobin) significantly increased. Inflammation was associated with oxidative damage to hepatic lipids in young and adult rats, while increased levels of hepatic nitrotyrosine and ceramides were detected only in young rats. Interestingly, fructose-induced hepatic insulin resistance was evident in young but not in adult rats, while whole body insulin sensitivity decreased both in fructose-fed young and adult rats. Taken together, the present data indicate that young rats do not increase their body lipids but are exposed to metabolic perturbations, such as hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress, in line with the finding that increased fructose intake may be an important predictor of metabolic risk in young people, independently of weight status. These results indicate the need of corrective nutritional

  14. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive. PMID:28025501

  15. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks ( p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  16. HRMS Profile of a Hazelnut Skin Proanthocyanidin-rich Fraction with Antioxidant and Anti-Candida albicans Activities.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Porta, Amalia; Petrone, Anna Maria; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Rastrelli, Luca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia

    2016-01-27

    Roasted hazelnut skins (RHS) represent a byproduct of kernel industrial processing. In this research, a RHS extract (RHS-M) and its fraction RHS-M-F3 enriched in proanthocyanidins (PAs), with antioxidant activity, were characterized in terms of total phenolic compound and PA contents. RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 showed antifungal properties against Candida albicans SC5314 (MIC2 = 3.00 and 0.10 μg/mL and MIC0 = 5.00 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively), determined by the microbroth dilution method and Candida albicans morphological analysis. No cytotoxic effect on HEKa and HDFa cell lines was exhibited by RHS-M and RHS-M-F3. The metabolite profiling of RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 was performed by thiolysis followed by HPLC-UV-HRMS analysis and a combination of HRMS-FIA and HPLC-HRMS(n). Extract and fraction contain oligomeric PAs (mDP of 7.3 and 6.0, respectively, and DP up to 10) mainly constituted by B-type oligomers of (epi)-catechin. Also, (epi)-gallocatechin and gallate derivatives were identified as monomer units, and A-type PAs were detected as minor compounds.

  17. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P < 0.001). Among the restricted-fed sows, feeding twice daily resulted in decreased feeding motivation at 1900 h (P < 0.001) and at 0700h (P < 0.05) compared with feeding once daily, but not at 0900 and 1200 h, indicating that feeding twice daily reduced feeding motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short

  18. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant and antiplatelet activity by polyphenol-rich nutrients: focus on extra virgin olive oil and cocoa.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Nocella, Cristina; Violi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In the last decades nutraceutical approaches have been proposed to counteract atherosclerotic complications. In particular, polyphenols, a class of bio-active molecules prevalently contained in foods such as cocoa, fruits, vegetables, wine and tea, have been widely studied for their beneficial properties. Several epidemiological and interventional studies have shown that polyphenol-rich nutrients, as in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and cocoa, are associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular events and/or modulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Definition of the mechanisms accounting for this putative cardio-protective effect is still elusive. This review focuses on the mechanisms that may be implicated in the beneficial effects of EVOO and cocoa, including down-regulation of oxidative stress and platelet aggregation, improvement of endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factor such as blood pressure, serum cholesterol and insulin sensitivity. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Soybean polar lipids differently impact adipose tissue inflammation and the endotoxin transporters LBP and sCD14 in flaxseed vs. palm oil-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Durand, Annie; Géloën, Alain; Joffre, Florent; Vaysse, Carole; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laugerette, Fabienne

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Elena; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mircea, Cornelia; Trifan, Adriana; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca

    2013-11-01

    A crude hydromethanolic extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were studied with regard to their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in each extract were quantified by spectrophotometric methods; the polyphenolic profile was analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. All extracts were tested with regard to their ability to scavenge free radicals (ABTS radical cation, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), reduce ferric ions, and inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. P. brutia bark extracts had high phenolic contents (303.79±7.34-448.90±1.39 mg/g). Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts contained proanthocyanidins ranging from 225.79±3.94 to 250.40±1.44 mg/g. Several polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS: taxifolin in diethyl ether extract, a taxifolin-O-hexoside, catechin, procyanidin dimers, and trimers in ethyl acetate extract. Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts were effective scavengers of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (EC₅₀=33.5±1.1-54.93±2.85 μg/mL and 0.47±0.06-0.6±0.0 mg/mL, respectively). All extracts had noticeable 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects (EC₅₀=22.47±0.75-34.43±2.25 μg/mL). We conclude that P. brutia bark is very promising for the dietary supplements industry due to its high free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects.

  2. Analysis of a whole diet in terms of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity: effects of a simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; Koehnlein, Érica Marcela; Corrêa, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Correa, Vanesa Gesser; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2016-09-01

    This work compares the phenolic contents and the total antioxidant capacity of the 36 most popular Brazilian foods submitted to aqueous extraction or in vitro digestion. The purpose was to evaluate the extent by which digestion differs from the simple aqueous extraction procedures of several food matrices. After in vitro digestion, cereals, legumes, vegetables, tuberous vegetables, chocolates and fruits showed higher phenolic contents and higher antioxidant activities than those obtained by aqueous extraction. Contrarily, the digestion caused a reduction in the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of beverages (red wine, coffee and yerba mate). Our results suggest that the phenolics of food groups with solid and complex matrix are protected against enzymatic action and alteration in pH during the digestion, what does not occur in liquid food matrices such as the beverages. This fact would overestimate the antioxidant activities of beverages submitted solely to aqueous extraction.

  3. Effect of dietary betaine on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in blunt snout bream fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Adjoumani, Jean-Jacques Yao; Wang, Kaizhou; Zhou, Man; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Dingdong

    2017-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine levels on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with initial body weight 4.3 ± 0.1 g [mean ± SEM]. Five practical diets were formulated to contain normal-fat diet (NFD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with betaine addition (HFB) at difference levels (0.6, 1.2, 1.8%), respectively. The results showed that the highest final body weight (FBW), weight gain ratio (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), and feed intake (FI) (P < 0.05) were obtained in fish fed 1.2% betaine supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly lower in the same group compared to others. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and abdominal fat rate (AFR) were significantly high in fat group compared to the lowest in NDF and 1.2% betaine supplementation, while VSI and survival rate (SR) were not affected by dietary betaine supplementation. Significantly higher (P < 0.05), plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), cortisol, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) content were observed in HFD but were improved when supplemented with 1.2% betaine. In addition, increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in 1.2% betaine inclusion could reverse the increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level induced by HFD. Based on the second-order polynomial analysis, the optimum growth of blunt snout bream was observed in fish fed HFD supplemented with 1.2% betaine. HFD upregulated fatty acid synthase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and downregulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA expression; nevertheless, 1.2% betaine supplementation significantly reversed

  4. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Katja; Nielsen, Leif Højvang; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Bachmann, Lisa

    2011-10-24

    In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as an enriched diet or as a normal diet supplemented with an n-3 FA

  5. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as an enriched diet or as a

  6. Supplementing with vitamin C the diet of honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) parasitized with Varroa destructor: effects on antioxidative status.

    PubMed

    Farjan, Marek; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    We studied a total of eight developmental stages of capped brood and newly emerged workers of Apis mellifera carnica colonies naturally parasitized with Varroa destructor. During winter and early spring four colonies were fed syrup containing 1.8 mg vitamin C kg(-1) (ascorbic acid group; group AA) while four colonies were fed syrup without the vitamin C (control group C). Selected elements of the antioxidative system were analysed including total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione content and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase). Body weight, protein content and indices of infestation were also determined. The prevalence (8.11%) and intensity (1·15 parasite per bee) of the infestation were lower in group AA compared with group C (11.3% and 1.21, respectively). Changes in the indicators of antioxidative stress were evidence for the strengthening of the antioxidative system in the brood by administration of vitamin C. In freshly emerged worker bees of group AA, despite the infestation, protein content, TAS, and the activity of all antioxidative enzymes had significantly higher values in relation to group C.

  7. Macrophage-derived upd3 cytokine causes impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced lifespan in Drosophila fed a lipid-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Katie J; Kierdorf, Katrin; Pouchelon, Clara A; Vivancos, Valérie; Dionne, Marc S; Geissmann, Frédéric

    2015-01-20

    Long-term consumption of fatty foods is associated with obesity, macrophage activation and inflammation, metabolic imbalance, and a reduced lifespan. We took advantage of Drosophila genetics to investigate the role of macrophages and the pathway(s) that govern their response to dietary stress. Flies fed a lipid-rich diet presented with increased fat storage, systemic activation of JAK-STAT signaling, reduced insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and a shorter lifespan. Drosophila macrophages produced the JAK-STAT-activating cytokine upd3, in a scavenger-receptor (crq) and JNK-dependent manner. Genetic depletion of macrophages or macrophage-specific silencing of upd3 decreased JAK-STAT activation and rescued insulin sensitivity and the lifespan of Drosophila, but did not decrease fat storage. NF-κB signaling made no contribution to the phenotype observed. These results identify an evolutionarily conserved "scavenger receptor-JNK-type 1 cytokine" cassette in macrophages, which controls glucose metabolism and reduces lifespan in Drosophila maintained on a lipid-rich diet via activation of the JAK-STAT pathway.

  8. Macrophage-Derived upd3 Cytokine Causes Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Reduced Lifespan in Drosophila Fed a Lipid-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Katie J.; Kierdorf, Katrin; Pouchelon, Clara A.; Vivancos, Valérie; Dionne, Marc S.; Geissmann, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long-term consumption of fatty foods is associated with obesity, macrophage activation and inflammation, metabolic imbalance, and a reduced lifespan. We took advantage of Drosophila genetics to investigate the role of macrophages and the pathway(s) that govern their response to dietary stress. Flies fed a lipid-rich diet presented with increased fat storage, systemic activation of JAK-STAT signaling, reduced insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and a shorter lifespan. Drosophila macrophages produced the JAK-STAT-activating cytokine upd3, in a scavenger-receptor (crq) and JNK-dependent manner. Genetic depletion of macrophages or macrophage-specific silencing of upd3 decreased JAK-STAT activation and rescued insulin sensitivity and the lifespan of Drosophila, but did not decrease fat storage. NF-κB signaling made no contribution to the phenotype observed. These results identify an evolutionarily conserved “scavenger receptor-JNK-type 1 cytokine” cassette in macrophages, which controls glucose metabolism and reduces lifespan in Drosophila maintained on a lipid-rich diet via activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. PMID:25601202

  9. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    PubMed

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  10. Nicotine and ethanol co-use in Long-Evans rats: Stimulatory effects of perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet

    PubMed Central

    Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes

  11. Nicotine and ethanol co-use in Long-Evans rats: Stimulatory effects of perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes

  12. Effect of a dairy- and calcium-rich diet on weight loss and appetite during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, K W; Eller, L K; Parnell, J A; Doyle-Baker, P K; Edwards, A L; Reimer, R A

    2013-04-01

    A diet rich in dairy and calcium (Ca) has been variably associated with improvements in body composition and decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if a dietary pattern high in dairy and Ca improves weight loss and subjective appetite to a greater extent than a low dairy/Ca diet during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults with metabolic syndrome. A total of 49 participants were randomized to one of two treatment groups: Control (low dairy, ≈ 700 mg/day Ca, -500 kcal/day) or Dairy/Ca (high dairy, ≈ 1400 mg/day Ca, -500 kcal/day) for 12 weeks. Body composition, subjective ratings of appetite, food intake, plasma satiety hormones, glycemic response and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Control (-2.2 ± 0.5 kg) and Dairy/Ca (-3.3 ± 0.6 kg) had similar weight loss. Based on self-reported energy intake, the percentage of expected weight loss achieved was higher with Dairy/Ca (82.1 ± 19.4%) than Control (32.2 ± 7.7%; P=0.03). Subjects in the Dairy/Ca group reported feeling more satisfied (P=0.01) and had lower dietary fat intake (P=0.02) over 12 weeks compared with Control. Compared with Control, Dairy/Ca had higher plasma levels of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, P=0.01) during the meal tolerance test at week 12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was reduced at 30 min with Dairy/Ca compared with Control (P=0.04). In conclusion, a dairy- and Ca-rich diet was not associated with greater weight loss than control. Modest increases in plasma PYY concentrations with increased dairy/Ca intake, however, may contribute to enhanced sensations of satisfaction and reduced dietary fat intake during energy restriction.

  13. Plasma Alkylresorcinols Reflect Gluten Intake and Distinguish between Gluten-Rich and Gluten-Poor Diets in a Population at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Madsen, Mia L; Rumessen, Jüri J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Gøbel, Rikke J; Hansen, Torben; Lauritzen, Lotte; Pedersen, Oluf B; Kristensen, Mette; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-10-01

    Many patients with celiac disease experience difficulties in adherence to a gluten-free diet. Methods for testing compliance to a gluten-free diet are costly and cumbersome. Thus, a simple biomarker of gluten intake is needed in a clinical setting and will be useful for epidemiologic studies investigating wider effects of gluten intake. The aim was to evaluate plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations as a measure of gluten intake. In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of ≥6 wk. We measured fasting plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols to determine if they reflected differences in gluten intake as a secondary outcome of the original study. In addition, we investigated in 118 Danish adults the cross-sectional association between self-reported gluten intake and plasma alkylresorcinols in the same and a similar study at baseline. We used mixed-model ANCOVA for examining treatment effects, a classification tree to determine compliance to the gluten-poor diet, and linear regression models for examining baseline correlation between plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations and gluten intake. Plasma total alkylresorcinols decreased more during the gluten-poor period (geometric mean: -124.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -156.5, -93.0 nmol/L) than in the gluten-rich period (geometric mean: -31.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -63.1, -0.4 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). On the basis of the plasma alkylresorcinol profile, we built a classification tree to objectively determine compliance and found an overall participant misclassification error of 3.9%. In the cross-sectional study we found a 5.6% (95% CI: 2.4%, 8.9%) increase in plasma total alkylresorcinols per 1-g increase in reported gluten intake (P < 0.001). We propose the use of plasma alkylresorcinols to monitor compliance to a gluten-free diet as well as to help investigations into the

  14. High Risk of Metabolic and Adipose Tissue Dysfunctions in Adult Male Progeny, Due to Prenatal and Adulthood Malnutrition Induced by Fructose Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Zubiría, Guillermina; Moreno, Griselda; Portales, Andrea; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of a fructose rich diet (FRD) consumed by the pregnant mother on the endocrine-metabolic and in vivo and in vitro adipose tissue (AT) functions of the male offspring in adulthood. At 60 days of age, rats born to FRD-fed mothers (F) showed impaired glucose tolerance after glucose overload and high circulating levels of leptin (LEP). Despite the diminished mass of retroperitoneal AT, this tissue was characterized by enhanced LEP gene expression, and hypertrophic adipocytes secreting in vitro larger amounts of LEP. Analyses of stromal vascular fraction composition by flow cytometry revealed a reduced number of adipocyte precursor cells. Additionally, 60 day-old control (C) and F male rats were subjected to control diet (CC and FC animals) or FRD (CF and FF rats) for three weeks. FF animals were heavier and consumed more calories. Their metabolic-endocrine parameters were aggravated; they developed severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and augmented AT mass with hypertrophic adipocytes. Our study highlights that manipulation of maternal diet induced an offspring phenotype mainly imprinted with a severely unhealthy adipogenic process with undesirable endocrine-metabolic consequences, putting them at high risk for developing a diabetic state. PMID:27011203

  15. Effect of the Capsicoside G-rich Fraction from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds on High-fat Diet-induced Obesity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jeehye; Jeong, Heon Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is one of the most common metabolic syndromes and is a major threat to human health worldwide. Given the size of this problem, there is growing interest in natural agents that may decrease obesity. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of a capsicoside G-rich fraction (CRF; 13.35% capsicoside G) isolated from pepper seeds in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), with or without CRF (HFD + CRF; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight). The body weight and food efficiency ratio of mice fed HFD + CRF were lower in comparison to that of mice fed only an HFD. Epididymal adipose tissue weight and adipocyte hypertrophy were significantly lower in HFD + CRF mice than in HFD mice. The fat deposition in the liver of mice fed HFD + CRF was lower compared to that of mice fed only an HFD. CRF significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the expression of key adipocyte differentiation regulators, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, and their target genes. These results suggest that CRF could be used as dietary therapy for the prevention of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets enhance protection of critical brain regions exposed to acute levels of 56Fe cosmic radiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress which can lead to “accelerated aging”. One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, which consists of high-energy and -charge parti...

  17. Restoration of in situ fiber degradation and the role of fibrolytic microbes and ruminal pH in cows fed grain-rich diets transiently or continuously.

    PubMed

    Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used two different grain-rich feeding models (continuous or transient) to determine their effects on in situ fiber degradation and abundances of important rumen fibrolytic microbes in the rumen. The role of the magnitude of ruminal pH drop during grain feeding in the fiber degradation was also determined. The study was performed in eight rumen-fistulated dry cows. They were fed forage-only diet (baseline), and then challenged with a 60% concentrate diet for 4 weeks, either continuously (n=4 cows) or transiently (n=4 cows). The cows of transient feeding had 1 week off concentrate in between. Ruminal degradation of grass silage and fiber-rich hay was determined by the in situ technique, and microbial abundances attached to incubated samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The in situ trials were performed at the baseline and in the 1st and the last week of concentrate feeding in the continuous model. The in situ trials were done in cows of the transient model at the baseline and in the 1st week of the re-challenge with concentrate. In situ degradation of NDF and ADF of the forage samples, and microbial abundances were determined at 0, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h of the incubation. Ruminal pH and temperature during the incubation were recorded using indwelling pH sensors. Compared with the respective baseline, both grain-rich feeding models lowered ruminal pH and increased the duration of pH below 5.5 and 5.8. Results of the grass silage incubation showed that in the continuous model the extent of NDF and ADF degradation was lower in the 1st, but not in the last week compared with the baseline. For the transient model, degradation of NDF of the silage was lower during the re-challenge compared with the baseline. Degradation of NDF and ADF of the hay was suppressed by both feeding models compared with the respective baseline. Changes in fiber degradation of either grass silage or hay were not related to the magnitude of ruminal pH depression during grain-rich

  18. Antioxidant Effect of trans-Resveratrol, Pterostilbene, Quercetin and Their Combinations in Human Erythrocytes In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases. Most natural chemopreventive agents display antioxidant activity. However, the potential health impact of the bioactive phytochemicals is limited by their low amount and relative...

  19. High-fat diets rich in soy or fish oil distinctly alter hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Dornellas, Ana P S; Rosa, José C; Lira, Fábio S; Cunha, Cláudio A; Boldarine, Valter T; de Souza, Gabriel I H; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Watanabe, Regina L H; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic insulin inhibits food intake, preventing obesity. High-fat feeding with polyunsaturated fats may be obesogenic, but their effect on insulin action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated insulin hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling after central injection in rats fed either control diet (15% energy from fat) or high-fat diets (50% energy from fat) enriched with either soy or fish oil. Soy rats had increased fat pad weight and serum leptin with normal body weight, serum lipid profile and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Fish rats had decreased body and fat pad weight, low leptin and corticosterone levels, and improved serum lipid profile. A 20-mU dose of intracerebroventricular (ICV) insulin inhibited food intake in control and fish groups, but failed to do so in the soy group. Hypothalamic protein levels of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K and AMPK were similar among groups. ICV insulin stimulated IR tyrosine phosphorylation in control (68%), soy (36%) and fish (34%) groups. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp185 band was significantly stimulated in control (78%) and soy (53%) rats, but not in fish rats. IRS-1 phosphorylation was stimulated only in control rats (94%). Akt serine phosphorylation was significantly stimulated only in control (90%) and fish (78%) rats. The results showed that, rather than the energy density, the fat type was a relevant aspect of high-fat feeding, since blockade of hypothalamic insulin signal transmission and insulin hypophagia was promoted only by the high-fat soy diet, while they were preserved in the rats fed with the high-fat fish diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Bergamot Juice (BJe) in a Mouse Model of Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Campolo, Michela; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Esposito, Emanuela; Benedetto, Filippo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury. PMID:27471464

  1. Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Fraction of Bergamot Juice (BJe) in a Mouse Model of Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Cordaro, Marika; Campolo, Michela; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Esposito, Emanuela; Benedetto, Filippo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species production. Superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk were occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 1 h. The animals were sacrificed after 1 h of reperfusion, for both histological and molecular examinations of the ileum tissue. The experimental results demonstrated that BJe was able to reduce histological damage, cytokines production, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress by a mechanism involved both NF-κB and MAP kinases pathways. This study indicates that BJe could represent a new treatment against inflammatory events of intestinal I/R injury.

  2. [Do antioxidant vitamins influence carcinogenesis?].

    PubMed

    Guz, Jolanta; Dziaman, Tomasz; Szpila, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Free radicals can affect the genetic material of cells, causing its gradual impairment and mutation. An accumulation of mutations in certain genes might lead to neoplasmic transformations of the cells and to cancer development. The deteriorative effects of free radicals are counteracted by the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E that quench free radical reactions. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of antioxidant vitamins. The following article attempts a short review of the current knowledge about the influence of vitamins A, C, and E on oxidative damage to DNA, the activity of some transcription factors, and the expressions of certain genes. The aim of this review is to answer the question whether a diet rich in vitamins can protect against cancer.

  3. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  4. Are carnivore digestive separation mechanisms revealed on structure-rich diets?: Faecal inconsistency in dogs (Canis familiaris) fed day old chicks

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Marcus; Hesta, Myriam; Cools, An; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Pronounced variations in faecal consistency have been described anecdotally for some carnivore species fed a structure-rich diet. Typically two faecal consistencies are distinguished, namely hard and firm versus liquid and viscous faeces. It is possible that a separation mechanism is operating in the carnivore digestive tract, as in many herbivore species. Six beagle dogs were fed two experimental diets in a cross-over design of 7 days. Test diets consisted of chunked day old chicks differing only in particle size (fine = 7.8 mm vs coarse = 13 mm) in order to vary dietary structure. Digestive retention time was measured using titanium oxide (TiO2) as marker. The total faecal output was scored for consistency and faecal fermentation profiles were evaluated through faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonia (NH3) analyses. A total of 181 faecal samples were collected. Dietary particle size did not affect faecal consistency, fermentative end products nor mean retention time (MRT). However, a faecal consistency dichotomy was observed with firm faeces (score 2–2.5) and soft faeces (score 4–4.5) being the most frequently occurring consistencies in an almost alternating pattern in every single dog. Firm and soft faeces differed distinctively in fermentative profiles. Although the structure difference between diets did not affect the faecal dichotomy, feeding whole prey provoked the occurrence of the latter which raises suspicion of a digestive separation mechanism in the canine digestive tract. Further faecal characterisation is however required in order to unravel the underlying mechanism. PMID:29432482

  5. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  7. On-Farm Crop Species Richness Is Associated with Household Diet Diversity and Quality in Subsistence- and Market-Oriented Farming Households in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    On-farm crop species richness (CSR) may be important for maintaining the diversity and quality of diets of smallholder farming households. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the association of CSR with the diversity and quality of household diets in Malawi and 2) assess hypothesized mechanisms for this association via both subsistence- and market-oriented pathways. Longitudinal data were assessed from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi between 2010 and 2013 (n = 3000 households). A household diet diversity score (DDS) and daily intake per adult equivalent of energy, protein, iron, vitamin A, and zinc were calculated from 7-d household consumption data. CSR was calculated from plot-level data on all crops cultivated during the 2009-2010 and 2012-2013 agricultural seasons in Malawi. Adjusted generalized estimating equations were used to assess the longitudinal relation of CSR with household diet quality and diversity. CSR was positively associated with DDS (β: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; P < 0.001), as well as daily intake per adult equivalent of energy (kilocalories) (β: 41.6; 95% CI: 20.9, 62.2; P < 0.001), protein (grams) (β: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.80, 2.75; P < 0.001), iron (milligrams) (β: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.44; P < 0.001), vitamin A (micrograms of retinol activity equivalent) (β: 25.8; 95% CI: 12.7, 38.9; P < 0.001), and zinc (milligrams) (β: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.38; P < 0.001). Neither proportion of harvest sold nor distance to nearest population center modified the relation between CSR and household diet diversity or quality (P ≥ 0.05). Households with greater CSR were more commercially oriented (least-squares mean proportion of harvest sold ± SE, highest tertile of CSR: 17.1 ± 0.52; lowest tertile of CSR: 8.92 ± 1.09) (P < 0.05). Promoting on-farm CSR may be a beneficial strategy for simultaneously supporting enhanced diet quality and diversity while also creating opportunities for smallholder farmers to engage with

  8. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet.

    PubMed

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  9. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P.; Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily; Löhr, Christiane V.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. PMID:23566957

  10. Phytase supplementation in diets rich in fiber from rapeseed enhances phosphorus and calcium digestibility but not retention in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Lessire, M; Klein, S; Même, N; Peyronnet, C; Quinsac, A; Duclos, M J; Narcy, A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Two experiments were conducted on broilers to assess the effect of dietary fiber from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and retention (AR) during the growing (Exp1: 10 to 21 d) or finishing period (Exp2: 21 to 31 d) in diets supplemented or not with microbial phytase. Each experiment involved 144 male Cobb 500 fed one of 8 diets. Fiber content was modulated by incorporating whole RSM, RSM from dehulled rapeseeds, either raw or supplemented with 2 levels of defatted rapeseed hulls. Diets were supplemented or not with 750 phytase units of microbial phytase per kg. Excreta were collected from d 14 to d 17 (Exp1) and from d 27 to d 30 (Exp2) to measure AR. At the end of experiments, digestive tracts were sampled and weighed. The distal ileum and tibias were collected to measure AID and bone mineralization, respectively. Age did not significantly alter the response of birds to the addition of dietary fiber. Inclusion of hulls decreased growth performance (P < 0.05). The weight of the proventriculus-gizzard (PG) increased with the dietary fiber content in Exp1: The decreased weight observed using dehulled RSM was reversed following the inclusion of hulls. In both trials, while the presence of phytase increased the AID of P (P < 0.001) but not Ca, the inclusion of hulls with phytase improved the AID of P and Ca [linear (Lin), P < 0.05]. This effect could depend on the effect of fiber on PG development and physiology. Hulls decreased the moisture content of excreta (P < 0.01), suggesting higher water retention or lower water consumption with fiber. The AR of P was lower than AID of P with hulls, contrary to Ca, suggesting a metabolic imbalance. The decrease of AR together with the decrease of bone characteristics indicates a lack of Ca in diets with hulls and suggests that P and Ca provision should be adapted to the level and the origin of fiber inclusion. PMID:29506047

  11. Phytase supplementation in diets rich in fiber from rapeseed enhances phosphorus and calcium digestibility but not retention in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bournazel, M; Lessire, M; Klein, S; Même, N; Peyronnet, C; Quinsac, A; Duclos, M J; Narcy, A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted on broilers to assess the effect of dietary fiber from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and retention (AR) during the growing (Exp1: 10 to 21 d) or finishing period (Exp2: 21 to 31 d) in diets supplemented or not with microbial phytase. Each experiment involved 144 male Cobb 500 fed one of 8 diets. Fiber content was modulated by incorporating whole RSM, RSM from dehulled rapeseeds, either raw or supplemented with 2 levels of defatted rapeseed hulls. Diets were supplemented or not with 750 phytase units of microbial phytase per kg. Excreta were collected from d 14 to d 17 (Exp1) and from d 27 to d 30 (Exp2) to measure AR. At the end of experiments, digestive tracts were sampled and weighed. The distal ileum and tibias were collected to measure AID and bone mineralization, respectively. Age did not significantly alter the response of birds to the addition of dietary fiber. Inclusion of hulls decreased growth performance (P < 0.05). The weight of the proventriculus-gizzard (PG) increased with the dietary fiber content in Exp1: The decreased weight observed using dehulled RSM was reversed following the inclusion of hulls. In both trials, while the presence of phytase increased the AID of P (P < 0.001) but not Ca, the inclusion of hulls with phytase improved the AID of P and Ca [linear (Lin), P < 0.05]. This effect could depend on the effect of fiber on PG development and physiology. Hulls decreased the moisture content of excreta (P < 0.01), suggesting higher water retention or lower water consumption with fiber. The AR of P was lower than AID of P with hulls, contrary to Ca, suggesting a metabolic imbalance. The decrease of AR together with the decrease of bone characteristics indicates a lack of Ca in diets with hulls and suggests that P and Ca provision should be adapted to the level and the origin of fiber inclusion.

  12. Diet supplementation for 5 weeks with polyphenol-rich cereals improves several functions and the redox state of mouse leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro; Alvarado, Carmen; Mathieu, Florence; Jiménez, Liliana; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2006-12-01

    Cereals naturally contain a great variety of polyphenols, which exert a wide range of physiological effects both in vitro and in vivo. Many of their protective effects, including an improvement of the function and redox state of immune cells in unhealthy or aged subjects come from their properties as powerful antioxidant compounds. However, whether cereal-based dietary supplementation positively affects the immune function and cellular redox state of healthy subjects remains unclear. To investigate the effects of supplementation (20% wt/wt) for 5 weeks with four different cereal fractions on healthy mice. Several parameters of function and redox state of peritoneal leukocytes were measured. The cereals, named B (wheat germ), C (buckwheat flour), D (fine rice bran) and E (wheat middlings) contained different amounts of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, catechin, rutin and oryzanol as major polyphenols. In general, all cereal fractions caused an improvement of the leukocyte parameters studied such as chemotaxis capacity, microbicidal activity, lymphoproliferative response to mitogens, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) release, as well as oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSSG/GSH ratio, catalase (CAT) activity and lipid oxidative damage. We observed similar effects among the cereal fractions. The results suggest that some of these effects may due, at least partially, to the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols naturally present in cereals. Since an appropriate function of the leukocytes has been proposed as marker of the health state, a short-term intake of cereals seems to be sufficient to exert a benefit in the health of the general population. However, further studies are needed to assess the optimal doses and to find out which active polyphenols are able to mediate the observed physiological effects before recommending their regular consumption.

  13. Impact of Nutritional Factors on the Proteome of Intestinal Escherichia coli: Induction of OxyR-Dependent Proteins AhpF and Dps by a Lactose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Monique; Alpert, Carl; Engst, Wolfram; Musiol, Stephanie; Loh, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of nutritional factors on protein expression of intestinal bacteria, gnotobiotic mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli K-12 were fed three different diets: a diet rich in starch, a diet rich in nondigestible lactose, and a diet rich in casein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed proteins of bacteria recovered from small intestine and cecum. Oxidative stress response proteins such as AhpF, Dps, and Fur, all of which belong to the oxyR regulon, were upregulated in E. coli isolates from mice fed the lactose-rich diet. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that osmotic stress caused by carbohydrates led to the expression of ahpCF and dps, which was not observed in an E. coli ΔoxyR mutant. Growth of ahpCF and oxyR deletion mutants was strongly impaired when nondigestible sucrose was present in the medium. The wild-type phenotype could be restored by complementation of the deletions with plasmids containing the corresponding genes and promoters. The results indicate that some OxyR-dependent proteins play a major role in the adaptation of E. coli to osmotic stress. We conclude that there is an overlap of osmotic and oxidative stress responses. Mice fed the lactose-rich diet possibly had a higher intestinal osmolality, leading to the upregulation of OxyR-dependent proteins, which enable intestinal E. coli to better cope with diet-induced osmotic stress. PMID:22427493

  14. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Quarfordt, S H; Frank, A; Shames, D M; Berman, M; Steinberg, D

    1970-12-01

    Transport of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and of fatty acids in triglycerides of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-TGFA) was studied in two normal subjects, five patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, and two patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. After intravenous pulse-labeling with albumin-bound 1-palmitate-(14)C, specific radioactivity of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA were determined at intervals up to 24 hr. The results were analyzed using several different multicompartmental models each compatible with the experimental data. Fractional transport of VLDL-TGFA was distinctly lower (no overlap) in the type IV patients than in the control subjects, both on a usual balanced diet (40% of calories from carbohydrate) and on a high-carbohydrate diet (80% of calories). However, net or total transport of VLDL-TGFA in the type IV patients was not clearly distinguishable from that in the control subjects, there being considerable overlap on either diet. The results suggest that in this group of type IV patients the underlying defect leading to the increased pool size of VLDL-TGFA is not overproduction but a relative defect in mechanisms for removal of VLDL-TGFA. Since some of these type IV patients had only a moderate degree of hypertriglyceridemia at the time they were studied, and since it is not established that patients with the type IV phenotype constitute a biochemically homogeneous population, the present results should not be generalized. Four studies were done (in two control subjects and two type IV patients) in which the kinetic parameters in the same individual were determined on the balanced diet and on the high-carbohydrate diet. All subjects showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA pool size. Using two of the models for analysis, all showed an increase in net transport of VLDL-TGFA; using the third model, three of the four studies showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA transport. The results are compatible with the interpretation that the carbohydrate

  15. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidative Status, Histopathological Lesions, and Related Gene Expression in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe

    2016-06-01

    A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group

  17. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    SciTech Connect

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P.; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331

    2013-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblasticmore » lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain

  18. A ketogenic amino acid rich diet benefits mitochondrial homeostasis by altering the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy signaling pathways in the gastrocnemius and soleus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinpeng; Kanasaki, Megumi; Xu, Ling; Kitada, Munehiro; Nagao, Kenji; Adachi, Yusuke; Jinzu, Hiroko; Noguchi, Yasushi; Kohno, Miyuki; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2018-07-01

    Muscle biology is important topic in diabetes research. We have reported that a diet with ketogenic amino acids rich replacement (KAAR) ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatosteatosis via activation of the autophagy system. Here, we found that a KAAR ameliorated the mitochondrial morphological alterations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an HFD through induction of the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy signaling pathways in both fast and slow muscles. The mice were fed with a standard HFD (30% fat in food) or an HFD with KAAR (HFD KAAR ). In both the gastrocnemius and the soleus, HFD KAAR ameliorated HFD-impaired mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial function, characterized by decreased mitofusin 2, optic atrophy 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator-1α and PPARα levels and increased dynamin-related protein 1 levels. The decreased levels of phosphorylated AKT and 4EBP1 in the gastrocnemius and soleus of HFD-fed mice were remediated by HFD KAAR . Furthermore, the HFD KAAR ameliorated the HFD-induced autophagy defects in the gastrocnemius and soleus. These findings suggest that KAAR may be a novel strategy to combat obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, likely through induction of the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy pathways in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p < 0.05). Besides, the levels of hepatic Hmgcr and serum Pcsk9 were lowered, along with transcriptional upregulations of hepatic Cyp7a1, Abca1, Lcat, ApoA2 and ApoE (p < 0.05). The gene expression of hepatic Ldlr was marginally enhanced by DKSM supplementation (p > 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  20. Fructose Rich Diet-Induced High Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Production in the Adult Female Rat: Protective Effect of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Alzamendi, Ana; Ongaro, Luisina; Giovambattista, Andrés; Gaillard, Rolf C.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND) or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD). At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND) rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND) plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND) in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production. PMID:23016136

  1. Does oestradiol attenuate the damaging effects of a fructose-rich diet on cardiac Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signalling?

    PubMed

    Romic, Snjezana; Tepavcevic, Snezana; Zakula, Zorica; Milosavljevic, Tijana; Stojiljkovic, Mojca; Zivkovic, Maja; Popovic, Milan; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Koricanac, Goran

    2013-06-01

    Fructose-rich diets (FRD) cause cardiac insulin resistance manifested by impairment of Akt/endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) signalling. In contrast, oestradiol (E2) activates this signalling pathway in the heart. To study the ability of E2 to revert the detrimental effect of fructose on cardiac Akt/eNOS, female rats were subjected to a FRD and ovariectomy followed with or without E2 replacement. We also analysed the effects of the FRD and E2 on cardiac extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2) signalling related to their role in cardiac hypertrophy development. Expression of Akt, eNOS and Erk 1/2, as well as regulatory phosphorylations of these molecules were determined. The protein expression of cardiac Akt and eNOS was not affected by the diet or E2 treatment. However, the FRD was accompanied by a decrease in Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) and Thr(308), and eNOS at Ser(1177), while the phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr(495) was increased. E2 replacement in ovariectomised fructose-fed rats caused a reversion of the diet effect on Akt and eNOS serine phosphorylation, but mostly had no effect on threonine phosphorylation of the molecules. The FRD and E2 treatment did not influence Erk 1/2 expression and phosphorylation and heart mass as well. The data show that E2 selectively suppress the negative effects of a FRD on Akt/eNOS signalling and probably point to the different effects of E2 on kinase/phosphatase pathways responsible for phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. Furthermore, the results suggest that the heart of females in the reproductive period is partially protected against the damaging effects of increasedfructose intake.

  2. Parametrial adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose-rich diet in normal and neonatal-androgenized adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Ortega, Hugo H; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    Hyperandrogenemia predisposes an organism toward developing impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of our study was to evaluate endocrine and metabolic effects during early allostasis induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in normal (control; CT) and neonatal-androgenized (testosterone propionate; TP) female adult rats. CT and TP rats were fed either a normal diet (ND) or an FRD for 3 weeks immediately before the day of study, which was at age 100 days. Energy intake, body weight (BW), parametrial (PM) fat characteristics, and endocrine/metabolic biomarkers were then evaluated. Daily energy intake was similar in CT and TP rats regardless of the differences in diet. When compared with CT-ND rats, the TP-ND rats were heavier, had larger PM fat, and were characterized by basal hypoadiponectinemia and enhanced plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and leptin. FRD-fed CT rats, when compared with CT-ND rats, had high plasma levels of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), PAI-1, leptin, and adiponectin. The TP-FRD rats, when compared with TP-ND rats, displayed enhanced leptinemia and triglyceridemia, and were hyperinsulinemic, with glucose intolerance. The PM fat taken from TP rats displayed increase in the size of adipocytes, decrease in adiponectin (protein/gene), and a greater abundance of the leptin gene. PM adipocyte response to insulin was impaired in CT-FRD, TP-ND, and TP-FRD rats. A very short duration of isocaloric FRD intake in TP rats induced severe metabolic dysfunction at the reproductive age. Our study supports the hypothesis that the early-androgenized female rat phenotype is highly susceptible to developing endocrine/metabolic dysfunction. In turn, these abnormalities enhance the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Fructose rich diet-induced high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production in the adult female rat: protective effect of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Alzamendi, Ana; Ongaro, Luisina; Giovambattista, Andrés; Gaillard, Rolf C; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND) or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD). At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND) rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND) plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND) in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production.

  4. STIMULATION OF NICOTINE REWARD AND CENTRAL CHOLINERGIC ACTIVITY IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO A FAT-RICH DIET

    PubMed Central

    Morganstern, Irene; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Shaji, Jane; Karatayev, Olga; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale While clinical studies show maternal consumption of palatable fat-rich diets during pregnancy to negatively impact the children’s behaviors and increase their vulnerability to drug abuse, the precise behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms mediating these phenomena have yet to be examined. Objective The study examined in rats whether gestational exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can increase the offspring’s propensity to use nicotine and whether disturbances in central nicotinic cholinergic signaling accompany this behavioral effect. Methods Rat offspring exposed perinatally to a HFD or Chow diet were characterized in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior in a series of operant response experiments and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and density of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) in different brain areas. Result Perinatal HFD compared to Chow exposure increased nicotine-self administration behavior during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing and caused an increase in breakpoint using progressive ratio testing, while nicotine-seeking in response to nicotine prime-induced reinstatement was reduced. This behavioral change induced by the HFD was associated with a significant reduction in activity of AChE in the midbrain, hypothalamus and striatum and increased density of β2-nAChRs in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and of α7-nAChRs in the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus. Conclusions Perinatal exposure to a HFD increases the vulnerability of the offspring to excessive nicotine use by enhancing its reward potential, and these behavioral changes are accompanied by a stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic signaling in mesostriatal and hypothalamic brain areas important for reinforcement and consummatory behavior. PMID:23836027

  5. Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidative Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaf extracts in liver and heart of rats fed with high-cholesterol (HC) diet for seven weeks. The results shows that OS suppressed the high levels of serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid content without significant effects on fecal lipid excretion. Fecal bile acids excretion was increased in HC rats treated with OS. The high serum levels of TBARS as well as AST, ALT, AP, LDH, CK-MB significantly decreased in HC rats treated with OS. OS suppressed the high level of TABARS and raised the low activities of GPx and CAT without any impact on SOD in the liver. As for the cardiac tissues, OS lowered the high level of TABARS, and raised the activities of GPx, CAT, and SOD. Histopathological results show that OS preserved the liver and myocardial tissues. It can be concluded that OS leaf extracts decreased hepatic and serum lipid profile, and provided the liver and cardiac tissues with protection from hypercholesterolemia. The lipid-lowering effect is probably due to the rise of bile acids synthesis using cholesterol as precursor, and antioxidative activity to protect liver from hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21949899

  6. Glucomannan- and glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched pork affect liver fatty acid profile, LDL receptor expression and antioxidant status in Zucker fa/fa rats fed atherogenic diets

    PubMed Central

    González-Torres, Laura; Matos, Cátia; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Santos-López, Jorge A.; Sánchez-Martínez, Iria; García–Fernández, Camino; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions. Cholesterolemia was lower in HG and HGS than in HC. GS vs. G showed higher stearic but lower oleic levels. SFA and PUFA decreased while MUFA increased by cholesterol feeding. The arachidonic/linoleic and docosahexaenoic/alpha-linolenic ratios were lower in HC, HG, and HGS vs. C, G, and GS, respectively, suggesting a delta-6-elongase-desaturase system inhibition. Moreover, cholesterol feeding, mainly in HGS, decreased low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression and the delta-5-desaturase activity and increased the delta-9-desaturase activity. In conclusion, the liver production of highly unsaturated fatty acids was limited to decrease their oxidation in presence of hypercholesterolaemia. Glucomannan or glucomannan/spirulina-RP has added new attributes to their functional properties in meat, partially arresting the negative effects induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol feeding on the liver fatty acid and antioxidant statuses. PMID:28325998

  7. First evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of fucoxanthin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice and the antioxidant functions in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cong-ping; Hou, Yun-hua

    2014-04-01

    Obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant influencing the development of insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of fucoxanthin in experimental high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice and antioxidant activity in PC12 cells under oxidative stress situation. The anti-inflammatory potential of fucoxanthin in the regulation of maleic dialdehyde (MDA), polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined by ELISA. Fucoxanthin significantly inhibited obesity-induced upregulation of the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2. Moreover, fucoxanthin suppressed MDA and infiltration of PMNs. The protective effects were associated with lack of hypertrophy and crown-like structures in mammary gland. At the same time, fucoxanthin showed an advantage of antioxidant activity in PC12 cells under oxidative stress situation. These results suggest that supplementation of fucoxanthin is a promising strategy for blocking macrophage-mediated inflammation and inflammation-induced obesity and its associated complications.

  8. Effects of realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate on lipid peroxidation and diet-derived antioxidants in caged honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Helmer, Stephanie Hedrei; Kerbaol, Anahi; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine; Boily, Monique

    2015-06-01

    The decline in the population of pollinators is a worrying phenomenon worldwide. In North America, the extensive use of herbicides in maize and soya crops may affect the health of nontarget organisms like the honey bee. In this study, caged honey bees were exposed to realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate for 10 days via contaminated syrup. Peroxidation of lipids was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) test, and diet-derived antioxidants-carotenoids, all-trans-retinol (at-ROH) and α-tocopherol-were detected and quantified using reversed-phase HPLC techniques. Significant increases in syrup consumption were observed in honey bees exposed to metolachlor, and a lower TBARS value was recorded for the highest dose. No relationship was observed between the peroxidation of lipids and the levels of antioxidants. However, β-carotene, which was found to be the most abundant carotenoid, and at-ROH (derived from β-carotene) both decreased with increasing doses of atrazine and glyphosate. In contrast, metolachlor increased levels of at-ROH without any effects on β-carotene. These results show that the honey bee carotenoid-retinoid system may be altered by sublethal field-realistic doses of herbicides.

  9. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P < 0.05), which is evident from the increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in tissues. Concentration of reduced glutathione was also found to be increased significantly in liver (532.97 mM per 100 g liver), heart (15.77 mM per 100 g heart) and kidney (1.58 mM per 100 g kidney) of VCO fed rats compared to those fed with CO, OO and SFO (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of paraoxonase 1 was significantly increased in VCO fed rats compared to other oil fed groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, VCO administration prevented the oxidative stress, which is indicated by the decreased formation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products like malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and protein carbonyls in serum and tissues compared to other oil fed rats (P < 0.05). Wet processing of VCO retains higher amounts of biologically active unsaponifiable components like polyphenols (84 mg per 100 g oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  10. Syzygium aqueum: A Polyphenol- Rich Leaf Extract Exhibits Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Pain-Killing and Anti-inflammatory Activities in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F.; Petruk, Ganna; Rezq, Samar; Ashour, Mohamed L.; Youssef, Fadia S.; El-Shazly, Assem M.; Monti, Daria M.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.; Wink, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Syzygium aqueum is widely used in folk medicine. A polyphenol-rich extract from its leaves demonstrated a plethora of substantial pharmacological properties. The extract showed solid antioxidant properties in vitro and protected human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) against UVA damage. The extract also reduced the elevated levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin (TB), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in rats with acute CCl4 intoxication. In addition to reducing the high MDA level, the extract noticeably restored GSH and SOD to the normal control levels in liver tissue homogenates and counteracted the deleterious histopathologic changes in liver after CCl4 injection. Additionally, the extract exhibited promising anti-inflammatory activities in vitro where it inhibited LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 with a higher COX-2 selectivity than that of indomethacin and diclofenac and reduced the extent of lysis of erythrocytes upon incubation with hypotonic buffer solution. S. aqueum extract also markedly reduced leukocyte numbers with similar activities to diclofenac in rats challenged with carrageenan. Additionally, administration of the extract abolished writhes induced by acetic acid in mice and prolonged the response latency in hot plate test. Meanwhile, the identified polyphenolics from the extract showed a certain affinity for the active pockets of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) explaining the observed anti-inflammatory activities. Finally, 87 secondary metabolites (mostly phenolics) were tentatively identified in the extract based on LC-MS/MS analyses. Syzygium aqueum displays good protection against oxidative stress, free radicals, and could be a good candidate for treating oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:29922158

  11. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cauliflower leaf powder-enriched diet against LPS induced toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Marilena; Perna, Anna Maria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Perucatti, Angela; Rossano, Rocco

    2017-09-20

    Brassica phytochemicals exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of a cauliflower leaf powder (CLP)-enriched diet to prevent inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into rabbits. Animals (24 rabbits) were randomly divided into two groups and fed with a standard diet (SD) or a standard diet supplemented with a 100 g kg -1 diet of CLP. After 60 days, six rabbits of both groups received a LPS injection (100 μg per kg body weight). Serum samples collected after 90 min of LPS injection were assessed for their content of both inflammatory biomarkers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and oxidative stress biomarkers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). LPS increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and TBARS as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, whereas it decreased the GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, preventive supplementation with CLP can protect rabbits from the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by LPS.

  12. Natural Antioxidants and Hypertension: Promise and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kizhakekuttu, Tinoy J.; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension reigns as a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as a central common pathway by which disparate influences may induce and exacerbate hypertension. Potential sources of excessive ROS in hypertension include NADPH oxidase, mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, endothelium-derived NO synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and transition metals. While a significant body of epidemiological and clinical data suggests that antioxidant rich diets reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, randomized trials and population studies using natural antioxidants have yielded disappointing results. The reasons behind this lack of efficacy are not completely clear, but likely include a combination of 1) ineffective dosing regimens 2) the potential pro-oxidant capacity of some of these agents 3) selection of subjects less likely to benefit from antioxidant therapy (too healthy or too sick), 4) inefficiency of non-specific quenching of prevalent ROS versus prevention of excessive ROS production. Commonly used antioxidants include Vitamins A, C and E, L-arginine, flavanoids, and mitochondria targeted agents, Coenzyme Q10, acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid. Various reasons, including incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of action of these agents, lack of target specificity, and potential inter-individual differences in therapeutic efficacy preclude us from recommending any specific natural antioxidant for antihypertensive therapy at this time. This review focuses on recent literature regarding above mentioned issues evaluating naturally occurring antioxidants with respect to their impact on hypertension. PMID:20370791

  13. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum L. stem extract on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhye; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son

    2013-08-30

    This study was designed to examine the potential health benefits of Allium sativum L. (garlic) stem extract (ASSE) on obesity and related disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obese mice were orally administered ASSE at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 4 weeks. Consumption of ASSE significantly suppressed body weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight regardless of daily food intake. Obese mice fed ASSE also exhibited a significant decrease in WAT cell size. The decreased level of adiponectin and increased level of leptin in obese mice reverted to near normal mice levels in ASSE-treated mice. ASSE administration significantly improved lipid parameters of the serum and liver and inhibited fat accumulation in the liver by modulating the activities of hepatic lipid-regulating enzymes in obese mice. Administration of ASSE also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and suppressed glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue. These results suggest that ASSE may ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative damage in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Light aerobic physical exercise in combination with leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet can improve the body composition and muscle protein metabolism in young tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2012-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation with some amino acids may influence host's responses and also certain mechanism involved in tumor progression. It is known that exercise influences body weight and muscle composition. Previous findings from our group have shown that leucine has beneficial effects on protein composition in cachectic rat model as the Walker 256 tumor. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of light exercise and leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet in body composition and skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation in young tumor-bearing rats. Walker tumor-bearing rats were subjected to light aerobic exercise (swimming 30 min/day) and fed a leucine-rich (3%) and/or glutamine-rich (4%) diet for 10 days and compared to healthy young rats. The carcasses were analyzed as total water and fat body content and lean body mass. The gastrocnemious muscles were isolated and used for determination of total protein synthesis and degradation. The chemical body composition changed with tumor growth, increasing body water and reducing body fat content and total body nitrogen. After tumor growth, the muscle protein metabolism was impaired, showing that the muscle protein synthesis was also reduced and the protein degradation process was increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised rats. Although short-term exercise (10 days) alone did not produce beneficial effects that would reduce tumor damage, host protein metabolism was improved when exercise was combined with a leucine-rich diet. Only total carcass nitrogen and protein were recovered by a glutamine-rich diet. Exercise, in combination with an amino acid-rich diet, in particular, leucine, had effects beyond reducing tumoral weight such as improving protein turnover and carcass nitrogen content in the tumor-bearing host.

  15. High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Bell, J Gordon; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of fish oil (FO) replacement by vegetable oils (VO) was investigated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in a growth trial conducted for the duration of 8 months. Four isolipidic and isoproteic diets rich in plant proteins were supplemented with L-lysine (0.55 %) and soya lecithin (1 %). Added oil was either FO (control) or a blend of VO, replacing 33 % (33VO diet), 66 % (66VO diet) and 100 % (VO diet) of FO. No detrimental effects on growth performance were found with the partial FO replacement, but feed intake and growth rates were reduced by about 10 % in fish fed the VO diet. The replacement strategy did not damage the intestinal epithelium, and massive accumulation of lipid droplets was not found within enterocytes. All fish showed fatty livers, but signs of lipoid liver disease were only found in fish fed the VO diet. Muscle fatty acid profiles of total lipids reflected the diet composition with a selective incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids in polar lipids. The robustness of the phospholipid fatty acid profile when essential fatty acid requirements were theoretically covered by the diet was evidenced by multivariate principal components analysis in fish fed control, 33VO and 66VO diets.

  16. Lifetime Exposure to a Constant Environment Amplifies the Impact of a Fructose-Rich Diet on Glucose Homeostasis during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Song, Aleida; Astbury, Stuart; Hoedl, Abha; Nielsen, Brent; Symonds, Michael E; Bell, Rhonda C

    2017-03-25

    The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy. Markers of maternal hepatic metabolism were differentially influenced, as the gene expression of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase was raised in Gen1 given fructose and controls, whereas glucose transporter 5 and fatty acid synthase expression were only raised with fructose. Gen1 rats weighed more than Gen0 throughout the study, although fructose feeding raised the percent body fat but not body weight. We show that long-term habituation to the living environment has a profound impact on the animal's metabolic responses to nutritional intervention and pregnancy. This has important implications for interpreting many studies investigating the influence of maternal consumption of fructose on pregnancy outcomes and offspring to date.

  17. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses.

  18. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Rodrigo Dutra; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Moretti, Débora Monteiro; Medeiros-Castro, Priscilla; Rocha-Santos, Carlucio; Daumas-Filho, Carlos Renato de Oliveira; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula Rego Barros; Martins-Cardoso, Karina; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Oliveira, José Henrique Maia; Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Alves Lemos, Francisco José; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Oliveira, Pedro Lagerblad; Lowenberger, Carl; Majerowicz, David; Oliveira, Ricardo Melo; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Atella, Georgia Correa

    2016-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. Results Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus. Conclusion The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses. PMID:27732590

  19. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Influences of a diet supplemented with linseed oil and antioxidants on quality of equine semen after cooling and cryopreservation during winter.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Lausigk, Yvonne; Aurich, Christine

    2014-04-15

    Seasonal changes in the reproductive physiology of stallions contribute to a decrease in the quality of frozen-thawed semen during late winter. Changes in the lipid composition of the sperm plasma membrane may contribute to this phenomenon. In the present study, we have, therefore, investigated the effects of adding linseed oil (LO) in combination with antioxidants to the diet of breeding stallions on the motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen. Starting in November, the diet of LO stallions (n = 6) but not control (C) stallions (n = 5) was supplemented with LO (100 mL once daily) plus an antioxidant (Myostem Protect; Audevard, Clichy, France) for a total of 84 days. Before (November) and at the end of this period (February), ejaculates were processed for cryopreservation (n = 3 ejaculates per stallion) and cooled shipping at 5 °C. Frozen-thawed and cooled-shipped semen was sent to the laboratory for computer-assisted semen analysis of total motility, progressive motility, and velocity parameters (average path velocity [VAP], curved line velocity [VCL], and straight-line velocity [VSL]) and evaluation of membrane integrity. The quality of frozen-thawed semen decreased (P < 0.05) from November (e.g., total motility LO 69 ± 3% and C 67 ± 3%) to February (total motility: LO 55 ± 4% and C 59 ± 3%) independent of treatment (P > 0.05). A decrease in the velocity parameters VAP, VCL, and VSL was more pronounced in LO stallions than in C stallions (e.g., VSL: November LO 67 ± 1 μm/s, C 64 ± 2 μm/s; February LO 59 ± 2 μm/s, C 63 ± 2 μm/s; interaction month by treatment, P < 0.05). In cooled-stored semen, total motility, progressive motility, and membrane integrity were lower in February than in November (P < 0.001 for all parameters). Supplementation of the diet with LO and antioxidants attenuated this decrease (e.g., Day 1 of cooled storage = 24 hours after semen collection: total motility in November LO 88 ± 1% and C 87

  1. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of

  2. Medium-term methionine supplementation increases plasma homocysteine but not ADMA and improves blood pressure control in rats fed a diet rich in protein and adequate in folate and choline.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, François; Hammiche, Alexia; Blouet, Clémence; Daré, Sophie; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean François

    2006-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with cardiovascular risk, possibly because it increases asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA), but the general association remains unclear and may vary with nutritional and physiological conditions. We aimed to monitor the effect of methionine supplementation, and subsequent HHcy, on plasma ADMA and hemodynamics in the context of a diet rich in protein and adequate in folic acid and choline. For 6 weeks, rats were fed a 29% protein diet supplemented (M) or not (C) with 8 g/kg L: -methionine. Blood pressure and plasma amino acids, including homocysteine and ADMA, were measured throughout the experiment and additional parameters, including in vivo hemodynamic response to acetylcholine, were measured at week 5-6. As compared to the C diet, the M diet induced a marked HHcy during the first 3 weeks, which lessened at week 5. In contrast, plasma ADMA stayed similar in the C and M diet. Paradoxically, M rats had lower mean and diastolic blood pressure values over the experiment, together with a lower left ventricular mass at week 6, when compared with C rats. No difference was observed between groups regarding vascular reactivity and plasma NOx at week 6. In a context of a diet rich in protein and adequate in methyl donors, rats exhibit a complex adaptation to the medium-term methionine supplementation, with improvement in blood pressure control despite marked HHcy. The lack of increase in plasma ADMA may account for the absence of detrimental effects of HHcy on hemodynamics.

  3. Increased male offspring's risk of metabolic-neuroendocrine dysfunction and overweight after fructose-rich diet intake by the lactating mother.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2010-09-01

    An adverse endogenous environment during early life predisposes the organism to develop metabolic disorders. We evaluated the impact of intake of an iso-caloric fructose rich diet (FRD) by lactating mothers (LM) on several metabolic functions of their male offspring. On postnatal d 1, ad libitum eating, lactating Sprague-Dawley rats received either 10% F (wt/vol; FRD-LM) or tap water (controls, CTR-LM) to drink throughout lactation. Weaned male offspring were fed ad libitum a normal diet, and body weight (BW) and food intake were registered until experimentation (60 d of age). Basal circulating levels of metabolic markers were evaluated. Both iv glucose tolerance and hypothalamic leptin sensitivity tests were performed. The hypothalamus was dissected for isolation of total RNA and Western blot analysis. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue was dissected and either kept frozen for gene analysis or digested to isolate adipocytes or for histological studies. FRD rats showed increased BW and decreased hypothalamic sensitivity to exogenous leptin, enhanced food intake (between 49-60 d), and decreased hypothalamic expression of several anorexigenic signals. FRD rats developed increased insulin and leptin peripheral levels and decreased adiponectinemia; although FRD rats normally tolerated glucose excess, it was associated with enhanced insulin secretion. FRD RP adipocytes were enlarged and spontaneously released high leptin, although they were less sensitive to insulin-induced leptin release. Accordingly, RP fat leptin gene expression was high in FRD rats. Excessive fructose consumption by lactating mothers resulted in deep neuroendocrine-metabolic disorders of their male offspring, probably enhancing the susceptibility to develop overweight/obesity during adult life.

  4. Polyphenol-Rich Bilberry Ameliorates Total Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol when Implemented in the Diet of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Lea; Overgaard, Ann; Christensen, Lars P.; Jeppesen, Per B.; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bilberries and blackcurrants are nutrient sources rich in bioactive components, including dietary fibers, polyphenols, and anthocyanins, which possess potent cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies investigating the cardio-protective effects of natural components have focused on whole bilberries or blackcurrants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate whether a diet enriched with bilberries or blackcurrants has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, blood pressure, and expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (n = 48) were randomly assigned to either a control, bilberry-enriched, blackcurrant-enriched, or fiber-enriched diet for 8 weeks ad libitum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed on liver, adipose, and muscle tissue. Berry polyphenol content was determined by HPLC and LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Bilberry enrichment reduced total (-21%, p = 0.0132) and LDL-cholesterol (-60%, p = 0.0229) levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol to a lesser extent than in controls. This may partly be due to the altered hepatic liver X receptor-α expression (-24%, p < 0.001). Neither bilberries nor blackcurrants influenced glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Nevertheless, transcriptional analysis implied a better conservation of hepatic and adipocyte insulin sensitivity by bilberry enrichment. Anthocyanins constituted 91% and 87% of total polyphenol content in bilberries and blackcurrants, respectively. However, total anthocyanin content (3441 mg/100 g) was 4-fold higher in bilberries than in blackcurrants (871 mg/100 g). CONCLUSIONS: Bilberry consumption ameliorated total and LDL-cholesterol levels, but not HDL-cholesterol levels in ZDF rats. Neither bilberry nor blackcurrant enrichment delayed the development of diabetes or hypertension. Thus, in rats, bilberries may be valuable as a dietary preventive agent against hypercholesterolemia, probably by

  5. Effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed diets with different levels of crude protein.

    PubMed

    Bavarsadi, M; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari-Mahyari, S; Jahanian, E

    2017-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of different levels of sanguinarine on antioxidant indices, immunological responses, serum biochemical parameters, ileal microbial counts and jejunal morphology of laying hens fed on diets with different levels of crude protein (CP). A total of 180 laying hens were subjected into nine dietary treatments with four cages of five birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of three levels of CP (85.0, 92.5 and 100% of Hy-Line W36 manual recommendation) and three levels of sanguinarine (0.00, 3.75 and 7.50 mg/kg) as a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of laying hens which fed during a 70-day feeding trial. The in vitro study showed that sanguinarine exhibited sevenfold and threefold decreased antioxidant activities to inhibit 2-2-diphenyl-1-picric hydrazyl free radical as well as ferric ion reducing rather than butylated hydroxyl toluene. Although using the decremental levels of CP caused the increase in heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.01), dietary administration of sanguinarine could suppress the serum cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations as well as heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05). Additionally, decreasing CP content resulted in the decreased percentage of albumin (p < 0.05); however, it had no negative effects on humoral immunity. Nonetheless, feeding of at least 3.75 mg/kg sanguinarine led to the remarkable increases in serum gamma globulin concentration (p < 0.01) and secondary (p < 0.05) antibody titres against sheep red blood cells. Moreover, a decline in dietary CP content led to higher villi height and crypt depth (p < 0.05; p < 0.001) and consequently decreased villi height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < 0.001) than the optimum level (100% CP). In spite of the effects of sanguinarine on the suppression of Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts (p < 0.05), it markedly enhanced villi height-to-crypt depth ratio as well as lamina propria lymphatic follicles extent