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Sample records for antiperspirants

  1. Potentiometric/turbidometric titration of antiperspirant actives.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Clifford T; Hem, Stanley L; Guenin, Eric; Mattai, Jairajh; Afflito, John

    2003-01-01

    A titration procedure that simultaneously monitors the pH and turbidity of an antiperspirant solution during neutralization with sodium hydroxide was developed to characterize antiperspirant actives. Aluminum chloride, aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), and aluminum zirconium glycine complex (AZG) gave distinctive pH/turbidity profiles. The activated forms of aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH') and aluminum zirconium glycine complex (AZG') produced more turbidity than the non-activated forms. On an equimolar basis, AZG' produced more turbidity than any of the antiperspirant actives tested.

  2. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  3. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antiperspirant active ingredients. 350.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTIPERSPIRANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 350.10 Antiperspirant active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  4. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  5. Deodorants and antiperspirants affect the axillary bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Hutapea, Prawira; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-01

    The use of underarm cosmetics is common practice in the Western society to obtain better body odor and/or to prevent excessive sweating. A survey indicated that 95 % of the young adult Belgians generally use an underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. The effect of deodorants and antiperspirants on the axillary bacterial community was examined on nine healthy subjects, who were restrained from using deodorant/antiperspirant for 1 month. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the individual microbial dynamics. The microbial profiles were unique for every person. A stable bacterial community was seen when underarm cosmetics were applied on a daily basis and when no underarm cosmetics were applied. A distinct community difference was seen when the habits were changed from daily use to no use of deodorant/antiperspirant and vice versa. The richness was higher when deodorants and antiperspirants were applied. Especially when antiperspirants were applied, the microbiome showed an increase in diversity. Antiperspirant usage led toward an increase of Actinobacteria, which is an unfavorable situation with respect to body odor development. These initial results show that axillary cosmetics modify the microbial community and can stimulate odor-producing bacteria.

  6. Colorimetric determination of zirconium in antiperspirant aerosols.

    PubMed

    Beavin, P

    1976-07-01

    A rapid direct dilution procedure for the estimation of soluble zirconium and a fusion procedure for the determination of total zirconium (soluble and insoluble forms) in cream base concentrates prepared from antiperspirant aerosols are described. The direct dilution procedure involves extraction of soluble zirconium with HCl (55 + 45). The filtered extract is reacted with alizarin red S to form a stable colored complex which is measured spectrophotometrically. The fusion procedure involves ashing the aerosol concentrate followed by fusion of the ash with potassium pyrosulfate to form an acid-soluble melt. Zirconium is precipitated from solution as the hydroxide and washed to eliminate interfering ions, particularly sulfate. After redissolving in HCl (55 + 45) and reacting with alizarin red S, total zirconium is measured. Zirconyl chloride octahydrate, assayed gravimetrically by hydroxide precipitation and conversion to the oxide, is used as the zirconium reference standard. Concentration range of zirconium measured was 200-500 mug/100 ml. Recoveries of standard zirconium added to commercial aerosols labeled to contain aluminum and zirconyl hydroxychlorides ranged from 97 to 101% by the fusion procedure. Analysis of these aerosols by direct dilution gave generally slightly lower results than by fusion. It is recommended that the procedures be collaboratively studied after further testing of their general applicability to a variety of drugs and cosmetics.

  7. Antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott; Thomas, David B

    2002-10-16

    The rumor that antiperspirant use causes breast cancer continues to circulate the Internet. Although unfounded, there have been no published epidemiologic studies to support or refute this claim. This population-based case- control study investigated a possible relationship between use of products applied for underarm perspiration and the risk for breast cancer in women aged 20-74 years. Case patients (n = 813) were diagnosed between November 1992 and March 1995; control subjects (n = 793) were identified by random digit dialing and were frequency-matched by 5-year age groups. Product use information was obtained during an in-person interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by the use of conditional logistic regression. P values were determined with the Wald chi(2) test. All statistical tests were two-sided. The risk for breast cancer did not increase with any of the following activities: 1) antiperspirant (OR = 0.9; P =.23) or deodorant (OR = 1.2; P =.19) use; 2) product use among subjects who shaved with a blade razor; or 3) application of products within 1 hour of shaving (for antiperspirant, OR = 0.9 and P =.40; for deodorant, OR = 1.2 and P =.16). These findings do not support the hypothesis that antiperspirant use increases the risk for breast cancer.

  8. EEMCO guidance for the efficacy assessment of antiperspirants and deodorants.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Elsner, P; Marks, R; Masson, P; Paye, M

    2003-01-01

    Overproduction of sweat, sweaty skin and body odours are unpleasant for many social groups. Body cleansing products are designed to combat these undesirable features of skin. In addition, antiperspirant and deodorant products are more specifically used in the underarm site by a large part of the adult population. Antiperspirants are offered to control emotionally triggered sweating in the armpit. Deodorants are designed to combat malodour generated from bacteria-modified sweat. This review summarizes the physiology of eccrine, apocrine and apoeccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms of action of antiperspirants and deodorants are described as well as the factors influencing their efficacies. A series of tests using various measurement methods can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of antiperspirants. These include the gravimetric method, water evaporation quantification, electrodermal measurements, staining procedures, dye injections and cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and casting replicas. Deodorant efficacy can be evaluated by sensory assessments performed by an expert panel. Indirect support is provided by visualization of apocrine gland excretion and collection of sweat and volatile compounds. Microbiological assessments and chromatographic analysis also provide indirect information.

  9. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  10. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  11. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  12. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  13. 21 CFR 350.60 - Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidelines for effectiveness testing of antiperspirant drug products. 350.60 Section 350.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... because of minor variations in formulation. To assure the effectiveness of an antiperspirant, the Food...

  14. The use of Methenamine as an antiperspirant for amputees.

    PubMed

    Susak, Z; Minkov, R; Isakov, E

    1996-12-01

    The socket of a prosthesis is a tightly closed container. Sweating inside the socket is annoying and may also irritate the skin over the stump or lead to local infection such as folliculitis. The most effective method of preventing sweating is by the use of astringent agents. Formaldehyde is a very strong astringent but is not pleasant to use and may cause skin irritation and systemic reactions. Methenamine, in water or when applied to the skin, decomposes to generate formaldehyde in small quantities which do not cause side effects. Methenamine was used on the stump of sixteen amputees. The trial was conducted as a double blind study using two different solutions market as solution A and as solution B. The effectiveness of the solutions as an antiperspirant was evaluated clinically by the subjects and the physician. Solution A containing Methenamine, was found significantly effective, both by the subjects and physician when compared with the solution B the blank one. The use of Methenamine as an antiperspirant is recommended in amputation stumps.

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart C of... - HVOC 1 Content Limits for Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants 2 Table 2 to Subpart C of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants Product category Percent HVOC content limit (weight-percent HVOC) Underarm antiperspirants—aerosol 60 Underarm deodorants—aerosol 20 1 High-volatility...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart C - HVOC 1 Content Limits for Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants 2 Table 2 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants Product category Percent HVOC content limit (weight-percent HVOC) Underarm antiperspirants—aerosol 60 Underarm deodorants—aerosol 20 1 High-volatility organic compound...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart C of... - HVOC 1 Content Limits for Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants 2 Table 2 to Subpart C of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants Product category Percent HVOC content limit (weight-percent HVOC) Underarm antiperspirants—aerosol 60 Underarm deodorants—aerosol 20 1 High-volatility...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart C - HVOC 1 Content Limits for Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants 2 Table 2 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants Product category Percent HVOC content limit (weight-percent HVOC) Underarm antiperspirants—aerosol 60 Underarm deodorants—aerosol 20 1 High-volatility organic compound...

  19. Skin exposure to deodorants/antiperspirants in aerosol form.

    PubMed

    Steiling, W; Buttgereit, P; Hall, B; O'Keeffe, L; Safford, B; Tozer, S; Coroama, M

    2012-06-01

    Many cosmetic products are available in spray form. Even though the principal targets of these products are the skin and hair, spraying leads to the partitioning of the product between the target and the surrounding air. In the previous COLIPA study (Hall et al., 2007) the daily use of deodorant/antiperspirant (Deo/AP) in spray form was quantified in terms of the amount of product dispensed from the spray can, without specifically quantifying the product fraction reaching the skin during use. Results of the present study provide this additional information, necessary for a reliable safety assessment of sprayed Deo/AP products. In a novel experimental approach the information obtained from real-life movement analysis (automated motion imaging) of volunteers using their own products was integrated with the aerosol cloud sampling data obtained from the same products, leading to the computation of the product deposited on the skin. The 90th percentile values, expressed as percent deposition relative to the can weight loss after spraying, are 23.5% and 11.4% for ethanol-based and non-ethanol-based products, respectively. Additionally, the study has generated data on the skin area covered by the products, spray duration time, spray angle and spray distance from the skin.

  20. [The use of deodorants/antiperspirants does not constitute a risk factor for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Namer, Moïse; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Gligorov, Joseph; Lokiec, François; Spielmann, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Based on the observation of a high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant adjacent to the usual area of application of deodorants and/or antiperspirants, several scientific teams have advanced the hypothesis of a possible link between antiperspirants and breast cancer. The possibility of the involvement of parabens and aluminium salts, traditional components of a number of cosmetic products, has been advanced by the same teams. In order to ascertain whether this hypothesis could or could not be confirmed, a group of clinical experts in oncology was set up to search and analyse the literature data relating to the problem raised with the aim of answering three predefined questions: 1) does it exist experimental or biological arguments supporting a potential link between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer? 2) Does the use of deodorants/antiperspirants have any effect on the increase in the risk of breast cancer? 3) Could a causal relationship between the use of deodorants/antiperspirants and breast cancer be accepted? The scientific data were searched systematically in the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) using standardised search equations. Fifty-nine studies resulting from the literature search were reviewed and nineteen articles with various methodologies were selected for in-depth analysis. In view of the fact that parabens are generally not present in deodorants/antiperspirants, the reflection group's search related purely to the question of aluminium salts. Among these nineteen articles, many are methodologically unsound, do not answer to the questions posed or deal with the question of parabens and were therefore discarded by the reflection group. The expert group's conclusion coincides with those of the French, European and American health authorities. After analysis of the available literature on the subject, no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis was identified and no validated

  1. Antiperspirant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule in the form of a final monograph establishing conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) antiperspirant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on its proposed regulation, issued as a tentative final monograph (TFM), and all new data and information on antiperspirant drug products that have come to the agency's attention.

  2. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency.

  3. The effect of habitual and experimental antiperspirant and deodorant product use on the armpit microbiome.

    PubMed

    Urban, Julie; Fergus, Daniel J; Savage, Amy M; Ehlers, Megan; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    An ever expanding body of research investigates the human microbiome in general and the skin microbiome in particular. Microbiomes vary greatly from individual to individual. Understanding the factors that account for this variation, however, has proven challenging, with many studies able to account statistically for just a small proportion of the inter-individual variation in the abundance, species richness or composition of bacteria. The human armpit has long been noted to host a high biomass bacterial community, and recent studies have highlighted substantial inter-individual variation in armpit bacteria, even relative to variation among individuals for other body habitats. One obvious potential explanation for this variation has to do with the use of personal hygiene products, particularly deodorants and antiperspirants. Here we experimentally manipulate product use to examine the abundance, species richness, and composition of bacterial communities that recolonize the armpits of people with different product use habits. In doing so, we find that when deodorant and antiperspirant use were stopped, culturable bacterial density increased and approached that found on individuals who regularly do not use any product. In addition, when antiperspirants were subsequently applied, bacterial density dramatically declined. These culture-based results are in line with sequence-based comparisons of the effects of long-term product use on bacterial species richness and composition. Sequence-based analyses suggested that individuals who habitually use antiperspirant tended to have a greater richness of bacterial OTUs in their armpits than those who use deodorant. In addition, individuals who used antiperspirants or deodorants long-term, but who stopped using product for two or more days as part of this study, had armpit communities dominated by Staphylococcaceae, whereas those of individuals in our study who habitually used no products were dominated by Corynebacterium

  4. The effect of habitual and experimental antiperspirant and deodorant product use on the armpit microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Julie; Fergus, Daniel J.; Savage, Amy M.; Ehlers, Megan; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    An ever expanding body of research investigates the human microbiome in general and the skin microbiome in particular. Microbiomes vary greatly from individual to individual. Understanding the factors that account for this variation, however, has proven challenging, with many studies able to account statistically for just a small proportion of the inter-individual variation in the abundance, species richness or composition of bacteria. The human armpit has long been noted to host a high biomass bacterial community, and recent studies have highlighted substantial inter-individual variation in armpit bacteria, even relative to variation among individuals for other body habitats. One obvious potential explanation for this variation has to do with the use of personal hygiene products, particularly deodorants and antiperspirants. Here we experimentally manipulate product use to examine the abundance, species richness, and composition of bacterial communities that recolonize the armpits of people with different product use habits. In doing so, we find that when deodorant and antiperspirant use were stopped, culturable bacterial density increased and approached that found on individuals who regularly do not use any product. In addition, when antiperspirants were subsequently applied, bacterial density dramatically declined. These culture-based results are in line with sequence-based comparisons of the effects of long-term product use on bacterial species richness and composition. Sequence-based analyses suggested that individuals who habitually use antiperspirant tended to have a greater richness of bacterial OTUs in their armpits than those who use deodorant. In addition, individuals who used antiperspirants or deodorants long-term, but who stopped using product for two or more days as part of this study, had armpit communities dominated by Staphylococcaceae, whereas those of individuals in our study who habitually used no products were dominated by Corynebacterium

  5. A fatal case of n-butane poisoning after inhaling anti-perspiration aerosol deodorant.

    PubMed

    Ago, Mihoko; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ogata, Mamoru

    2002-06-01

    We report a case of sudden death due to n-butane poisoning after the inhalation of anti-perspiration aerosol deodorant. The deceased was a 15-year-old boy who was found unresponsive on the road, and was pronounced dead after 1.25h. A spray can of anti-perspiration deodorant and vinyl bags were found in a thicket near the scene. An autopsy revealed pulmonary edema, cerebral edema and congestion of the organs. Using qualitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the existence of n-butane was ascertained. The concentration of n-butane (in microl/ml or microl/g) was estimated to be 15.3 in the blood, 13.3 in the brain, 26.6 in the liver, 7.5 in the lung, and 13.6 in the kidney. These n-butane levels in the blood and in the tissues were higher than those of previous reports of death associated with n-butane inhalation. We concluded that the cause of death was n-butane poisoning and presumed that n-butane in the can of anti-perspiration aerosol deodorant induced fatal cardiac arrhythmia.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of an antiperspirant formulation containing aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate.

    PubMed

    Hölzle, E; Neubert, U

    1982-01-01

    To document deodorant efficacy the antimicrobial activity of a gelatinous antiperspirant formulation of aqueous aluminum chloride hexahydrate was investigated. In vitro assays demonstrated highly bactericidal activity on microorganisms comprising the resident axillary skin flora, including micrococcaceae and aerobic diphtheroid bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria and yeast were partially inhibited. In vivo experiments utilizing occlusive patches on forearm skin and bacterial sampling of the axilla showed pronounced bacteriostasis and persistence of aluminum chloride on the skin. Inhibition of microbial growth lasted more than 3 days after a single treatment of the axilla. Following repeated open applications to the volar aspect of the forearm, the skin remained virtually sterile for 3 days.

  7. An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving.

    PubMed

    McGrath, K G

    2003-12-01

    Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. A previous study did not support a link with breast cancer. If these habits have a role in breast cancer development, women using antiperspirants/deodorants and shaving their underarms frequently would be expected to have an earlier age of diagnosis than those doing so less often. An earlier age of diagnosis would also be expected in those starting to use deodorants and shaving at an earlier age. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Four hundred and thirty-seven females diagnosed with breast cancer were surveyed. Once grouped by their frequency of underarm hygiene habits, the mean age of diagnosis was the primary end point. Secondary end points included the overall frequency of these habits, and potential usage group confounding variables were evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Combined habits are likely for this earlier age of diagnosis. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer. It is not clear which of these components are involved. Reviewed literature insinuates absorption of aluminium salts facilitated by dermal barrier disruption. Case-controlled investigations are needed before alternative underarm hygiene habits are suggested.

  8. Assessment of the activity of antiperspirants added to surgical hand disinfectants: methodological aspects and first observations.

    PubMed

    Pitten, F A; Rudolph, P; Below, H; Kramer, A

    2001-08-01

    Due to the risk of sensitization caused by glove powder, the use of unpowdered latex gloves is increasing. These unpowdered gloves need a special inner-surface layer which makes it easier for the applicant to put the glove on the hand and to remove it again. However, many users report difficulties with removing the gloves because of sweat production within the glove. Therefore, a method has been developed to evaluate the efficacy of antiperspirants which may be added either to the inner-surface layer of the glove or to hand disinfectants or to skin-care products used before the gloves are put on. The paper describes various trials to optimize this method.

  9. Exposure data for personal care products: hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant.

    PubMed

    Loretz, Linda; Api, Anne Marie; Barraj, Leila; Burdick, Joel; Davis, De Ann; Dressler, William; Gilberti, Enrico; Jarrett, Gwendolyn; Mann, Steve; Laurie Pan, Y H; Re, Thomas; Renskers, Kevin; Scrafford, Carolyn; Vater, Sally

    2006-12-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of the products were cosmetics (spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash) and one product was a cosmetic/over-the-counter drug product (solid antiperspirant). Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at 10 different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of three hundred completed responses per product type. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The geometric mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.33 g and 0.23 g; hairspray, 2.58 g and 1.83 g (aerosol); 3.64 g and 2.66 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.54 g and 0.36 g; shampoo, 11.76 g and 9.56 g; body wash, 11.3g and 9.5 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.61 g and 0.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.53 g and 0.34 g; hairspray, 3.57 g and 2.71 g (aerosol); 5.18 g and 3.74 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.67 g and 0.45 g; shampoo, 12.80 g and 10.75 g; body wash, 14.5 g and 12.9 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.79 g and 0.59 g. The mean number of applications per day for spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and

  10. Randomized Control Trial: Evaluating Aluminum-Based Antiperspirant Use, Axilla Skin Toxicity, and Reported Quality of Life in Women Receiving External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Stage 0, I, and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Linda C.; Gies, Donna; Thompson, Emmanuel; Thomas, Bejoy

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Standard skin care instructions regarding the use of antiperspirants during radiotherapy to the breast varies across North America. Women have articulated that when instructed to not use antiperspirant, the potential for body odor is distressing. Historical practices and individual opinions have often guided practice in this field. The present study had 2 purposes. To evaluate whether the use of aluminum-based antiperspirant while receiving external beam radiotherapy for stage 0, I, or II breast cancer will increase axilla skin toxicity and to evaluate whether the use of antiperspirant during external beam radiotherapy improves quality of life. Methods: A total of 198 participants were randomized to either the experimental group (antiperspirant) or control group (standard care-wash only). The skin reactions in both groups were measured weekly and 2 weeks after treatment using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 3, toxicity grading criteria. Both groups completed the Functional Assessment for Chronic Illness Therapy's questionnaire for the breast population quality of life assessment tool, with additional questions evaluating the effect of underarm antiperspirant use on quality of life before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment during the study. Results: The skin reaction data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. No statistically significant difference was seen in the skin reaction between the 2 groups over time. The quality of life data also revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups over time. Conclusions: Data analysis indicates that using antiperspirant routinely during external beam radiotherapy for Stage 0, I, or II breast cancer does not affect the intensity of the skin reaction or the self-reported quality of life. This evidence supports that in this particular population, there is no purpose to restrict these women from using

  11. Part 4 of a 4-part series Miscellaneous Products: Trends and Alternatives in Deodorants, Antiperspirants, Sunblocks, Shaving Products, Powders, and Wipes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Selbo, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of topical products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in various miscellaneous categories of topical products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for ancillary skin care products are not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in antiperspirants, deodorants, shaving products, sunblocks, powders, and wipes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:22010054

  12. Accounting for intended use application in characterizing the contributions of cyclopentasiloxane (D5) to aquatic loadings following personal care product use: antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Beta P; Price, Bradford B; van Egmond, Roger A

    2013-10-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, commonly known as D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) has a wide application of use across a multitude of personal care product categories. The relative volatility of D5 is one of the key properties attributed to this substance that provide for the derived performance benefits from the use of this raw material in personal care formulations. On this basis, rapid evaporative loss following use of many products comprising D5 is expected following typical use application and corresponding wear time. Studies were conducted on three key product categories containing D5 (antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products) to characterize the amount of D5 that may be destined to 'go down the drain' following simulated typical personal care use scenarios. Marketed antiperspirants and skin care products were applied to human subjects and hair care products were applied to human hair tressesand subsequently rinsed off at designated time points representative of typical consumer cleansing and personal hygiene habits. Wash water was collected at 0, 8 and 24h (antiperspirant and hair care analysis) and additionally at 4h (skin care analysis) post product application and samples were analyzed by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of D5 destined to be available to go down the drain in captured wash water. It is demonstrated that significant amounts of D5 in 'leave-on' application products evaporate during typical use and that the concentration of D5 available to go down the drain under such conditions of use is only a very small (negligible) fraction of that delivered immediately upon product application.

  13. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  14. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora).

  15. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... demonstrate standard effectiveness (20 percent sweat reduction) over a 24-hour period, the labeling may state . (4) For products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat reduction), the labeling may state “extra effective”. (5) Products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat...

  16. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... demonstrate standard effectiveness (20 percent sweat reduction) over a 24-hour period, the labeling may state . (4) For products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat reduction), the labeling may state “extra effective”. (5) Products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat...

  17. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... demonstrate standard effectiveness (20 percent sweat reduction) over a 24-hour period, the labeling may state . (4) For products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat reduction), the labeling may state “extra effective”. (5) Products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat...

  18. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... demonstrate standard effectiveness (20 percent sweat reduction) over a 24-hour period, the labeling may state . (4) For products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat reduction), the labeling may state “extra effective”. (5) Products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat...

  19. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... demonstrate standard effectiveness (20 percent sweat reduction) over a 24-hour period, the labeling may state . (4) For products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat reduction), the labeling may state “extra effective”. (5) Products that demonstrate extra effectiveness (30 percent sweat...

  20. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent. (d) Aluminum chlorohydrex propylene glycol up to 25 percent. (e) Aluminum dichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (f) Aluminum dichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to... sesquichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (i) Aluminum sesquichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent....

  1. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent. (d) Aluminum chlorohydrex propylene glycol up to 25 percent. (e) Aluminum dichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (f) Aluminum dichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to... sesquichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (i) Aluminum sesquichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent....

  2. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent. (d) Aluminum chlorohydrex propylene glycol up to 25 percent. (e) Aluminum dichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (f) Aluminum dichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to... sesquichlorohydrate up to 25 percent. (i) Aluminum sesquichlorohydrex polyethylene glycol up to 25 percent....

  3. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meet the aluminum to chloride, aluminum to zirconium, and aluminum plus zirconium to chloride atomic...) Aluminum sesquichlorohydrex propylene glycol up to 25 percent. (k) Aluminum zirconium octachlorohydrate up to 20 percent. (l) Aluminum zirconium octachlorohydrex gly up to 20 percent. (m) Aluminum...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart C - HVOC 1 Content Limits for Underarm Deodorants and Underarm Antiperspirants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for...) Underarm antiperspirants—aerosol 60 Underarm deodorants—aerosol 20 1 High-volatility organic compound...

  5. Armpit lump

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by shaving or use of antiperspirants (not deodorants). This is most often seen in teens just ... More Abscess Breast cancer Breast self-exam Cyst Deodorant poisoning Malignancy Tumor Vaccines (immunizations) - overview Review Date ...

  6. Imaging calcium carbonate distribution in human sweat pore in vivo using nonlinear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueqin; Gasecka, Alicja; Formanek, Florian; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopies, including two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), were used to study individual human sweat pore morphology and topically applied antiperspirant salt penetration inside sweat pore, in vivo on human palms. Sweat pore inner morphology in vivo was imaged up to the depth of 100 μm by TPEF microscopy. The 3D penetration and distribution of "in situ calcium carbonate" (isCC), an antiperspirant salt model, was investigated using CARS microscopy.

  7. Simulated consumer exposure to propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) in aerosol personal products.

    PubMed

    Hartop, P J; Adams, M G

    1989-02-01

    Summary The potential human exposure to the aerosol propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) arising from its use in personal products has been assessed. HCFC 22 concentrations were measured in the 'breathing zone' of an experimental manikin and an 'accompanying child' designed to simulate human use of hairsprays, body sprays and antiperspirants in a closed room. Results were expressed as the 10-min time-weighted average concentration in the air (TWA 10) and as the peak concentration in the 'breathing zone' of the 'user'. Following a 10-s use of hairspray containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22, TWA10 values for an adult user and child were 64-116 ppm and 44-100 ppm, respectively. Use of an aerosol body spray containing 20-65% HCFC 22 for 5-20 s gave rise to TWA10 values of 32-411 ppm for an adult user and 20-395 ppm for a child. A 4-s use of an antiperspirant containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22 sprayed at a distance of 10-30 cm from the breathing zone of the adult user generated TWA 10 values in the range of 14-34 ppm for both the adult user and child. Opening the door of the room prior to hairspray and antiperspirant spraying slightly reduced these TWA 10 values. The peak values recorded in these studies for the adult user were 208 ppm for hairspray, 1415 ppm for body sprays and 82 ppm for antiperspirants.

  8. 40 CFR 52.719 - Identification of plan-Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limits listed for aerosol- and non aerosol-based antiperspirants and deodorants. 35 IAC 233.205(a)(6)(A... high-volatility VOC limits for aerosol-based deodorants when there should be both a high- and medium... limits for non aerosol-based deodorants when there should be both a high- and medium-volatility limit...

  9. 40 CFR 52.719 - Identification of plan-Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aerosol-based antiperspirants and deodorants. 35 IAC 233.205(a)(6)(A) erroneously provides two high... for aerosol-based deodorants when there should be both a high- and medium-volatility limit for this...-based deodorants when there should be both a high- and medium-volatility limit for this category....

  10. Axillary granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; White, A

    1998-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman had a 3 year history of a recurrent bilateral axillary rash during the summer months. Both axillae showed hyperkeratotic, fissured and cobblestone plaques. Skin biopsy showed the histology previously defined as axillary granular parakeratosis. This finding may indeed represent an unusual contact reaction to anti-perspirants interfering with epidermal keratinization.

  11. Maintenance Manual for NATICK’s Footwear Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    radiculopathy; metatarsal stress fracture (calcaneal stress fractures are rare); tarsal tunnel syndrome ; gout; Reiter’s disease; ankylosing... syndrome plantar fascia crush injury foot injury BIOMECHANICS foot powder/antiperspirants barefoot adaptation fracture biomechanics friction blister...electromyography frost bite energy transfer iliotibial band syndrome load injury modelling injury rates sensory attenuation knee injury lower extremity

  12. User Manual for NATICK’s Footwear Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    are rare); tarsal tunnel syndrome ; gout; Reiter’s disease; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriatic arthropathy; and rheumatoid arthritis. Page 2 Figure 37b...chondromalacia lower extremity morphology compartment syndrome plantar fascia crush injury foot injury BIOMECNANICS foot powder/antiperspirants...barefoot adaptation fracture biomechanics friction blister electromyography frost bite energy transfer iliotibial band syndrome load injury modelling injury

  13. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... in cosmetics and/or cosmetics that are also drugs, as, for example, aerosol antiperspirants....

  14. [Ventricular fibrillation following deodorant spray inhalation].

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P

    2008-01-01

    We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.

  15. A Model Process for Setting Military Injury Prevention Priorities and Making Evidence-Based Recommendations for Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Violence Michelle Canham Chervak, MPH Epidemiologist, USACHPPM Injury Prevention Program MEMBERS MAJ Steve Bullock Physical therapy staff officer...and antiperspirants to prevent blisters 27. Footwear Individual prescription of running shoe based on foot type 28. Joint Support Joint bracing...training Ed uc at io n 39. Self treatment Early cryotherapy self intervention (crushed ice and ice massage ) N ut rit io n, Su pp le m en ts & H

  16. Prevention of foot blisters.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  17. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  18. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  19. The clinical study of the optimalization of surgical treatment and the traditional Chinese medicine intervention on palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Yan, Zhikun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Liwen; Xu, Linhai; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Genmiao

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the efficacy of different surgical methods in treating palmar hyperhidrosis and the compensatory hyperhidrosis after surgery and to observe the efficacy of "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" on postsurgical hyperhidrosis patients. Two-hundred patients were randomly assigned to groups A (Chinese and Western medicine, T4 transection plus "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula") and B (Western medicine, T4 transection). The surgical efficiency, recurrence rate, compensatory hyperhidrosis, and the long-term life quality were compared. Another 100 cases (group C, T2 transection) were analyzed as a control group. After surgery, the palmar hyperhidrosis and armpit sweating were relieved in all the three group patients and in 34 % of patients combined with plantar hyperhidrosis, the symptoms were relieved. Transient palmar hyperhidrosis was found in three cases at day 2 to day 5 postoperatively. One case of Horner's syndrome and one case recurrence were found in group C patients. The compensatory sweating of various degrees occurred in all the three groups. There were 25, 24, and 43 cases in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There is a significant difference between groups C, A, and B. The compensatory sweating in 13 cases of group A and four cases of group B had different degrees of improvement in the follow-up 6 months after surgery. There is a significant difference. Thoracoscopic bilateral T4 sympathetic chain and the Kuntz resection are the optimized surgical treatments for the palmar hyperhidrosis. "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" is effective in treating the postoperative compensatory sweating.

  20. The association between aluminum-containing products and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, A B; White, E; Koepsell, T D; Reifler, B V; van Belle, G; Larson, E B

    1990-01-01

    The association between exposure to aluminum through the lifetime use of antiperspirants and antacids and Alzheimer's disease (AD) was explored in a case-control study of 130 matched pairs. Cases were clinically diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1985 at two geriatric psychiatric clinics in Seattle, Wash. Controls were friends or non-blood relatives of the case. Subjects were matched by age, sex, and the relationship between the case and his or her surrogate. For all antiperspirant/deodorant use, regardless of aluminum content, there was no association with AD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.6-2.4). For aluminum-containing antiperspirants, the overall adjusted OR was 1.6 (95% CI = 1.04-2.4) with a trend toward a higher risk with increasing frequency of use (p for trend = 0.03), the adjusted OR in the highest tertile being 3.2. For antacids regardless of aluminum content, the overall adjusted OR was 3.1 (95% CI = 1.2-7.9). Here, a steep dose-response gradient was found (p for trend = 0.009), with an adjusted OR for the highest tertile of 11.7. However, when only aluminum-containing antacids were analyzed, the overall adjusted OR was only 0.7 (95% CI = 0.3-2.0) and there was no significant dose-response trend. These results are provocative but inconclusive due to methodologic problems relating to the necessary use of surrogate respondents and the long time period of potential exposure for this dementing disease.

  1. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  2. Iontophoresis for palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Iontophoresis is a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective primary treatment of palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis. Decades of clinical experience and research show significant reduction in palmoplantar excessive sweating with minimal side effects. To get the best results from iontophoresis, health care professionals need to provide education on the mechanism of action and benefits, evidence of its use, and creation of a future patient-specific plan of care for continued treatments at home or in the physician's office. Iontophoresis may be combined with other hyperhidrosis treatments, such as topical antiperspirants and botulinum toxin injections.

  3. [Management of hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Maillard, H; Lecouflet, M

    2015-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis continues to be undertreated in our view, despite its propensity to considerably impair quality of life. We shall break down therapeutic approaches to hyperhidrosis into several steps: (a) determine the physiological causes of excess sweating; (b) establish the type of hyperhidrosis involved and screen for causes of secondary hyperhidrosis before diagnosing essential hyperhidrosis; (c) evaluate the severity of the hyperhidrosis by means of a validated scale (HDSS score), Minor's starch-iodine test or gravimetric analysis; (d) select one of the medical therapies currently available, i.e. topical therapy (antiperspirants, iontophoresis or botulinum toxin injection), systemic therapy (oxybutynin) or surgery (thoracic sympathectomy).

  4. Turning the tide: a history and review of hyperhidrosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Levell, Nick J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hyperhidrosis is a potential cause of severe physical and psychological distress, interfering in activities of daily living. Over the past 100 years, advances have been made regarding the treatment of this debilitating condition with some success. Surgical treatment with sympathectomy was successfully performed for hyperhidrosis in the early part of the 20th century, with various modifications of the technique over the past 100 years. Topical aluminium salt antiperspirants, anticholinergic medications, iontophoresis and botulinum toxin introduced less invasive ways to manage this condition. This historical review will enable dermatologists and non-dermatologists to manage this distressing condition. PMID:25057361

  5. Two episodes of axillary granular parakeratosis triggered by different causes: case report.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Francisco; Sudy, Emilio; Misad, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Granular parakeratosis is an acquired disorder of keratinization characterized by keratotic papules and plaques located in the intertriginous areas. Its etiology is unknown. Some cases have been related to the application of deodorants and antiperspirants, local irritation or increased sweating; in other cases no precipitant factors have been found. We report a case of axillary granular parakeratosis in an adult male in whom the lesions appeared twice under different circumstances: the first time the lesions appeared after local irritation produced by an antiperspirant and/or the use of a paste containing zinc oxide; two years later, an identical eruption reappeared in both axillae, while using his habitual deodorant and without a preceding irritation of the zone; only excessive sweating was mentioned this time after a weight gain of 20 kg. On both occasions, the lesions disappeared completely a few days after using topical calcipotriol. A constitutional factor may predispose the development of granular parakeratosis, which must be considered a reaction pattern that can be induced by multiple different causes.

  6. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The choice of environmental conditions when conducting antiperspirant studies greatly affects the quantity of sweat output. Our initial goal in this work was to develop an in-house procedure to test the efficacy of antiperspirant products using replica techniques in combination with image analysis. To ameliorate the skin replica method, we conducted rheological studies using dynamic mechanical analysis of the replica formulation. In terms of sweat output quantification, our preliminary results revealed a considerable amount of variation using the replica technique, leading us to conduct more fundamental studies of the factors that influence sweating behavior and how to best design the experimental strategy. In accordance with the FDA's protocol for antiperspirant testing, we carried out gravimetric analyses of axillae sweating under a variety of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity control. Subjects were first acclimatized in an environmentally controlled room for 30 min, and then placed in a sauna for an additional 30 or 45 min, depending on which test we administered. In Test 1 (30 min total in the sauna), the first 10 min in the sauna was another equilibration period, followed by a 20 min sweat production stage. We monitored axillae sweating during the last 20 min in the sauna by gravimetric analysis. At time (t) = 30 min in the sauna, skin replicas were taken and later analyzed using imaging and image analysis techniques. Test 1 was carried out on over 25 subjects, both male and female, from various racial backgrounds. In Test 2, subjects spent 45 min in the sauna after the initial 30-min period in the environmental room. During the 45 min, we obtained gravimetric readings of absorbent pads placed in the axillae. We conducted studies at various temperature and relative humidity settings. We also studied the influence of several external parameters on sudoriferous activity. Test 2 was a range-finding experiment on two subjects to determine

  7. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  8. Optothermal skin hydration measurement in the presence of topically applied substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, Ravindar M.; Imhof, Robert E.; Xiao, P.; Andrews, Jeremy J.

    1995-05-01

    Although the direct measurement of in-vivo stratum corneum hydration is relatively straightforward using the technique of opto-thermal transient emission radiometry, assessing the effect of a topically applied substance can be complex. The substance itself may change over time and may also contribute to the measured opto-thermal signal. The method developed to account for these changes uses concurrent in-vivo and in-vitro measurements. It is illustrated with topically applied petroleum jelly, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and an anti- perspirant. The petroleum jelly caused an increase in stratum corneum hydration, whilst DMSO caused a decrease, which recovers over 90 minutes. The anti-perspirant was applied before exercising and, whilst an untreated site became more hydrated, the treated site was found to become drier.

  9. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (

  10. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  11. Granular parakeratosis.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Pinazo, Isabel; Molina, Inmaculada; Monteagudo, Carlos; Villalón, Guillermo; Jordá, Esperanza

    2008-07-01

    A healthy 62-year-old woman was referred to our dermatology department with a 1-month history of a pruritic axillary eruption. On examination, multiple erythematous and brownish hyperkeratotic papules were seen in both axillae. Some of these lesions coalesced into plaques, with small areas of sparing, and a background erythematous color was also found in the axillary vaults (Fig. 1). There was no involvement of other intertriginous sites and there were no associated systemic symptoms. The patient was not obese. The patient had removed the hair from her axillae with wax 3 weeks before the development of the eruption. Moreover, she had changed her antiperspirant 1 week before the onset of the lesions. A cutaneous biopsy for histologic analysis was performed. Histologically, the stratum corneum was thickened, with persistent nuclei together with countless small basophilic granules. The granular layer was preserved and, in some areas, hypergranulosis was found (Fig. 2). These findings were characteristic of granular parakeratosis. The cutaneous lesions resolved completely after 1 week of treatment with topical betamethasone dipropionate and gentamicin sulfate (twice daily). The patient was urged to discontinue her use of deodorants.

  12. What Makes Us Smell: The Biochemistry of Body Odour and the Design of New Deodorant Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Today, axilla odours are socially stigmatized and are targeted with deodorants and antiperspirants representing a multi-billion market. Axilla odours aren't simple byproducts of our metabolism but specifically formed by an intricate interplay between i) specific glands, ii) secreted amino acid conjugates of highly specific odorants and iii) selective enzymes present in microorganisms colonizing our skin, providing a natural 'controlled-release' mechanism. Within a multidisciplinary research project, we were able to elucidate the structure of key body odorants, isolate and characterize secreted amino acid conjugates and identify the enzymes responsible for odour release. These enzymes then served as targets for the development of specific active compounds in an almost medicinal chemistry approach, an approach rarely used in the cosmetic field so far. Here we review the key new insights into the biochemistry of human body odour formation, with some remarks on the experimental steps undertaken and hurdles encountered. The development of deodorant actives and the difficult path to market for such specifically acting cosmetic actives is discussed. The basic insights into the biochemistry also opened the way to address some questions in population genetics: Why have large proportions of Asians lost the 'ability' to form body odours? Do twins smell the same? Are our typical body odours indeed influenced by the immune system as often claimed? After addressing these questions, I'll conclude with the key remaining challenges in this field on an ecological niche that is 'anatomically very close to our heart'.

  13. Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Journal of Applied Toxicology publishes the paper Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours by Darbre et al. (2004), which reports that esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) can be detected in samples of tissue from human breast tumours. Breast tumour samples were supplied from 20 patients, in collaboration with the Edinburgh Breast Unit Research Group, and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in underarm deodorants and antiperspirants and in a wide range of other consumer products. The parabens also have inherent oestrogenic and other hormone related activity (increased progesterone receptor gene expression). As oestrogen is a major aetiological factor in the growth and development of the majority of human breast cancers, it has been previously suggested by Darbre that parabens and other chemicals in underarm cosmetics may contribute to the rising incidence of breast cancer. The significance of the finding of parabens in tumour samples is discussed here in terms of 1). Darbre et al's study design, 2). what can be inferred from this type of data (and what can not, such as the cause of these tumours), 3). the toxicology of these compounds and 4). the limitations of the existing toxicology database and the need to consider data that is appropriate to human exposures.

  14. Astragaloside IV Attenuates Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells through Raf-MEK-ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingyang; Zhao, Jing; He, Weiwei; Yuan, Hu; Yuan, Xing; Gao, Na; Wu, Guozhen; Jin, Huizi; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Astragaloside IV (AGS-IV) is a main active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, a medicinal herb prescribed as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, antiperspirant, a diuretic or a tonic as documented in Chinese Materia Medica. In the present study, we employed a high-throughput comparative proteomic approach based on 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS to investigate the possible mechanism of action involved in the neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Differential proteins were identified, among which 13 proteins survived the stringent filter criteria and were further included for functional discussion. Two proteins (vimentin and Gap43) were randomly selected, and their expression levels were further confirmed by western blots analysis. The results matched well with those of proteomics. Furthermore, network analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPI) and pathways enrichment with AGS-IV associated proteins were carried out to illustrate its underlying molecular mechanism. Proteins associated with signal transduction, immune system, signaling molecules and interaction, and energy metabolism play important roles in neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV and Raf-MEK-ERK pathway was involved in the neuroprotective effect of AGS-IV against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. This study demonstrates that comparative proteomics based on shotgun approach is a valuable tool for molecular mechanism studies, since it allows the simultaneously evaluate the global proteins alterations. PMID:25961569

  15. Effect of shaving on axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Marti, V P J; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Paterson, S E; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V

    2003-08-01

    Removal of underarm hair is an intrinsic part of the care regimen for the majority of female consumers, with most using a wet shave with a disposable razor. However, little is known of the impact of shaving on axillary skin, and it is a particularly neglected area of research. To investigate this, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of shaving ultrastructurally, biochemically and functionally. A forearm patch test protocol was devised for antiperspirant (AP) product screening, which involved a pre-shave of the test site with a dry razor just prior to patching. Comparison of the irritation caused by a series of AP products confirmed that shaving leads to increased irritation consistent with enhanced sensitivity. The effect of regular shaving in the axilla was assessed in a 4-week in-use study with shaving either once a week or once a day, both combined with the application of an AP. Expert visual assessment of skin condition showed that more frequent shaving promoted a higher level of visible irritation. However, indirect measurement using corneosurfametry indicated no significant changes to the lipid barrier over the study period irrespective of shaving frequency. Nevertheless, digital images of the axillary skin after dry shaving show distinct opaque lines because of uplifting skin flakes with a corresponding increase in scaliness parameter. Moreover, histamine iontophoresis to assess skin sensitivity demonstrated a significant enhancement of histamine-induced itch and neurogenic flare.

  16. Toxic effects of the easily avoidable phthalates and parabens.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-09-01

    Some environmental toxins like DDT and other chlorinated compounds accumulate in the body because of their fat-soluble nature. Other compounds do not stay long in the body, but still cause toxic effects during the time they are present. For serious health problems to arise, exposure to these rapidly-clearing compounds must occur on a daily basis. Two such classes of compounds are the phthalate plasticizers and parabens, both of which are used in many personal care products, some medications, and even foods and food preservation. The phthalates are commonly found in foods and household dust. Even though they have relatively short half-lives in humans, phthalates have been associated with a number of serious health problems, including infertility, testicular dysgenesis, obesity, asthma, and allergies, as well as leiomyomas and breast cancer. Parabens, which can be dermally absorbed, are present in many cosmetic products, including antiperspirants. Their estrogenicity and tissue presence are a cause for concern regarding breast cancer. Fortunately, these compounds are relatively easy to avoid and such steps can result in dramatic reductions of urinary levels of these compounds.

  17. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    PubMed

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action.

  18. Multifaceted effects of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases: A review.

    PubMed

    Maya, S; Prakash, T; Madhu, Krishna Das; Goli, Divakar

    2016-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most common metal and widely distributed in our environment. Al was first isolated as an element in 1827, and its use began only after 1886. Al is widely used for industrial applications and consumer products. Apart from these it is also used in cooking utensils and in pharmacological agents, including antacids and antiperspirants from which the element usually enters into the human body. Evidence for the neurotoxicity of Al is described in various studies, but still the exact mechanism of Al toxicity is not known. However, the evidence suggests that the Al can potentiate oxidative stress and inflammatory events and finally leads to cell death. Al is considered as a well-established neurotoxin and have a link between the exposure and development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, Gulf war syndrome and Parkinsonism. Here, we review the detailed possible pathogenesis of Al neurotoxicity. This review summarizes Al induced events likewise oxidative stress, cell mediated toxicity, apoptosis, inflammatory events in the brain, glutamate toxicity, effects on calcium homeostasis, gene expression and Al induced Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation. Apart from these we also discussed animal models that are commonly used for Al induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration studies. These models help to find out a better way to treat and prevent the progression in Al induced neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Identification of possible sources of particulate matter in the personal cloud using SEM/EDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Teri L.; Williams, Ronald W.

    2004-10-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility residents using personal exposure sampling devices. These sampling devices were also used to obtain PM2.5 samples at fixed locations within the personal monitoring subjects' apartments. Selected personal and apartment samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy with individual-particle X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), providing a qualitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of geological and trace element particles collected within these micro-environments at the retirement facility. This information was used to identify possible indoor source particles. The manual surveys of the personal samples revealed that some particles larger than 2.5 μm reached the filter surface. Using SEM/EDX, several particle types with possible indoor origins were identified. The Al-Zr-Cl particle is likely to have originated from a personal antiperspirant product. Particles with a talc or alumino-silicate composition point to cosmetics as a possible source. Large cadmium-containing particles were also found, which may indicate the use of art pigments or ceramic glazes, or emissions from television screen phosphors. A greater variety of particles was observed in a personal sample compared with its corresponding fixed-location apartment sample.

  20. Chemosignals of Stress Influence Social Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual’s emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a ‘washout’ period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether ‘blocking’ the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women’s social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors. PMID:24130845

  1. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  2. Use of deodorants during adjuvant breast radiotherapy: a survey of compliance with standard advice, impact on patients and a literature review on safety.

    PubMed

    Graham, P H; Graham, J L

    2009-12-01

    Proscription of antiperspirant or deodorant use during adjuvant breast radiotherapy is common. The investigators were seeking an information base to facilitate design of an appropriate controlled trial of the use of deodorants during radiotherapy. The first component consisted of a survey of women after adjuvant breast radiotherapy seeking information about routine deodorant use and potential concern if deodorants were not permitted during radiotherapy. The second component comprised a literature search for any existing controlled evidence regarding harm from deodorant use during radiotherapy. Four hundred fourteen women completed surveys. Two hundred eighty recalled advice against deodorants. Two hundred ninety-nine women routinely used deodorants, 70% of whom used roll-on products. Forty-five continued deodorant use during radiation, 20 of these despite recalling advice not to wear a deodorant. Of the 233 women who routinely wore a deodorant but abstained during radiotherapy, 19% expressed a lot of concern about body odour and 45% were slightly concerned. Three controlled studies totalling 310 patients report specific deodorants versus no deodorant use which did not show statistically significantly increased skin reactions, but had only a small subset with axillary irradiation. The proscription of deodorant use during radiotherapy is of unproven benefit and causes body odour concern to the majority of women who are usual deodorant users. The next most appropriate trial would compare use of the usual deodorant versus no deodorant, would encompass a significant number of women with radiotherapy to the axilla or application of deodorant to irradiated skin areas, and include endpoints other than skin reaction alone.

  3. Aluminium chloride promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tenan, Mirna; Ferrari, Paolo; Sappino, André‐Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium salts, present in many industrial products of frequent use like antiperspirants, anti‐acid drugs, food additives and vaccines, have been incriminated in contributing to the rise in breast cancer incidence in Western societies. However, current experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is limited. For example, no experimental evidence that aluminium promotes tumorigenesis in cultured mammary epithelial cells exists. We report here that long‐term exposure to concentrations of aluminium—in the form of aluminium chloride (AlCl3)—in the range of those measured in the human breast, transform normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) epithelial cells in vitro as revealed by the soft agar assay. Subcutaneous injections into three different mouse strains with decreasing immunodeficiency, namely, NOD SCID gamma (NSG), NOD SCID or nude mice, revealed that untreated NMuMG cells form tumors and metastasize, to a limited extent, in the highly immunodeficient and natural killer (NK) cell deficient NSG strain, but not in the less permissive and NK cell competent NOD SCID or nude strains. In contrast, NMuMG cells transformed in vitro by AlCl3 form large tumors and metastasize in all three mouse models. These effects correlate with a mutagenic activity of AlCl3. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that concentrations of aluminium in the range of those measured in the human breast fully transform cultured mammary epithelial cells, thus enabling them to form tumors and metastasize in well‐established mouse cancer models. Our observations provide experimental evidence that aluminium salts could be environmental breast carcinogens. PMID:27541736

  4. Use of Axillary Deodorant and Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Noninferiority Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Theberge, Valerie; Harel, Francois; Dagnault, Anne

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To prospectively determine the effect of deodorant use on acute skin toxicity and quality of life during breast radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Before breast RT, 84 patients were randomly assigned to the deodorant group (n = 40) or the no-deodorant group (n = 44). The patients were stratified by axillary RT and previous chemotherapy. Toxicity evaluations were always performed by the principal investigator, who was unaware of the group assignment, at the end of RT and 2 weeks after completion using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute skin toxicity criteria. Symptoms of acute skin toxicity (i.e., discomfort, pain, pruritus, sweating) and quality of life were self-evaluated. For each criterion, the point estimate of rate difference with the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit was computed. To claim noninferiority owing to deodorant use, the 95% one-sided upper confidence limit had to be lower than the noninferiority margin, fixed to 12.8%. Results: In the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, Grade 2 axillary radiodermatitis occurred in 23% vs. 30%, respectively, satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .019). Grade 2 breast radiodermatitis occurred in 30% vs. 34% of the deodorant vs. no-deodorant groups, respectively, also satisfying the statistical criteria for noninferiority (p = .049). Similar results were observed for the self-reported evaluations. The deodorant group reported less sweating (18% vs. 39%, p = .032). No Grade 3 or 4 radiodermatitis was observed. Conclusion: According to our noninferiority margin definition, the occurrence of skin toxicity and its related symptoms were statistically equivalent in both groups. No evidence was found to prohibit deodorant use (notwithstanding the use of an antiperspirant with aluminum) during RT for breast cancer.

  5. Scented traces--Dermal exposure of synthetic musk fragrances in personal care products and environmental input assessment.

    PubMed

    Homem, Vera; Silva, Eduardo; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance and fixative additives in several personal care products. Until now, little is known about their occurrence and distribution in these household commodities. However, this information is essential to perform a human dermal exposure assessment. Therefore, this study gives an overview on the levels of 12 synthetic musks in 140 personal care products from 7 different categories (body and hair wash, toilet soaps, shaving products, dentifrice products, deodorants/antiperspirants, moisturizers and perfumes). They were analysed by QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detection limits were found between 0.01ngg(-1) (galaxolide) and 5.00ngg(-1) (musk xylene). Higher average concentrations of total synthetic musks were detected in perfumes (5245.05μgg(-1)) and shampoos (487.67μgg(-1)) for adults. Galaxolide, exaltolide and cashmeran were the most detected compounds. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 75.69μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 15.54μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children was achieved. The main contributors for adult and babies/children dermal exposure were perfumes and lotions, respectively. About 40% of the adult daily dermal exposure is related to exaltolide, 30% galaxolide, and 15% tonalide, while for babies/children 96% occurs due to exaltolide. An estimate of the amount of musks discharged "down-the-drain" into the wastewater treatment systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An average emission per capita of 6.7mgday(-1) was determined and galaxolide and exaltolide were the predominant musks in the effluents.

  6. Aluminium, carbonyls and cytokines in human nipple aspirate fluids: Possible relationship between inflammation, oxidative stress and breast cancer microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Ligi, D; Canale, M

    2013-11-01

    The human breast is likely exposed to Al (aluminium) from many sources including diet and personal care products. Underarm applications of aluminium salt-based antiperspirant provide a possible long-term source of exposure, especially after underarm applications to shaved and abraded skin. Al research in breast fluids likely reflects the intraductal microenvironment. We found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from 19 breast cancer patients compared with 16 healthy control subjects (268 vs 131 μg/l, respectively; p < 0.0001). In the same NAF samples we found significantly increased levels of protein oxidative carbonyls in cancer patients compared to healthy women (2.35 vs 0.41 nmol/mg prot, respectively; p < 0.0001). Aluminium content and carbonyl levels showed a significant positive linear correlation (r(2) 0.6628, p < 0.0001). In cancer NAF samples (containing higher amounts of aluminium salts) we also found a significantly increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNF-α) and chemoattractant CC and CXC chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1α and MCP-1). In 12 invasive cancer NAF samples we found a significant positive linear correlation among aluminium, carbonyls and pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine (Y = 64.79x-39.63, r(2) 0.8192, p < 0.0005), as well as pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1 cytokine (Y = 2026x-866, r(2) 0.9495, p < 0.0001). In addition to emerging evidence, our results support the possible involvement of aluminium ions in oxidative and inflammatory status perturbations of breast cancer microenvironment, suggesting aluminium accumulation in breast microenvironment as a possible risk factor for oxidative/inflammatory phenotype of breast cells.

  7. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate.

  8. Analysis of aluminium content and iron homeostasis in nipple aspirate fluids from healthy women and breast cancer-affected patients.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Medda, Virginia; Simone, Patrizia; Darbre, Philippa D

    2011-04-01

    Aluminium is not a physiological component of the breast but has been measured recently in human breast tissues and breast cyst fluids at levels above those found in blood serum or milk. Since the presence of aluminium can lead to iron dyshomeostasis, levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a fluid present in the breast duct tree and mirroring the breast microenvironment. NAFs were collected noninvasively from healthy women (NoCancer; n = 16) and breast cancer-affected women (Cancer; n = 19), and compared with levels in serum (n = 15) and milk (n = 45) from healthy subjects. The mean level of aluminium, measured by ICP-mass spectrometry, was significantly higher in Cancer NAF (268.4 ± 28.1 μg l(-1) ; n = 19) than in NoCancer NAF (131.3 ± 9.6 μg l(-1) ; n = 16; P < 0.0001). The mean level of ferritin, measured through immunoassay, was also found to be higher in Cancer NAF (280.0 ± 32.3 μg l(-1) ) than in NoCancer NAF (55.5 ± 7.2 μg l(-1) ), and furthermore, a positive correlation was found between levels of aluminium and ferritin in the Cancer NAF (correlation coefficient R = 0.94, P < 0.001). These results may suggest a role for raised levels of aluminium and modulation of proteins that regulate iron homeostasis as biomarkers for identification of women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. The reasons for the high levels of aluminium in NAF remain unknown but possibilities include either exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts in the adjacent underarm area and/or preferential accumulation of aluminium by breast tissues.

  9. Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Koniecki, Diane; Wang, Rong; Moody, Richard P; Zhu, Jiping

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals that are used in a variety of consumer products including cosmetic and personal care products. This study aims at determining phthalate levels in cosmetic and personal care products obtained from the Canadian market. Overall 252 products including 98 baby care products were collected at retail stores in several provinces across Canada in year 2007. These products included fragrances, hair care products (hair sprays, mousses, and gels), deodorants (including antiperspirants), nail polishes, lotions (body lotions and body creams), skin cleansers, and baby products (oils, lotions, shampoos and diaper creams). Samples were extracted with different organic solvents, depending on the types of the products, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Of the 18 investigated phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected. The detection frequencies were in the following order: DEP (103 out of 252 products)>DnBP (15/252)>DiBP (9/252)>DEHP (8/252)>DMP (1/252). DEP was detected in almost all types of surveyed products with the highest levels (25,542 μg/g, equal to 2.6%) found in fragrances. DnBP was largely present in nail polish products with the highest concentration of 24,304 μg/g (2.4%). DnBP was also found in other products such as hair sprays, hair mousses, skin cleansers and baby shampoos at much lower concentrations (36 μg/g and less). Levels of other detected phthalates were generally low in the products. Based on these values, daily dermal exposure dosage to five phthalates was estimated for three age groups, female adults (60 kg); toddlers (0.5-4 years) and infants (0-6 months), through the use of cosmetic and personal care products. The exposure estimation, however, was based on existing products use pattern data, instead of probabilistic model based population use distribution

  10. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts

    PubMed Central

    Willhite, Calvin C.; Karyakina, Nataliya A.; Yokel, Robert A.; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M.; Arnold, Ian M. F.; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances. PMID:25233067

  11. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    PubMed

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.