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Sample records for antiphagocytic substances produced

  1. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-sensitive antiphagocytic activity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, R S; Fulbright, R S; Eads, M E; Sawyer, W D

    1977-01-01

    Colonial types of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined for the presence of pilus-independent antiphagocytic activity. Type 3 and depiliated type 1 gonococci had a shearing- and protease-resistant antiphagocytic activity that was eliminated by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and that was not present on type 4 bacteria. Incubation of EDTA-treated bacteria 37 degrees C for 90 min resulted in fas prevented by antibiotics that block the final assembly of cell wall macromolecules that depend on the C55-isoprenoid carrier for export. These include both lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. Restoration was, however, unaffected by drugs that interfere with the synthesis of peptidoglycan, but not that of lipopolysaccharide, and by inhibitors of protein synthesis. These data suggested that gonococci have an antiphagocytic mechanism in addition to the previously described determinant (presumably pili) that was removed by blending or by treatment with proteases. Of the two antiphagocytic activities, type 1 had both, type 3 had only the EDTA-sensitive component, and type 4 had neither. PMID:404246

  2. Does the human body produce a substance similar to caffeine?

    PubMed

    Missak, S S

    1987-10-01

    The idea that the human body probably produces a substance similar to caffeine came to my mind after reviewing the literature on the "restless legs syndrome". This syndrome is a disorder in which the afflicted individual feels an irresistible urge to move the legs, generally when sitting or lying down, and especially in bed, at night, just prior to getting to sleep. The patient has an extremely unpleasant deep discomfort inside the calves, requiring that the legs be moved(1). The "restless legs syndrome" has been described in persons who consume a lot of caffeine(2,3), in patients with iron deficiency anemia(4), and in patients with chronic renal failure(5). Since this syndrome occurs in persons who indulge in caffeine consumption as well as in patients with iron deficiency and patients with chronic renal failure, it is tempting to postulate that the human body- in cases of iron deficiency and chronic renal failure -produces a substance similar to caffeine. The following discussion entertains the hypothetical route that might be involved in the formation of this substance.

  3. Melittin, the Major Pain-Producing Substance of Bee Venom.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Guan, Su-Min; Sun, Wei; Fu, Han

    2016-06-01

    Melittin is a basic 26-amino-acid polypeptide that constitutes 40-60% of dry honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom. Although much is known about its strong surface activity on lipid membranes, less is known about its pain-producing effects in the nervous system. In this review, we provide lines of accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom. At the psychophysical and behavioral levels, subcutaneous injection of melittin causes tonic pain sensation and pain-related behaviors in both humans and animals. At the cellular level, melittin activates primary nociceptor cells through direct and indirect effects. On one hand, melittin can selectively open thermal nociceptor transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor channels via phospholipase A2-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase metabolites, leading to depolarization of primary nociceptor cells. On the other hand, algogens and inflammatory/pro-inflammatory mediators released from the tissue matrix by melittin's pore-forming effects can activate primary nociceptor cells through both ligand-gated receptor channels and the G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated opening of transient receptor potential canonical channels. Moreover, subcutaneous melittin up-regulates Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 subunits, resulting in the enhancement of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents and the generation of long-term action potential firing. These nociceptive responses in the periphery finally activate and sensitize the spinal dorsal horn pain-signaling neurons, resulting in spontaneous nociceptive paw flinches and pain hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Taken together, it is concluded that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom, by which peripheral persistent pain and hyperalgesia (or allodynia), primary nociceptive neuronal sensitization, and CNS synaptic plasticity (or metaplasticity) can be readily induced and the molecular and cellular mechanisms

  4. Functional and Structural Characterization of the Antiphagocytic Properties of a Novel Transglutaminase from Streptococcus suis*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Pian, Yaya; Ge, Jingpeng; Guo, Jie; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Hua; Hao, Huaijie; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yang, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (Ss2) is an important swine and human zoonotic pathogen. In the present study, we identified a novel secreted immunogenic protein, SsTGase, containing a highly conserved eukaryotic-like transglutaminase (TGase) domain at the N terminus. We found that inactivation of SsTGase significantly reduced the virulence of Ss2 in a pig infection model and impaired its antiphagocytosis in human blood. We further solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal portion of the protein in homodimer form at 2.1 Å. Structure-based mutagenesis and biochemical studies suggested that disruption of the homodimer directly resulted in the loss of its TGase activity and antiphagocytic ability. Characterization of SsTGase as a novel virulence factor of Ss2 by acting as a TGase would be beneficial for developing new therapeutic agents against Ss2 infections. PMID:26085092

  5. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    PubMed

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  6. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule

    PubMed Central

    TIMONEY, John F.; SUTHER, Pranav; VELINENI, Sridhar; ARTIUSHIN, Sergey C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule. PMID:25013359

  7. Inhibition of propionibacterium acnes by bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Filip, Jennifer C; DiRienzo, Joseph M; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J

    2006-10-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  8. Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes by Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) Produced by Streptococcus Salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Bowe, Whitney P.; Filip, Jennifer C.; DiRienzo, Joseph M.; Volgina, Alla; Margolis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the in vitro inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) by a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS-like substance) produced by Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius). Bacteriocins are proteinaceous substances produced by bacteria that are capable of inhibiting the growth of similar bacterial strains. Unlike classical antibiotics, they have a relatively narrow spectrum of killing activity, resulting in a reduction in the intensity of selection for resistance. These findings suggest that BLIS may potentially be used for its anti-P. acnes activity in the treatment of acne. PMID:17039652

  9. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 μg/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 μg/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after

  10. Influence of Space-Flight Factors on the Properties of Microorganisms, Producers of Biologically Active Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, T. K.; Kanaeva, E. N.; Ukraintsev, A. D.; Smolyanaya, G. L.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Shcherbakov, G. Ya.

    2001-07-01

    The following substances were isolated under the influence of space-flight factors in cosmic experiments aboard the Mirorbital station: an MIB-90 monoisolant, which is distinguished by its morphological and biochemical properties and enhanced productivity, was isolated from the Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki var. Z-52culture, which is a producer of the plant protection agent Lepidocide; and MIA-74 and MIP-89 monoisolants, which are highly active toward heavy petroleum fractions (C23 C33), were isolated from the Arthrobacter OC-1culture, which is a producer of biodegradants for petroleum.

  11. Characterization and identification of a novel marine Streptomyces sp. produced antibacterial substance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Dong, Xin; Liu, Shu; Bie, Xiaomei

    2009-01-01

    Strain GB-2 is a marine microbe with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, isolated from soil taken from the coastal city Lianyungang in the JiangSu province of China. Analysis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as chemical components of the cell wall strongly suggested that the strain GB-2 belonged to the Streptomyces sp. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Streptomyces sp. GB-2 strain showed a strong similarity (98%) with the 16 rRNA gene of Streptomyces fradiae. Application to antibacterial substance of strain Streptomyces sp. GB-2 by various separation steps led to isolation of one active molecule having a retention time of 9.495 min, P(9.495 min), which possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Through analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass/mass spectrometry of the peak, the molecular weight of the antibacterial substance (P(9.495 min) sample) was 447.5 Da and it was determined to be sisomicin according to the analysis of ion fragments. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the peak also demonstrated that the antibacterial substance was sisomicin. This study is the first to introduce the finding of sisomicin produced from marine Streptomyces sp. This work provides a preference for the production of sisomicin in pharmaceutical industries and a probability for studying the biodiversity of marine microbe.

  12. Quantification, qualification, and microbial killing efficiencies of antimicrobial chlorine-based substances produced by iontophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C P; Shirtliff, M E; Trieff, N M; Hoskins, S L; Warren, M M

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of microbial killing on chloride ions present in solutions undergoing iontophoresis is addressed. A 400-microA current was applied to vials containing synthetic urine or saline, and the production of chlorine-based substances (CBSs) was detected by the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylene diamine colorimetric method. It was found that as the time of current application increased, the total concentration of CBSs also increased. The iontophoretic current converted (through oxidation) chloride ions present in the solutions into CBSs such as free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chlorite, monochloramine, and dichloramine (the last two were produced by iontophoresis only when nitrogenous substances were present in the solution). Two of the CBSs (free Cl and ClO2), when they were separately added back to microbial suspensions (approximately 3 x 10(5) CFU/ml) at the same concentrations at which they were detected in either 0.46% (wt/vol) NaCl solution or synthetic urine iontophoresed for 4 h at 400 microA, reduced or eliminated bacterial genera and a fungus. However, when free Cl and ClO2 were jointly added back to microbial suspensions, bacterial and fungal killing was synergistic and more rapid and complete than when these chlorine-based biocides were added separately. Therefore, iontophoresis of solutions containing chloride ions produces chlorine-based biocides that are responsible for the antimicrobial effect of iontophoresis. PMID:7695260

  13. Mass spectrometry analysis of surface tension reducing substances produced by a pah-degrading Pseudomonas citronellolis strain

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Rodrigo J. S.; Santos, Eder C.; Haddad, Renato; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Bento, Fátima M.; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigated the structure of the iron-stimulated surface tension reducing substances produced by P. citronellolis 222A isolated from a 17-years old landfarming used for sludge treatment in petrochemical industries and oil refinery. Its mass spectrum differs from P. aeruginosa spectrum, indicating that the surface tension reducing substances produced by P. citronellolis can be a new kind of biosurfactant. PMID:24031229

  14. Plasmodium falciparum produces prostaglandins that are pyrogenic, somnogenic, and immunosuppressive substances in humans.

    PubMed

    Kilunga Kubata, B; Eguchi, N; Urade, Y; Yamashita, K; Mitamura, T; Tai, K; Hayaishi, O; Horii, T

    1998-09-21

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of human malaria, which kills approximately 1.5-2.7 million people every year, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms and the host-parasite interaction remain unclear. We show here that P. falciparum produces prostaglandins (PGs) D2, E2, and F2alpha. After incubation with 1 mM arachidonic acid (AA), cell homogenates of P. falciparum produced PGs as determined by enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. PG production in the parasite homogenate was not affected by the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs aspirin and indomethacin, and was partially heat resistant, whereas PG biosynthesis by mammalian cyclooxygenase was completely inhibited by these chemicals and by heat treatment. Addition of AA to the parasite cell culture markedly increased an ability of the parasite cell homogenate to produce PGs and of parasitized red blood cells to accumulate PGs in the culture medium. PGD2 and PGE2 accumulated in the culture medium at the stages of trophozoites and schizonts more actively than at the ring stage. These findings are the first evidence of the direct involvement of a malaria parasite in the generation of substances that are pyrogenic and injurious to the host defenses. We will discuss a possible contribution of the parasite-produced PGs to pathogenesis and host-parasite interaction of P. falciparum. PMID:9743538

  15. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were collected from the Netherlands (n = 95) and Greece (n = 76). The egg yolks were analysed for 11 PFASs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. PFAS levels in yolk were higher in home produced eggs from the Netherlands (median 3.1, range < LOQ - 31.2 ng g(-1)) and Greece (median 1.1, range < LOQ - 15.0 ng g(-1)) compared to the eggs collected from supermarkets. In these eggs, all PFAS levels were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng g(-1), except for a small amount of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 1 sample in each country (1.1 ng g(-1) and 0.9 ng g(-1) for the Netherlands and Greece respectively). PFOS was the predominant PFAS, making up on average 85% of ∑PFASs. The highest PFOS concentration was detected in a Dutch home produced egg sample (24.8 ng g(-1)). The contamination pattern was similar in both countries with the long-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) being most frequently detected, while short-chain PFASs were rarely found. The most likely cause of the contamination of home produced eggs is ingestion of soil through pecking. Although regular consumption of home produced eggs will lead to an increased PFOS exposure, it is not expected that it will lead to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake established by EFSA.

  16. Inhibitory substances produced by Streptococcus salivarius and colonization of the upper respiratory tract with group A streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Huskins, W. C.; Kaplan, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    It has been proposed that inhibitory substances produced by viridans streptococci colonizing the upper respiratory tract aid in eradication of established group A streptococcal colonization of that site. We studied the prevalence of inhibitory-substance producing strains of Streptococcus salivarius in throat cultures from three groups of children: 16 children with persistently positive throat cultures for group A streptococci despite receiving recommended therapeutic courses of antibiotics (group I), 26 children from whom group A streptococci were eradicated from the upper respiratory tract by antibiotic therapy (group II), and 18 children who never harboured group A streptococci in their upper respiratory tract during the study period (group III). An in vitro deferred antagonism method was employed to detect inhibitory substances; 5233 strains of S. salivarius were examined. Strains of S. salivarius producing inhibitory substances were isolated from 76-88% of the children in each group on at least one occasion. However, only a small percentage of subjects in each group harboured strains producing these substances in every throat culture. The mean total percentage of S. salivarius strains producing inhibitory substances was 21.8% in children in group I, 22.4% in children in group II, and 16.4% in children in group III; these percentages were not statistically different (P greater than 0.1). In this study, we could not confirm a significant role for inhibitory substances produced by S. salivarius in the eradication of group A streptococci from the upper respiratory tract of colonized individuals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2500355

  17. Outer Surface Protein OspC Is an Antiphagocytic Factor That Protects Borrelia burgdorferi from Phagocytosis by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Sebastian E.; Troxell, Bryan; Yang, Youyun; Brandt, Stephanie L.; Li, Hongxia; Sandusky, George E.; Condon, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Outer surface protein C (OspC) is one of the major lipoproteins expressed on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi during tick feeding and the early phase of mammalian infection. OspC is required for B. burgdorferi to establish infection in both immunocompetent and SCID mice and has been proposed to facilitate evasion of innate immune defenses. However, the exact biological function of OspC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the ospC-deficient spirochete could not establish infection in NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice that lack B cells, T cells, NK cells, and lytic complement. The ospC mutant also could not establish infection in anti-Ly6G-treated SCID and C3H/HeN mice (depletion of neutrophils). However, depletion of mononuclear phagocytes at the skin site of inoculation in SCID and C3H/HeN mice allowed the ospC mutant to establish infection in vivo. In phagocyte-depleted mice, the ospC mutant was able to colonize the joints and triggered neutrophilia during dissemination. Furthermore, we found that phagocytosis of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ospC mutant spirochetes by murine peritoneal macrophages and human THP-1 macrophage-like cells, but not in PMN-HL60, was significantly higher than parental wild-type B. burgdorferi strains, suggesting that OspC has an antiphagocytic property. In addition, overproduction of OspC in spirochetes also decreased the uptake of spirochetes by murine peritoneal macrophages. Together, our findings provide evidence that mononuclear phagocytes play a key role in clearance of the ospC mutant and that OspC promotes spirochetes' evasion of macrophages during early Lyme borreliosis. PMID:26438793

  18. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Márcia P; Bonatto, Diego; Bizani, Delmar; Henriques, João A P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2006-06-01

    A Bacillus strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain has high sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The antimicrobial substance was inhibitory to pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Pasteurella haemolytica. It was stable over a wide temperature range, but lost activity when the temperature reached 121 degrees C/15 min. Maximum activity was observed at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pH. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Except for iturins, other antimicrobial peptides have not been described for B. amyloliquefaciens. The identification of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection.

  19. Identification of a new Bacillus licheniformis strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yaoqi; Yu, Zhanqiao; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has spurred a great number of studies for development of new antimicrobials in the past decade. The purpose of this study was to screen environmental samples for Bacillus strains producing potent antimicrobial agents. A new strain, which showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, was isolated from soil and designated as B116. This new isolate was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. The production of bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) started at early exponential phase and achieved highest level at early stationary phase. The BLS was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and its molecular mass was determined as ∼4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Culture supernatant of the new isolate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. The BLS was resistant to heat, acid and alkaline treatment. Activity of the BLS was totally lost after digestion by pronase and partially lost after digestion by papain and lipase. The new isolate and relevant BLS are potentially useful in food and feed applications. PMID:22752909

  20. [Peculiarities of ethanol oxidation by the producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4].

    PubMed

    Pyroh, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Duhinets', O S

    2010-01-01

    Activity of key-enzymes of C2-metabolism was determined in the cells of strain-producer of surface-active substances Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 grown on ethanol. It is shown that ethanol and acetaldehyde oxidation in the strain K-4 is performed by pyroquinolinquinon (PQQ) and 4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (NDMA)-dependent dehydrogenases. Activity of NDMA-dependent enzymes was maximum (100-300 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) in the early exponential growth phase of A. calcoaceticus K-4. Availability of NDMA-dependent alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases in gram-negative bacteria was established for the first time. Acetate is involved in metabolism in the strain K-4 with participation of both acetate kinase and acetate-KoA-synthetase; replenishment of the pool of C4-dicarbonic acids is performed in glioxylate cycle (activity of isocytrate lyase is 600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) and in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase reaction (1600 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein). Both key enzymes of gluconeogenesis take place in synthesis of carbohydrates: FEP-carboxykinase and FEP-synthetase (1200 and 4400 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein, respectively). Enzymatic investigations have confirmed the capacity of strain K-4 to synthesis of surface-active trehalosemycolates (activity of trehalosephosphate synthase is 150-160 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein).

  1. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances

    PubMed Central

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  2. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  3. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents.

  4. Antiphagocytic Function of an IgG Glycosyl Hydrolase from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Its Use as a Vaccine Component

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Sköld, Markus; Guss, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    EndoSe from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is an enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl groups on IgG, analogous to EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes. We here show that the activity of EndoSe leads to an antiphagocytic function and may thus be a contributory factor to immune evasion of S. equi. Despite the damaging effect that EndoSe has on IgG, antibodies against EndoSe can neutralize its function. Antibodies against EndoSe restored the opsonic activity of specific opsonizing antibodies. Mice infected with either S. equi subsp. equi or subsp. zooepidemicus or S. pyogenes could be protected by vaccination with EndoSe. It is speculated that EndoSe could be a suitable vaccine candidate against streptococcal infections. PMID:22615244

  5. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative. PMID:26476937

  6. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  7. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  8. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  9. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  10. AB3217-A, a novel anti-mite substance produced by a strain of Streptomyces platensis.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, K; Mimura, Y; Tamamura, T; Yatagai, S; Sato, Y; Takahashi, A; Sato, K; Naganawa, H; Nakamura, H; Takeuchi, T

    1992-04-01

    AB3217-A, a novel anti-mite substance, was isolated from the fermentation broth of a streptomycete strain. The strain was isolated from a soil collected at Kita-azumi, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, and identified as Streptomyces platensis AB3217. AB3217-A was purified by Amberlite IR120B, Diaion HP-20 and CM-Sephadex C-25 column chromatographies. The molecular formula was determined as C17H23NO7 by elemental analysis, MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The structure of AB3217-A was determined to be (1R,3S,4S,7R,8R,11R,12S,13R)-4,12,13-trihydroxy-8-(4-methoxy phenyl)-6-aza-2,9,14-trioxatricyclo-[9.2.1.0(3,7)]tetradecane by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The molecule of AB3217-A has unique structure that deacetylanisomycin and beta-D-xylofuranose linked through glycosidic bond and ether bond resulting in the formation of nine-membered ring. AB3217-A showed marked activity against the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. PMID:1592678

  11. Calcium carbonate formation on mica supported extracellular polymeric substance produced by Rhodococcus opacus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcześ, Aleksandra; Czemierska, Magdalena; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from Rhodococcus opacus bacterial strain was used as a matrix for calcium carbonate precipitation using the vapour diffusion method. The total exopolymer and water-soluble exopolymer fraction of different concentrations were spread on the mica surface by the spin-coating method. The obtained layers were characterized using the atomic force microscopy measurement and XPS analysis. The effects of polymer concentration, initial pH of calcium chloride solution and precipitation time on the obtained crystals properties were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the precipitated minerals. It was found that the type of precipitated CaCO3 polymorph and the crystal size depend on the kind of EPS fraction. The obtained results indicates that the water soluble fraction favours vaterite dissolution and calcite growth, whereas the total EPS stabilizes vaterite and this effect is stronger at basic pH. It seems to be due to different contents of the functional group of EPS fractions.

  12. [Biosorption properties of extracellular polymeric substances produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria towards Cu(II) ion].

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhang, Rui-Chang; Zhao, Yang-Guo

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the Cu2+ biosorption properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The composition and physicochemical characteristics of EPS were determined. The adsorption characteristics of EPS towards Cu2+ were examined using thermodynamic equilibrium equations and determined by FTIR and SEM-EDS. The EPS was shown to have a strong copper-binding capacity and the biosorption data obtained were well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results of FTIR spectra and SEM-EDS confirmed the importance of the C-O-C group, -OH group and carbonyl group from polysaccharides and proteins in Cu2+ sorption by EPS. These findings suggest the potential of EPS produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria for the removal of Cu(II) ion from aqueous solution.

  13. [Treatment of oilfield produced water by biological methods-constructed wetland process and degradation characteristics of organic substances].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-feng; Shen, Jie; Wen, Yue; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-jun; Zhou, Qi

    2010-02-01

    Hydrolysis acidification-aerobic-constructed wetland process and hydrolysis acidification-constructed wetland were used to treat oilfield produced water after the pretreatment of oil separation-coagulation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the degradation characteristics of organic substances during the treatment process. The results showed that COD and ammonia nitrogen of both the two process effluents were below 80 mg/L and 15 mg/L, respectively, when HRT was 20 h for hydrolysis acidification, 10 h for aeration and 2 d for constructed wetlands or when HRT was 20 h for hydrolysis acidification and 4 d for constructed wetland. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that biodegradability of the oil produced water was significantly improved in hydrolysis acidification. Substantial removal of benzene compounds was achieved in aerobic and constructed wetland. PMID:20391699

  14. Antibacterial activity of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus sp. P34 that targets the bacterial cell envelope.

    PubMed

    Motta, Amanda S; Flores, Fabiana S; Souto, André A; Brandelli, Adriano

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the mode of action of BLS P34, a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) produced by a novel Bacillus sp. strain P34 isolated from the Amazon basin. The effect of the BLS was tested against Listeria monocytogenes, showing a bactericidal effect at 200 AU (activity units) ml(-1), while no inhibition of spore outgrowth of Bacillus cereus was observed with a dose of 1,600 AU ml(-1). Growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis was inhibited, but only when the chelating agent EDTA was co-added with the BLS. The effect of BLS P34 on L. monocytogenes was also investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Treated cells showed an important frequency increase in 1,452 and 1,397 cm(-1) and decrease in 1,217 and 1,058 cm(-1), corresponding assignments of fatty acids and phospholipids. Transmission electron microscopy showed damaged cell envelope and loss of protoplasmic material. BLS P34 was bactericidal to Gram-positive, and also showed inhibitory effect against Gram-negative bacteria. There is evidence that its mode of action corresponds to that of a membrane-active substance. The knowledge about the mode of action of this BLS is essential to determine its effective application as an antimicrobial agent.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated During Traditional Sicilian Cheese Making

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Giusi; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Gaglio, Raimondo; Mancuso, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA) and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin), amylolytic (a-amylase) and lipolytic (lipase) enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis) were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product. PMID:27800430

  16. Isolation and physico-chemical characterisation of extracellular polymeric substances produced by the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kavita, Kumari; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-03-01

    A marine bacterial strain identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by 16S rRNA gene (HM355955) sequencing and gas chromatography (GC) coupled with MIDI was selected from a natural biofilm by its capability to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS had an average molecule size of 15.278 μm and exhibited characteristic diffraction peaks at 5.985°, 9.150° and 22.823°, with d-spacings of 14.76661, 9.29989 and 3.89650 Å, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum revealed aliphatic methyl, primary amine, halide groups, uronic acid and saccharides. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) confirmed the presence of arabinose, galactose, glucose and mannose. (1)HNMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) revealed functional groups characteristic of polysaccharides. The EPS were amorphous in nature (CI(xrd) 0.092), with a 67.37% emulsifying activity, thermostable up to 250°C and displayed pseudoplastic rheology. MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis revealed a series of masses, exhibiting low-mass peaks (m/z) corresponding to oligosaccharides and higher-mass peaks for polysaccharides consisting of different ratios of pentose and hexose moieties. This is the first report of a detailed characterisation of the EPS produced by V. parahaemolyticus, which could be further explored for biotechnological and industrial use. PMID:21409653

  17. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced from a novel isolated strain of Bacillus subtilis SLYY-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfeng; Li, Hongfang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duan, Xiaohui; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, the strain SLYY-3 was isolated from sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The strain SLYY-3, which produced a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS), was characterized to be a strain of Bacillus subtillis by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. It is the first time to report that Bacillus subtilis from Jiaozhou Bay sediments could produce a BLS. The BLS of B. subtillis SLYY-3 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria (including Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtillis) and some fungi (including Penicillium glaucum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The antimicrobial activity was detected from culture in the exponential growth phase and reached its maximum when culture entered into stationary growth phase. It was thermo-tolerant even when being kept at 100°C for 60 min without losing any activity and stable over a wide pH range from 1.0 to 12.0 while being inactivated by proteolytic enzyme and trypsin, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the BLS. The BLS was purified by precipitation with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and gel filteration (Sephadex G-100). SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracellular peptides of SLYY-3 revealed a bacteriocin-like protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa. Altogether, these characteristics indicate the potential of the BLS for food industry as a protection against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.

  18. Past, present and future of mass spectrometry in the analysis of residues of banned substances in meat-producing animals.

    PubMed

    De Brabander, H F; Le Bizec, B; Pinel, G; Antignac, J-P; Verheyden, K; Mortier, V; Courtheyn, D; Noppe, H

    2007-08-01

    A residue is a trace (microg kg(-1), ng kg(-1)) of a substance, present in a matrix. Banned substances, such as growth promoters, which are abused in animal fattening and where this article is focused on, may be divided into four major groups: thyreostats, anabolics or anabolic steroids, corticosteroids and beta-agonists or repartitioning agents. The combination of chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometry (GC-MS(n), LC-MS(n), etc.) plays a key role in the production of specific results in residue analysis. In this review, the past, present and future of mass spectrometry in this area are discussed in the light of the impact of these substances on human health and the reliable production of analytical results, ready for challenge in a court.

  19. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe. PMID:26613358

  20. Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Bignert, Anders; Legradi, Jessica; Legler, Juliette; Asplund, Lillemor

    2016-02-01

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Askö, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Ängskärsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Askö and Ängskärsklubb were; Σ2PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Σ(2)PBAs: 34 and 20, Σ(6)OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Σ(7)MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Σ(6)PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Askö) and 91% (Ängskärsklubb) of the ΣOH-PBDEs. At Ängskärsklubb the mean concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than ΣOH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  1. Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on spinach and identification of antimicrobial substances produced by a commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria food safety intervention.

    PubMed

    Cálix-Lara, Thelma F; Rajendran, Mahitha; Talcott, Stephen T; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K; Castillo, Alejandro; Sturino, Joseph M; Taylor, T Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The microbiological safety of fresh produce is of concern for the U.S. food supply. Members of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been reported to antagonize pathogens by competing for nutrients and by secretion of substances with antimicrobial activity, including organic acids, peroxides, and antimicrobial polypeptides. The objectives of this research were to: (i) determine the capacity of a commercial LAB food antimicrobial to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on spinach leaf surfaces, and (ii) identify antimicrobial substances produced in vitro by the LAB comprising the food antimicrobial. Pathogens were inoculated on freshly harvested spinach, followed by application of the LAB antimicrobial. Treated spinach was aerobically incubated up to 12 days at 7 °C and surviving pathogens enumerated via selective/differential plating. l-Lactic acid and a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) were detected and quantified from cell-free fermentates obtained from LAB-inoculated liquid microbiological medium. Application of 8.0 log10 CFU/g LAB produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on spinach of 1.6 and 1.9 log10 CFU/g, respectively. It was concluded the LAB antimicrobial inhibited foodborne pathogens on spinach during refrigerated storage, likely the result of the production of metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  2. Composition and morphology characterization of exopolymeric substances produced by the PAH-degrading fungus of Mucor mucedo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Liu, Changfeng; Gong, Zongqiang

    2016-05-01

    To explore the role of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in the process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation, the characteristics of EPS isolated from a PAH-degrading fungus were investigated firstly by spectrometric determination, microscopic observation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), and then the PAH-degrading ability of isolated EPS was evaluated. The EPS compositions and morphology varied significantly with the extraction methods. EPS were mainly composed of proteins, carbohydrate, and humic-like substances, and the cation exchange resin (CER)-extracted EPS were granular while other EPS samples were all powders. Heating was the most effective treatment method, followed by the CER, centrifugation, and ultrasonication methods. However, 3D-EEM data demonstrated that heating treatment makes the mycelia lyse the most. Overall, therefore, the CER was the best EPS extraction method for Mucor mucedo (M. mucedo). The PAH degradation results indicated that 87 % of pyrene and 81 % of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were removed by M. mucedo over 12 days and 9 % more pyrene and 7 % more B[a]P were reduced after CER-extracted EPS addition of 465 mg l(-1). The investigation of EPS characterization and EPS enhancing PAH biodegradation is the premise for further in-depth exploration of the role of EPS contribution to PAH biodegradation.

  3. Compost and Crude Humic Substances Produced from Selected Wastes and Their Effects on Zea mays L. Nutrient Uptake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Palanivell, Perumal; Susilawati, Kasim; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2013-01-01

    Production of agriculture and timber commodities leads generation of enormous quantity of wastes. Improper disposal of these agroindustrial wastes pollutes the environment. This problem could be reduced by adding value to them. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse and compare the nutrients content of RS, RH, SD, and EFB of composts and crude humic substances; furthermore, their effect on growth, dry matter production, and nutrient uptake for Zea mays L., and selected soil chemical properties were evaluated. Standard procedures were used to analyze humic acids (HA), crude fulvic acids (CFA), crude humin (CH), soil, dry matter production and nutrient uptake. Sawdust and RS compost matured at 42 and 47 days, respectively, while RH and EFB composts were less matured at 49th day of composting. Rice straw compost had higher ash, N, P, CEC, HA, K, and Fe contents with lower organic matter, total organic carbon, and C/N and C/P ratios. The HA of sawdust compost showed higher carbon, carboxylic, K, and Ca contents compared to those of RS, RH, and EFB. Crude FA of RS compost showed highest pH, total K, Ca, Mg, and Na contents. Crude humin from RS compost had higher contents of ash, N, P, and CEC. Rice straw was superior in compost, CFA, and CH, while sawdust compost was superior in HA. Application of sawdust compost significantly increased maize plants' diameter, height, dry matter production, N, P, and cations uptake. It also reduced N, P, and K based chemical fertilizer use by 90%. Application of CH and the composts evaluated in this study could be used as an alternative for chemical fertilizers in maize cultivation. PMID:24319353

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  5. Emission factors for gases and particle-bound substances produced by firing lead-free small-caliber ammunition.

    PubMed

    Wingfors, H; Svensson, K; Hägglund, L; Hedenstierna, S; Magnusson, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead-free ammunition is becoming increasingly popular because of the environmental and human health issues associated with the use of leaded ammunition. However, there is a lack of data on the emissions produced by firing such ammunition. We report emission factors for toxic gases and particle-bound compounds produced by firing lead-free ammunition in a test chamber. Carbon monoxide, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide levels within the chamber were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while total suspended particles and respirable particles were determined gravimetrically. The metal content of the particulate emissions was determined and the associated organic compounds were characterized in detail using a method based on thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The particulate matter (∼30 mg/round) consisted primarily of metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe along with soot arising from incomplete combustion. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as carbazole, quinolone, and phenazine were responsible for some of the 25 most significant chromatographic peaks, together with PAHs, diphenylamine, and phthalates. Emission factors were determined for PAHs and oxygenated PAHs; the latter were less abundant in the gun smoke particles than in domestic dust and diesel combustion smoke. This may be due to the oxygen-deficient conditions that occur when the gun is fired. By using an electrical low pressure impactor, it was demonstrated that more than 90% of the particles produced immediately after firing the weapon had diameters of less than 30 nm, and so most of the gun smoke particles belonged to the nanoparticle regime.

  6. Activity and purification of linenscin OC2, an antibacterial substance produced by Brevibacterium linens OC2, an orange cheese coryneform bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Maisnier-Patin, S; Richard, J

    1995-01-01

    An orange cheese coryneform bacterium isolated from the surface of Gruyère of Comté and identified as Brevibacterium linens produces an antimicrobial substance designated linenscin OC2. This compound inhibits gram-positive food-borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes but is not active against gram-negative bacteria. Linenscin OC2 caused viability loss and lysis of the test organism, Listeria innocua. Electron microscopy showed that linenscin OC2 induces protoplast formation and cell lysis. The native substance is resistant to proteolytic enzymes, heat, and organic solvents and stable over a wide range of pH. The molecular weight of the native linenscin OC2 was estimated by gel chromatography to be over 285,000. Linenscin OC2 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, 2-propanol extraction, and reverse-phase chromatography. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass under 2,412 Da. Molecular mass was determined to be 1,196.7 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid composition analysis indicated that linenscin OC2 may contain 12 residues. PMID:7646021

  7. Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides

    PubMed Central

    Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

  8. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    PubMed

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized.

  9. Microfluorimetric analysis of a purinergic receptor (P2X7) in GH4C1 rat pituitary cells: effects of a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.

    PubMed Central

    Melo, A C; Moeller, P D; Glasgow, H; Burkholder, J M; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-01-01

    Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder is a toxic dinoflagellate that leads to fish and human toxicity. It produces a bioactive substance that leads to cytotoxicity of GH4C1 rat pituitary cells. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acting on P2X7 purinergic receptors induces the formation of a nonselective cation channel, causing elevation of the cytosolic free calcium followed by a characteristic permeabilization of the cell to progressively larger ions and subsequent cell lysis. We investigated whether GH4C1 rat pituitary cells express functional P2X7 receptors, and if so, are they activated by a bioactive substance isolated from toxic P. piscicida cultures. We tested the selective agonist 2'-3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and antagonists piridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and oxidized-ATP (oxATP) using elevated cytosolic free calcium in Fura-2 loaded cells, and induced permeability of these cells to the fluorescent dye YO-PRO-1 as end points. We demonstrated that in GH4C1 cells, BzATP induces both the elevation of cytosolic free calcium and the permeabilization of the cell membrane. ATP-induced membrane permeabilization was inhibited by PPADS reversibly and by oxATP irreversibly. The putative Pfiesteria toxin (pPfTx) also elevated cytosolic free calcium in Fura-2 in GH4C1 cells and increased the permeability to YO-PRO-1 in a manner inhibited fully by oxATP. This study indicates that GH4C1 cells express a purinoceptor with characteristics consistent with the P2X7 subtype, and that pPfTx mimics the kinetics of cell permeabilization by ATP. PMID:11677182

  10. Using extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)-producing cyanobacteria for the bioremediation of heavy metals: do cations compete for the EPS functional groups and also accumulate inside the cell?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Micheletti, Ernesto; Zille, Andrea; Santos, Arlete; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Tamagnini, Paula; De Philippis, Roberto

    2011-02-01

    Many cyanobacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) mainly of polysaccharidic nature. These EPS can remain associated to the cell surface as sheaths, capsules and/or slimes, or be liberated into the surrounding environment as released polysaccharides (RPS). The ability of EPS-producing cyanobacteria to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions has been widely reported in the literature, focusing mainly on the biotechnological potential. However, the knowledge of the effects of the metals in the cell's survival/growth is still scarce, particularly when they are simultaneously exposed to more than one metal. This work evaluated the effects of different concentrations of Cu(2+) and/or Pb(2+) in the growth/survival of Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909 and its sheathless mutant Gloeothece sp. CCY 9612. The results obtained clearly showed that both phenotypes are more severely affected by Cu(2+) than Pb(2+), and that the mutant is more sensitive to the former metal than the wild-type. Evident ultrastructural changes were also observed in the wild-type and mutant cells exposed to high levels (10 mg l(-1)) of Cu(2+). Moreover, in bi-metal systems, Pb(2+) was preferentially removed compared with Cu(2+), being the RPS of the mutant that is the most efficient polysaccharide fraction in metal removal. In these systems, the simultaneous presence of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) caused a mutual inhibition in the adsorption of each metal. PMID:20966085

  11. Streptococcal Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances: Some Personal Insights into the Bacteriocin-Like Activities Produced by Streptococci Good and Bad.

    PubMed

    Tagg, John Robert

    2009-06-01

    The background to the discovery and commercial development of the first Streptococcus salivarius probiotic is documented. A 40-year search of the genus Streptococcus for a harmless natural antagonist of Streptococcus pyogenes had as its operational basis a simple deferred antagonism "fingerprinting" procedure, the application of which results in each tested strain being accorded an inhibitor production (P)-type and inhibitor sensitivity (S)-type profile. Systematic application of this schema has opened a "Pandora's Box" of novel streptococcal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). The numerically prominent commensal S. salivarius is proposed to have a pivotal population-modulating role within the oral microbiota of humans. The probiotic strain S. salivarius K12 produces several megaplasmid-encoded BLIS including the lantibiotics salivaricin A and salivaricin B. Strain K12 and other BLIS-producing S. salivarius are currently in use or under development for application to the control of a variety of common maladies and infections of the human oral cavity. PMID:26783132

  12. Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu→Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr→Ala) and 15 (Leu→Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  13. In General, the Total Voltammetric Current from a Mixture of Redox-Active Substances will Not be the Sum of the Currents that Each Substance would Produce Independently at the Same Concentration as in the Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Oh, Woon Su; Gao, Xue-Rong; Rawashdeh, Abdel Monem M.

    2003-01-01

    At the potential range where both decamethylferrocene (dMeFc) and ferrocene (Fc) are oxidized with rates controlled by linear diffusion, electrogenerated Fc(+) radicals diffusing outwards from the electrode react quantitatively (K23 C=5.8 x 10(exp 8) with dMeFc diffusing towards the electrode and produce Fc and dMeFc. That reaction replaces dMeFc with Fc, whose diffusion coefficient is higher than that of dMeFc(+), and the total mass-transfer limited current from the mixture is increased by approximately 10%. Analogous observations are made when mass-transfer is controlled by convective-diffusion as in RDE voltammetry. Similar results have been obtained with another, and for all practical purposes randomly selected pair of redox-active substances, [Co(bipy)3](2+) and N - methylphenothiazine (MePTZ); reaction of MePTZ(+) with [Co(bipy)3](2+) replaces the latter with MePTZ, which diffuses faster and the current increases by approximately 20%. The experimental voltammograms have been simulated numerically and the role of (a) the rate constant of the homogeneous reaction; (b) the relative concentrations; and, (c) the diffusion coefficients of all species involved have been studied in detail. Importantly, it was also identified that within any given redox system the dependence of the mass-transfer limited current on the bulk concentrations of the redox-active species is expected to be non-linear. These findings are discussed in terms of their electroanalytical implications.

  14. Regulation of naturally occurring autoantibody-producing cells: detection of a suppressive substance which inhibits the secretion of antibodies directed against enzyme-treated isologous erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moticka, E J

    1983-10-01

    Normal mice possess spleen cells capable of forming hemolytic plaques against bromelain-treated autologous red cells (Br MRBC). There is present in the serum of these same mice a substance which can inhibit the formation of these plaques. This substance is inhibitory to the secretion of these antibodies following incubation of spleen cells in 20% serum at 4 degrees C for 5 min. This substance is not inhibitory to the formation of anti-sheep erythrocyte plaques from mice either immunized or nonimmunized with sheep erythrocytes. Characterization of the substance indicates that it is neither soluble antigen nor specific antibody. However, inclusion of nanogram amounts of soluble antigen from bromelain-treated red cells in the assay mixture effectively neutralized the suppression. In addition, passage of serum through a mouse anti-Br MRBC antibody immunoadsorbent effectively removed the suppressive activity of the serum while suppression could be recovered in the acid eluate from such a column. This suggests that the mechanism of suppression brought about by incubation in serum is due to the action of a molecule possessing anti-idiotypic activity directed against the cell surface receptors of anti-Br MRBC B cells. Attempts to isolate the molecule based on the postulate that it is immunoglobulin in nature have been unsuccessful.

  15. Substance use

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Quartu, M.; Carozzi, V. A.; Dorsey, S. G.; Serra, M. P.; Poddighe, L.; Picci, C.; Boi, M.; Melis, T.; Del Fiacco, M.; Meregalli, C.; Chiorazzi, A.; Renn, C. L.; Cavaletti, G.; Marmiroli, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. PMID:24877063

  17. Studies on the cardiovascular effects produced by the spinal action of two substance P analogues in the rat: evidence for a central catecholaminergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Couture, R; Gupta, A; Kérouac, R; Regoli, D

    1987-03-31

    The effects of two substance P (SP) analogues, [D-Trp7,9,10]SP (ana1) and [D-Pro4,Lys6,D-Trp7,9,10,Phe11]SP-(4-11) (ana2) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured following intrathecal administration at one of three spinal cord levels in rats anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Following an initial increase, a profound and long-lasting fall in MAP and HR occurred when 6.5 nmol of either ana1 or ana2 was injected at T1-T3 or T8-T10. Only transient changes in MAP and a slight increase in HR was observed after injection of either peptide at L2-L4. The profound and long-lasting hypotension and bradycardia induced by ana1 were not significantly altered after intravenous injection of hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol, atropine, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, methysergide, naloxone or morphine. However, the biphasic effect of ana1 on MAP was prevented by the intrathecal administration of prazosin and yohimbine, suggesting that a central catecholaminergic mechanism including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors is involved. The latter treatment did not prevent the tachycardia which occurred when the bradycardia was blocked, indicating that different mechanisms mediate the spinal action of ana1 on MAP and HR. Finally, cervical transection of the spinal cord eliminated the profound and long-lasting depressor effect of ana2, suggesting that a supraspinal mechanism is involved in this cardiovascular response.

  18. Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by Serratia sp.1 using wastewater sludge as raw material and flocculation activity of the EPS produced.

    PubMed

    Bezawada, J; Hoang, N V; More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, N; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-10-15

    Growth profile and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production of Serratia sp.1 was studied in shake flask fermentation for 72 h using wastewater sludge as raw material. Maximum cell concentration of 6.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was obtained at 48 h fermentation time. EPS dry weight, flocculation activity and dewaterability of different EPS (tightly bound or TB-EPS, loosely bound or LB-EPS and broth-EPS or B-EPS) were also measured. The highest concentration of LB-EPS (2.45 g/L) and TB-EPS (0.99 g/L) were attained at 48 h of fermentation. Maximum flocculation activity and dewaterability (ΔCST) of TB-EPS (76.4%, 14.5s and 76.5%, 15.5s), LB-EPS (67.8%, 8.1s and 64.7%, 7.6s) and broth EPS (61%, 6.1s and 70.4%, 6.8s) were obtained at 36 and 48 h of growth. Higher flocculation activity and dewaterability were achieved with TB-EPS than with the two other EPS. Characterization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS was done in terms of their protein and carbohydrate content. Protein content was much higher in TB-EPS where as carbohydrate content was only slightly higher in TB-EPS than LB-EPS. Morphology of the Serratia strain after fermentation in sludge and TSB was observed under a scanning electron microscope and the cell size was found to be bigger in the sludge medium than the TSB medium.

  19. Mixed biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium enhanced bacterial resistance to sanitization due to extracellular polymeric substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are important foodborne pathogens capable of forming single-species biofilms or coexisting in multispecies biofilm communities. Bacterial biofilm cells are usually more resistant to sanitization than their pla...

  20. Substance use - prescription drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance use; Oxycodone - substance use; Hydrocodone - substance use; Morphine - substance use; Fentanyl - substance use ... fluff, hydros, v-itamin, vic, vike, Watson-387. Morphine. Drugs include Avinza, Duramorph, Kadian, Ormorph, Roxanol. Street ...

  1. Neurons derived from human mesenchymal stem cells show synaptic transmission and can be induced to produce the neurotransmitter substance P by interleukin-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Jin; Trzaska, Katarzyna A; Greco, Steven J; McArdle, Joseph; Wang, Fu Shun; Ye, Jiang-Hong; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2005-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immune-suppressive properties, follow a pattern of multilineage differentiation, and exhibit transdifferentiation potential. Ease in expansion from adult bone marrow, as well as its separation from ethical issues, makes MSCs appealing for clinical application. MSCs treated with retinoic acid resulted in synaptic transmission, based on immunostaining of synaptophysin and electrophysiological studies. In situ hybridization indicated that the neurotransmitter gene preprotachykinin-I was expressed in these cells. However, translation of this gene only occurred after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1 alpha. This effect was blunted by costimulation with IL-1 receptor antagonist. This study reports on the ability of MSCs to be transdifferentiated into neurons with functional synapses with the potential to become polarized towards producing specific neurotransmitters.

  2. Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. Methods This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. Results EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response. PMID:21864411

  3. Method and an apparatus for detecting ionizable substance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElroy, James F. (Inventor); Smith, William (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of ionizable substance within a stream can be continuously monitored through the use of an ionizable substance detector. The substance is ionized at an electrode producing ions and free electrons. The ions are transported across an ion exchange membrane, while the free electrons flow through a power source. The current, produced by the electrons, is proportional to the amount of substance in the stream. Continuous monitoring can be useful in early detection of problems, or system fluctuations.

  4. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems. PMID:8908704

  5. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  6. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting on precursor chemical... § 766.38 Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (a) Identification of precursor chemical substances. Precursor chemical substances are produced under conditions that will not yield HDDs and HDFs, but...

  7. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... There are different kinds of street amphetamines. Common ones ... Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie- ...

  8. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  9. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  10. Substance abuse among individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substance abusers without ID, ID substance abusers are less likely to receive substance abuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID. PMID:22502840

  11. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  12. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  13. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  14. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  15. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  16. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  17. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  18. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... amount is needed to cause effects such as hallucinations. LSD users call their hallucinogenic experiences "trips." Depending ...

  19. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ), having hallucinations Physical reactions may include muscle breakdown or twitching, ...

  20. Organic substances in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeson, Phillip E.

    1981-01-01

    This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

  1. Activity Spaces and Urban Adolescent Substance Use and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…

  2. Adolescent substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Henggeler, S W; Felice, M E; Reynoso, T; Williams, N M; Sheets, R

    1993-04-01

    Substance use during pregnancy may be a key mediator of the association between adolescent childbearing and poor newborn outcome. Substance use during pregnancy was evaluated for 50 teens who were consecutive patients at an inner-city university clinic. Although teens reported typical lifetime rates of substance use, self-reports and two urine assays indicated minimal substance use throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that the adolescents exercised judicious decision making in light of the known health risks of substance use during pregnancy.

  3. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  4. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  5. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  6. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  7. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Anxiety COPD Delirium Depression Pain Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Drug and Substance Abuse ...

  8. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  9. Substance abuse in women.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women.

  10. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  11. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  12. 76 FR 51402 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... 25, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2011, 76 FR 25375, Siemens Healthcare... Morphine (9300) II The company plans to produce the listed controlled substances in bulk to be used in...

  13. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  14. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  15. Treatment of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Riggs, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Significant progress has been made in development and dissemination of evidence-based behavioral interventions for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). Medications have also shown promise in reducing substance use when used in conjunction with psychosocial treatment for adolescents with SUD, even in the context of co-occurring psychopathology. Although the efficacy or “probable efficacy” of the behavioral interventions discussed in this review have been established based on at least two randomized controlled trials, they produce relatively low abstinence rates and modest reductions in substance use that attenuate over time. Research has shown that abstinence rates may increase with the addition of abstinence-based incentives, however, post-treatment relapse rates remain high with few treated adolescents sustaining abstinence one year post-treatment. This may be due to the paucity of continuing care or post-treatment recovery support services and the lack of integrated or concurrent treatment for co-occurring psychiatric conditions that contribute to poorer treatment outcomes. Thus, despite significant progress, there is clearly room for improvement of existing treatment for adolescents with SUD. There is also critical need to increase the availability and access to substance and behavioral health treatment services for adolescents. Although 10–15% of U.S. high school students would currently meet diagnostic criteria for at least one SUD, only 10% of those who could benefit from substance treatment receive it. Five-year trends showing significant increases in the use of marijuana and nonmedical prescription drugs among U. S. high school students are evidence of the shortcomings of existing school-based interventions and poor access to community-based substance treatment for non-juvenile-justice involved youth. There is clearly a need to adapt or develop more effective prevention, early interventions, and treatment for youth who are

  16. Stress, substance abuse, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Duffing, Tiffany M; Greiner, Stefanie G; Mathias, Charles W; Dougherty, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing stressful life events is reciprocally associated with substance use and abuse. The nature of these relationships varies based on the age of stress exposure and stage of substance use involvement. This chapter reviews the developmental and biological processes involved in the relationship of stress exposure and substance use initiation, substance use maintenance and relapse, and response to substance abuse treatment. Special emphasis is given to describing the various stress-related mechanisms involved in substance use and abuse, highlighting the differences between each of these phases of drug use and drawing upon current research to make suggestions for treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Stress is inherent to the experience of life and, in many situations, unavoidable. Through ongoing research and treatment development, there is the potential to modify the relationship of stress with ongoing substance use and abuse. PMID:24510301

  17. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  18. Toxic Substances Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  19. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  20. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  1. 7 CFR 205.600 - Evaluation criteria for allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... substance cannot be produced from a natural source and there are no organic substitutes; (2) The substance's... compatible with organic handling; (3) The nutritional quality of the food is maintained when the substance...

  2. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  3. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  4. Substance abuse: an overview.

    PubMed

    Comerci, G D; Schwebel, R

    2000-02-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a major adolescent health risk. Despite encouraging trends toward decreased drug use in the late 1980s, an increase in use occurred in the early 1990s and only now is beginning to level off. A brief update on the status of the most commonly abused substances is provided. A discussion of current research is given in support of viewing drug addiction as a medical condition, i.e., a "brain disease." Reasons are suggested to explain why adolescents use and abuse drugs and why trends occur in their use. Two aspects of diagnosis are reviewed: psychiatric and medical comorbidity and drug screening and laboratory assessment of the adolescent. Prevention and early intervention are presented with an emphasis on drug education, behavioral wellness, family communication, doctor-patient discussion and assessment, and referral. Commentary is made on the ethics of care; issues of confidentiality and the right to privacy with regard to drug testing and sharing of information are explored. A review of various policy statements of the American Academy of Pediatrics and other medical organizations is presented.

  5. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course. PMID:26394503

  6. Reminder: radiopacities from metal-containing substances.

    PubMed

    Madan, Sanjeev; Mohaideen, Ahamed; Lehman, Wallace B; Welber, Adam

    2005-10-01

    A 17-month-old boy with a toed-out left lower extremity was presented for evaluation. Before coming to the doctor, the mother had applied a zinc oxide lotion to treat a simple diaper rash in the groin. The radiologist did not remove the boy's diaper for the radiographic examination and so did not notice the lotion. The first radiograph showed what looked like multiple soft-tissue calcifications in the groin, but the radiopacities had been produced by the zinc oxide. This case serves as a reminder to be aware that metal-containing substances both on and in the body can produce radiopacities.

  7. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  8. Substance use in remand prisoners: a consecutive case study.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D.; Birmingham, L.; Grubin, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among newly remanded prisoners, assess the effectiveness of prison reception screening, and examine the clinical management of substance misusers among remand prisoners. DESIGN: A consecutive case study of remand prisoners screened at reception for substance misuse and treatment needs and comparison of findings with those of prison reception screening and treatment provision. SETTING: A large adult male remand prison (Durham). SUBJECTS: 548 men aged 21 and over awaiting trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of substance misuse; treatment needs of substance misusers; effectiveness of prison reception screening for substance misuse; provision of detoxification programmes. RESULTS: Before remand 312 (57%) men were using illicit drugs and 181 (33%) met DSM-IV drug misuse or dependence criteria; 177 (32%) men met misuse or dependence criteria for alcohol. 391 (71%) men were judged to require help directed at their drug or alcohol use and 197 (36%) were judged to require a detoxification programme. The prison reception screen identified recent illicit drug use in 131 (24%) of 536 men and problem drinking in 103 (19%). Drug use was more likely to be identified by prison screening if an inmate was using multiple substances, using opiates, or had a diagnosis of abuse or dependence. 47 (9%) of 536 inmates were prescribed treatment to ease the symptoms of substance withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of substance misuse in newly remanded prisoners is high. Prison reception health screening consistently underestimated drug and alcohol use. In many cases in which substance use is identified the quantities and numbers of different substances being used are underestimated. Initial management of inmates identified by prison screening as having problems with dependence producing substances is poor. Few receive a detoxification programme, so that many are left with the option of continuing to use drugs in prison

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  10. Sources of Error in Substance Use Prevalence Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based estimates of substance use patterns have been regularly reported now for several decades. Concerns with the quality of the survey methodologies employed to produce those estimates date back almost as far. Those concerns have led to a considerable body of research specifically focused on understanding the nature and consequences of survey-based errors in substance use epidemiology. This paper reviews and summarizes that empirical research by organizing it within a total survey error model framework that considers multiple types of representation and measurement errors. Gaps in our knowledge of error sources in substance use surveys and areas needing future research are also identified. PMID:27437511

  11. Substance use in athletics: a sports psychiatry perspective.

    PubMed

    McDuff, David R; Baron, David

    2005-10-01

    Athletes use substances to produce pleasure, relieve pain and stress, improve socialization, recover from injury, and enhance performance. Therefore, they use some substances in substantially higher rates that nonathletes. Despite these higher rates of use, rates of addiction may in fact be lower in athletes. This article reviews the prevalence and patterns of use, health and performance effects, and preventive and treatment interventions for alcohol, tobacco, stimulants, and steroids. Each substance is considered from the differing perspectives of abuse/addiction and performance enhancement models. Similarities and differences between college and professional athletes are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research are made.

  12. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs. PMID:21744516

  13. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  14. [The substance experience, a history of LSD].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970.

  15. Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances.

    PubMed

    LaBotz, Michele; Griesemer, Bernard A

    2016-07-01

    Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) are used commonly by children and adolescents in attempts to improve athletic performance. More recent data reveal that these same substances often are used for appearance-related reasons as well. PESs include both legal over-the-counter dietary supplements and illicit pharmacologic agents. This report reviews the current epidemiology of PES use in the pediatric population, as well as information on those PESs in most common use. Concerns regarding use of legal PESs include high rates of product contamination, correlation with future use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and adverse effects on the focus and experience of youth sports participation. The physical maturation and endogenous hormone production that occur in adolescence are associated with large improvements in strength and athletic performance. For most young athletes, PES use does not produce significant gains over those seen with the onset of puberty and adherence to an appropriate nutrition and training program. PMID:27354458

  16. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs ... people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High ... herbs and other substances used in over-the-counter remedies are believed ...

  17. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  18. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  19. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  20. Apple fruit pectic substances

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A. J.; Northcote, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The pectic substances of apple have been extracted and separated into a pure pectinic acid and a neutral arabinan–galactan complex by precipitation of the acidic component with ethanol and with cetylpyridinium chloride. 2. The composition of the fractions has been determined. The pectinic acid contained galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose and several trace sugars. 3. Transelimination degradation of the pectinic acid gave rise to two components completely separable by zone electrophoresis and by Sephadex gel filtration. Analysis of these components confirmed that the pectinic acid molecules contained long chains of esterified galacturonosyl residues, but showed in addition that more neutral portions containing a high proportion of arabinofuranose residues were attached to them. 4. The identification of rhamnose, galactose and xylose in aldobiouronic acids obtained from a partial hydrolysate of pectinic acid has shown that these sugars are covalently linked in the molecule, and it is suggested that the galacturonosyl-(1→2)-rhamnose link is a general feature of pectinic acid structure. 5. The possible biological significance of pectinic acid structure has been discussed. 6. The arabinan–galactan complex contained nearly equal quantities of arabinose and galactose residues and some of its physical properties have been investigated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 9. PMID:14340052

  1. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  2. Peripheral mechanisms of dental pain: the role of substance P.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Paola; Levrini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues.

  3. Peripheral Mechanisms of Dental Pain: The Role of Substance P

    PubMed Central

    Sacerdote, Paola; Levrini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues. PMID:22474402

  4. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  5. Substance misuse and substance-related disorders in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Michael H

    2006-09-01

    There is a broad range of substance-related problems that arise for the forensic psychiatrist. For many, what is most challenging about addressing these issues are the complex behavioral, biological, clinical, and social phenomena involved. Substance- related illnesses are on the cutting edge of brain research. Substance-related behavior that brings individuals to the attention of forensic psychiatrists involves a wide spectrum of substance use patterns, but even substance misuse may have profound and relevant effects, forensically. The social forces that mold our laws and attitudes toward addictive drug use are at work in almost every forensic context. Substance-related issues provide a rich medium for the application of forensic psychiatric principles and practice. As in all of forensic psychiatric work, the psychiatrist should be familiar with each forensic context in which addiction issues arise. They should become familiar with the relevant definitions, criteria, and legal requirements that apply in each specific area of their practice, rather than assume that clinical definitions and clinical reasoning will carry them. Comfort and effectiveness with addiction issues requires willingness to continually educate oneself about this rapidly changing field, and familiarity with one's own attitudes and beliefs regarding addictive illness.

  6. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  7. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  8. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  9. Genetic studies of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, M M; Tarter, R E

    2000-05-01

    Genetic studies of substance abuse indicate that variation in the risk for the disorder in the population is contributed by differences in both individual genotypes and environment. Recent developments in genetics raise the possibility of disentangling the complex system of genotype-environment interaction that determines the development of the individual behavioral phenotype. This paper reviews the concepts, methods and results pertaining to genetic investigation of substance abuse.

  10. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  11. Evidence for production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus from foods.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Taiz Siqueira; de Oliveira, Cybelle Pereira; da Costa, Ana Carolina Vieira; Lima, Catiana Oliveira; Barreto, Humberto Medeiros; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius S28, and evaluates its inhibitory effect against isolates of S. aureus from foods. All indicator isolates were sensitive to the substance produced from S. pseudintermedius S28, showing growth inhibition zones ranging from 14.2 to 28.3 mm. The inhibitory substance has no effect against the producer strain. The inhibitory substance was affected by proteolytic enzymes, while glycolytic and lipolytic enzymes had no effect, suggesting that the active substance could be considered as a bacteriocin-like substance. From these results, S. pseudintermedius S28 could be an interesting producer of a bacteriocin-like substance capable of strongly inhibiting S. aureus.

  12. Kinins produced from bovine colostrum by kallikrein and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Guth, Paul S.

    1959-01-01

    Substances capable of stimulating smooth muscle are produced on the incubation of bovine colostrum with urinary kallikrein or calf saliva. These substances, called urine- and saliva-colostrokinin, have been differentiated from kallidin, substance A and similar smooth muscle activating agents. Saliva-colostrokinin is likely to be formed in the suckling calf. Further, as colostrum became milk, the ability to form colostrokinin diminished. A function for saliva-colostrokinin in the newborn is suggested. PMID:13830444

  13. CASE REPORT OF SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE WITH BUPRENORPHINE AND MEPHENTERMINE

    PubMed Central

    Mendhekar, D.N.; Sharma, Himanshu; Dali, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Here is reported an unusual case of substance dependence with buprenorphine, mephentermine, & promethazine. This combination taken through intramuscular route produced a relatively mild & delayed abstinence syndrome with features viz. increased sleep and appetite in the patients. The neurophysiological basis for use of this rare form of additive (mephentermine) with buprenorphine is speculated. PMID:21455380

  14. Antimicrobial substances from aspen tissue grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    MATHES, M C

    1963-06-01

    Isolated aspen tissue, when grown in vitro for 3 weeks on agar medium, yielded antimicrobial substances which produced inhibitory zones when the culture plates were inoculated with Fusarium roseum, Saccharomyces cervisiae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Penicillium, roqueforti, Torula utilis, Sarcina lutea, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pullularia pullulans, and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:13933593

  15. 31 CFR 20.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 20.610 Section 20.610 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a controlled substance...

  16. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm to an athlete or give one an unfair competitive advantage. Evidence Acquisition: Published websites for the WADA, USADA, and NCAA were investigated. These governing bodies update and publish their lists annually. Results: The WADA, USADA, and NCAA monitor anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. Some substances may be used by athletes but require formal exemption. The WADA has also recently created a category of nonapproved substances that have yet to be identified to curb athletes from experimenting with new doping agents. Conclusion: The lists of banned substances and practices per the WADA, USADA, and NCAA are in place to ensure the integrity of sports and maintain safe competition. Health care providers who work with athletes under the jurisdiction of these organizations should review updated lists of banned substances when prescribing medications. PMID:24427415

  17. Women and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, Dorte; Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  18. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  19. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  20. Medications for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douaihy, Antoine B.; Kelly, Thomas M.; Sullivan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors briefly review the pharmacotherapeutic agents that are currently available for the treatment of substance use disorders. Nicotine replacement therapies are most effective for tobacco cessation. Naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram are effective for reducing alcohol use. The most effective pharmacotherapies for opiate use disorders are agonist therapies, including methadone and buprenorphine. The authors also examine recent advances in medication development for other substance use disorders such as stimulant addiction. The role of medication adherence and behavioral treatments and the integration of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions are also discussed. PMID:23731419

  1. Substance Use Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Chloe R; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E

    2016-10-01

    Emerging adulthood has heightened risk for substance use. College students experience unique challenges, making them prone to use of alcohol, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This article reviews rates of college students' substance use, risk factors, and populations at elevated risk. Consequences include legal, academic, and mental health problems; engagement in other risky behaviors; increased rates of injury; and death. Researchers, clinicians, and university administrators must identify those at greatest risk and provide prevention and intervention programs. Despite broad evidence supporting such programs, many students fail to access appropriate treatment. Future research should elucidate treatment barriers. PMID:27613349

  2. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  3. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  4. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  5. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  6. Pharmacotherapy for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jared Wilson

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients. PMID:27235620

  7. Substance Abuse and Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimian, Michael J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined on-the-job stress in relationship with need to use and frequency of use of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (P) drugs and alcohol (A), across five teacher samples (N=1,788). Results showed high stress frequencies were significantly related to the frequent use of OTC, P, and A substances. (Author/BH)

  8. Substance Use and Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior work indicates that substance use is related to adolescent marriage. We describe two different processes that may account for this relationship and hypothesize patterns of association that would be consistent or inconsistent with each. Using data from a study that followed west coast youth from 7th grade to young adulthood N3,324, we…

  9. Partial purification of a bacterial lectinlike substance from Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Y; Ebisu, S; Okada, H

    1988-01-01

    A bacterial lectinlike substance, which is considered to participate in the adherence of Eikenella corrodens to various host cells, was purified from E. corrodens cells. The substance was extracted in 1% Triton X-100 with sonication from the cell envelope of E. corrodens 1073 and partially purified by galactosamine affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography based on its hemagglutination (HA) activity. The lectinlike substance was purified about 256-fold as evaluated by its specific HA activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the partially purified lectinlike substance (PPL) produced a single protein band of large molecular weight when it was applied to the gel without the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol and heating. Chemical analysis showed that PPL contained 14.4 micrograms of hexose per 100 micrograms of protein and that it did not contain muramic acid, glucosamine, or 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, which are characteristic of peptidoglycans. The HA activity of PPL was inhibited by EDTA but restored by adding Ca2+. The HA activity was remarkably inhibited by sugars containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. These results indicate that the lectinlike substance on the E. corrodens cells is an essential factor for the adherence to host cells. Images PMID:3121509

  10. Longitudinal Associations among Impulsivity, Friend Substance Use, and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is an increasing problem in the United States, and some researchers posit a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and the personality trait of impulsivity (e.g., Quinn, Stappenbeck, & Fromme, 2011). Friend substance use has been shown to be a powerful predictor of adolescent substance use, with prior research suggesting a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and friend substance use (e.g., Simons-Morton & Chen, 2006). Extant literature has not tested the bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity with longitudinal data nor has it examined this relation while considering the bidirectional relation with the social context factor of friend substance use. Using three waves of longitudinal data, we tested if there was a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity while also examining the influences of friend substance use. Participants were 131 adolescents (male = 55%, mean age = 13 years at Wave 1). We tested nested models and examined whether adding equality constraints degraded the model fit using a Wald test. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for baseline levels of substance use, impulsivity predicted adolescent and friend substance use over time, whereas adolescent and friend substance use did not predict impulsivity. Adolescents with substance using friends were likely to increase their own substance use. The findings imply that aiming at both improving adolescents’ ability to regulate impulsivity and deterring associations with friends who are using substances is essential for prevention and intervention efforts against substance use development in adolescents. PMID:26523239

  11. Youth employment and substance use.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  12. Tanning as a substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kathleen C; Fisher, David E

    2014-01-01

    While few people would deny the appeal of a day in the sun there are some who seem to take it too far. In recent years the concept of ‘tanning addiction’ has become popular and several studies have supported the notion of viewing exposure to UV radiation as a form of substance abuse. In this article we will review some of the literature on sun seeking behavior. PMID:26842945

  13. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  14. 34 CFR 84.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 84.610 Section 84.610 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.610 Controlled substance. Controlled substance means a...

  15. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  16. Substance Use among Students Attending a Christian University that Strictly Prohibits the Use of Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Freier, M. Catherine; Babikian, Talin; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines substance use at a church-affiliated university which prohibits the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drug substances. The purpose was to investigate the prevalence of substance use, the prevention efforts put forth by the university, and whether religious beliefs, which prohibit substance use, are protective. While the findings…

  17. Update on Substance Use in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M

    2016-08-01

    With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476

  18. Examination of some fragrance substances for mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Hanna, P J; Briggs, M H

    1984-11-01

    We tested 64 perfumes and aftershaves for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100; most were tested both with and without metabolic activation. None of the test compounds gave a positive mutagenic response. The available amounts of some test samples were very small, however, and the possibility that larger samples might have produced positive results cannot be altogether discounted. Some tests indicated the presence of cytotoxic substances which require chemical analysis.

  19. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  20. Public awareness on cancerous substances.

    PubMed

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-04-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance.

  1. PRESSOR SUBSTANCES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Henry A.; Perry, H. Mitchell; Dennis, Evie G.; Mahoney, Laura E.

    1955-01-01

    Some pharmacological and chemical qualities of pherentasin, a vasoconstrictor substance procured from human hypertensive blood, were studied by a new assay method using the spirally cut rabbit aorta. Of a number of drugs tested, six metal-binding agents including hydralazine inactivated the active principle. The material was stable in acid but not in alkali. It was destroyed by drying. Chemical analysis and inactivation procedures suggested the presence of primary amine and considerable sulfur; a peptide linkage was suspected because of inactivation by manganous ion and papain. The material was remarkably resistant to most pharmacological agents and appeared to act directly on smooth muscle. PMID:13252186

  2. Public Awareness on Cancerous Substances

    PubMed Central

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-01-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance. PMID:24944542

  3. [Reconsideration of nicotine and other substance dependence: a clue from dependence-related mentation including reward, motivation, learning, delusion and hallucination toward understanding the concept of non-substance-related addiction].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hisatsugu

    2013-11-01

    Nicotine produces core symptoms of substance dependence (craving and withdrawal) without any psychotic symptoms. The psychopharmacological structure of craving is hypothesized to be constituted by three components: the primary reinforcing property of a substance, the secondary reinforcing property of that substance (conditioned aspects of the environment, such as contextual or specific cues associated with substance taking), and the negative affective motivational property during withdrawal (i.e. the desire to avoid the dysphoric withdrawal symptoms elicits craving). Among the three components, the primary reinforcing property of a substance forms the most fundamental factor for establishing substance dependence. Sensitization or reverse tolerance observed in locomotor activity of animals, which had been believed to be a methamphetamine psychosis model, is demonstrated to reflect the establishment of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, non-substance-related addiction such as gambling, internet, and sex is discussed. From the aspect of the above hypothetical psychopharmacological structure of craving, the most significant difference between substance dependence and non-substance-related addiction is that the primary reinforcing property of non-substance reward is relatively intangible in comparison with that of a substance of abuse.

  4. Characterization of a broad range antibacterial substance from a new Bacillus species isolated from Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Motta, Amanda S; Cannavan, Fabiana S; Tsai, Siu-Mui; Brandelli, Adriano

    2007-10-01

    A Bacillus sp. strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain has low sequence similarity with most Bacillus spp., suggesting a new species was isolated. The antimicrobial activity was detected starting at the exponential growth phase, and maximum activity was observed at stationary phase. The substance was inhibitory to a broad range of indicator strains, including pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, B. cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Erwinia carotovora, Pasteurella haemolytica, Salmonella Gallinarum, among other. The antibacterial substance was stable over a wide pH range, but it was sensitive to pronase E and lipase. The antibacterial substance was bactericidal and bacteriolytic to L. monocytogenes and B. cereus at 160 AU ml(-1). The identification of a broad range bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection against pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

  5. Effects of humic substances from different sources on growth and nutrient content of cucumber plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando; García, Diego; Cegarra, Juan; Roig, Asunciôn

    Humic substances prepared from different sources of organic materials were tested for their effects on nutrient uptake and growth of cucumber plants. Plants were grown in a modified Hoagland solution (iron as soluble FeCl3), with the addition of 50 mg/l of carbon in the form of humic substances derived from lignite, sphagnum moss or sedge peat. Humic substances produced highly significant increases in the growth of plant tops and roots, in the stem height, in the number of flowers per plant and in the leaf size. The addition of humic substances also resulted in an increase in the contents of N, P. K, Ca, Mg and Fe in the roots and also in the N, P and Fe contents in the shoots. Variation of effects of humic substances derived from different organic materials was not significant.

  6. Debating the Controlled Substances Act.

    PubMed

    Spillane, Joseph F

    2004-10-01

    In the United States, the basis of modern drug regulation is the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970. The CSA laid out the authority of the federal government and provided a framework within which all existing and new substances could be regulated on their abuse potential, safety, and medical utility. The debates over the CSA centered on several critical issues: where to place the authority to make scheduling designations, the impact of scheduling on drug research, and defining what constituted drug "abuse" for purposes of scheduling. Passage of the CSA was aided by broad language that provided a kind of "big tent" which could accommodate diverse points of view. A retrospective assessment of the CSA shows it to have greatly expanded federal administrative authority over the nation's drug supply, much as its authors intended. Other impacts of the CSA, however, are much less certain. This article concludes by highlighting the issues and questions that should guide future retrospective research on the efficacy of drug control regimes. PMID:15380285

  7. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  8. Genetic toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Nicolich, Mark J; Gray, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    There are several specific types of high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS) having final boiling points >343°C), in which genetic toxicity can be related to the content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), specifically crude oils, gas oils, heavy fuel oils, lubricant base oils, waxes and aromatic extracts. Evaluation of optimized Salmonella tests covering over 250 samples from 43 types of HBPS revealed that gene mutation can be determined for these substances using a protocol optimized for the detection of mutagenic PAC. The outcomes of modified Salmonella assays can be predicted using HBPS compositional information as input to a newly developed statistical model. The general outcome of the optimized Salmonella assay can be predicted for an untested substance based on its Aromatic Ring Class (ARC) profile. Review of the results from numerous cytogenetic tests showed that although a few positive study results have been reported, most HBPS do not produce chromosomal effects when tested in rodent bone marrow assays or in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays. Results of both bacterial and cytogenetic studies can be used to satisfy genetic toxicity endpoints for the HBPS category substances. PMID:23685115

  9. Genetic toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Nicolich, Mark J; Gray, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    There are several specific types of high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS) having final boiling points >343°C), in which genetic toxicity can be related to the content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), specifically crude oils, gas oils, heavy fuel oils, lubricant base oils, waxes and aromatic extracts. Evaluation of optimized Salmonella tests covering over 250 samples from 43 types of HBPS revealed that gene mutation can be determined for these substances using a protocol optimized for the detection of mutagenic PAC. The outcomes of modified Salmonella assays can be predicted using HBPS compositional information as input to a newly developed statistical model. The general outcome of the optimized Salmonella assay can be predicted for an untested substance based on its Aromatic Ring Class (ARC) profile. Review of the results from numerous cytogenetic tests showed that although a few positive study results have been reported, most HBPS do not produce chromosomal effects when tested in rodent bone marrow assays or in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays. Results of both bacterial and cytogenetic studies can be used to satisfy genetic toxicity endpoints for the HBPS category substances.

  10. Lichen substances affect metal adsorption in Hypogymnia physodes.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Huneck, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Lichen substances are known to function as chelators of cations. We tested the hypothesis that lichen substances can control the uptake of toxic metals by adsorbing metal ions at cation exchange sites on cell walls. If true, this hypothesis would help to provide a mechanistic explanation for results of a recent study showing increased production of physodalic acid by thalli of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes transplanted to sites with heavy metal pollution. We treated cellulose filters known to mimic the cation exchange abilities of lichen thalli with four lichen substances produced by H. physodes (physodic acid, physodalic acid, protocetraric acid, and atranorin). Treated filters were exposed to solutions containing seven cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+)), and changes to the solution concentrations were measured. Physodalic acid was most effective at influencing metal adsorption, as it increased the adsorption of Fe(3+), but reduced the adsorption of Cu(2+), Mn(2+), and Na(+), and to a lesser extent, that of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Reduced Na(+) adsorption matches with the known tolerance of this species to NaCl. The results may indicate a possible general role of lichen substances in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance. PMID:17136464

  11. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  12. Effects of aeration intensity on formation of phenol-fed aerobic granules and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, J Y

    2007-11-01

    Effect of air aeration intensities on granule formation and extracellular polymeric substances content in three identical sequential batch reactors were investigated. The excitation-emission-matrix spectra and multiple staining and confocal laser scanning microscope revealed proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and humic substances in the sludge and granule samples. Seed sludge flocs were compacted at low aeration rate, with produced extracellular polymeric substances of 50.2-76.7 mg g(-1) of proteins, 50.2-77.3 mg g(-1) carbohydrates and 74 mg g(-1) humic substances. High aeration rate accelerated formation of 1.0-1.5 mm granules with smooth outer surface. The corresponding quantities of extracellular polymeric substances were 309-537 mg g(-1) of proteins, 61-109 mg g(-1) carbohydrates, 49-92 mg g(-1) humic substances, and 49-68 mg g(-1) lipids. Intermediate aeration rate produced 3.0-3.5 mm granules with surface filaments. Reactor failure occurred with overgrowth of filaments, probably owing to the deficiency of nutrient in liquid phase. No correlation was noted between extracellular polymeric substances composition and the proliferation of filamentous microorganisms on granule surface.

  13. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  14. Substance abuse in African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, L K

    2001-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem from which, regardless of sex or race, no one is immune. Each racial and gender group has specific etiological factors relating to the use of illicit drugs. Data regarding substance abuse in African American women has only recently begun to emerge in the literature. Issues such as socio-economic, racism, and sexism, place African American women at particular risk for substance abuse. Limited availability to treatment, a lack of appropriate treatment and poor social supports impact recovery and places these women at risk for relapse. This article provides an overview of the current literature regarding substance abuse, treatment and recovery in African American women.

  15. Psychoactive substances: Position statement on harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph; Manyedi For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Psychoactive substances are subject to several international and national conventions and laws that have emphasised the importance of the 'war on drugs' and supply reduction. At the same time, it is increasingly clear that evidence-based, balanced policies are needed, which address the important differences between alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other psychoactive substances or drugs. The Prevention of and Treatment for Substance Abuse Act 70 of 2008 speaks to the National Drug Master Plan, which emphasises a range of strategies for addressing the excessive use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other psychoactive substances. PMID:27601125

  16. Reserve nutrient substance accumulation in Brassica rapa L. seeds in microgravity conditions (STS-87).

    PubMed

    Popova, A; Kuang, A; McClure, G; Musgrave, M

    2002-07-01

    The results of study of Brassica embryo differentiation and reserve nutrient substance accumulation in the seeds were represented. Near resemblance of the spaceflight and around control embryo development was revealed. Different character of the reserve substance accumulation was noted, despite of the morphologic similarity in seeds produced in spaceflight and on the ground. It allows to consider spaceflight embryos morphologically more younger compared to the ground control.

  17. Unification of force and substance.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-08-28

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as 'dynamical systems'. That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: the physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458259

  18. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  19. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms.

  1. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  2. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y W

    2000-06-13

    A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century.

  4. Substance abuse and developments in harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y W

    2000-01-01

    A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502

  5. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  6. Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependency in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Schmidt, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…

  7. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  8. Directions in Substance Abuse Counseling, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam W., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…

  9. Academic Perspectives in Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Academic perspectives are reviewed for consultation in substance abuse within four general issues: consultation paradigms, research consultation and psychology, sources for consultation, and academic issues. The mental health/crisis intervention model is the most common consultation paradigm. Most consultation research in the substance abuse area…

  10. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  11. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  12. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  13. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  14. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  15. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  16. 21 CFR 1405.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE... controlled substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  17. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 812) on Reclamation facilities, lands, or waterbodies, unless the...

  18. 43 CFR 423.44 - Controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Controlled substances. 423.44 Section 423.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Substance Act (21 U.S.C. 812) on Reclamation facilities, lands, or waterbodies, unless the...

  19. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  20. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  1. Substance Abuse and Counseling: An Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    This chapter discusses current issues and future perspectives in relation to substance abuse counseling. Current issues include: abstinence versus controlled use; coercive versus voluntary treatment; and career development and counseling with clients with substance abuse problems. Future perspectives include: the impact of managed care; the…

  2. Anxiety and Substance Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and substance use (alcohol use and drug use) during adolescence, systematically by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods : Self-report surveys were administered to 905 15-17 year old adolescents (54% girls) in the spring of 2007. Results Results from multiple group analyses indicated that the relations between anxiety and substance use differs by gender and race/ethnicity. For Caucasian and African American boys, higher levels of social anxiety and separation anxiety were related to less substance use. In contrast, higher levels of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder were associated with more substance use for African American boys. The pattern was much less striking for girls. For Caucasian girls, higher levels of significant school avoidance were linked to more substance use and consistent with the results for boys, higher levels of separation anxiety were associated with less substance use. None of the anxiety disorders were related to substance use for African American girls or Hispanic girls or boys. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the need to distinguish between different anxiety disorders. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering both gender and race/ethnicity when examining the relationship between anxiety and substance use during adolescence. PMID:25148293

  3. Substance abuse in an inpatient psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Brady, K; Casto, S; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R; Arana, G

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between psychoactive drug abuse and psychopathology is complex. There have been few systematic explorations of substance abuse in psychiatric populations since the recent epidemic of cocaine abuse. To update and further explore the relationship between psychiatric illness and substance abuse, 100 consecutively admitted patients to an inpatient psychiatry unit were administered a drug and alcohol use/abuse questionnaire. Sixty-four percent endorsed current or past problems with substance abuse and 29% met DSM-III-R criteria for substance abuse in the 30 days prior to admission. For the major diagnostic categories, there were no significant differences between groups in percentages of patients with substance abuse disorders. There was a trend (p less than or equal to .2) toward an increased number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations in the substance-abusing group. Alcohol was the most common drug of choice followed by stimulants, cannabis, and sedative hypnotics. Differences in drug choices between diagnostic categories are discussed. Forty-three percent of urine drug screens obtained were positive, and of those with positive urine drug screens, 42% denied drug use upon admission. Only 40% of patients with current or past substance abuse problems had received treatment for their chemical dependency. In our sample, while substance abuse was very prevalent, it was underreported and undertreated.

  4. Personality, Problem Solving, and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, William B.; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the role of social problem solving in the relationship between personality and substance use in adolescents. Although a number of studies have identified a relationship between personality and substance use, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We hypothesized that problem-solving…

  5. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  6. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  7. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  8. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  9. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  10. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  11. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  12. Substance Abuse Policies in Ohio Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, William

    Ohio substance abuse policies, discipline codes, and educational drug abuse prevention programs are reviewed. An effective substance abuse policy is an essential element in the school's efforts to deal with drug and alcohol use. In many U.S. schools, the use of alcohol and drugs interferes with the education process, and it appears that substance…

  13. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  14. Toxic Substances in the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Ronald J.

    Modern society is very dependent upon numerous chemical substances. Chemicals have a wide variety of uses, including drugs to prolong our lives and pesticides to control insect and weed pests. Life would be drastically different without the availability of these chemical substances but, while the benefits of chemicals should be appreciated, the…

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF ODOR SUBSTANCES IN YAMABUSHITAKE MUSHROOM (Hericium erinaceum) CULTURE MEDIA CONTAINING 'SHOCHU' LEES AND STARCH WASTES, AND BASIC STUDIES ON THEIR DISAPPEARANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masahito; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Yamada, Masayoshi; Yagi, Fumio; Murayama, Ryou; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    In this study, odor substances from mushroom culture media containing 'shochu' lees and starch wastes were identified and determined. It was apparent that in the media, acetoin, butyric acid and diacetyl were found as main odor substances, and mixed with some other ordor substances to produce unpleasant odor. The main substances disappeared with growth of mycelia. It was not likely that these ordor substances were degraded by extracellular enzymes but suggested that they were degraded by mycelia. Further it was found with the growth of mycelia that odor quality changed from rancid ordor (unpleasant ordor) to mushroom smell (pleasant odor) and the odor index was decreasing.

  16. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  17. Substance Flow Analysis of Mercury in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, L. M.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, Q. R.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, the emission of anthropogenic atmospheric Hg in China as well as single sector have been examined a lot. However, there might have been more Hg released as solid wastes rather than air. Hg stored in solid wastes may be released to air again when the solid wastes experience high temperature process or cause local pollution if the solid wastes are stacked casually for a long time. To trace the fate of Hg in China, this study developed the substance flow of Hg in 2010 covering all the sectors summarized in table 1. Below showed in Figure 1, the total Hg input is 2825t. The unintentional input of Hg, mined Hg, and recycled Hg account for 57%, 32% and 11% respectively. Figure 2 provides the detail information of substance flow of Hg. Byproducts from one sector may be used as raw materials of another, causing cross Hg flow between sectors. The Hg input of cement production is 303 t, of which 34% comes from coal and limestone, 33% comes from non-ferrous smelting, 23% comes from coal combustion, 7% comes from iron and steel production and 3% comes from mercury mining. Hg flowing to recycledHg production is 639 t, mainly from Hg contained in waste active carbon and mercuric chloride catalyst from VCM production and acid sludge from non-ferrous smelting. There are 20 t mercury flowing from spent mercury adding products to incineration. Figure1 and Figure 2 also show that 46% of the output Hg belongs to "Lagged release", which means this part of mercury might be released later. The "Lagged release" Hg includes 809 t Hg contained in stacked byproducts form coal combustion, non-ferrous smelting, iron and steel production, Al production, cement production and mercury mining, 161t Hg stored in the pipeline of VCM producing, 10 t Hg in fluorescent lamps that are in use and 314 t mercury stored in materials waiting to be handled with in recycled mercury plants. There is 112 t Hg stored in landfill and 129 t Hg exported abroad with the export of mercury adding

  18. Assessment and Diagnosis of the Substance Use Disorders (SUDs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William N.

    1998-01-01

    A brief history of Substance Use Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is presented, and the symptoms of substance dependence are presented. Substance dependence is distinguished from substance abuse. Assessment instruments, including laboratory tests and interviews for diagnosing substance use disorders, are…

  19. Spirituality, mindfulness and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Janis; Bowen, Sarah; Marlatt, G Alan

    2005-08-01

    A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness-based therapies may be effective in treating a variety of disorders including stress, chronic pain, depression and anxiety. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of mindfulness. Furthermore, mindfulness is often thought to be related to spirituality, given its roots in Buddhist tradition, but empirical studies on this relationship are difficult to find. The present study: (1) tested the reliability and validity of a new mindfulness measure, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), (2) explored the relationship between mindfulness and spirituality, and (3) investigated the relationship between mindfulness and/or spirituality and alcohol and tobacco use in an undergraduate college population (N=196). Results support the reliability of the FMI and suggest that spirituality and mindfulness may be separate constructs. In addition, smoking and frequent binge-drinking were negatively correlated with spirituality scores; as spirituality scores increased the use of alcohol and tobacco decreased. Thus, spirituality may be related to decreased substance use. In contrast, a positive relationship between mindfulness and smoking/frequent binge-drinking behavior was uncovered, and warrants further investigation.

  20. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  1. Endothelial-dependent relaxant actions of carbachol and substance P in arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B; Clapp, L H

    1986-04-01

    In helical strips cut from the small mesenteric artery of guinea-pig (GPSMA) (0.3-0.6 mm o.d.) relaxations induced by substance P were more susceptible to damage of the endothelium by rubbing than were relaxations evoked by carbachol. Relaxations induced by 2-nicotin-amidoethyl nitrate (SG75) were unaffected by this procedure. Relaxations evoked by the calcium ionophore A23187 persisted when those to substance P had been abolished by rubbing the endothelium in GPSMA, rabbit mesenteric and rabbit ear arteries. In guinea-pig pulmonary artery and aorta relaxations to A23187 were lost after this treatment. Carbachol and SG75 were more effective in inhibiting phasic than tonic tension induced by noradrenaline in GPSMA, but substance P was more effective against tonic tension. In the GPSMA, carbachol and substance P inhibited tension produced by noradrenaline to similar extents. However, carbachol was less, and substance P much less effective in inhibiting tension evoked by high-potassium solution than by noradrenaline. Susceptibility of relaxations to blockade by haemoglobin in GPSMA was: substance P greater than carbachol greater than ATP greater than SG75. The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells in the media of the GPSMA was recorded by microelectrode. Carbachol, but not substance P, hyperpolarized the cells both in the presence and absence of noradrenaline at concentrations which relaxed the muscle. These results suggest a heterogeneity in the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent relaxations induced by various vascular relaxants. PMID:2423170

  2. Novel psychoactive substances (designer drugs): overview and pharmacology of modulators of monoamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances are newly used designer drugs ("internet drugs", "research chemicals", "legal highs") potentially posing similar health risks to classic illicit substances. Chemically, many novel psychoactive substances can be classified as phenethylamines, amphetamines, synthetic cathinones, piperazines, pipradrols/piperidines, aminoindanes benzofurans, and tryptamines. Pharmacologically, these substances interact with various monoaminergic targets. Typically, stimulants inhibit the transport of dopamine and noradrenaline (pipradrols, pyrovalerone cathinones) or induce the release of these monoamines (amphetamines and methamphetamine-like cathinones), entactogens predominantly enhance serotonin release (phenylpiperazines, aminoindanes, para-substituted amphetamines, and MDMA-like cathinones) similar to MDMA (ecstasy), and hallucinogens (tryptamines, hallucinogenic phenethylamines) are direct agonists at serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors. Synthetic cannabinoids are another group of novel substances which all act as agonists at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor similar to THC but are chemically diverse. In particular, the relative serotonergic vs dopaminergic activity (determined by the dopamine/serotonin transporter inhibition ratio in vitro) can be helpful to predict the desired psychotropic but also the toxic effects of novel substances as well as their potential for addiction. Although the use of novel psychoactive substances mostly produces minor or moderate poisonings, serious complications occur. Serotonergic drugs (entactogens and hallucinogens) are associated with acute serotonin syndrome, hyperthermia, seizures, and hyponatremia. Dopaminergic drugs are highly addictive and acute toxicity includes prolonged stimulation, insomnia, agitation, and psychosis. Agitation, anxiety, paranoia, hypertension, and rarely myocardial infarction and renal failure are seen with synthetic cannabinoids. Treatment is supportive. PMID:25588018

  3. Novel psychoactive substances (designer drugs): overview and pharmacology of modulators of monoamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances are newly used designer drugs ("internet drugs", "research chemicals", "legal highs") potentially posing similar health risks to classic illicit substances. Chemically, many novel psychoactive substances can be classified as phenethylamines, amphetamines, synthetic cathinones, piperazines, pipradrols/piperidines, aminoindanes benzofurans, and tryptamines. Pharmacologically, these substances interact with various monoaminergic targets. Typically, stimulants inhibit the transport of dopamine and noradrenaline (pipradrols, pyrovalerone cathinones) or induce the release of these monoamines (amphetamines and methamphetamine-like cathinones), entactogens predominantly enhance serotonin release (phenylpiperazines, aminoindanes, para-substituted amphetamines, and MDMA-like cathinones) similar to MDMA (ecstasy), and hallucinogens (tryptamines, hallucinogenic phenethylamines) are direct agonists at serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors. Synthetic cannabinoids are another group of novel substances which all act as agonists at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor similar to THC but are chemically diverse. In particular, the relative serotonergic vs dopaminergic activity (determined by the dopamine/serotonin transporter inhibition ratio in vitro) can be helpful to predict the desired psychotropic but also the toxic effects of novel substances as well as their potential for addiction. Although the use of novel psychoactive substances mostly produces minor or moderate poisonings, serious complications occur. Serotonergic drugs (entactogens and hallucinogens) are associated with acute serotonin syndrome, hyperthermia, seizures, and hyponatremia. Dopaminergic drugs are highly addictive and acute toxicity includes prolonged stimulation, insomnia, agitation, and psychosis. Agitation, anxiety, paranoia, hypertension, and rarely myocardial infarction and renal failure are seen with synthetic cannabinoids. Treatment is supportive.

  4. A Tool for Assessing a Community’s Capacity for Substance Abuse Care

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, Rob; Stroup, Donna F.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; High, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for prevention and intervention in substance abuse are increasing. Community needs assessments and health rankings provide descriptions of local behavioral health needs but do not provide public health practitioners and policy makers with guidelines on the number of programs, health care practitioners, or interventions needed in the local substance abuse care system. This article presents a new framework for measuring and assessing the substance abuse care system in a community. The assessment can inform resource allocation across the continuum of care to more equitably and efficiently distribute interventions and care. We conducted 2 literature reviews and synthesized our findings to create a community assessment methodology and needs calculator, CAST (calculating for an adequate system tool). We reviewed 212 articles to produce an inventory of community and social correlates of behavioral health, components of a substance abuse care system, and numerical values for guidelines for estimating community needs. CAST produces community-specific assessments of the capacity of the components of a community substance abuse care system. CAST generates recommendations by the application of social and community determinants of health as risk coefficients to each estimate of component need. CAST can assist public health practitioners in evaluation and improvement of the capacity of community-based, substance abuse care systems. By using recommendations for component needs across the continuum of care, community leaders can use CAST to prioritize resource allocation more effectively and efficiently. PMID:27657505

  5. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  6. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  7. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.

    1998-06-01

    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  8. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  9. Verruculogen: a new substance for decreasing of GABA levels in CNS.

    PubMed

    Hotujac, L; Muftić, R H; Filipović, N

    1976-01-01

    In our previous work we examined the mechanism of action of the new tremorogenic substance verruculogen isolated by Cole and coworkers. Examining the effect of various substances with known mechanisms of action on verruculogen-induced tremor, we concluded that this tremor was probably related to decrease of GABA levels in CNS. In order to further define the mechanisms of action of verruculogen, we determined brain GABA levels in animals in which tremor was produced by verruculogen administration. Verruculogen administration produced a decrease in GABA levels in mouse CNS. This finding substantiates our earlier suggestion that verruculogen-induced tremor is mediated by a loss of inhibitory GABA function. PMID:935244

  10. Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hearon, Bridget A; Otto, Michael W

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders has shown efficacy as a monotherapy and as part of combination treatment strategies. This article provides a review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT, clinical elements of its application, novel treatment strategies for improving treatment response, and dissemination efforts. Although CBT for substance abuse is characterized by heterogeneous treatment elements such as operant learning strategies, cognitive and motivational elements, and skills-building interventions, across protocols several core elements emerge that focus on overcoming the powerfully reinforcing effects of psychoactive substances. These elements, and support for their efficacy, are discussed.

  12. Substance abuse attitude changes in medical students.

    PubMed

    Chappel, J N; Jordan, R D; Treadway, B J; Miller, P R

    1977-04-01

    The authors describe a course in substance abuse given to sophomore medical students with the intention of positively influencing their attitudes toward substance-abusing patients and their treatment. Clinical problem solving and small group discussion were emphasized in addition to field trips. By pretest and posttest measures, significant positive changes were obtained in student attitudes: they reported feeling less upset when they encountered alcoholics, "hard" drug abusers, "soft" drug abusers, compulsive smokers, and obese overeaters as well as having a more positive view of the physician's role in the treatment of substance dependence. Personal experience with alcohol and other drugs was shown to have an influence on attitude changes.

  13. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    PubMed

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded. PMID:16433227

  14. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... nationwide. Through the Affordable Care Act, we expanded substance use disorder and mental health benefits... from drug and alcohol abuse. I encourage parents, schools, health officials, law enforcement... limited by substance use, which threatens health, safety, and academic performance. Substance...

  15. Workplace Health and Safety: Hazardous Substances in the Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Noel; Walsh, Wendy; Beiers, Robin

    1997-01-01

    Lists requirements of hazardous-substances legislation as it pertains to science laboratories with a summary of obligations under the Hazardous Substances Compliance Standard for manufacturers, importers, suppliers of hazardous substances, employers or principals, and employees. (AIM)

  16. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    PubMed

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  17. Evidence for a Genetic Component for Substance Dependence in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although tribes differ with regard to the use of alcohol and drugs, substance dependence is one of the most important sources of health problems facing Native Americans. Although substance dependence has shown a substantially heritable component (~50% of the risk resulting from genetic influences), in the general population, fewer studies have investigated the role of genetics in the risk for substance dependence in Native Americans. Methods A literature review of the evidence for a genetic component in the etiology of substance dependence in Native Americans is presented including studies on heritability, linkage analyses, and candidate genes. Results Evidence for the heritability of alcohol and drug dependence was found. Linkage analyses revealed that genes influencing risk for substance dependence and related phenotypes, such as body mass index, drug tolerance, EEG patterns and externalizing traits, reside on several chromosome regions identified in other population samples. Overlap in the gene locations for substance dependence and body mass index suggest a common genetic substrate may exist for disorders of consumption. Studies of the genes that code for alcohol metabolizing enzymes have not revealed any risk variants specific to Native American populations, although most Native Americans lack protective variants seen in other populations. Other candidate genes associated with substance dependence phenotypes in Native Americans include: OPRM1, CRN1, COMT, GABRA2, MAOA, and HTR3-B. Conclusions Substance dependence has a substantial genetic component in Native Americans, similar in magnitude to that reported for other populations. The high rates of substance dependence seen in some tribes is likely a combination of a lack of genetic protective factors (metabolizing enzyme variants) combined with genetically mediated risk factors (externalizing traits, consumption drive, drug sensitivity/tolerance) that combine with key environmental factors (trauma

  18. 76 FR 35243 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (2010) I Amphetamine... controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The...

  19. Substance use by soldiers who abuse their spouses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle

    2010-11-01

    Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions.

  20. 76 FR 35242 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ..., Penick Corporation, 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to... company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance...

  1. 75 FR 36683 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ..., Penick Corporation, 33 Industrial Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to the... company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances as bulk controlled substance...

  2. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning.

  3. Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drug Abuse Drugs and Young People Recent Health ...

  4. Decriminalizing Possession of All Controlled Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzman, Marc G.

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from the Minnesota Bar Association's Blue Ribbon Committee report of findings and recommendations, with regard to dealing with possession of heroin and other controlled substances, are presented here. (Author/DS)

  5. Substance use in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  6. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... important information about Ethylbenzene. Most Viewed Toxic Substances Aluminum Ammonia Arsenic Asbestos Benzene Cadmium Chromium DDT, DDE, ... Sunday, November 6, 2016, remember to check the batteries in your CO detector. Learn more tips to ...

  8. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  9. Substance Use in the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these, contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health, and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  10. Novel psychoactive substances: a novel clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher Daniel; Williams, Margaret; Shaikh, Maliha

    2013-01-01

    The recreational use of novel psychoactive substances in the UK has increased markedly within the last decade. The variety of new substances synthesised and sold as ‘legal’, often under the pretence of being ‘plant food’ or ‘bath salts’ is similarly increasing. This presents challenges to clinicians: they may be unaware of these substances or unable to identify them and their potential for complications and drug interactions. This case describes a patient who ingested a novel psychoactive substance and presented with severe agitation following a delay of several days. He experienced renal, hepatic and neurological complications requiring critical care input. Our case adds to the current repertoire of knowledge regarding the effects of ingestion of novel cathinones. PMID:23964049

  11. The Confusion of Molecular Particles with Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selley, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    Objects to the idea of treating molecular particles, such as molecules and atoms, as equal in kind to substances when discussing chemical reactions, thus confusing their different roles in the theory of matter. (GA)

  12. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... societal benefits of prevention, treatment, and recovery for mental and substance use disorders. Popular Programs, Campaigns, & Initiatives National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) Too Smart To ...

  13. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    PubMed

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  14. Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A useful procedure has been developed which utilizes adsorption chromatography followed by size-exclusion chromatography, hydrogen saturation by ion exchange, and lypholization to obtain low-ash aqueous humic substances. The preparative concentration of aquatic humic substances is done by multiple reconcentration procedures even though initial concentrations of aqueous humus may be less than 25 ??g/L. The procedure yields concentration factors of 25 000 times for both humic and fulvic acid in water.

  15. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. PubChem Substance and Compound databases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  17. PubChem Substance and Compound databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A.; Bolton, Evan E.; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  18. Does salmon brain produce insulin?

    PubMed

    Plisetskaya, E M; Bondareva, V M; Duan, C; Duguay, S J

    1993-07-01

    To address the question whether fish brain can produce insulin, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbusha) brains were extracted and processed according to the procedure developed for purification of pancreatic insulin (Rusakov and Bondareva, 1979). Biological and immunological activity of the resulting material was evaluated respectively by a cartilage sulfation assay and by radioimmunoassay homologous for salmon insulin. Preparations from salmon brain stimulated the [35S]sulfate uptake into salmon branchial cartilage with a potency comparable to pure mammalian or salmon insulins but lower than that of mammalian insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). In contrast, only trace amounts of radioimmunoreactive insulin could be detected by homologous radioimmunoassay. To determine whether insulin mRNA was present in salmon brain, primers specific for salmon proinsulin and salmon prepro-IGF-I were designed to amplify corresponding cDNA regions by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Insulin mRNA was found only in the endocrine pancreas (Brockmann body) while IGF-I mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, and the Brockmann body. Our results suggest that in fish pancreatic-type insulin is most likely produced only in the endocrine pancreas and then transported to the brain through blood/cerebrospinal fluid system. However, it does not exclude a possibility that some yet unknown insulin-like substances may be expressed in the neural system of ectotherm vertebrates.

  19. Candidate substances for space bioprocessing methodology and data specification for benefit evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Analytical and quantitative economic techniques are applied to the evaluation of the economic benefits of a wide range of substances for space bioprocessing. On the basis of expected clinical applications, as well as the size of the patient that could be affected by the clinical applications, eight substances are recommended for further benefit evaluation. Results show that a transitional probability methodology can be used to model at least one clinical application for each of these substances. In each recommended case, the disease and its therapy are sufficiently well understood and documented, and the statistical data is available to operate the model and produce estimates of the impact of new therapy systems on the cost of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. Utilizing the morbidity and mortality information produced by the model, a standard economic technique called the Value of Human Capital is used to estimate the social welfare benefits that could be attributable to the new therapy systems.

  20. The Relationship Between Controlled Substances and Violence.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Choksy, Seema; Wintemute, Garen J

    2016-01-01

    A causal relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence has been widely assumed in the United States, and federal law prohibits individuals who are "unlawful users of or addicted to any controlled substance" from purchasing or possessing firearms (68 FR 3750. 2003. Codified at 27 CFR §478.11). However, the law does a poor job of defining "unlawful users," resulting in recent calls for a revised, actionable definition. Such a definition should be informed by research evidence, but to date the epidemiologic research on the relationship between controlled substances and violence has not been comprehensively reviewed. The initial goal of this review was to summarize the best available evidence on the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence, but only 1 study specific to firearm violence was identified. We therefore reviewed studies of this relationship using broader measures of interpersonal violence and suicide, all of which included but were not limited to firearm violence, and measures of illicit firearm carrying. Prospective longitudinal studies (n = 22) from 1990 to 2014 were identified by using searches of online databases and citation tracking. Information was extracted from each study by using a standardized protocol. Quality of evidence was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Aggregate measures of controlled substance use were associated with increased interpersonal violence and suicide, but evidence regarding the relationship between specific substances and violence was mixed. Involvement in illegal drug sales was consistently associated with interpersonal violence. To effectively revise extant federal law and delineate appropriate prohibiting criteria, more research is needed to understand the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence.

  1. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H.; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although

  2. Insulin-like substance and insulin-degrading complex of hemolysate of human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Matulyavichyus, V.A.; Vareikis, E.I.; Lashas, L.V.

    1986-08-20

    A lysate of human erythrocytes was fractionated on gel-filtration resins of different types and immunoreactive insulin, the insulinase activity and the effect of individual fractions on the insulinase activity was determined in the fractions obtained. It was established that the hemolysate contains a complex of insulin-metabolizing compounds, including an insulin-like substance, insulinase, and an inhibitor and activator of the insulinase activity. The insulin-like substance coincided with native insulin in site of elution from a column of Sephadex G-50 and its concentration in the lysate exceeded that of insulin in the blood plasma. Insulinase, which has a molecular weight of about 100,000, cleaved (/sup 125/I) insulin to fragments soluble in trichloroacetic acid, but had no effect on hypophyseal proteins and glycoprotein hormones. The insulinase activity was inhibited by low temperatures, atropine, and a newly discovered intraerythrocytic proteinase inhibitor, which also inhibits the serine proteinases trypsin and chymotrypsin. A substance eluted from a column of Sephadex G-100 in the region of low-molecular-weight substances increased the insulinase activity. The elution curve of substances with proteinase-inhibiting and insulinase-activating activities indicates that there is more than one inhibitory and activating factor. The results of the studies suggest that the insulin-degrading complex in human erythrocytes acts as a regulator of the insulin level in the blood plasma. It is also possible that the insulin-like substance is produced in the cytosol of the erythrocytes.

  3. The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, James D; Milne, Teresa; Fang, Mei Lan; Amari, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has empirically evaluated interventions designed to reduce stigma related to substance use disorders. Methods A comprehensive review of electronic databases was conducted to identify evaluations of substance use disorder related stigma interventions. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed using systematic review methods. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was moderately strong. Interventions of three studies (23%) focused on people with substance use disorders (self-stigma), three studies (23%) targeted the general public (social stigma) and seven studies (54%) focused on medical students and other professional groups (structural stigma). Nine interventions (69%) used approaches that included education and/or direct contact with people who have substance use disorders. All but one study indicated their interventions produced positive effects on at least one stigma outcome measure. None of the interventions have been evaluated across different settings or populations. Conclusions A range of interventions demonstrate promise for achieving meaningful improvements in stigma related to substance use disorders. The limited evidence indicates that self-stigma can be reduced through therapeutic interventions such as group-based acceptance and commitment therapy. Effective strategies for addressing social stigma include motivational interviewing and communicating positive stories of people with substance use disorders. For changing stigma at a structural level, contact-based training and education programs targeting medical students and professionals (e.g. police, counsellors) are effective. PMID:21815959

  4. Development of a test system for screening toxic substances: a comparison using organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a test system for screening toxic substances by predicting their aquatic ecosystem effects. The system studied was a static, one liter microcosm with a diverse species assemblage. The microcosm was composed of biotic inoculum, chemically defined medium and sediment. The biotic inoculum contained primary producers, grazers, carnivores and decomposers. Three different types of sediment were studied: sand, clay, and clay plus sand. Four organic chemicals: phenol, triethylene glycol (TEG), quinoline and naphthoquinone were evaluated with this test system. The toxicities of TEG, quinoline and naphthoquinone were compared for each sediment type. Toxicity was evaluated in terms of the chemical's effects on primary productivity and heterotrophic activity though other effects are also noted. Naphthoquinone concentration exhibited no correlation between ecosystem property values and therefore, could not be ranked. Phenol exhibited the greatest toxicity to net production immediately after the toxicant addition. Quinoline was most toxic to net production over the longer time scale. TEG exhibited the least toxicity to net production, however, TEG exhibited higher toxicity to heterotrophic activity than either quinoline or phenol. Although the type of sediment used in the microcosms did not change the relative toxicities of the chemicals, the microcosms with clay sediment always were observed to exhibit lower net production and higher variability.

  5. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...—nonsynthetic (Carnauba wax; and Wood resin). Yeast—When used as food or a fermentation agent in products labeled as “organic,” yeast must be organic if its end use is for human consumption; nonorganic yeast may... (Alginic; Citric—produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances; and Lactic)....

  6. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Alginic; Citric—produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances; and Lactic). Agar-agar... wax; and Wood resin). Yeast—nonsynthetic, growth on petrochemical substrate and sulfite waste liquor... agricultural products labeled “organic”. Nutrient vitamins and minerals, in accordance with 21 CFR...

  7. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Alginic; Citric—produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances; and Lactic). Agar-agar... from grape wine. Waxes—nonsynthetic (Carnauba wax; and Wood resin). Yeast—nonsynthetic, growth on... agricultural products labeled “organic”. Nutrient vitamins and minerals, in accordance with 21 CFR...

  8. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...—nonsynthetic (Carnauba wax; and Wood resin). Yeast—When used as food or a fermentation agent in products labeled as “organic,” yeast must be organic if its end use is for human consumption; nonorganic yeast may... (Alginic; Citric—produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances; and Lactic)....

  9. 7 CFR 205.605 - Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Alginic; Citric—produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances; and Lactic). Agar-agar... from grape wine. Waxes—nonsynthetic (Carnauba wax; and Wood resin). Yeast—nonsynthetic, growth on... agricultural products labeled “organic”. Nutrient vitamins and minerals, in accordance with 21 CFR...

  10. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may produce class II controlled substances not previously... production allowances, or for exemptions permitted in § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... instrumentality of the U.S., or a non-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b...

  11. 40 CFR 82.16 - Phaseout schedule of class II controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (d) Effective January 1, 2015, no person may produce class II controlled substances not previously... production allowances, or for exemptions permitted in § 82.15(f). Effective January 1, 2015, no person may... instrumentality of the U.S., or a non-governmental space vehicle entity, may petition EPA for HCFC-141b...

  12. Adolescent substance use disorders in the school setting.

    PubMed

    Yule, Amy M; Prince, Jefferson B

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a major public health problem that concerns parents, schools, clinicians, and policy makers. The authors review school-based prevention programs, school drug policies, clinical signs and symptoms of substance impairment, recommendations for referral and engaging adolescents who are using substances, and treatment interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  13. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  14. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  15. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements § 766.25 Chemical substances for testing. (a) Listing of chemical substances. Chemical...

  16. 16 CFR 1500.127 - Substances with multiple hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substances with multiple hazards. 1500.127 Section 1500.127 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.127 Substances with multiple hazards. (a)...

  17. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  18. 78 FR 664 - Establishment of Drug Codes for 26 Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... increase by 11 substances, and the existing subsection entitled ``temporary listing of substances subject... Prevention and Control Act of 1970, often referred to as the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled... 1321. Under the CSA, controlled substances are classified in one of five schedules based upon......

  19. Families Affected by Parental Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vincent C; Wilson, Celeste R

    2016-08-01

    Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child's risk in the context of a parent's substance use. The purposes of this clinical report are to review some of the short-term effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy and long-term implications of fetal exposure; describe typical medical, psychiatric, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents in families affected by substance use; and suggest proficiencies for pediatricians involved in the care of children and adolescents of families affected by substance use, including screening families, mandated reporting requirements, and directing families to community, regional, and state resources that can address needs and problems. PMID:27432847

  20. Client perceptions of incest and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Janikowski, T P; Bordieri, J E; Glover, N M

    1997-01-01

    Clients receiving substance abuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never married (45.2%), were currently unemployed (69.4%), and had completed an average of 11.7 years of education. Of the entire sample, 266 (36.3%) reported having been victims of incest; 151 were males and 113 were females (2 did not indicate gender). The group reporting incest histories had a significantly greater percentage of females that did the group not reporting incest histories (chi 2 = 48.1, p < .001). Participants with incest histories were asked about their perceptions regarding incest, substance abuse, and counseling. Item responses were examined using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The factor analysis on SAIS-R perception items identified five factors that accounted for 68.9% of the variance; these factors were Stigma and Resistance to Counseling; Substance Abuse and Incest; Ambivalence; Fear and Anticipation; and Receptivity to Counseling. Results are presented and the implications for substance abuse treatment and counseling are discussed.

  1. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  2. Effects of Substance Use Education Programs: Gender Differences in Student Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, John Paul; Conroy, Matthew; Landis, Pamela; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assesses the differential substance use between male and female college students through the administration of a survey of recent use of six commonly used psychoactive substances (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and caffeine). It investigates the situational contexts associated with use of particular substances…

  3. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  4. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  5. Relationships between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Attaiaa, Lalla-Asma; Beck, Francois; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie

    2016-06-01

    The Gateway theory (GT) proposes that tobacco or alcohol use lead to cannabis use, which can itself be followed by other illicit drugs (OID) onset. Aim of this study was to evaluate if the order of initiation sequence could influence further substance use. Data from a 2010 population-based survey were used (22,774 subjects aged 15-64). Using reported ages at initiations, 7 sequences were identified: initiation of tobacco only (T), cannabis or OID only, tobacco followed by cannabis (T-C), cannabis followed by tobacco (C-T), alternative 2-substance sequences, gateway sequence (T-C-OID) and 3-substance alternative sequences. Logistics regressions were performed to study the impact of sequence on further use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and OID), and substance use disorders (SUD) (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis). The most observed sequences were T (45.5%), T-C (20.5%), C-T (5.1%) and T-C-OID (3.5%). Further use and SUD likelihoods, whatever the substance considered, increased with the number of substances previously initiated. However, for a same number of substances initiated, current use and SUD likelihoods did not significantly vary according to sequence. Polysubstance initiation appears as a better predictor of further use and SUD than the initiation sequence, questioning the GT and being more in line with a common liability to substance use. PMID:26826476

  6. Factors to be considered in the isolation and characterization of aquatic humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcolm, Ronald L.

    A detailed procedure using XAD-8 resin is presented for the isolation of dissolved fulvic acids and humic acids from water. The procedure entails pressure filtration to remove suspended sediment, sorption of humic substances onto XAD-8 resin at pH 2, desorption of humic substances in base, fulvic/humic separation at pH 1, desalting on XAD-8 resin, hydrogen saturation on cation exchange resin, and freeze-drying. Careful attention must be given to thorough resin cleaning and many procedural details in order to obtain relatively ash-free humic isolates. The equipment required for the procedure is expensive and the method is time consuming, but no other isolation method is known to produce quantitative and unaltered humic isolates from water. The procedure can be used to isolate small quantities (less than 100 mg) of humic substances from water, or it can be scaled to produce large quantities (100 g or more) of humic substances from water. Humic substances may be characterized by several methods. The more useful traditional characterization methods include elemental analysis, ash content, functional group analysis by titration and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight analysis. The new characterization methods of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, pyrolysis/mass spectroscopy, amino acid analysis, saccharide analysis, and carbon isotopic analysis (14C and 13C content) are usually more definitive than traditional characterizations.

  7. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: Impact of specific substances

    PubMed Central

    D’Amore, Meredith M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Kressin, Nancy R.; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W.; Saitz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns. PMID:21474269

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  13. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  14. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length. PMID:8908712

  15. Defining engagement in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Pullmann, Michael D; Ague, Starcia; Johnson, Tamara; Lane, Stephanie; Beaver, Kevon; Jetton, Elizabeth; Rund, Evangejalynn

    2013-12-01

    Youth engagement in substance use treatment is an important construct for research and practice, but it has been thinly and inconsistently defined in the literature. Most research has measured engagement by initiation, attendance, and retention in treatment. Because youth generally enter substance use treatment as a result of compliance with external requirements, defining engagement in this way might be insufficient. This qualitative participatory research study describes five focus groups with 31 adults working with youth in substance use treatment. Focus groups were designed and conducted by youth researchers in collaboration with university-based partners. We categorized participants' descriptions of engagement into five domains, identified as "CARES": Conduct, Attitudes, Relationships, Empowerment, and Social Context. These domains represent a comprehensive and ecologically-based definition of engagement that situates engagement in the context and trajectory of youth development, has clear implications for assertive clinical practice, and provides a foundation for developing an operationalized measure. PMID:24046184

  16. Future pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Substance use disorders represent a serious public health and social issue worldwide. Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the addictive processes have led to the development of a growing number of pharmacological agents to treat addictions. Despite this progress, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for cocaine, methamphetamine and cannabis addiction. Moving treatment development to the next stage will require novel ways of approaching substance use disorders. One such novel approach is to target individual vulnerabilities, such as cognitive function, sex differences and psychiatric comorbidities. This review provides a summary of promising pharmacotherapies for alcohol, opiate, stimulant and nicotine addictions. Many medications that target positive and negative reinforcement of drugs, as well as individual vulnerabilities to addiction, are in different phases of development. Clinical trials testing the efficacy of these medications for substance use disorder are warranted. PMID:23039267

  17. Future pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2014-02-01

    Substance use disorders represent a serious public health and social issue worldwide. Recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the addictive processes have led to the development of a growing number of pharmacological agents to treat addictions. Despite this progress, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for cocaine, methamphetamine and cannabis addiction. Moving treatment development to the next stage will require novel ways of approaching substance use disorders. One such novel approach is to target individual vulnerabilities, such as cognitive function, sex differences and psychiatric comorbidities. This review provides a summary of promising pharmacotherapies for alcohol, opiate, stimulant and nicotine addictions. Many medications that target positive and negative reinforcement of drugs, as well as individual vulnerabilities to addiction, are in different phases of development. Clinical trials testing the efficacy of these medications for substance use disorder are warranted.

  18. Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Duccio Papanti, G; Corkery, John M

    2015-01-01

    Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings. This paper aims at providing psychiatrists with updated knowledge of the clinical pharmacology and psychopathological consequences of the use of these substances. Indeed, these drugs act on a range of neurotransmitter pathways/receptors whose imbalance has been associated with psychopathological conditions, including dopamine, cannabinoid CB1, GABA-A/B, 5-HT2A, glutamate, and k opioid receptors. An overall approach in terms of clinical management is briefly discussed. PMID:25655145

  19. Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substances.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1972-04-01

    The optical constants in the ir from lambda2.5 microm to 40 microm (4000-250 cm(-1)) of dry natural aerosol substances and of sea salt are presented. The aerosol substances were obtained from rain and snow water: dust and soot by sedimentation, and water soluble salts by evaporation. The spectra of the absorption index n' were derived from our published transmittance measurements of potassium bromide disks. The real part n of the refractive index was calculated from the specular reflectance at near normal incidence of disks of pure aerosol substance. The observed spectral features are being related to chemical constituents, notably sulfates and alcohol soluble organics. Optical constants of composite and wet aerosol are discussed. A simple model confirms the measured transmission of a coarse dry powder of water solubles and shows that the extinction by natural aerosol should have a minimum near 8 microm and a strong maximum near 9 microm.

  20. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    PubMed

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  1. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347

  2. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Tharp, Andra T.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Methods Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens’ peers reported more physical dating violence. Conclusions Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use–related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents’ aggression propensity. PMID:26296445

  3. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    PubMed

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

  5. [Problems related to regulation of toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Kurliandskiĭ, B A

    1989-01-01

    Intensification of chemical load on humans and nature requires a complex approach to regulation of hazardous substances. Extensive setting-up of sanitary standards has no significant positive effect on natural and technological environment. Due to more thorough approaches to research it is necessary to establish MACs for major pollutants. It is advisable to regulate substances having no actual risk of intoxication. Regulation activities need the development of the All-Union Data Base. Epidemiological studies accompanied by active participation of practising sanitary physicians should be said for MAC development.

  6. Cooccurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Zachary D; Riggs, Paula D

    2016-10-01

    Research shows that the majority of adolescents with substance use disorders also have other cooccurring psychiatric disorders, which has been associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Despite considerable consensus that treatment of cooccurring disorders should be integrated or concurrent, most such youth do not receive it. In addition to systemic and economic barriers, few studies have been conducted that inform evidence-based integrated treatment approaches. This article provides a review of current research from which empirically derived principles of integrated treatment can originate and which have informed the development of at least one evidence-based model of integrated mental health and substance treatment. PMID:27613347

  7. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow. PMID:27613351

  8. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  9. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...

  10. The Role of Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent substance use disorders (SUDs) are a significant public health issue due to the associated morbidity, mortality, and societal cost. While effective for some adolescents, psychosocial interventions generally produce small-to-moderate reductions in substance use. Most youth relapse within 12 months of treatment. One approach to improve outcomes is through adjunctive pharmacotherapy. Medication assisted treatments have been shown to improve adult SUD treatment outcomes, and preliminary studies in adolescents suggest that combining medication with psychosocial interventions may also enhance SUD outcomes for youth. This article presents a comprehensive review and grading of the evidence from studies conducted in adolescents with SUDs. PMID:27613346

  11. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use. PMID:22073023

  12. A marine algicidal Thalassospira and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Lili; Liu, Lin; Wang, Gangyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a marine bacterium active against Karenia mikimotoi from the East China Sea and to characterize its extracellular algicidal substances. Using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-Q-TOF) system, we purified the alga-lysing substance produced by strain ZR-2 and determined its molecular structure. Based on morphology and l6S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, the ZR-2 strain was highly homologous to Thalassospira species. Algicidal activity against K. mikimotoi was detected in the cell-free filtrate but not in bacterial cells. The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was ethanol-soluble and thermostable, with a retention time of 6.3 min and a measured elemental composition of C7H5O2 ([M-H](-) ion at m/z 121.0295). The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was determined to be benzoic acid. Compared with the negative control, both purified ZR-2 bacteria-free filtrate and standard benzoic acid promoted K. mikimotoi cell disruption and induced K. mikimotoi cell content leakage. Our study is the first to report benzoic acid activity against K. mikimotoi as well as production of benzoic acid by a Thalassospira species. PMID:26846742

  13. A marine algicidal Thalassospira and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Karenia mikimotoi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Lili; Liu, Lin; Wang, Gangyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain a marine bacterium active against Karenia mikimotoi from the East China Sea and to characterize its extracellular algicidal substances. Using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS-Q-TOF) system, we purified the alga-lysing substance produced by strain ZR-2 and determined its molecular structure. Based on morphology and l6S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, the ZR-2 strain was highly homologous to Thalassospira species. Algicidal activity against K. mikimotoi was detected in the cell-free filtrate but not in bacterial cells. The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was ethanol-soluble and thermostable, with a retention time of 6.3 min and a measured elemental composition of C7H5O2 ([M-H](-) ion at m/z 121.0295). The alga-lysing substance produced by ZR-2 was determined to be benzoic acid. Compared with the negative control, both purified ZR-2 bacteria-free filtrate and standard benzoic acid promoted K. mikimotoi cell disruption and induced K. mikimotoi cell content leakage. Our study is the first to report benzoic acid activity against K. mikimotoi as well as production of benzoic acid by a Thalassospira species.

  14. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  15. Latent Classes of Substance Use in Adolescent Cannabis Users: Predictors and Subsequent Substance-Related Harm

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Brière, Frédéric N.; Janosz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is highly prevalent in late adolescence, but not all users experience significant negative consequences. Little information is available to identify the substance use patterns and risk factors of users who are at greater risk of experiencing negative consequences. In this prospective study, we aimed to empirically identify latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users and to examine how these classes relate to antecedent psychosocial predictors and subsequent substance-related outcomes. The sample was recruited from 68 high schools in Quebec and consisted of 1618 participants who reported using cannabis in grade 10. We used latent class analysis to empirically identify classes of users based on the age of onset, frequency, and typical quantity of cannabis and other substance use, as well as substance mixing behaviors. We then compared classes in terms of (a) sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors in grades 7–8 and (b) substance-related consequences in grade 11. Four distinct classes were identified: Late-Light Users (28%); Late-Heavy + Polydrug Users (14%); Early-Moderate Users (33%); Early-Heavy + Polydrug Users (26%). Late-Light Users reported the lowest levels of substance use, while Early-Heavy + Polydrug Users reported the highest levels. Intermediate levels of substance use were found in the other two classes. Sex, age, delinquency, peer delinquency, school bonding, parental monitoring, and parental conflict all helped to differentiate classes. Class membership predicted substance-related harm, with greater consequences in early- and late-onset heavy using classes. In light of results, in addition to age and sex, screening and intervention for risky cannabis use among adolescents should focus on school bonding in order to target the most risky late-onset adolescents and on peer delinquency in order to target the most risky early-onset ones. PMID:24570663

  16. Coping with racial discrimination: the role of substance use.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Meg; Stock, Michelle L; Roberts, Megan E; Gibbons, Frederick X; O'Hara, Ross E; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A

    2012-09-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use reported in previous research is moderated by use of substances as a coping mechanism. Studies 1 and 2 were experimental studies of African American adolescents' and young adults' reactions to a discrimination experience. Results revealed that those who endorsed substance use-as-coping reported more willingness to use substances after experiencing discrimination. Study 3 was a prospective study of the relation between perceived discrimination and substance use over an 8-year period in African American adolescents. Results demonstrated that discrimination is associated with increases in substance use, but only among adolescents who endorse substance use-as-coping. Together, these three studies provide evidence that experiencing discrimination has both short- and long-term detrimental effects on African Americans' substance use, but significantly more so for those who adopt a pattern of using substances as a coping mechanism.

  17. 49 CFR 172.323 - Infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Infectious substances. 172.323 Section 172.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  18. Understanding Learning Disabilities and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander

    This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…

  19. The Missing Disciplinary Substance of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Janet E.; Hammer, David; Levin, Daniel M.; Grant, Terrance

    2011-01-01

    We raise concerns about the current state of research and development in formative assessment, specifically to argue that in its concentration on "strategies for the teacher", the literature overlooks the "disciplinary substance" of what teachers and students assess. Our argument requires analysis of specific instances in the literature, and so we…

  20. Substance Abuse: A Guide for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.

    This book is a collection of essays and information representing the experience, perspective, and insight of professionals whose careers have been closely associated with the problem of youthful substance abuse. The first chapter outlines those circumstances that might make it more likely that a young person would experience drug-related…

  1. Ethical Issues in Academic Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Several important ethical issues need to be addressed both by the consultant and the organization in the field of academic substance abuse consultation. Various problems face the university-based academician who consults with agencies and organizations, such as consultant abuse, i.e., when a consultant is hired on the basis of title and academic…

  2. A uterotonic substance from Annona cherimola seeds.

    PubMed

    Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X

    1980-01-01

    Water extract from seeds of Annona cherimola was tested in vitro on uterus strips of nongravid guinea-pigs. The extract resulted in possessing utero-constrictive properties due to the presence of a gluco-steroidal substance isolated from it. PMID:7211746

  3. Substance Use of Creatively Talented Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 22 writers, 27 artists, and 12 musicians compared their substance use (caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, hallucinogens, cocaine, tranquilizers, stimulants, and narcotics) with that of a control group. In general, no significant intergroup differences were found. Older participants used marijuana less than younger participants.…

  4. 2 CFR 182.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15. ... MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.610...

  5. Court decision dropping toxic substance rules stands

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    In a somewhat surprising move, the U.S. Department of Labor has decided not to appeal a court decision essentially dropping regulations established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for about 400 hazardous substances. The decision leaves unregulated or subject to reduced standards substances that range from carbon monoxide to perchloroethylene. The Labor Department had until March 22, 1993, to appeal the court decision. On July 8, 1992, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit overturned OSHA's final Air Contaminants Standard, which was promulgated in 1989. The standard established permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 428 toxic substances. In AFL-CIO vs. OSHA, the Court ruled that OSHA failed to make a separate scientific case for evaluating health risks of each chemical. Because of the decision not to appeal, PELs for more than half of the substances regulated by OSHA now are removed from the books or revert to the voluntary industry standards adopted by OSHA in 1970 and in force prior to the 1989 final rule.

  6. 10 CFR 607.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlled substance. 607.610 Section 607.610 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  7. Publications on Toxic Substances: A Descriptive Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group, Washington, DC.

    Presented are basic facts about toxic substances and a description of selected publications about them which are available from several federal agencies. Instructions on how to order publications from these agencies are provided. The booklet lists publications according to applicability to the home, the workplace, agriculture, the environment, and…

  8. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  9. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... No. 2 of 1973, 38 FR 18380 (July 2, 1973). BNDD recognized that to maintain the closed system of... regulations specifically addressed the issue of the disposal of controlled substances (36 FR 7776, April 24... destruction (60 FR 43732, August 23, 1995). This rule was never finalized. In 2003, DEA readdressed the...

  10. Counseling Latinos with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael P.; Phan, Loan T.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a combination of approaches based on multicultural interventions and sociopolitical themes that provide interventions for working with Latinos with substance abuse problems. The purpose of the article is to view multimodal interventions, multicultural approaches, and humanistic counseling from a genetic perspective. It is…

  11. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  12. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  13. Interagency Intervention with Perinatal Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Michael; Tilton-Durfee, Deanne

    1990-01-01

    The lack of agreement on the nature and extent of the problem of prenatal exposure to substances is discussed. Comprehensive coordination of services is called for. The 14 programs in the Los Angeles County Interagency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) are discussed. (GH)

  14. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  15. Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…

  16. MIGRATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES THROUGH SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factorlally designed column and batch leaching studies were conducted on samples of various Industrial wastes, flue gas desulfurlzatlon sludges, and coal fly ash to determine the effect of leaching solution composition on release of hazardous substances from waste samples, and t...

  17. Substance Abuse and the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Willard E.

    This guide introduces concerns and problems resulting from the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs among American Indian youth and addresses intergenerational substance abuse effects. Alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives is the most visible effect of their cultural disruption and disorganization. Alcoholism among Native Americans…

  18. 45 CFR 630.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.610 Controlled... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  19. 45 CFR 630.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.610 Controlled... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  20. 45 CFR 630.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.610 Controlled... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  1. WHO Melting-Point Reference Substances

    PubMed Central

    Bervenmark, H.; Diding, N. Å.; Öhrner, B.

    1963-01-01

    Batches of 13 highly purified chemicals, intended for use as reference substances in the calibration of apparatus for melting-point determinations, have been subjected to a collaborative assay by 15 laboratories in 13 countries. All the laboratories performed melting-point determinations by the capillary methods described in the proposed text for the second edition of the Pharmacopoea Internationalis and some, in addition, carried out determinations by the microscope hot stage (Kofler) method, using both the “going-through” and the “equilibrium” technique. Statistical analysis of the data obtained by the capillary method showed that the within-laboratory variation was small and that the between-laboratory variation, though constituting the greatest part of the whole variance, was not such as to warrant the exclusion of any laboratory from the evaluation of the results. The average values of the melting-points obtained by the laboratories can therefore be used as constants for the substances in question, which have accordingly been established as WHO Melting-Point Reference Substances and included in the WHO collection of authentic chemical substances. As to the microscope hot stage method, analysis of the results indicated that the values obtained by the “going-through” technique did not differ significantly from those obtained by the capillary method, but the values obtained by the “equilibrium” technique were mostly significantly lower. PMID:20604137

  2. 28 CFR 83.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controlled substance. 83.610 Section 83.610 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  3. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  4. Would Controlled Substance Status Affect Steroid Trafficking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1987-01-01

    Loss of control over the use of anabolic steriods had prompted the federal government to take steps to stem the black market manufacture and distribution of these drugs. However, these steps are likely to stop short of bestowing controlled substance status on steriods. (Author/CB)

  5. 45 CFR 630.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.610 Controlled... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  6. 45 CFR 630.610 - Controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.610 Controlled... Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined by regulation at 21 CFR 1308.11 through 1308.15....

  7. Headache after substance abuse: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kamat, A S; Aliashkevich, A F; Denton, J R; Fitzjohn, T P

    2012-03-01

    An 18-year-old man inhaled a substance containing synthetic cannabinoids and 1 hour later developed a severe global headache. Imaging revealed a perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage. An angiogram suggested that a small superior cerebellar artery aneurysm was the culprit. This report discusses the, as yet undefined, relationship between "herbal highs" and intracranial haemorrhage.

  8. Reducing groundwater pollution by toxic substances: Procedures and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterstone, Marvin

    1987-11-01

    One major source of water-related health problems is the improper disposal of toxic substances in the environment. Toxic materials leaching from unregulated and unlined pits, ponds, lagoons, and landfills have created a widespread environmental nightmare in the United States and many other parts of the world. At present, there are two major and interrelated components of this problem in the United States. The first is the issue of cleaning up abandoned disposal sites that pose actual or potential threats to water supplies. The second aspect of the problem concerns the necessity of siting proper management, treatment, or disposal facilities in the future. Priorities must be set to allow efficient, effective, and equitable allocation of the scarce resources that are available for accomplishing these tasks. This article examines a number of the issues involved in setting these priorities, and presents the results obtained from a study of risk estimation and evaluation in the context of groundwater contamination by toxic substances. The article introduces a new concept of risk estimation, which is shown to produce more accurate and credible risk analyses. Finally, the relationships between risk credibility and public perceptions of procedural fairness and equity are examined as these factors bear on the institutional aspects of implementing policies for site cleanup and/or facility siting.

  9. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  10. On the nature of humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, G. N.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    It is argued that the isolation of low-molecular-weight compounds from humic substances does not prove their supramolecular nature, because small molecules can be sorbed on macromolecules by interacting with them due to noncovalent bonds. The relative mobility of molecular segments in humic substances has been proposed to be used as a criterion for the discrimination between the humic substances of supraand macromolecular nature. The macromolecules are characterized by mobility of their segments, whereas supramolecular systems have stiff structure. This difference between macroand supramolecules results in different behaviors of the matrices (gels) formed from them in the processes of segregation. In the macromolecules, the formations of a new phase appearing at the segregation (microphase separation) are of nano size, at least in one dimension. They are incapable of moving within the matrix and form a well-known, limited set of systems. In the supramolecular matrices, the new-phase formations should have higher mobility and ability to move within the matrix with the formation of particles and zones of not only nano, but also micro sizes, as well as a significantly larger set of systems, including fractal configurations. The experimental electron microscopic study of the humic matrices of soil gels shows that the new-phase formations in the matrix of humic substances have not only nano, but also micro sizes and are capable of moving within the matrix, which confirms the supramolecular nature of humic substances. The proposed method has allowed generalizing the supraand macromolecular approaches, because macromolecules can enter into the composition of supramolecular systems. It is no less important that the behavior of HSs can be perceived as the behavior of stiff impenetrable particles that may compose the structures of different types and sizes.

  11. [Changes in the pattern of substance use after bariatric surgery: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Yamil; Kirsten, Kurt; Ponce de León, Consuelo; Fernández, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Even though the benefits of bariatric surgery are supported by scientific evidence, its indications and contraindications must be revised to avoid its indiscriminate use. Substance use is more common in patients subjected to bariatric surgery than in the general population. After surgery, an increase in alcohol abuse has been reported. We report a 41 years old male, with morbid obesity, alcohol and cocaine use. After bariatric surgery, his alcohol tolerance significantly decreased, increasing the doses of cocaine and starting to consume it without alcohol. His high anxiety level and paranoid delusions, motivated him to seek help in a rehabilitation center where a Substance Dependence Disorder was diagnosed and received initial treatment. The cause of this adverse effect needs further research. Functional and anatomic changes in the digestive tract lead to a greater alcohol absorption and reduced alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Also neurochemical alterations may produce a displacement from compulsive use of food to compulsive use of addictive substances.

  12. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals.

    PubMed

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.

  13. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.

  14. Synthetic humic substances and their use for remediation of contaminated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudare, Diana; Klavins, Maris

    2014-05-01

    Soils are increasingly subjected to different chemical stresses, because of increasing industrialization process and other factors. Different anthropogenic compounds (organic or inorganic in nature) upon entering the soil, may not only influence its productivity potential, but may also affect the quality of groundwater and food chain. Consequently, soils of different environments contain a complex mixture of contaminants, such as oil products, metals, organic solvents, acids, bases and radionuclides. Thereby greater focus should be paid to risk assessment and evaluation of remedial techniques in order to restore the quality of the soil and groundwater. The treatment technologies presently used to remove contaminants are physical, chemical and biological technologies. Many functional groups in the structure of humic substances determine their ability to interact with metal ions forming stable complexes and influencing speciation of metal ions in the environment, as well mobility, behaviour and speciation forms in the environment. Humic substances are suggested for use in the remediation of environments contaminated with metals, owing to complex forming properties. Several efforts have been undertaken with respect to synthesize humic substances for their structural studies. At the same time the real number of methods suggested for synthesis of humic substances is highly limited and their synthesis in general has been used mostly for their structural analysis. The present study deals with development of approaches for synthesis of humic substances with increased complex forming ability in respect to metal ions. Industrially produced humic substances (TEHUM) were used for comparison and after their modification their properties were analyzed for their elemental composition; functional group content changes in spectral characteristics. Synthetic humic substances showed significant differences in the number of functional groups and in ability to interact with the metal

  15. Adolescents’ fMRI Activation to a Response Inhibition Task Predicts Future Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, O.M.; Goldenberg, D.; Thayer, R.; Migliorini, R.; Simmons, A.N.; Tapert, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficient behavioral regulation may be a risk factor for substance use disorders in adolescents. Abnormalities in brain regions critical to cognitive control have been linked to more intense and problematic future substance use (e.g., (Durazzo, Gazdzinski, Mon, & Meyerhoff, 2010; Falk, Berkman, Whalen, & Lieberman, 2011; Paulus, Tapert, & Schuckit, 2005). The goal of this study was to examine the degree to which brain response to an inhibition task measured in mid-adolescence can predict substance use 18 months later. Method Adolescents aged 16–19 (N=80) performed a go/no-go response inhibition task during fMRI at project baseline, and were followed 18 months later with a detailed interview on substance use and dependence symptoms. Participants were 39 high frequency users and 41 demographically similar low frequency users (458 versus 2 average lifetime drug use occasions at baseline, respectively). Results Across all subjects, no-go trials produced significant increases in neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and a region including the left angular and supramarginal gyri (p(FWE)<.01, cluster threshold ≥30 voxels). Less ventromedial prefrontal activation but more left angular gyrus activation predicted higher levels of substance use and dependence symptoms in the following 18 months, particularly for those who were high frequency users in mid-adolescence (p<.05). Conclusions These findings are consistent with studies showing that impairments in cognitive control have strong associations with substance use. We found a predictive relationship between atypical activation patterns at baseline and substance use behavior 18 months later, particularly among adolescents with histories of previous heavy use. PMID:23006248

  16. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    composition of shale formation water, and that some injected organic substances are retained on the shale and slowly released. Thus, appropriate safe disposal of produced water is needed long into production. Changes in organic substances in formation water may impact microbial communities. Current work is focused on UOG production in the Permian Basin, Texas.

  17. Guideline for the out-of-hospital management of human exposures to minimally toxic substances.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    All substances are capable of producing toxicity, so nothing is completely non-toxic. Minimally toxic substances are those which produce little toxicity, minor self-limited toxicity, or clinically insignificant effects at most doses. Examples include silica gel, A&D ointment, chalk, lipstick, and non-camphor lip balms, watercolors, hand dishwashing detergents, non-salicylate antacids (excluding magnesium or sodium bicarbonate containing products), calamine lotion, clay, crayons, diaper rash creams and ointments, fabric softeners/sheets, glow products, glue (white, arts, and crafts type), household plant food, oral contraceptives, pen ink, pencils, starch/sizing, throat lozenges without local anesthetics, topical antibiotics, topical antifungals, topical steroids, topical steroids with antibiotics, and water-based paints. Minimally toxic exposures have the following characteristics: (1) The information specialist has confidence in the accuracy of the history obtained and the ability to communicate effectively with the caller. (2) The information specialist has confidence in the identity of the product(s) or substance(s) and a reasonable estimation of the maximum amount involved in the exposure. (3) The risks of adverse reactions or expected effects are acceptable to both the information specialist and the caller based on available medical literature and clinical experience. (4) The exposure does not require a healthcare referral since the potential effects are benign and self-limited. However, decisions regarding patient disposition should take into account the patient's intent, symptoms, and social environment. In addition, individual patient circumstances (e.g., pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, therapeutic interventions) need to be considered. Minimally toxic exposures may vary in route (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, ocular), chronicity (acute, chronic), and substance composition (single or multi-ingredient, single or multiple product). Future

  18. Guideline for the out-of-hospital management of human exposures to minimally toxic substances.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    All substances are capable of producing toxicity, so nothing is completely non-toxic. Minimally toxic substances are those which produce little toxicity, minor self-limited toxicity, or clinically insignificant effects at most doses. Examples include silica gel, A&D ointment, chalk, lipstick, and non-camphor lip balms, watercolors, hand dishwashing detergents, non-salicylate antacids (excluding magnesium or sodium bicarbonate containing products), calamine lotion, clay, crayons, diaper rash creams and ointments, fabric softeners/sheets, glow products, glue (white, arts, and crafts type), household plant food, oral contraceptives, pen ink, pencils, starch/sizing, throat lozenges without local anesthetics, topical antibiotics, topical antifungals, topical steroids, topical steroids with antibiotics, and water-based paints. Minimally toxic exposures have the following characteristics: (1) The information specialist has confidence in the accuracy of the history obtained and the ability to communicate effectively with the caller. (2) The information specialist has confidence in the identity of the product(s) or substance(s) and a reasonable estimation of the maximum amount involved in the exposure. (3) The risks of adverse reactions or expected effects are acceptable to both the information specialist and the caller based on available medical literature and clinical experience. (4) The exposure does not require a healthcare referral since the potential effects are benign and self-limited. However, decisions regarding patient disposition should take into account the patient's intent, symptoms, and social environment. In addition, individual patient circumstances (e.g., pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, therapeutic interventions) need to be considered. Minimally toxic exposures may vary in route (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, ocular), chronicity (acute, chronic), and substance composition (single or multi-ingredient, single or multiple product). Future

  19. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  20. Competitive Sport Involvement and Substance Use among Adolescents: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Philip Todd; Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Background The empirical research examining the impact of sports participation on alcohol and other drug use has produced mixed results. Part of this problem may be the result of how different types of sports participation create different experiences that shape certain types of behaviors that either facilitate or deter substance use. Objectives We examined the association between different types of competitive sports participation and substance use among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Methods Two recent cross-sections from the Monitoring the Future were merged to capture a large subsection of adolescents who participate in either high-contact sports (football, wrestling, hockey and lacrosse), semi-contact sports (baseball, basketball, field hockey and soccer), and non-contact sports (cross-country, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, track, and volleyball). Results Multivariate analyses revealed that adolescents who participated in high-contact sports had higher odds of using substances during the past 30 days and initiating substance use at early ages. Further, adolescents who participated in non-contact sports had lower odds to indicate smoking cigarettes and marijuana during the past 30 days. Conclusions Parents, educators, and policy makers need to consider that some sporting contexts may be a catalyst to engage in risky behaviors like substance use. PMID:25290659

  1. Mental health, school problems, and social networks: modeling urban adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use.

  2. Humic substances in drinking water and the epidemiology of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stig; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Ovesen, Lars; Knudsen, Nils

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common in all populations but the type and frequency depends on environmental factors. In Denmark geographical differences in iodine intake are caused by different iodine contents of drinking water, which varies from < 1 to 139 microg iodine per litre. Comparative epidemiologic studies have demonstrated considerable differences in type and occurrence of thyroid disease with more goitre and hyperthyroidism in Aalborg with water iodine content around 5 microg/L, and more hypothyroidism in Copenhagen with water iodine around 20 microg/L. In Denmark, iodine in ground water is bound in humic substances, which have probably leached from marine sediments in the aquifers. Interestingly, humic substances in water from other parts of the world have goitrogenic properties, especially humic substances from coal and shale. Humic substances are heterogeneous mixtures of naturally occurring molecules, produced by decomposition of plant and animal tissues. The effect of humic substances in drinking water on the epidemiology of thyroid disease probably depends on the source of aquifer sediments.

  3. Mental health, school problems, and social networks: modeling urban adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents, on substance use. Results of path modeling with AMOS showed that the model provided a very good fit to the data and demonstrated partial mediation effects of social network quality on substance use. The standardized mediated effect of school problems on substance use, mediated by social network quality, was 0.13 (p < .01, 95% CI [.072, .189]). An effect size measure was applied to determine what proportion of the total effect was mediated by the intervening (social network quality) variable and produced a 0.34 effect size. The results highlight the potential preventive role of social network quality in addressing urban adolescent substance use. PMID:21063779

  4. Negative Life Events and Substance Use Moderate Cognitive-Behavioral Adolescent Depression Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigate factors that amplify or mitigate the effects of an indicated cognitive behavioral depression prevention program for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Method Using data from a randomized trial (Registration No. NCT00183417; N = 173) in which adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) were assigned to a brief cognitive behavioral prevention program or an educational brochure control condition, we tested whether elevated motivation to reduce depression and initial depressive symptom severity amplified intervention effects and whether negative life events, social support deficits, and substance use attenuated intervention effects. Results Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated differential intervention effects for two of the five examined variables: negative life events and substance use. For adolescents at low and medium levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention produced declines in depressive symptoms relative to controls. However, at high levels of substance use or negative life events, the CB intervention did not significantly reduce depressive symptoms in comparison to controls. Conclusions Results imply that high-risk adolescent with either high rates of major life stress or initial substance use may require specialized depression prevention efforts. PMID:22414236

  5. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473

  6. Reward processing in obesity, substance addiction and non-substance addiction.

    PubMed

    García-García, I; Horstmann, A; Jurado, M A; Garolera, M; Chaudhry, S J; Margulies, D S; Villringer, A; Neumann, J

    2014-11-01

    Similarities and differences between obesity and addiction are a prominent topic of ongoing research. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 87 studies in order to map the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to reward in participants with obesity, substance addiction and non-substance (or behavioural) addiction, and to identify commonalities and differences between them. Our study confirms the existence of alterations during reward processing in obesity, non-substance addiction and substance addiction. Specifically, participants with obesity or with addictions differed from controls in several brain regions including prefrontal areas, subcortical structures and sensory areas. Additionally, participants with obesity and substance addictions exhibited similar blood-oxygen-level-dependent fMRI hyperactivity in the amygdala and striatum when processing either general rewarding stimuli or the problematic stimuli (food and drug-related stimuli, respectively). We propose that these similarities may be associated with an enhanced focus on reward--especially with regard to food or drug-related stimuli--in obesity and substance addiction. Ultimately, this enhancement of reward processes may facilitate the presence of compulsive-like behaviour in some individuals or under some specific circumstances. We hope that increasing knowledge about the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity and addictions will lead to practical strategies that target the high prevalence of these central public health challenges.

  7. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Tikàsz, Andràs; Rizkallah, Élie; Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Potvin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD (n = 19) and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD (n = 360). More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms" dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances. PMID:26417473

  8. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors.

  9. [The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats].

    PubMed

    Iasnetsov, Vik V; Krylova, I N

    2013-01-01

    It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors. PMID:24555225

  10. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  11. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  12. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  13. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  14. 19 CFR 162.61 - Importing and exporting controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and... export from the United States any controlled substance or narcotic drug listed in schedules I through...

  15. 8 CFR 1212.11 - Controlled substance convictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 801, et seq., and shall include any substance contained in Schedules I through V of 21 CFR 1308.1, et... ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.11 Controlled substance convictions. In determining the admissibility of an...

  16. 8 CFR 1212.11 - Controlled substance convictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 801, et seq., and shall include any substance contained in Schedules I through V of 21 CFR 1308.1, et... ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.11 Controlled substance convictions. In determining the admissibility of an...

  17. 8 CFR 1212.11 - Controlled substance convictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 801, et seq., and shall include any substance contained in Schedules I through V of 21 CFR 1308.1, et... ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.11 Controlled substance convictions. In determining the admissibility of an...

  18. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 39127 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... a bulk manufacturer of Remifentanil (9739) the basic class of controlled substance in schedule II... facility in West Deptford, New Jersey. The controlled substances manufactured in bulk at this facility...

  20. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  1. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Nelson; Gómez, Liliana; Pantoja, Manuel; Ramírez, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L−1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils. PMID:25477925

  2. Vaccines in the Treatment of Substance Abuse.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Daryl; Kosten, Thomas R

    2011-12-01

    Reconceptualizing drugs as toxins allowed an important shift in the approach to the treatment of substance abuse, because it ushered in consideration of immunological methods of pharmacotherapy. This paradigm shift represented a dramatic departure from previously considered approaches to pharmacotherapy for substance use disorders (SUDs), which had up until that time focused predominantly on either agonist and/or antagonist medications meant to block drug effects or to decrease reward, reinforcement, or craving. Use of immunological theory in SUD treatment also meant that 1) a potentially addicting medication would not be administered as part of therapy and 2) side effects could be limited, because the individual's immune system would be responsible for delivering treatment.

  3. Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents has been a public health problem for decades. Although some substance use may be developmentally routine, a concerning number of adolescents meet criteria for a substance use disorder and could greatly benefit from a quality treatment experience. However, parents and health care providers want evidence of the efficacy of adolescent-specific treatment programs. This review summarizes four factors surrounding the efficacy of current adolescent treatment programs: 1) adolescent-specific treatment services; 2) the variety of therapeutic modalities; 3) relapse and recovery rates; and 4) the need for evidence-based, quality assessments and research. Current adolescent treatment efforts are summarized, and the recent literature regarding the efficacy of adolescent treatment and recovery rates is discussed. PMID:21701838

  4. Biologic Approaches to Treat Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, Phil

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to traditional pharmacodynamic approaches to treat substance use disorders, the use of biologics (vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, genetically modified enzymes) is based on a pharmacokinetic principle: reduce the amount of (and in the ideal, eliminate) abused drug entering the central nervous system. Preclinical studies indicate biologics are effective in both facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to abused substances ranging from nicotine to heroin. While data are still emerging, the results from multiple clinical trials can best be described as mixed. Nonetheless, these clinical studies have already provided important insights using “first generation” tools that may inform the development of effective and commercially viable biologics to treat tobacco, cocaine, and methamphetamine use disorders. PMID:26435208

  5. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  6. Disposal of controlled substances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    This rule governs the secure disposal of controlled substances by registrants and ultimate users. These regulations will implement the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 by expanding the options available to collect controlled substances from ultimate users for the purpose of disposal, including: Take-back events, mail-back programs, and collection receptacle locations. These regulations contain specific language allowing law enforcement to voluntarily continue to conduct take-back events, administer mail-back programs, and maintain collection receptacles. These regulations will allow authorized manufacturers, distributors, reverse distributors, narcotic treatment programs (NTPs), hospitals/clinics with an on-site pharmacy, and retail pharmacies to voluntarily administer mail-back programs and maintain collection receptacles. In addition, this rule expands the authority of authorized hospitals/clinics and retail pharmacies to voluntarily maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. This rule also reorganizes and consolidates previously existing regulations on disposal, including the role of reverse distributors.

  7. Addiction and Substance Abuse in Anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Ethan O.; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace and outcomes have not appreciably changed. While alcoholism and other forms of impairment such as addiction to other substances and mental illness impact anesthesiologists at similar rates to other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when co-morbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt re-entry into clinical practice. PMID:18946304

  8. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  9. Substance Abuse, Violence, HIV, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    González-Guarda, Rosa Maria; McCabe, Brian E.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence from the literature suggests that substance abuse, violence, HIV risk, depressive symptoms, and underlying socioeconomic conditions are tied intrinsically to health disparities among Latinas. Although these health and social conditions appear to comprise a syndemic, an underlying phenomenon disproportionately accounting for the burden of disease among marginalized groups, these hypothesized relationships have not been formally tested. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess (a) if substance abuse, violence, HIV risk, and depressive symptoms comprised a syndemic and (b) if this syndemic was related to socioeconomic disadvantage among Latinas. Methods Baseline assessment data from a randomized controlled community trial testing the efficacy of an HIV risk reduction program for adult Latinas (n = 548) were used to measure demographic variables, substance abuse, violence, risk for HIV, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to test a single underlying syndemic factor model and any relation to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results The results of this study support the idea that HIV risk, substance abuse, violence, and depressive symptoms comprise a syndemic, χ2(27) = 53.26, p < .01 (relative χ2 = 1.97, comparative fit index = .91, root mean square error of approximation = .04). In addition, in limited accord with theory, this factor was related to 2 measures of socioeconomic disadvantage, percentage of years in the United States (b = 7.55, SE = 1.53, p < .001) and education (b = −1.98, SE = .87, p < .05). Discussion The results of this study could be used to guide public health programs and policies targeting behavioral health disparity conditions among Latinos and other vulnerable populations. Further study of the influence of gender-role expectations and community-level socioeconomic indicators may provide additional insight into this syndemic. PMID:21522030

  10. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV-1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point. PMID:22973853

  11. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  12. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…

  14. In the Clinic. Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pace, Christine A; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of substance use disorders, focusing on epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis, complications, and management. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  15. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    PubMed

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  16. Pharmacotherapy for substance abuse disorders in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel; Ivanov, Iliyan

    2011-02-01

    The public health effects of adolescent substance abuse disorders (SUD) reaches further than the immediate intoxicating effects. Medications play a limited role in the treatment of youth beyond addressing short-term symptoms but may improve longer-term outcomes for some patients. Given the potential devastating consequences of SUD, clinicians should become familiar with all available treatment options. This article reviews the pharmacotherapy for adolescent SUD to inform clinicians considering the use of this modality for selected groups of patients.

  17. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    PubMed

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds. PMID:20947285

  18. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  19. Relapse Contexts for Substance Abusing Adolescents with Comorbid Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…

  20. 21 CFR 1302.06 - Sealing of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of controlled substances. 1302.06 Section 1302.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.06 Sealing of controlled substances. On each bottle,...

  1. School Bonding and Substance Use in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Jeffrey; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent substance use in U.S. rural communities is now equal to or greater than urban use for many substances. Yet much research focuses on urban and suburban populations, raising doubt as to the generalizability of etiological models of substance use to rural populations.This study examines whether the relationship between school bonding and…

  2. Issues in the Treatment of Antisocial Adolescent Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…

  3. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  4. Attitudes towards Substance Addiction: A Study of Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungu, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Substance addiction has become one of the important issues in the world. The studies concerning substance use reveal the extent of the problem. According to the results of such studies, the number of the people using illicit drugs has increased profoundly in recent years. In this study, it was tried to find out how common substance use among…

  5. 76 FR 51399 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ..., 40 FR 43745, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance in... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 958... be registered as an importer of Noroxymorphone (9668), a basic class of controlled substance...

  6. 16 CFR 1500.127 - Substances with multiple hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substances with multiple hazards. 1500.127 Section 1500.127 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... Substances with multiple hazards. (a) Any article that presents more than one type of hazard (for example,...

  7. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  8. 21 CFR 1302.06 - Sealing of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of controlled substances. 1302.06 Section 1302.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.06 Sealing of controlled substances. On each bottle,...

  9. 21 CFR 1302.06 - Sealing of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sealing of controlled substances. 1302.06 Section 1302.06 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE LABELING AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.06 Sealing of controlled substances. On each bottle,...

  10. Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: A Health Maintenance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.

    Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…

  11. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  12. Linking Substance Use and Problem Behavior across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined patterns of between-generation continuity in substance use from generation 1 (G1) parents to generation 2 (G2) adolescents and from G2 adult substance use and G1 substance use to generation 3 (G3) problem behavior in childhood. Structural equation modeling of prospective, longitudinal data from 808 participants, their parents,…

  13. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section...

  18. Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

  19. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.) PMID:24381821

  20. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  2. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  3. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  4. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  5. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substance abuse expert. 26.187 Section 26.187 Energy... Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom... experience in the diagnosis and treatment of alcohol and controlled-substance abuse disorders; (2)...

  6. Rehabilitation Counselor Attitudes toward Counseling Individuals with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers-Bonaccorsy, Roe A.

    2010-01-01

    The study assessed attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders and perceived confidence of providing substance abuse screenings and referrals among a random sample of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors (CRCs). Results indicated CRCs have positive attitudes toward counseling individuals with substance use disorders.…

  7. Secondary School Experiences of Male Recovering Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…

  8. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incidental manufacture of controlled substances... MISCELLANEOUS Special Exceptions for Manufacture and Distribution of Controlled Substances § 1307.13 Incidental manufacture of controlled substances. Any registered manufacturer who, incidentally but...

  9. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incidental manufacture of controlled substances... MISCELLANEOUS Special Exceptions for Manufacture and Distribution of Controlled Substances § 1307.13 Incidental manufacture of controlled substances. Any registered manufacturer who, incidentally but...

  10. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incidental manufacture of controlled substances... MISCELLANEOUS Special Exceptions for Manufacture and Distribution of Controlled Substances § 1307.13 Incidental manufacture of controlled substances. Any registered manufacturer who, incidentally but...

  11. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incidental manufacture of controlled substances... MISCELLANEOUS Special Exceptions for Manufacture and Distribution of Controlled Substances § 1307.13 Incidental manufacture of controlled substances. Any registered manufacturer who, incidentally but...

  12. 21 CFR 1307.13 - Incidental manufacture of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incidental manufacture of controlled substances... MISCELLANEOUS Special Exceptions for Manufacture and Distribution of Controlled Substances § 1307.13 Incidental manufacture of controlled substances. Any registered manufacturer who, incidentally but...

  13. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  14. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  15. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  16. 40 CFR 792.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... § 792.113 Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that... the uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test,...

  17. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  18. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  19. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  20. 40 CFR 160.113 - Mixtures of substances with carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixtures of substances with carriers... Mixtures of substances with carriers. (a) For each test, control, or reference substance that is mixed with... uniformity of the mixture and to determine, periodically, the concentration of the test, control,...

  1. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which youth are at increased risk for using substances. An empirical focus on core competencies illustrates that youth are less likely to use substances when they have a positive future orientation, a belief in the ability to resist substances, emotional and behavioral control, sound decision-making…

  2. Vehicle gas producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, E. E.

    1980-05-01

    The present petroleum supply situation with the possibility of unscheduled interruptions and the definite expectation of continued price increases calls for an investigation of the use of solid fuels for the propulsion of vehicles. The paper reviews the use of solid fuel gas producers with high thermal efficiency on motor vehicles, especially trucks and buses. Some economic comparisons are presented for pre-World War II conditions. Suggestions are made for possible future development of vehicle gas producers. The types of producers are described, along with their performance, special problems, and the importance of fuel properties.

  3. Naturally produced carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Santos, C.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Consultchi, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent an impressive kind of materials with diverse unexpected properties, and different methods to artificially produce them have been developed. Recently, they have also been synthesized at low temperatures, demonstrating that these materials might exist in fluids or carbon rocks of the Earth's crust. A new type of natural encapsulated carbon nanotubes found in a coal-petroleum mix is presented. These findings show that all allotropic carbon forms known up to date can be produced in Nature, where pressure, catalysts particles, shear stress and parameters other than exclusively very high temperature, seem to play an important role for producing nanotubes.

  4. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  5. Contemporaneous relationship between substance abuse treatment and poly-substance use: evidence from the Persistent Effect of Treatment Studies.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Kawata, Jennifer H; Campbell, Bernadette; Tseng, Ching-Wei Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Data from the Persistent Effect of Treatment Studies (PETS) are used to explore the relationship between duration of substance use treatment and simultaneous poly-substance using behaviors. Studying such contemporaneous relationships is especially important given the chronic nature of the substance-using population (McLellan, 2002) in the PETS study. Data were collected at intake to treatment programs and follow-up interviews were performed periodically at treatment program sites. One of the features of the analysis was the development of a poly-substance scale to measure multiple substance use. Multilevel models were implemented to examine the relationship between three levels of care (i.e., intensive outpatient, outpatient, and residential) and simultaneous poly-substance use. Contemporaneous effects of treatment were obtained such that higher duration of treatment was associated with drops in substance-using behaviors. This result supports the need for sustaining treatment for a population of chronic substance abusers. PMID:15797642

  6. Nonpharmacologic approaches to substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Carroll, K M; Schottenfeld, R

    1997-07-01

    Familiarity with nonpharmacologic approaches to substance abuse treatment is critical for medical practitioners to act effectively to prevent the progression of substance use to medically harmful use, abuse, or dependence; to identify patients with substance use disorders and motivation behavioral changes; and to maximize the likelihood of successful treatment. At their most basic level, these nonpharmacologic approaches involve components of practice that are requisite to the successful management of any medical disorder: fostering an empathic, supportive relationship; routinely evaluating the system or problem area; providing accurate medical information about diagnosis, natural history, and treatment; and following up on identified problems to improve compliance, evaluate the impact of treatment, and modify treatment as indicated. Because of the nature of substance use disorders, their impact on multiple areas of functioning, and the conditioned craving that occurs following repeated substance use, nonpharmacologic treatments can improve outcome, even when effective pharmacologic treatments are also employed. Treatment of nicotine dependence provides a useful example. Physician advice to stop smoking substantially increases the likelihood of smoking cessation and long-term abstinence. Combined with physician advice, nicotine replacement therapies, using nicotine gum or transdermal preparations, approximately double the rate of long-term abstinence, compared with physician advice alone. Providing behavioral treatment in addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement treatment leads to the highest rates of sustained abstinence, significantly higher than advice alone or rates associated with nicotine replacement alone. Nonpharmacologic treatments complement pharmacologic approaches often by addressing different target symptom and problem areas. In the case of nicotine dependence, nicotine replacement ameliorates withdrawal symptoms and craving associated

  7. Ethnic Differences in Substance Use Patterns in a Sample of Pregnant Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namyniuk, Lorraine; Brems, Christiane; Kuka-Hindin, Carolee

    2001-01-01

    Investigates substance use patterns among 192 pregnant substance-using women to assess whether ethnic differences exist regarding drugs of choice, frequency and recency of use, and severity of use. Results reveal that substance use patterns differed across ethic groups. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention efforts have to be tailored…

  8. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  9. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  10. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  15. Relationships between personality and preferred substance and motivations for use among adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin B; Heath, Alisa J; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K; Corley, Robin P; Stallings, Michael C

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the utility of Cloninger's tridimensional personality theory (1986, 1987a) in predicting preferred substance of abuse and self-reported motivations for use among a sample of 200 adolescent substance abusers and 200 matched community control adolescents. Two primary hypotheses were tested: (1) Cloninger's type II profile is more strongly associated with stimulant use, and his type I profile is more strongly associated with substances having sedative-hypnotic effects; and 2) type II individuals will report motivations for use that focus primarily on obtaining positive rewards, whereas type I individuals will report motivations primarily concerning negative reinforcement or the avoidance of problems and negative life experiences. Our results did not show strong associations between Cloninger's Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence dimensions and preferred substance or motivations for use. However, in partial support of the hypotheses examined here, we did find that individuals low in novelty seeking (NS) tended to prefer alcohol and marijuana, whereas those high in NS endorsed a wider range of preferred substances. High NS was associated with significantly greater stimulant use and motivations focused on obtaining positive rewards, whereas low NS was associated with greater sedative use and motivations related to avoiding negative emotions or negative life experiences.

  16. Universal Intervention Effects on Substance Use Among Young Adults Mediated by Delayed Adolescent Substance Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Guyll, Max; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, achieved through universal family-focused interventions conducted in middle school, can reduce problematic substance use during young adulthood. Sixth-grade students enrolled in 33 rural midwestern schools and their families were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at 7 time points for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP), Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY), and control groups through young adulthood. Five young adult substance frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, illicit drugs, and polysubstance use) were modeled as distal outcomes affected by the average level and rate of increase in substance initiation across the adolescent years in latent growth curve analyses. Results show that the models fit the data and that they were robust across outcomes and interventions, with more robust effects found for ISFP. The addition of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes was not supported, suggesting long-term effects were primarily indirect. Relative reduction rates were calculated to quantify intervention-control differences on the estimated proportion of young adults indicating problematic substance use; they ranged from 19% to 31% for ISFP and from 9% to 16% for PDFY. PMID:19634956

  17. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  18. Substance use among victimized women on probation and parole.

    PubMed

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T; Logan, T K; Higgins, George E; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine M

    2014-03-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  19. Intergenerational patterns of substance abuse among urban American Indian families.

    PubMed

    Myhra, Laurelle L; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be a family problem in American Indian (AI) families. This article highlights findings from a two generation study on substance abuse among nine AI families. Five common themes shared by the parent and adult child groups included early onset of substance abuse, minimization of substance abuse (and a subtheme of efforts to control use), taking accountability for substance abuse (and a subtheme about perpetuated stereotypes), turning point moments in use (and a subtheme of negotiating and exploring sobriety), and perceptions of the abstinence only approach. Clinical implications are discussed in light of the findings.

  20. Capsaicin-like activity of some natural pungent substances on peripheral endings of visceral primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Patacchini, R; Maggi, C A; Meli, A

    1990-07-01

    1. The effects of some naturally occurring pungent substances, piperine, mustard oil, eugenol and curcumin, were compared to those of capsaicin in the rat isolated urinary bladder. 2. All test compounds dose-dependently contracted the rat bladder and produced desensitization toward capsaicin (1 mumol/l). Development of cross-tachyphylaxis among the natural pungent substances on one hand and capsaicin on the other, suggested a common site of action on visceral primary afferents. 3. Contractile responses to piperine, mustard oil and eugenol were partially tetrodotoxin and ruthenium red-sensitive, suggesting that activation of sensory terminals by these agents takes place indirectly, as well as by a direct action on sensory receptors. 4. The presence of the secondary acrylamide linkage (present in the backbone of capsaicin, but not in that of test compounds) does not appear to be essential to produce desensitization of sensory nerve terminals.

  1. Methylxanthines and drug dependence: a focus on interactions with substances of abuse.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Micaela; Simola, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the psychostimulant actions of methylxanthines, with a focus on the consequences of their excessive use. Consumption of methylxanthines is pervasive and their use is often associated with that of substances known to produce dependence and to have abuse potential. Therefore, the consequences of this combined use are taken into consideration in order to evaluate whether, and to what extent, methylxanthines could influence dependence on or abuse of other centrally active substances, leading to either amplification or attenuation of their effects. Since the methylxanthine that mostly influences mental processes and readily induces psychostimulation is caffeine, this review mainly focuses on caffeine as a prototype of methylxanthine-produced dependence, examining, at the same time, the risks related to caffeine use. PMID:20859810

  2. Treatment compliance among prenatal care patients with substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Clark, K A; Dee, D L; Bale, P L; Martin, S L

    2001-02-01

    There is an insufficient number of substance abuse treatment programs available to pregnant women; however, even when women do enroll in treatment, they often choose not to comply with particular components of their treatment. To better understand what factors are associated with a woman's likelihood of compliance with treatment, this study assesses 244 pregnant, substance-using women enrolled in a specialized substance abuse treatment program. Women who complied with treatment referrals are compared with those who did not comply with referrals on various factors including their sociodemographic characteristics, types of substance use before and during pregnancy, experiences of violence before and during pregnancy, and prior substance use treatment. Bivariate analysis found that outpatient treatment compliance was more likely among women who smoked cigarettes before pregnancy, women who had received previous substance abuse treatment, and women whose partner had received previous substance abuse treatment. Outpatient treatment compliance did not vary by sociodemographic characteristics, any other type of substance use, or the women's experiences of violence. Inpatient treatment compliance was more likely among women who received prior substance abuse treatment; however, no other characteristic was found to be associated with inpatient treatment compliance. Logistic regression analyses, which controlled for various factors, suggested that past experiences with substance abuse treatment by the woman or her partner were significantly associated with treatment referral compliance. These findings suggest that the previous treatment experiences of women and their partners are important factors in shaping a successful substance abuse treatment program for pregnant women.

  3. Interpersonal Guilt and Substance Use in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Geoffrey W.; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one’s family, and it is also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation, among 1,979 college students. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with non-regular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than non-regular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances. PMID:24579980

  4. Methodological issues in workplace substance abuse prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hersch, R K; Cook, R F; Deitz, D K; Trudeau, J V

    2000-05-01

    Substance abuse among working adults represents billions of dollars in preventable health care costs and industry financial loss. Therefore, it is imperative to develop and test effective substance abuse prevention programs for the workplace. However, applied workplace substance abuse prevention research is fraught with numerous methodological challenges. This article highlights a number of these challenges, which include (1) reaching a broad audience with prevention messages, (2) handling the concerns of the employer, (3) collecting substance use data in the workplace, (4) accessing and using records-based data, and (5) linking survey and records-based data. Using examples from the authors' ongoing research assessing a workplace health promotion and substance abuse prevention program, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the authors address these challenges.

  5. A muscle contracting substance from a plant's closing Fly-Trap.

    PubMed

    Lea, H W

    1976-01-01

    A muscle contracting substance (MCS) occurs in crushed, incubated traps of the insectivorous plant, the Venus Fly-Trap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis). This MCS is provisionally identified as lysophosphatidic acid. More MCS is produced from traps which have been touched than from untouched traps, which may be due to activation of phospholipase D. This enzyme hydrolyses phospholipids of membranes, and could alter the physiological properties of membranes.

  6. Effects of type of exercise on depression in recovering substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J A; Palmer, L K; Michiels, K; Thigpen, B

    1995-04-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of three types of structured exercise (aerobics, bodybuilding, and circuit training) on depressive symptoms of 45 clients undergoing a 4-wk., inpatient rehabilitation program for substance abuse. Pre- and posttest measures included the Center of Epidemiological Studies--Depression, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, maximum strength on incline bench press, and estimates of aerobic fitness and body fat. The bodybuilding program produced a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Physiological and psychological explanations are discussed.

  7. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E; Ehrlich, Jenny K; Floridia, Christina M

    2004-11-11

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events.

  8. Spending on substance abuse treatment: how much is enough?

    PubMed Central

    Meara, Ellen; Frank, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe a framework that can be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. Methods Selective review of the literature on spending for substance abuse treatment combined with an economic analysis of how to determine when spending is optimal, defining optimal spending as that which minimizes the social costs of substance use disorders. Results In 1997, only $11.9 billion of the $294 billion estimated social costs of substance abuse was spent on treatment. The discrepancy between the high indirect costs of illness relative to the level of spending on treatment of addictive disorders leads many to believe that the United States spends too little on treatment. In this paper, we argue that information on the social costs of substance abuse disorders and the level of spending on treatment is insufficient to determine whether current spending is optimal. We develop a framework that could be used to determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment in the United States. We develop this framework in four steps. First, we provide background on the unique financial and delivery features of substance abuse treatment. Secondly, we outline the points raised by advocates of expanded substance abuse treatment: substance abuse has high social costs, yet few people receive the many effective treatments available partly because of financial barriers to treatment. Thirdly, we provide a framework that can be used to judge the additional benefits of alternative levels and types of spending on substance abuse treatment. Finally, we discuss the distinction between the potential impact of spending on substance abuse treatment and its actual impact, using productivity as an example of one significant portion of the costs of substance abuse. Conclusion To determine optimal spending on substance abuse treatment, research should describe who receives treatment, the quality of treatment received, and how treatments relate to outcomes that

  9. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., including specimen, drug analytes and their cutoffs, methodologies, proficiency testing, best...

  10. Toxic Effect of a Marine Bacterium on Aquatic Organisms and Its Algicidal Substances against Phaeocystis globosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms. PMID:25646807

  11. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  12. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms. PMID:25646807

  13. [Use of illicit substances in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace.

  14. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  15. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    PubMed

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    produced from the hips, as a source of physiologically functional ingredients for the production of fortified food products, especially medical and prophylactic purposes. The use of such additives will fill the gap in the body of P-active substances, vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, pectin substances.

  16. Non-nutrient bioactive substances of pulses.

    PubMed

    Champ, Martine M-J

    2002-12-01

    Pulses supply many bioactive substances found in minor amounts in food, but which may have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. These compounds have long been classified as antinutritional factors, but many studies have reconsidered their impact on health. Some could play a role in the prevention of the major diseases of affluent societies. As these compounds can be beneficial or adverse, depending on conditions, an assessment of their various physiological effects is necessary to determine whether they should be preserved or eliminated in each main nutritional situation. PMID:12498631

  17. Psychoactive Substance Dependence: A Dentist's Challenge.

    PubMed

    Millar, Lynsey

    2015-05-01

    Given the number of individuals who are dependent on alcohol and/or drugs, it is inevitable that they will present for dental treatment. They are at an increased risk of dental disease for multiple reasons. This paper aims to provide an overview for general dental practitioners (GDPs) of the challenges that can arise in treating such patients, alongside some suggestions for meeting these challenges. General issues are taken into consideration first, then a focus is made on each of the most common substances, together with their implications in dentistry. PMID:26556258

  18. [Cytokines. Transmittor substances of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Pisa, P; Söder, O

    1995-07-12

    Cytokines are hormone-like proteins and peptides whose principal function is that of signalling substances within the immunoinflammatory and haematopoietic systems. Since the first cytokines were characterised 15 years ago, over 50 cytokines have been strictly defined and characterised. Cytokines are classified mainly on the basis of functional criteria into families--e.g, interleukins, interferons, colony stimulating factors, and chemokines. The article provides a broad review of cytokine physiology and pathophysiology with an emphasis on recent findings of their involvement in various diseases such as infections, autoimmune and haematological disorders, and cancer. Different treatment modalities that affect cytokine activity are discussed.

  19. Who's protecting you from hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Employee accidents, life endangering spills of harmful chemicals, toxic materials leaching into drinking water, polluted air, crippling side effects of wonder metals and products, and human and animal deaths made it apparent that in order to protect and preserve the community and the environment, the community needed to be aware/knowledgeable of chemical uses and related possible dangers, i.e., it was time to establish rules and regulations for the use and disposal of hazardous substances and chemicals. This report details several organizations, acts, rules, and regulations created in the interest of hazardous materials safety.

  20. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  1. USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program adapts research priorities to address the most important contamination issues facing the Nation and to identify new threats to environmental health. The Program investigates two major types of contamination problems: * Subsurface Point-Source Contamination, and * Watershed and Regional Contamination. Research objectives include developing remediation methods that use natural processes, characterizing and remediating contaminant plumes in fractured-rock aquifers, identifying new environmental contaminants, characterizing new and understudied pesticides in common pesticide-use settings, explaining mercury methylation and bioaccumulation, and developing approaches for remediating watersheds affected by active and historic mining.

  2. [Nutrition and health--toxic substances in food].

    PubMed

    Rietjens, I M; Alink, G M

    2003-11-29

    With respect to food, the most important factors causing adverse health effects are: an unbalanced diet, resulting in obesity or vitamin deficiencies, overconsumption of alcohol or fat, the presence of microbial contamination and the presence of natural toxins. Two additional factors, the presence of environmental contaminants and products formed on heating food, may also be of importance. It is generally assumed that, when combined, food-related factors contribute to around 35% of overall cancer incidence. The most important groups of health-threatening compounds to be found in the food chain include natural toxins, such as those produced by plants (phytotoxins), fungi (mycotoxins), marine algae (phycotoxins) and by bacteria, and toxins present in animals for human consumption, especially fish. A second important group of toxic compounds in food consists of environmental contaminants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, all of which may unintentionally end up in the food chain. A third group of toxins present in food are those substances produced when food is heated, and include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines and acrylamide.

  3. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  4. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  5. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) were almost nonexistent up to the 1990s, but are today encountered routinely in hospitals and other healthcare facilities in many countries including the United States. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was the first to emerge and spread globally and is endemic in the United States, Israel, Greece, and Italy. Recently, NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae appear to be disseminating from South Asia and Northern Africa, respectively. They are almost always resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and many other classes. Mortality from invasive CPE infections reaches up to 40%. To obtain the maximal benefit from the limited options available, dosing of antimicrobial agents should be optimized based on pharmacokinetic data, especially for colistin and carbapenems. In addition, multiple observational studies have associated combination antimicrobial therapy with lower mortality compared with monotherapy for these infections. The outcomes appear to be especially favorable when patients are treated with a carbapenem and a second agent such as colistin, tigecycline, and gentamicin, but the best approach is yet to be defined. PMID:25643272

  6. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  7. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  8. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  9. [Regulation of the neuronal functional state by ultra low doses of different biologically active substances. Nonspecific effect ].

    PubMed

    Terekhova, S F; Grechenko, T N

    2003-01-01

    The role of biologically active substances in ultra-low doses (10(-15)-10(-27) mol/l) is discussed from the different points of view. The most detailed analysis of neurobiological effects produced by these doses can be studied on the preparate of completely isolated molluscan neurones. In this case the possibility arises to control the first modifications of action at the electrophysiological characteristics of neuronal activity. These changes of electrical activity can be regarded as a reaction to biologically active substance. The following characteristics were controlled: the level of membrane resting potential (MP), the electroexcitable membrane and pacemaker mechanism, chemical sensitivity of somatic membrane loci to neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). Several substances were used in these experiments: two kinds of synthetic antioxidant, GABA, ethanol, serotonine, DSIP (delta-sleep inducing peptide), antibiotic ruboxil, nootrop GVS-111. The isolated neurones were placed into the special chamber. All these substances (0.35 ml) were added single dosing into this chamber with living physiological solution in concentration 10(-15)-10(-27) mol/l. The results demonstrated that all substances had initiated the development of prolonged neurophysiological responses. The intensities of neuronal reactions didn't depend in contact period on the concentration and on the type of substance. It is suggested that these data reveal the existence of unknown modes of regulation of neuronal functional states and presence of hidden channel for information transfer and receiving. This different way of regulation is extremely important influence living organisms. PMID:12881986

  10. Periodontal Status amongst Substance Abusers in Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shantipriya; Kaul, Sanjay; Agrawal, Chaitali; Prasad, M G S; Agnihotri, Jaya; Bhowmik, Nirjhar; Amudha, D; Kambali, Soumya

    2012-01-01

    Background. In India there have been limited number of studies on periodontal status among drug addicts, and thus this study aims to assess the Oral hygiene and periodontal status in substance abusers and compare it with non-substance abusers. Methods. A comparative study was conducted to assess the periodontal status in substance abusers. Non-substance abusers were procured from the general population of Bangalore. From the control group 250 non-substance abusers were age and sex matched with the study population of substance abusers. The oral hygiene and periodontal condition of all subjects was assessed using Oral hygiene index- simplified (OHI-S), Russell's periodontal indices and Gingival bleeding index. Results. The mean of OHI-S and Periodontal Index (Russell's Index) scores were higher (2.70 and 3.68, resp.) in substance abusers than the control group (2.45 and 2.59, resp.). The mean Gingival bleeding score was lower (9.69) in substance abusers than the control group (22.7) and found to be statistically significant. A positive correlation found between OHI-S and Russell's periodontal index whereas negative correlation was found between OHI-S and Gingival bleeding in substance abusers. Conclusions. Though the oral hygiene was fair, more periodontal destruction and less of gingival bleeding were observed in substance abusers as compared to control group.

  11. Factors Associated with Substance Use in Adolescents with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Andrea P; Accurso, Erin C.; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Capra, Lauren; Labuschagne, Zandre; Karnik, Niranjan S.; Grange, Daniel Le

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with substance use in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs). Methods This cross-sectional study included 290 adolescents, ages 12 –18 years, who presented for an initial ED evaluation at The Eating Disorders Program at The University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) between 2001 and 2012. Several factors, including DSM-5 diagnosis, diagnostic scores, and demographic characteristics were examined. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations between several factors and patterns of drug use for alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and any substance. Results Lifetime prevalence of any substance use was found to be 24.6% in those with anorexia nervosa (AN), 48.7% in bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28.6% in eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Regular substance use (monthly, daily, and bingeing behaviors) or a substance use disorder (SUD) was found in 27.9% of all patients. Older age was the only factor associated with regular use of any substance in the final multinomial model. Older age and non-White race was associated with greater alcohol and cannabis use. Although binge-purge frequency and BN diagnosis were associated with regular substance use in bivariate analyses, gender, race and age were more robustly associated with substance use in the final multinomial models. Conclusions Co-morbid substance use in adolescents with EDs is an important issue. Interventions targeting high-risk groups reporting regular substance use or SUDs are needed. PMID:24656448

  12. Protective factors of substance use in youth subcultures.

    PubMed

    Bobakova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-09-01

    Youth subcultures, characterized by a distinctive lifestyle, music preference, shared values and behaviors, are associated with substance use. The aim of this study was to explore whether protective factors such as parental monitoring, parental bonding and parental substance abstinence affect the association between subculture affiliation and adolescents' substance use. We used data from 15-year-old elementary school pupils (N=1380; mean age=15.47; response 79.5%) who participated in the Health Behaviour in School Aged Children 2009/2010 study. The association between subculture affiliation and substance use (smoking, drinking alcohol, drunkenness, and cannabis use) was adjusted for parental monitoring, parental bonding and parental substance abstinence for boys and girls separately using logistic regression. Adolescents affiliated to one of the selected youth subcultures were significantly more likely to use substances than other 15-years-olds, except for cannabis use in girls. Adjustment for parental monitoring reduced the association between subculture affiliation and substance use by 31-64% in girls and by 10-23% in boys. Adjustment for parental bonding and parental substance abstinence led to no changes or minor changes. After adjustments for protective factors, subculture affiliation remained significantly associated with substance use. The role of protective factors in adolescents with a subculture affiliation regarding substance use is rather limited. Our findings imply that preventive strategies targeting youth subcultures should take protective factors into account and be gender-specific.

  13. Influence of humic substances on plant-microbes interactions in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Pascazio, Silvia; Spaccini, Riccardo; Crecchio, Carmine; Trevisan, Marco; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances are known to play a wide range of effects on the physiology of plant and microbes. This is of particular relevance in the rhizosphere of terrestrial environments, where the reciprocal interactions between plants roots, soil constituents and microorganisms strongly influence the plants acquisition of nutrients. Chemical advances are constantly improving our knowledge on humic substances: their supra-molecular architecture, as well as the moltitude of their chemical constituents, many of which are biologically active. An approach for linking the structure of humic substances with their biological activity in the rhizosphere is the use of rhizoboxes, which allow applying a treatment (e.g., an amendment with humic substances) in an upper soil-plant compartment and take measurements in a lower isolated rhizosphere compartment that can be sampled at desired distances from the rhizoplane. This approach can be adopted to assess the effects of several humic substances, as well as composted materials, on maize plants rhizodeposition of carbon, and in turn on the structure and activity of rhizosphere microbial communities. In order to gain a complete understanding of processes occurring in the complex soil-plant-microorganisms tripartite system, rhizobox experiments can be coupled with bacterial biosensors for the detection and quantification of bioavailable nutrients, chemical analyses of main rhizodeposits constituents, advanced chemical characterizations of humic substances, DNA-fingerprinting of microbial communities, and multivariate statistical approaches to manage the dataset produced and to infer general conclusions. By such an approach it was found that humic substances are significantly affecting the amount of carbon deposited by plant roots. This induction effect is more evident for substances with more hydrophobic and complex structure, thus supporting the scientific hypothesis of the "microbial loop model", which assumes that plants feed

  14. School Victimization and Substance Use among Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Astor, Ron A.; Estrada, Joey N.; Benbenishty, Rami; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence co-occur among adolescents. However, the extant literature focuses on the substance use behaviors of perpetrators of violence and not on victims. This study identifies patterns of school victimization and substance use and how they co-occur. The California Healthy Kids Survey was used to identify latent classes/clusters of school victimization patterns and lifetime and frequency of recent (past month) alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use (N =419,698). Demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race/ethnicity) were included as predictors of latent class membership. Analyses revealed four latent classes of school victimization: low victimization (44.4 %), moderate victimization (22.3 %), verbal/relational victimization (20.8 %), and high victimization (with physical threats; 12.5 %). There were also four classes of substance use: non-users (58.5 %), alcohol experimenters (some recent alcohol use; 25.8 %), mild poly-substance users (lifetime use of all substances with few days of recent use; 9.1 %), and frequent poly-substance users (used all substances several times in the past month; 6.5 %). Those in the high victimization class were twice as likely to be frequent poly-substance users, and mild poly-substance use was most salient for those in the verbal victimization class. Few studies have explored latent patterns of substance use and violence victimization concurrently. The findings indicate substantial heterogeneity in victimization and substance use among youth in California schools with implications for targeted and tailored interventions. Understanding how certain types of victimization are associated with particular patterns of substance use will provide schools with opportunities to screen for concurrent behavioral health problems among youth. PMID:24482139

  15. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  16. Evidence Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Jhanjee, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic). Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs. PMID:24860208

  17. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  18. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... issue of February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8575). Any use of the term ``manufacture'' in this document will... departure. II. Background In the Federal Register issue of February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8575) (FRL-8805-8), EPA... certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level...

  19. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Patrice A

    2015-09-01

    Plant extracts and byproducts furnish various alternative products for crop protection and are traditionally used by farmers. However, the cost and timeframe for their registration as active substances are prohibitive for small companies and farmers' associations with the new Plant Protection Products (PPP) Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. However, there is now a possibility of registering light compounds as 'basic substances', a new category described in Article 23 and in 'Whereas/Recital 18'. We developed a regulatory expertise on the approval of such products within the framework of the PPP regulation. A Draft Assessment Report in one volume was established, later transformed by EC Directorate into a Basic Substance Application Template, and subsequently used by the EC as a matrix for the corresponding Guidelines for applicants (SANCO 10363/2012 rev. 9). Here we provide further tools, consisting of methodological, linguistic and strategic recommendations in order to constitute a Basic Substance Application (BSA) and proceed to its registration. While the use of alternative agents for crop protection is increasing both in organic and conventional agriculture, these usages are still considered as 'minor uses'. Our approach and tools are valuable to non-PPP specialised applicants for simplifying and facilitating their submission of the BSA.

  20. Trends in Adolescent Substance Use and Perception of Risk from Substance Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... than youths who perceive low risk of harm. 1 Thus, providing adolescents with credible, accurate, and age-appropriate information about the harm associated with substance use is a key component in prevention programming. 2 Expanding upon research that shows the predictive ...