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Sample records for antistatic ability thermal

  1. Antistatic additive for polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1978-01-01

    Thin polyimide films are given excellent antistatic properties even at high temperature by low-level loading with lithium salts. Extremely hygroscopic, these salts absorb a layer of atmospheric water that provides conductive paths allowing charges to dissipate.

  2. Durable antistatic coating for polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Somoano, R. B.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A durable antistatic coating is achieved on polymethylmethacrylate plastic without affecting its optical clarity by applying to the surface of the plastic a low molecular weight solvent having a high electron affinity and a high dipole moment, such as acentonitrile or nitromethane alone or in the presence of photopolymerizable monomer. The treated polymethylmethacrylate plastic dissipates most of the induced electrostatic charge and retains its optical clarity. The antistatic behavior persists after washing, rubbing and vacuum treatment.

  3. Antistatic Polycarbonate/Copper Oxide Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovich, Michael; Rowland, George R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A composite material consisting of polycarbonate filled with copper oxide has been found to be suitable as an antistatic material. This material was developed to satisfy a requirement for an antistatic material that has a mass density less than that of aluminum and that exhibits an acceptably low level of outgassing in a vacuum.

  4. Polyaniline nanorods/PVC composites with antistatic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yulun; Feng, Weitao; Ding, Guoxin; Cheng, Guojun

    2015-08-01

    Novel antistatic polyaniline/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) composite materials are prepared. This study focuses on modification of PVC matrix with different content of polyaniline nanorods. Polyaniline nanorods can reduce the volumn resistivity of PVC/polyaniline composites 1016 Ω cm from to 1011 Ω cm five orders of magnitude at low content of 2 wt %. Moreover, the mechanical performance of the composite material is also good. Based on the results, we have confidence in the new antistatic composites.

  5. Antistatic modification of polypropylene by incorporating Tween/modified Tween

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Anna; Xu, Xiang; Xiao, Huining; Li, Na; Guan, Yong; Li, Shuzhao

    2012-09-01

    Tween, one type of non-ionic surfactants, was used as inner antistatic agent of polypropylene (PP) and the antistatic performance of PP/Tween sheets were evaluated by surface resistivities (ρs) and water contact angles. The influence factors including hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of Tween, addition amount, process conditions and atmospheric humidity were investigated in detail and the results showed Tween 40 with HLB at 15.7 provided PP an optimum antistatic effect with surface resistivity of 1010 Ω/sq, water contact angle of 57°, and surface energy of 49.5 mN/m. The ρs of PP/Tween sheets declined approximately 1 order of magnitude with 10% increasing of relative humidity. In order to improve the washing endurance of antistatic PP, a combination of T40 and cationic PP (CPP) were blended with PP and PP/CPP/T40 sheets revealed improved washing durability, with ρs below 1011 Ω/sq after ultrasound washing. In addition, T40 with double bonds was synthesized and UV crosslinking of modified T40 on PP surface also presented definite effects on water resistance.

  6. Antistatic effect of power-enhancement coating for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narushima, D.; Takanohashi, H.; Hirose, J.; Ogawa, S.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are periodically cleaned, particularly in large grid-connect photovoltaic plants, in order to avoid losses caused by dust accumulation. However, this maintenance task is often expensive, especially in those areas with water shortage. A hydrophilic coating on the surface of PV modules is one of typical methods to reduce the dust accumulation. But it is not commonly used yet, because the electrical performance of PV modules with conventional hydrophilic coating was slightly degraded by the decrease of transmittance. We have already developed a new hydrophilic power enhancement coating and reported its fundamental characters and results of several ISO/IEC standard tests in SPIE Solar Energy + Technology in 2010. One of the important characters was an antistatic effect. It was showed that the surface resistances of the coated glass and the uncoated glass were 1.3 × 1010Ω and 5.3 × 1014Ω, respectively. It would be understood that lower surface resistance of the coated glass resulted in the antistatic characteristics, which reduce the dust attraction on the coated glass. With the surface resistance result, it could be elucidated that the 3% additional energy production resulted from the antistatic effect of the coating on PV modules in the exposure test after several months without rain in Spain. In this paper, it is shown the results of the antistatic effect performed under the several dust accumulation tests.

  7. Evaluation of conductive concrete for anti-static flooring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia, Sherif; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Hassan, Mohamed; Swaked, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    Static electricity, exchange of electrons, and retention of charge between any two materials due to contact and separation are affected by the condition of the materials being nonconductive or insulated from ground. Several work environments, such as electronics industry, hospitals, offices, and computer rooms all require electro-static discharge (ESD) mitigation. Carpet Tile, Carpet Broadloom, Vinyl Tile, Vinyl sheet, Epoxy and Rubber are examples of existing flooring systems in the market. However, each system has its advantages and limitations. Conductive concrete is a relatively new material technology developed to achieve high electrical conductivity and high mechanical strength. The conductive concrete material can be an economical alternative for these ESD flooring systems. In this paper, the effectiveness of conductive concrete as an anti-static flooring system was evaluated. The initial results indicated that the proposed conductive concrete flooring and ground system met the acceptance criteria stated by ASTM F150.

  8. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. X.; Lv, J. C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J. Y.; Zhou, Q. Q.; Lu, Z. Q.; Gao, D. W.; Jin, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics also increased with the increasing SWCNT concentration, curing time and curing temperature in the range studied. Plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters had signally influence on the antistatic property of plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics. Therefore, adequate parameters should be carefully selected for the optimum antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics.

  9. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  10. Antistatic treatment for reducing airborne contamination of insulating materials in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cozanitis, D A; Ojajärvi, J; Mäkelä, P

    1988-05-01

    In an effort to reduce airborne contamination by Staphylococcus epidermidis harboured on emitted skin scales, items used in patient care were studied as regards bacterial contamination and electrical resistance. An alcoholic benzalkonium chloride sodium was used to coat stopcocks, latex drains, silicon drains and plastic covering. Static electricity did not accumulate when the insulating resistance was less than 10(9) to 10(10) ohms. Study items not treated with the antistatic solution had resistances of greater than 2 x 10(12) ohms, which decreased to 2 x 10(6) to 8 x 10(10) ohms following antistatic treatment. The resistance of the silicon drain before and after antistatic exposure remained unchanged; an increase in its weight after treatment suggests absorption rather than the solution adhering to its surface. Statistically significantly lowered aerobic bacterial colony counts occurred from study items antistatistically treated as compared to those items left untreated. The coating of an entire room and its metal contents failed to decrease bacterial contamination. The results suggest that coating of insulating objects with an antistatic solution will reduce electrical resistance and thereby airborne bacterial contamination.

  11. Calcium phosphate forming ability of thermally oxidized titanium implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyu-Seog; Yun, Yeon-Hum; Min, Seon-Suk; Lee, Yong-Ryeol; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2002-07-01

    Commercially pure titanium disks as-received and heat treated at 600°C in air for 10 min were used to investigate differences in calcium phosphate forming ability. Crystallinity and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy were used to collect information on chemical composition and chemical surface structure. TiO2 layers with a heterogeneous structure produced by heat treatment showed high in vitro calcium phosphate forming ability in contact with Eagle's minimum essential medium.

  12. Response to albuterol MDI delivered through an anti-static chamber during nocturnal bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Sreekala; Shuster, Jonathan; Chesrown, Sarah; Hendeles, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Decreasing electrostatic charge on valved holding chambers increases the amount of drug delivered. However, there are no data demonstrating that this increases bronchodilatation. To investigate the influence of reducing electrostatic charge on the bronchodilator response to albuterol inhaler during nocturnal bronchospasm. This randomized double-blind, double-dummy crossover study included subjects, 18-40 years old, with nocturnal bronchospasm (20% overnight decrease in peak flow on 3 of 7 nights during run-in), FEV(1) 60-80% predicted during the day, and ≥ 12% increase after albuterol. Subjects slept in the clinical research center up to 3 nights for each treatment. FEV(1) and heart rate were measured upon awakening spontaneously or at 4:00 am, and 15 min after each dose of 1, 2, and 4 cumulative puffs of albuterol via metered-dose inhaler. The drug was administered through an anti-static valved holding chamber (AeroChamber Plus Z-Stat) or a conventional valved holding chamber containing a static charge (AeroChamber Plus). Of 88 consented subjects, 11 were randomized and 7 completed the study. Most exclusions were due to lack of objective evidence of nocturnal bronchospasm. Upon awakening, FEV(1) was 44 ± 9% of predicted before the anti-static chamber and 48 ± 7% of predicted before the static chamber. The mean ± SD percent increase in FEV(1) after 1, 2, and 4 cumulative puffs using the anti-static versus the static chamber, respectively, were 52 ± 26% versus 30 ± 19%, 73 ± 28% versus 48 ± 26%, and 90 ± 34% versus 64 ± 35%. The point estimates for the differences (and 95% CIs) between the devices (anti-static vs static) were 21% (4-38%) (P = .03), 23% (6-41%) (P = .02), and 25% (7-42%) (P = .01) for 1, 2, and 4 cumulative puffs, respectively. There was no significant difference in heart rate between treatments. Delivery of albuterol through an anti-static chamber provides a clinically relevant improvement in bronchodilator response during acute

  13. Floral reflectance, color, and thermoregulation: what really explains geographic variation in thermal acclimation ability of ectotherms?

    PubMed

    Lacey, Elizabeth P; Lovin, Mary E; Richter, Scott J; Herington, Dean A

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in thermally sensitive traits, that is, thermal acclimation, generally increases with increasing latitude and altitude. The presumed explanation is that high-latitude/altitude organisms have evolved greater acclimation ability because of exposure to greater temperature fluctuations. Using a conceptual model of the thermal environment during the reproductive season, we tested this hypothesis against an alternative that plasticity is greater because of increased exposure to specific temperatures that strongly select for thermal acclimation. We examined geographic variation in floral reflectance/color plasticity among 29 European populations of a widespread perennial herb, Plantago lanceolata. Individuals partially thermoregulate reproduction through temperature-sensitive plasticity in floral reflectance/color. Plasticity was positively correlated with latitude and altitude. Path analyses support the hypothesis that the thermal environment mediates these geographic effects. Plasticity declined as seasonal temperature range increased, and it increased as duration of the growing season shortened and as the proportion of time exposed to temperatures favoring thermoregulation increased. Data provide evidence that floral reflectance/color plasticity is adaptive and that it has evolved in response not to the magnitude of temperature variation during the reproductive season but rather to the relative exposure to low temperatures, which favor thermoregulation.

  14. Application of liquid chromatography in polymer non-ionic antistatic additives analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, M Victoria; Dopico-García, M Sonia; Noguerol-Cal, Rosalía; Carballeira-Amarelo, Tania; López-Vilariño, José M; Fernández-Martínez, Gerado

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the applicability of HPLC-UV, ultra performance LC-evaporative light-scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD), HPLC-ESI(+)-MS and HPLC-hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap MS for the analysis of different non-ionic antistatic additives, Span 20, Span 60, Span 65, Span 80, Span 85 (sorbitan fatty acid esters), Atmer 129 (glycerol fatty acid ester) and Atmer 163 (ethoxylated alkylamine). Several alkyl chain length or different degrees of esterification of polyol derivatives can be present in commercial mixtures of these polymer additives. Therefore, their identification and quantification is complicated. Qualitative composition of the studied compounds was analysed by MS. HPLC-UV, UPLC-ELSD and HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS methods were applied to the quantitative determination of the different Spans, Atmer 129 and Atmer 163, respectively. Quality parameters of these methods were established and no derivatization was necessary.

  15. Elaboration of m-cresol polyamide12/ polyaniline composite films for antistatic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdour, D.; Tabellout, M.; Bardeau, J.-F; Sahli, S.

    2013-12-16

    The present work deals with the preparation of transparent antistatic films from an extreme dilution of an intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) with not coloured polymers. Our approach is based on the chemical polymerization of a very thin layer of Polyaniline (PANI) around particles of an insulating polymer (PA12). Films were obtained by dissolving the synthesized core-shell particles in m-Cresol. The electric property and structure relationships were investigated by using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Composite films exhibited a well established dc conductivity over all the frequency range for 10 wt. % of PANI concentration related to the conductive properties of the PANI clusters. X-ray diffraction data show broader and lower intensity of PA12 peaks when increasing PANI content, probably due to the additional doping effect of m- cresol. The doping of PA12/PANI films with Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was unequivocally verified by Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Dielectric relaxations of polyether-based polyurethanes containing ionic liquids as antistatic agents.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Akiko; Bertasi, Federico; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Di Noto, Vito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-28

    Dielectric properties of polyurethanes containing poly(propylene oxide) (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (EO) units are discussed, along with the results of direct current (DC) measurements and broadband electrical spectroscopy (BES) studies. The dielectric properties of polyether-containing polyurethanes (PUs) are compared to those of PUs containing 1000 ppm of ionic liquids (ILs) as antistatic agents. The effects of the chemical environment of these ILs, including anion-fixed polymers (PU-AF), cation-fixed polymers (PU-CF), and a simple mixture of IL with the PUs (PU-IL), are compared and discussed on the basis of ion mobility. DC measurements suggest that the charge current is attributed not only to the electrode polarization but also to continuous dielectric relaxation. BES studies elucidate that both fast and slow relaxations are taking place in EO-rich domains in pristine PU and PU-AF. The activation energies of the slow relaxation and of the ionic conductivity are similar, suggesting that the ionic conductivity of these materials is attributed to the ion exchange reaction in EO/ion complexes. In contrast, only fast relaxations are observed in the domains mostly comprised of ion-depleted EO in the PUs containing "free" anions, i.e., PU-CF and PU-IL. This suggests that [Tf2N](-) ligands are weakly interacting with the EO chains and contribute effectively to the ion conduction. Thus, enhanced ionic conductivity is observed in PU-CF and PU-IL, yielding sufficient antistatic effects. Taking into account its long shelf life, arising from the lack of IL bleed-out, PU-CF is concluded to be the most promising candidate.

  17. Bonding ability of three ethanol-based adhesives after thermal fatigue.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge; Gomes, George; Sezinando, Ana

    2011-06-01

    interfacial failure. For EXC, extensive areas of debonding were observed between the adhesive layer and the hybrid layer both for the control and the TC groups. Thermal fatigue did not influence the bonding ability of AMB and SBP, but was detrimental for EXC.

  18. Influence of the thickness on the morphology and sensing ability of thermally-deposited tellurium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Vasileva, T.; Bineva, I.; Dinescu, A.; Nesheva, D.; Arsova, D.; Pejova, B.

    2016-03-01

    Tellurium films with nominal thicknesses of 30, 90 and 300 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum at a low deposition rate of 0.3 nm/s. The morphology evolution with the increase of the film thickness was observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Nanorods with a width of about 40 nm were observed on the thinnest films surface. On the 90 nm thick films, the formations grew in priority in the z-direction to nanoblades with the same width, but a length of about 100 nm. The further increase of the thickness led to an increase of the 2D nanoobjects' width and length and formation of a stacked nanosheet structure. The surface root-mean-square roughness (Sq) increased with the thickness of the films. Preliminary investigations of the sensing ability of the as-deposited tellurium films with different thicknesses towards water (H2O), ethanol (C2H5OH), acetone (C3H5OH), and ammonia (NH3) vapors were performed by measuring the vapor-induced changes in the film dark current. The films showed appreciable response only to ammonia vapors; their sensitivity was almost equal for the 30 and 90 nm thick films, and decreased significantly for the film tkness of 300 nm.

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Conn III. Effect of Thermal Shock on Bacteria in Relation to Tumor-Inducing Ability

    PubMed Central

    Stonier, Tom; Beardsley, Robert E.; Parsons, Lowell; McSharry, James

    1966-01-01

    Stonier, Tom (Manhattan College, Bronx, N.Y.), Robert E. Beardsley, Lowell Parsons, and James McSharry. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Conn. III. Effect of thermal shock on bacteria in relation to tumor-inducing ability. J. Bacteriol. 91:266–269. 1966.—Bacteria heated to 42 C for 30 min exhibit a decrease in tumor-initiating ability without a detectable loss in viability. The thermal shock inhibits subsequent bacterial growth for up to 1.5 hr. As bacterial growth recovers, so does tumor-initiating ability. Respiration of the culture is somewhat increased by the heat treatment. The data suggest that living, actively respiring bacteria do not induce tumors unless they are also growing. The results also point to the necessity for excluding bacterial growth inhibition when interpreting data on the effect of various agents on tumor initiation. PMID:5903095

  20. Glass-Fiber Networks as an Orbit for Ions: Fabrication of Excellent Antistatic PP/GF Composites with Extremely Low Organic Salt Loadings.

    PubMed

    Gu, Senlin; Zhu, Leon; Mercier, Claude; Li, Yongjin

    2017-05-31

    Polypropylene (PP)/glass fiber (GF) composites showing excellent antistatic performance were prepared by a simple melt process blending PP with GF and a small amount of organic salts (OSs). Two types of OSs, tribuyl(octyl)phosphonium bis(trifloromethanesulfonyl)imide (TBOP-TFSI) and lithium bis(trifloromethanesulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), with equivalent anions were used as antistatic agents for the composites. It was found that the GF and OSs exhibited significant synergistic effects on the antistatic performance as well as the mechanical properties of the composites. On the one hand, the incorporation of GF significantly enhanced the electric conductivity of the composites at a constant OS loading. On the other hand, the two types of OSs improved the interfacial adhesion between the GF and the PP matrix, which led to an enhancement of the mechanical properties. This study showed that OSs had specific interactions with GFs and were absorbed exclusively on the GF surface. The GF network in the PP matrix provided perfect orbits for the movement of ions, inducing the excellent antistatic performance exhibited by the PP/GF composites at an OS loading of as low as 0.25 wt % when the GF formed a network in the PP matrix.

  1. Local structure and water cleaning ability of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by hydro-thermal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibano, Koya; Kubuki, Shiro; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő; Krehula, Stjepko; Ristić, Mira; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of Fe3O4 and γFe2O3 synthesized by hydrothermal reaction were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A decrease in concentration of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution due to bulk Fe0-NP γFe2O3 mixture with the mass ratio of 3:7 was measured by ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The Mössbauer spectrum of NP Fe3O4 prepared from hydrothermal reaction was composed of two sextets with absorption area ( A), isomer shift ( δ) and internal magnetic field ( H int) of 56.3 %, 0.34±0.03 mm s - 1 and 49.0±0.30 T for tetrahedral ( T d) FeIII, and 43.7 %, 0.66±0.11 mm s - 1 and 44.0±0.71 T for octahedral ( O h) FeII + III. The FeII/FeIII ratio was determined to be 0.280 for NP Fe3O4, giving `x' of 0.124 in Fe3 - xO4. These results show that NP Fe3O4 prepared by hydrothermal reaction was not regular but nonstoichiometric Fe3O4. Consistent results were observed for XRD patterns of NP Fe3 - xO4 indicating sharp intense peaks at 2 Θ of 30.2, 35.7 and 43.3° with a large linewidth of 0.44°, yielding the crystallite size of 29-37 nm from the Scherrer's equation. Iso-thermal annealing of NP Fe3 - xO4 at 250 °C for 30 min resulted in the precipitation of NP γFe2O3 with δ of 0.33±0.03 mm s - 1 and H intof 46.4±0.27 T due to magnetic tetrahedral FeIII. The Debye temperature of NP Fe3 - xO4 was respectively estimated to be 267±5.45 K for Fe and 282±7.17 K for Fe, both of which were smaller than that obtained for bulk Fe3O4 of 280±4.15 K and 307±5.70 K, indicating that the chemical environment of iron of NPs is less rigid than that of the bulk compounds. A leaching test using methylene blue (MB) and mixture of bulk Fe0-NP γFe2O3 (3:7) showed a remarkable decrease in MB concentration from 1.90 × 10 - 2 to 9.49 × 10 - 4 mM for 24 h with the first order rate constant ( k MB) of 2.1 × 10 - 3 min - 1. This result verifies that MB

  2. In vivo comparison of the relative systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate from three anti-static spacers and a metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arun; Menzies, Daniel; Hopkinson, Pippa; McFarlane, Lesley; Lipworth, Brian J

    2009-02-01

    Conventional spacers help overcome problems with co-ordination and may improve lung deposition and decrease oropharyngeal impaction. Antistatic spacers eliminate electrostatic charge and may hence improve respirable dose delivery. The systemic bioavailability of inhaled fluticasone propionate is primarily dependent on delivery by the pulmonary route and hence the performance of antistatic spacers can be evaluated using adrenal suppression as a sensitive surrogate for relative bioavailability to the lung after an inhalation. This study compares the relative bioavailability to the lung of inhaled fluticasone delivered via conventional pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) and three antistatic spacers (plastic Zerostat-V, plastic Aerochamber Max, and metal Nebuchamber) in patients with asthma. All three antistatic spacers when compared with pMDI significantly increased the relative bioavailability to the lungs of inhaled fluticasone in terms of relative adrenal suppression, and there were no significant differences between the plastic and metal antistatic spacers. The systemic bioavailability of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) depends primarily on lung absorption and can be quantified by measuring suppression of overnight and early morning urinary cortisol/creatinine (OUCC and EMUCC, respectively). The aim of the study was to determine the relative bioavailability of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) FP to the lungs via anti-static plastic (Zerostat-V and Aerochamber Max), metal (Nebuchamber) anti-static spacers and metered dose inhaler [Flixotide Evohaler (EH) (pMDI)]. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, four-way crossover design was used. Eighteen mild to moderate asthmatics received single doses of placebo/HFA-FP 2 mg via the 280-ml Zerostat-V (ZS); 250-ml Nebuchamber (NC); 197-ml Aerochamber Max (AC); and pMDI (EH). Measurements of OUCC and EMUCC were made at baseline and 10 h after each dose. Significant suppression of OUCC and EMUCC occurred from baseline

  3. Bone bonding ability of a chemically and thermally treated low elastic modulus Ti alloy: gum metal.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Kizuki, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-03-01

    The gum metal with composition Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O, is free from cytotoxic elements and exhibits a low elastic modulus as well as high mechanical strength. We have previously demonstrated that this gum metal, once subjected to a series of surface treatments--immersion in 1 M NaOH (alkali treatment) and then 100 mM CaCl2, before heating at 700 °C (sample: ACaH-GM), with an optional final hot water immersion (sample: ACaHW-GM)--has apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. To confirm the in vivo bioactivity of these treated alloys, failure loads between implants and bone at 4, 8, 16, and 26 weeks after implantation in rabbits' tibiae were measured for untreated gum metal (UT-GM), ACaH-GM and ACaHW-GM, as well as pure titanium plates after alkali and heat treatment (AH-Ti). The ACaH-GM and UT-GM plates showed almost no bonding, whereas ACaHW-GM and AH-Ti plates showed successful bonding by 4 weeks, and their failure loads subsequently increased with time. The histological findings showed a large amount of new bone in contact with the surface of ACaHW-GM and AH-Ti plates, suggesting that the ACaHW treatment could impart bone-bonding bioactivity to a gum metal in vivo. Thus, with this improved bioactive treatment, these advantageous gum metals become useful candidates for orthopedic and dental devices.

  4. Spirometry with bronchodilator test: effect that the use of large-volume spacers with antistatic treatment has on test response.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Flávia de Barros; Corrêa, Ricardo de Amorim; Pereira, Luis Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Carla Discacciati; Mancuso, Eliane Viana; Rezende, Nilton Alves de

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of inhaled albuterol via a metered-dose inhaler with a large-volume spacer with antistatic treatment modifies the bronchodilator test results when compared with the usual technique (no spacer). A prospective study involving 24 patients, 18-45 years of age, clinically suspected of having asthma, and under treatment at the Outpatient Pulmonary Clinic of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. All of the patients underwent two bronchodilator tests: one with and one without the use of a large-volume spacer. There was no significant difference in the variation of FEV1 prior to and after bronchodilator use between the two techniques (mean ΔFEV1 = 0.01 L; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.06; p = 0.824). No statistically significant difference was found between the two techniques regarding the qualitative results on the bronchodilator test (p = 1.00). There was concordance between the techniques in terms of the bronchodilator test results (kappa coefficient = 0.909; p < 0.005). According to the results of this study, the use of large-volume spacers does not significantly modify bronchodilator test results.

  5. Improvement in sodium cromoglycate delivery from a spacer device by use of an antistatic lining, immediate inhalation, and avoiding multiple actuations of drug.

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, C; Lynch, J; Cant, M; Robertson, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Aerosols generated from metered dose inhalers may be highly charged. The aim of this study was to determine whether lining the walls of a polycarbonate spacer device with an antistatic agent would result in an increase in drug output. The effects of multiple actuations of drug into the spacer device and increasing residence time of drug within the spacer were also determined. METHODS--The amount of sodium cromoglycate contained in particles of various size available for inhalation (per 5 mg actuation) from a 750 ml polycarbonate spacer was determined by impinger measurement and spectrophotometric assay. RESULTS--Lining the spacer with an antistatic agent increased the mean (SD) amount of sodium cromoglycate in particles < 5 microns available for inhalation (per 5 mg actuation) by 244% from (0.59 (0.03) to 1.44 (0.2) mg). When there was a 20 second interval between actuation into the spacer device and inhalation, sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in particles < 5 micrograms decreased by 67% (from 0.59 (0.03) mg to 0.2 (0.01) mg). Use of the spacer device increased sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in respirable particles (< 5 microns) by 18% compared with direct delivery by metered dose inhaler. Multiple actuations into the spacer decreased the amount of sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in particles < 5 microns by 31% after two actuations and 56% after three acutations. CONCLUSIONS--Multiple actuations of sodium cromoglycate into a spacer device before inhalation should be avoided, and inhalation from spacer devices should take place immediately after actuation to ensure maximum dose. Lining of a standard spacer device with an antistatic agent significantly increased output of sodium cromoglycate. This may have implications for improved therapeutic response and drug cost. Images PMID:8346488

  6. In vivo comparison of the relative systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate from three anti-static spacers and a metered dose inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arun; Menzies, Daniel; Hopkinson, Pippa; McFarlane, Lesley; Lipworth, Brian J

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The systemic bioavailability of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) depends primarily on lung absorption and can be quantified by measuring suppression of overnight and early morning urinary cortisol/creatinine (OUCC and EMUCC, respectively). The aim of the study was to determine the relative bioavailability of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) FP to the lungs via anti-static plastic (Zerostat-V and Aerochamber Max), metal (Nebuchamber) anti-static spacers and metered dose inhaler [Flixotide Evohaler (EH) (pMDI)]. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, four-way crossover design was used. Eighteen mild to moderate asthmatics received single doses of placebo/HFA-FP 2 mg via the 280-ml Zerostat-V (ZS); 250-ml Nebuchamber (NC); 197-ml Aerochamber Max (AC); and pMDI (EH). Measurements of OUCC and EMUCC were made at baseline and 10 h after each dose. RESULTS Significant suppression of OUCC and EMUCC occurred from baseline with all three spacers, but not Evohaler (geometric mean fold suppression, 95% confidence interval): ZS, 2.74 (1.75, 4.30), P < 0.001; NC, 3.31 (1.81, 6.06), P < 0.001; AC, 4.98 (3.39, 7.31), P < 0.001; and for EH this was 1.42 (0.92, 2.21), P = 0.169 (equating to a 64, 70, 80 and 30% fall in OUCC via the ZS, NC, AC and EH devices, respectively). There were significant differences between all three spacers vs. EH. When compared with the Evohaler, the Zerostat V resulted in 48% greater suppression (P = 0.009); the Nebuchamber 57% greater suppression (P = 0.001); and the Aerochamber Max 71% greater suppression of OUCC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION All three antistatic spacers significantly increased the relative systemic bioavailability of HFA-FP compared with the standard pMDI. PMID:19220273

  7. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm‑2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  8. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-01-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm−2 at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling. PMID:26928921

  9. Micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated on porous stainless steel: a new strategy for enhanced thermal cycling ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Joong; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sun Jae; Lee, Younki; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturized solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) are being extensively studied as a promising alternative to Li batteries for next generation portable power. A new micro-SOFC is designed and fabricated which shows enhanced thermal robustness by employing oxide-based thin-film electrode and porous stainless steel (STS) substrate. To deposit gas-tight thin-film electrolyte on STS, nano-porous composite oxide is proposed and applied as a new contact layer on STS. The micro-SOFC fabricated on composite oxide- STS dual layer substrate shows the peak power density of 560 mW cm(-2) at 550 °C and maintains this power density during rapid thermal cycles. This cell may be suitable for portable electronic device that requires high power-density and fast thermal cycling.

  10. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  11. Comparison between alkali heat treatment and sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on thermally-sprayed rough Ti surface in rabbit model: Effects on bone-bonding ability and osteoconductivity.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of different surface treatments (hydroxyapatite (HA) coating, alkali heat treatment, and no treatment) on the ability of bone to bond to a rough arc-sprayed Ti metal surface, using rabbit models. The bone-to-implant contacts for untreated, HA-coated, and alkali heat-treated implants were 21.2%, 72.1%, and 33.8% at 4 weeks, 21.8%, 70.9%, and 30.0% at 8 weeks, and 16.3%, 70.2%, and 29.9% at 16 weeks, respectively (n = 8). HA -coated implants showed significantly higher bone-to-implant contacts than the untreated and alkali heat-treated implants at all the time point, whereas alkali heat-treated implants showed significantly higher bone-to-implant contacts than untreated implants at 4 and 16 weeks. The failure loads in a mechanical test for untreated, HA coated, alkali heat-treated plates were 65.4 N, 70.7 N, and 90.8 N at 4 weeks, 76.1 N, 64.7 N, and 104.8 N at 8 weeks and 88.7 N, 92.6 N, and 118.5 N at 16 weeks, respectively (n = 8). The alkali heat-treated plates showed significantly higher failure loads than HA-coated plates at 8 and 16 weeks. The difference between HA-coated plates and untreated plates were not statistically significant at any time point. Thus HA coating, although it enables high bone-to-implant contact, may not enhance the bone-bonding properties of thermally-sprayed rough Ti metal surfaces. In contrast, alkali heat treatment can be successfully applied to thermally-sprayed Ti metal to enhance both bone-to-implant contact and bone-bonding strength. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of sublethal fenitrothion ingestion on cholinesterase inhibition, standard metabolism, thermal preference, and prey-capture ability in the Australian central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Bain, David; Buttemer, William A; Astheimer, Lee; Fildes, Karen; Hooper, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is a medium-sized lizard that is common in semiarid habitats in Australia and that potentially is at risk of fenitrothion exposure from use of the chemical in plague locust control. We examined the effects of single sublethal doses of this organophosphate (OP; low dose = 2.0 mg/kg; high dose = 20 mg/kg; control = vehicle alone) on lizard thermal preference, standard metabolic rate, and prey-capture ability. We also measured activities of plasma total cholinesterase (ChE) and acetylcholinesterase before and at 0, 2, 8, 24, 120, and 504 h after OP dosing. Predose plasma total ChE activity differed significantly between sexes and averaged 0.66 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.06 micromol/min/ml for males and females, respectively. Approximately 75% of total ChE activity was attributable to butyrylcholinesterase. Peak ChE inhibition reached 19% 2 h after OP ingestion in the low-dose group, and 68% 8 h after ingestion in high-dose animals. Neither OP doses significantly affected diurnal body temperature, standard metabolic rate, or feeding rate. Plasma total ChE levels remained substantially depressed up to 21 d after dosing in the high-dose group, making this species a useful long-term biomonitor of OP exposure in its habitat.

  13. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity and oxidation ability of porous graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets via thermal exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fan; Li, Yuhan; Wang, Zhenyu; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2015-12-01

    Graphene-like porous g-C3N4 nanosheets were synthesized via direct pyrolysis of thiourea followed by a thermal exfoliation. With increased exfoliation temperature, the color of the resulting samples gradually became shallow, and the thickness and size of the layers were decreased. A formation mechanism involving layer-by-layer exfoliation coupled with layer splitting was proposed. The band structure of the g-C3N4 nanosheets was continuously tuned because of quantum size effect. Time-resolved decay spectra indicated that the radiative lifetime of charge carriers (τ1 and τ2) increased from 4.13 and 26.23 ns for bulk g-C3N4 to 5.36 and 36.57 ns for graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets. The g-C3N4 nanosheet samples were applied for visible light photocatalytic removal of NOx in air. The performance of porous g-C3N4 nanosheets was significantly enhanced with increased exfoliation temperature from 450 to 550 °C. Moreover, photochemical and structural stability was well maintained after multiple reaction cycles. By monitoring the reaction intermediate NO2, it was found that the generation of NO2 was inhibited. The activity enhancement of graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets can be predominantly ascribed to the prolonged lifetime and improved photo-oxidation ability of charge carriers arising from the unique electronic structure. As the synthesis method for graphene-like g-C3N4 nanosheets with high a performance is simple, the g-C3N4 nanosheets can be envisioned to be applicable in environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  14. On the oxidation ability of the NASA Mars-1 soil simulant during the thermal volatilization step: Implications for the search of organics on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, Enrique; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Ureña-Núñez, Fernando; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; McKay, Christopher P.

    2009-11-01

    The search for organic molecules on Mars has been a major goal in planetary science. Viking performed the first analyses of the Martian soil in 1976, but was unable to detect organics at the ppb level using the thermal volatilization (TV) method. Three decades later, the Phoenix lander conducted analyses of Martian soil samples by TV, and found the release of CO2 from 400 to 680°C that was attributed to Mg or Fe carbonate, adsorbed CO2, or organic molecules. We have previously reported that high levels of iron species present in the soil efficiently oxidize the organics to CO and CO2 by TV. Here we explore in detail the oxidation ability of the organic-free NASA Mars-1 soil simulant during TV in molecular hydrogen or in the presence of stearic and mellitic acids. Our results imply that there are two sources of strong oxidizers in palagonite soils: (1) hydroxyl radicals originating from the dehydroxylation of the silica layer matrix at 320°C to 600°C and (2) oxygen atoms released by the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) species at 320°C to 600°C and of iron(II) to metallic iron at 850-1150°C. These strong oxidizers completely decompose stearic or mellitic acids to carbon dioxide when they are present at low levels (<0.05% wt) in the NASA Mars-1 soil simulant. Since organics are expected to be present at very low levels on Mars, future space missions utilizing TV will face the challenge of determining if any CO2 released is of inorganic or organic origin.

  15. High-contrast process using a positive-tone resist with antistatic coating and high-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography for fabricating diffractive optical elements (DOE) on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through

  16. Electroactive Polymers as Antistatic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-07

    Ikeda, ’’Simultaneous Polymerization and Formation of Polyacetylene Film on the Surface of Concentrated Soluble Ziegler -Type Catalyst Solution’’, 3...by coating the substrate film on one side with an appropriate catalyst and then adding the *i acetylene. Chemical doping with iodine was performed by...and 0. A binding energy (BE) for 0 at 530 eV is indicative of iron oxide (8) and at 532-533 eV of organic C-bonded 0 such as carbonyls, alcohols or

  17. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.

  18. Effect of Nb Concentration on Thermal Stability and Glass-Forming Ability of Soft Magnetic (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B Glassy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jia, Fei; Zhang, Xingguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-07-01

    Addition of a small amount of Nb to the (Fe,Co)-Gd-B glassy alloy in (Fe0.9Co0.1)71.5- x Nb x Gd3.5B25 increased the stabilization of supercooled liquid. The largest supercooled liquid region of 104 K was obtained for the x = 2 alloy. A distinct two-stage-like glass transition was observed with further incresing Nb content. The nanoscale (Fe,Co)23B6 phase precipitated in the glassy matrix after annealing, while the two-stage-like glass transition disappeared, indicating that the anomalous glass transition behavior originates from the exothermic reaction for the formation of the (Fe,Co)23B6 phase in the supercooled liquid region. The glass-forming ability (GFA) also increased by addition of Nb, leading to formation of the bulk glass form for the Nb-doped alloys. The best GFA with a diameter of over 3 mm was achieved for the x = 4 alloy. The (Fe,Co)-Gd-Nb-B glassy alloys exhibited good magnetic properties, i.e., rather high saturation magnetization of 0.81 to 1.22 T, low coercive force of 2.5 to 5.8 A/m, and low saturated magnetostriction of 9 to 19 × 10-6. In addition, the glassy alloys also possessed very high compressive fracture strength of 3842 to 3916 MPa and high Vickers hardness of 1025 to 1076.

  19. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  20. Quantum Thermal Transistor.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-05-20

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  1. Quantum Thermal Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, Karl; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of three interacting subsystems, coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved by determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of three interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other two, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nanosystems.

  2. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  3. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  4. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  5. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  6. Measuring creative imagery abilities.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Dorota M; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  7. Girls underestimate maths ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  8. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  9. Thermal expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junying; Shen, Xiangying; Jiang, Chaoran; Wu, Zuhui; Huang, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    One type of thermal device, named as thermal expander, is proposed and verified through both simulation and experiment. The thermal expander performs an efficient way to expand a heat flow of line-shape front. Moreover, the thermal expander shows an advantage in rectifying a heat flow from crooked front to line-shape front, which indicates that the thermal expander could act as an efficient point-to-line heat source convertor. We suggest that the thermal expander would be of help to energy saving and emission reduction, especially in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  10. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  11. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  12. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. Ability Is Ageless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Experience Works is a national organization that provides training and employment services to older adults. Its Prime Time Awards Program honors contributions of older workers in their 70s and beyond, demonstrating the continued ability and productivity of this population as well as the benefits they derive from productive work. (SK)

  15. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  16. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  17. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  18. Trainability of Abilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    0 U -) 4-3 CA L ~~( IC 0 4 J CL 4 Cl m I.. 4J .9- s - 04l U 4 0) E .0 0.L 4 -0. 0)0 E L. 0 fa - 0 LUJ’- C. U- 12 Experimental Design and Procedures A...F DAOS 520 ADVANCED RESEARCH RESOURCES ORGANIZATION WASHINGTON OC F/ S 5/9 TRAINABILITY OF ABILITIES.CU) jUN 80 J M LEVINE N0O014-7--0268 UNCLASSIFIED...00naIvepED /Trainability of Abilities,/lMr7lMrr 7. AUTNOR(e)_ D.i".e~n 2~ CONTRACT DWUWRATTUMBER( s ) ’/N00014-77-C-0268r PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  19. Music and nonmusical abilities.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G

    2001-06-01

    Reports that exposure to music causes benefits in nonmusical domains have received widespread attention in the mainstream media. Such reports have also influenced public policy. The so-called "Mozart effect" actually refers to two relatively distinct phenomena. One concerns short-term increases in spatial abilities that are said to occur from listening to music composed by Mozart. The other refers to the possibility that formal training in music yields nonmusical benefits. A review of the relevant findings indicates that the short-term effect is small and unreliable. Moreover, when it is evident, it can be explained by between-condition differences in the listener's mood or levels of cognitive arousal. By contrast, the effect of music lessons on nonmusical aspects of cognitive development is still an open question. Several studies have reported positive associations between formal music lessons and abilities in nonmusical (e.g., linguistic, mathematical, and spatial) domains. Nonetheless, compelling evidence for a causal link remains elusive.

  20. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  1. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  2. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  3. Thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, B. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and techniques of thermal analysis. It discusses a range of applications and instrumentation from all fields of applied and basic research, and concludes with problem sets. Topics covered include: The Basics of Thermal Analysis; Thermometry; Differential Thermal Analysis; Calorimetry; Thermomechanical Analysis and Dilatometry; and Thermogravimetry.

  4. Power Losses and Thermal Modeling of A Voltage Source Inverter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Naval Research. The ability to generate thermal simulations of systems and to accurately predict a system’s response becomes essential in order to...fuel cell and reformer demonstration which is a top priority for the Office of Naval Research. The ability to generate thermal simulations of systems...9 A. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................9 B. THERMAL MODEL GENERATION

  5. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  6. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  7. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  8. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  9. Thermal Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    central nervous system ; exertional heat stroke Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 6 Lisa R. Leon 508-233-4862 Reset Thermal Stress...multiorgan system failure, and death. indicates stimulatory pathway, indicates inhibitor pathway. 336 Thermal Stressstress. Cardiovascular mechanisms have...clinically characterized by elevated core temperature (typically, but not always 440 1C), hot dry flushed skin, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction

  10. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  11. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  12. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  13. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  14. Nanoscale thermal fluctuation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrity, Patrick Louis

    The utilization of thermal fluctuations or Johnson/Nyquist noise as a spectroscopic method to determine transport properties in conductors or semiconductors is developed in this paper. The autocorrelation function is obtained from power spectral density measurements thus enabling electronic transport property calculation through the Green-Kubo formalism. This experimental approach is distinct from traditional numerical methods such as molecular dynamics simulations, which have been used to extract the autocorrelation function and directly related physics only. This work reports multi-transport property measurements consisting of the electronic relaxation time, resistivity, mobility, diffusion coefficient, electronic contribution to thermal conductivity and Lorenz number from experimental data. Double validation of the experiment was accomplished through the use of a standard reference material and a standard measurement method, i.e. four-probe collinear resistivity technique. The advantages to this new experimental technique include the elimination of any required thermal or potential gradients, multi-transport property measurements within one experiment, very low error and the ability to apply controlled boundary conditions while gathering data. This research has experimentally assessed the gas pressure and flow effects of helium and argon on 30 nm Au and Cu thin films. The results show a reduction in Au and Cu electronic thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity when subjected to helium and argon pressure and flow. The perturbed electronic transport coefficients, attributed to increased electron scattering at the surface, were so dominant that further data was collected through straight-forward resistance measurements. The resistance data confirmed the thermal noise measurements thus lending considerable evidence to the presence of thin film surface scattering due to elastic and inelastic gas particle scattering effects with the electron ensemble. Keywords

  15. Early number knowledge and cognitive ability affect early arithmetic ability.

    PubMed

    Östergren, Rickard; Träff, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Previous literature suggests that early number knowledge is important for the development of arithmetic calculation ability. The domain-general ability of verbal working memory also has an impact on arithmetic ability. This longitudinal study tested the impact of early number knowledge and verbal working memory on the arithmetic calculation ability of children in preschool (N=315) and then later in Grade 1 using structural equation modeling. Three models were used to test hypotheses drawn from previous literature. The current study demonstrates that both early number knowledge and the domain-general ability of verbal working memory affect preschool and Grade 1 arithmetic ability. Early number knowledge had a direct impact on the growth of arithmetic ability, whereas verbal working memory had only an indirect effect via number knowledge and preschool arithmetic ability. These results fit well with von Aster and Shalev's developmental model of numerical cognition (Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2007, Vol. 49, pp. 868-873) and highlight the importance of considering arithmetic ability as independent from early number knowledge. Results also emphasize the importance of training early number knowledge before school entry to promote the development of arithmetic ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    1973). The validity of aptitude tests in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology , 26, 461- 477. Hartmann, P. H., & Nyborg, H. (2004). Spearman’s...1979). Use of the position analysis questionnaire for establishing the job component validity of tests . Journal of Applied Psychology , 64, 51...that correlations among cognitive ability tests are lower for higher ability groups, yet higher for low-ability groups. SLODR also suggests that

  17. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagberg, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand-arm vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 - 0.1 × age - 2.3 × current stress level - 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  18. Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Commercially known as Solimide, Temptronics, Inc.'s thermal insulation has application in such vehicles as aircraft, spacecraft and surface transportation systems (i.e. rapid transit cars, trains, buses, and ships) as acoustical treatment for door, wall, and ceiling panels, as a means of reducing vibrations, and as thermal insulation (also useful in industrial equipment). Product originated from research conducted by Johnson Space Center on advanced flame-resistant materials for minimizing fire hazard in the Shuttle and other flight vehicles.

  19. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  20. The Effect of Core Configuration on Thermal Barrier Thermal Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Bott, Robert H.; Druesedow, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize heat transfer through interfaces and gaps and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components. The core insulation has a significant impact on both the thermal and mechanical properties of compliant thermal barriers. Proper selection of an appropriate core configuration to mitigate conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer through the thermal barrier is challenging. Additionally, optimization of the thermal barrier for thermal performance may have counteracting effects on mechanical performance. Experimental evaluations have been conducted to better understand the effect of insulation density on permeability and leakage performance, which can significantly impact the resistance to convective heat transfer. The effect of core density on mechanical performance was also previously investigated and will be reviewed. Simple thermal models were also developed to determine the impact of various core parameters on downstream temperatures. An extended understanding of these factors can improve the ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  1. Geosyncronous imager thermal balance test and thermal model modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bingting; Dong, Yaohai; Wang, Ganquan; Jiang, Shichen

    2014-11-01

    The multi-channel scanning imager is one of the main payloads of a Geostationary earth orbit satellite of China, which observe multi spectrum from earth. Passive thermal control was applied to decrease temperature rise when solar intrusion at midnight, and heat compensation was made to decrease thermal fluctuation in one orbit. Effort was focused on the scanning mechanism for its relatively strict temperature gradient requirement. In order to validate thermal control scheme, thermal balance experiment scheme was planned. Considering the complexity of solar heat flux into sunshade, solar simulator was used to precisely simulate the heat flux variation. Limited to the dimension of vacuum chamber and solar simulator lamp, only the flux into sunshade was simulated by solar simulator, and other parts was simulated by electrical heaters. The solar illuminated region was analysed in order to keep the total heat flux correct. Detailed test process was figured out to carry out two kinds of heat flux simulation. Date were acquired and compared to thermal analysis. Based on experiment condition, thermal model was constructed and modified. From analysis of all the effecting factors, it is find that thermal contact resistance between heatpipes and heat dissipating plate can largely effect the temperature of scanning mechanism. Thermal model of scanning mechanism was detailly constructed including features effecting heat flux absorption and temperature distribution. After modification, the prediction ability of thermal model was enhanced. And optimization of thermal design was made to decrease temperature level and gradient of scanning mechanism. Thermal analyse was done to estimate the optimization, and its effectiveness was validated.

  2. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  3. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  4. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  5. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  6. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  7. Mixed Ability Teaching Versus Streaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Sixten

    1984-01-01

    Discusses development of pupil grouping in European compulsory education into two opposite class organization types, mixed ability classes and ability-grouped classes. Categorizes the types along two dimensions with three program types and three grouping types, yielding nine teaching categories. Discusses comparative results of streaming and mixed…

  8. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the…

  9. Perceptual Processes and Cognitive Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl; Koch, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Examined the contribution of perceptual processes to cognitive ability with respect to stimulus complexity, response mode, level of encoding, and attention. Findings for 124 college students show that about 70% of common variance of perceptual processes and cognitive ability was due to attentive processes, with 30% resulting from pre-attentive…

  10. Wicking Ability, Water Absorption, and Thermal Resistance of Several Thermal Undergarment Fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Penmans. Current CF underwear. Sample 2 - Green knit fabric of 100% combed cotton. The knit resembles an elongated honeycomb. Made in Canada by Sportsman ...As GROUP Elites SeCUrPiy 11fcleSwfiiLaiUn g111.11)i unibser The thwse groups ewe diefined iin Appeiiilir *M’t if e hi 1Rf S. ,otty Reqularioois (1

  11. Exceptional cognitive ability: the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, David

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the outcomes related to the phenotype of exceptional cognitive abilities has been feasible in recent years due to the availability of large samples of intellectually precocious adolescents identified by modern talent searches that have been followed-up longitudinally over multiple decades. The level and pattern of cognitive abilities, even among participants within the top 1% of general intellectual ability, are related to differential developmental trajectories and important life accomplishments: The likelihood of earning a doctorate, earning exceptional compensation, publishing novels, securing patents, and earning tenure at a top university (and the academic disciplines within which tenure is most likely to occur) all vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities assessed decades earlier. Individual differences that distinguish the able (top 1 in 100) from the exceptionally able (top 1 in 10,000) during early adolescence matter in life, and, given the heritability of general intelligence, they suggest that understanding the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional abilities should be a high priority for behavior genetic research, especially because the results for extreme groups could differ from the rest of the population. In addition to enhancing our understanding of the etiology of general intelligence at the extreme, such inquiry may also reveal fundamental determinants of specific abilities, like mathematical versus verbal reasoning, and the distinctive phenotypes that contrasting ability patterns are most likely to eventuate in at extraordinary levels.

  12. Thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslett, B.

    1984-02-01

    There are basically three key ingredients to the thermal control system for any large space platform or space station. These are heat rejection (from a centralized radiator or from body mounted radiators), heat acquisition (from payloads), and heat transport (via a transport loop to the radiator). The echnical approach in the heat rejection area is to construct the radiator from individual elements so that it can be built on-orbit, is very insensitive to meteoroid and debris hazards, and is repairable. In the area of thermal acquisition and transport an added effort to better understand two phase flow in zero gravity by analysis and testing is suggested.

  13. Matrix thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  14. Does Environmental Heterogeneity Promote Cognitive Abilities?

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Estades, Cristian F

    2015-09-01

    In the context of global change the possible loss of biodiversity has been identified as a major concern. Biodiversity could be seriously threatened as a direct consequence of changes in availability of food, changing thermal conditions, and loss and fragmentation of habitat. Considering the magnitude of global change, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in coping with a changing environment is urgent. We explore the hypothesis that species and individuals experiencing highly variable environments are more likely to develop a wider range of responses to handle the different and unpredictable conditions imposed by global change. In the case of vertebrates, the responses to the challenges imposed by unpredictable perturbations ultimately are linked to cognitive abilities allowing the solving of problems, and the maximization of energy intake. Our models were hummingbirds, which offer a particularly compelling group in which to examine the functional and mechanistic links between behavioral and energetic strategies in individuals experiencing different degrees of social and environmental heterogeneity.

  15. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  16. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  17. Thermal biology of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Collier, Robert J; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment is the most important ecological factor determining the growth, development, and productivity of domestic animals. Routes of energy exchange (sensible heat and latent heat) between animals and their environment are greatly influenced by body weight, fat deposition, hair-coat properties, functional activity, and number of sweat glands, as well as the presence or absence of anatomical respiratory countercurrent heat exchange capability. Differences in these anatomical features across species have led to specialization of heat exchange. Thermal plasticity and degree of acclimation are critical factors determining the ability of animals to respond to environmental change. Increases in productive capability of domestic animals can compromise thermal acclimation and plasticity, requiring greater investments in housing systems that reduce variability of the thermal environment. The combination of steadily increasing metabolic heat production as domestic animal productivity increases and a rising world temperature poses ongoing and future challenges to maintaining health and well-being of domestic animals.

  18. Measuring Management Abilities and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Ann

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of managerial abilities and motivation is displayed in the assessment center method, where judgments depend on a comprehensive package of such techniques as paper-and-pencil tests, interviews, simulations, and projective tests. (Author)

  19. Thermal defoliation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative perception some consumers hold regarding agricultural chemicals has resulted in an increased demand for organic foods and fibers, and in increasing political pressure for the regulation of agricultural production practices. This has revived interest in thermal defoliation of cotton and ...

  20. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  1. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  2. Thermally actuated piston micromirror arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, William D.; Bright, Victor M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper reports design and characterization testing of thermally actuated piston micromirror arrays. The micromirrors were fabricated in the DARPA-sponsored MUMPs polysilicon surface micromachining process. The power averaging characteristic of thermal actuation is exploited in a novel line addressing scheme which reduces wiring for an n2 array to 2n wires. Mirror deflections were measured with a microscope laser interferometer system equipped with a vacuum chamber. Data presented includes device uniformity, frequency response, and deflection versus drive power for varied ambient pressure. Initial test results confirm that thermally actuated piston micromirrors offer several advantages over more common electrostatic designs. Thermally actuated micromirrors offer greater deflections at drive voltages compatible with CMOS circuitry. Measured thermal piston micromirror deflection versus drive voltage is nonlinear, but does not exhibit the 'snap through instability' characteristic of electrostatic devices. Operation of thermally actuated devices in rarefied ambient significantly decreases power dissipation. For a given deflection range, the power reduction facilitated by vacuum operation makes large arrays feasible. Frequency response of thermally actuated devices is limited by the ability of the device to dissipate heat, but operation at 1 kHz rates is feasible.

  3. Thermal Hardware for the Thermal Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). NCTS 21070-1. Most Thermal analysts do not have a good background into the hardware which thermally controls the spacecraft they design. SINDA and Thermal Desktop models are nice, but knowing how this applies to the actual thermal hardware (heaters, thermostats, thermistors, MLI blanketing, optical coatings, etc...) is just as important. The course will delve into the thermal hardware and their application techniques on actual spacecraft. Knowledge of how thermal hardware is used and applied will make a thermal analyst a better engineer.

  4. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  5. Thermally regenerative fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, F. A.; Kindler, A.; McHardy, J.

    1991-10-01

    The three phase project was undertaken to investigate solventless ionic liquids as possible working fluids for a new type of thermally regenerative fuel cell (TRFC). The heart of the new device, invented at Hughes Aircraft Company in 1983, is an electrochemical concentration cell where acid and base streams react to produce electrical energy. Thermal energy is then used to decompose the resulting salts and regenerate the cell reactants. In principle, a TRFC can be matched to any source of thermal energy simply by selecting working fluids with the appropriate regeneration temperature. However, aqueous working fluids (the focus of previous studies) impose limitations on both the operating temperatures and the achievable energy densities. It was the need to overcome these limitations that prompted the present investigation. Specific aims were to identify possible working fluids for TRFC systems with both low and high regeneration temperatures. A major advantage of our aqueous-fluid TRFC systems has been the ability to use hydrogen electrodes. The low activation and mass transfer losses of these electrodes contribute substantially to overall system efficiency.

  6. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  7. Thermal Effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literatures published in 2015 relating to topics of thermal effects in water pollution control. This review is divided into the following sections: biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment for organic conversion, industrial wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and solid waste, sludge biochar preparation and application, pyrolysis of sewage sludge, reduction heavy metal in sewage sludge and soil, and other issues of wastewater and sludge treatment.

  8. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The University of Georgia used NASTRAN, a COSMIC program that predicts how a design will stand up under stress, to develop a model for monitoring the transient cooling of vegetables. The winter use of passive solar heating for poultry houses is also under investigation by the Agricultural Engineering Dept. Another study involved thermal analysis of black and green nursery containers. The use of NASTRAN has encouraged student appreciation of sophisticated computer analysis.

  9. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON COMMUNICATION ABILITIES AND CREATIVE ABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO IDENTIFY VARIABLES RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION IN MILITARY OPERATIONS. THE GOAL WAS TO DEVELOP TESTS TO CLASSIFY OFFICERS AND AIRMEN, BASED UPON ALL OF THE BROAD COMMUNICATION ABILITIES NEEDED IN THE AIR FORCE. THE RESEARCH OUTLINE CONSISTED OF REVIEWING COMMUNICATION STUDIES AND OTHER TESTS, PREPARING A REDUCED…

  10. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  11. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the strategy are described. Strategies reviewed are differentiated into two-stage approaches and multi-stage approaches. Several variations of the two-stage approach are described. The various

  12. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  13. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  14. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  15. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  16. Test of Mathematical Abilities (TOMA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The Test of Mathematical Abilities is used to identify students (ages 8-18) who are above or below age peers in 5 areas (attitude toward math, vocabulary, computation, general information, and story problems). This paper describes the test's administration, summation of data, standardization, reliability, and validity. (JDD)

  17. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  18. Ability Estimation for Conventional Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jwa K.; Nicewander, W. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Bias, standard error, and reliability of five ability estimators were evaluated using Monte Carlo estimates of the unknown conditional means and variances of the estimators. Results indicate that estimates based on Bayesian modal, expected a posteriori, and weighted likelihood estimators were reasonably unbiased with relatively small standard…

  19. Ability Tests, Measurements, and Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Progress, or lack thereof, in the development of ability testing is reviewed. Current tests, though inadequate, respond to the demands of test consumers. Test publishers must look ahead to changing demands and begin to lead the market, rather than follow it, by drawing on basic research in testing. (SLD)

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, H. H.; Maree, J. G.; Sibanda, E.

    2006-01-01

    While exceptional leaders share certain qualities like a strong personal ethic and a compelling vision of the future, research has failed to provide conclusive "proof" of the link between a leader's effectiveness and his/ her emotional intelligence (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased…

  1. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  2. Resettlement and Ability - One Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanes, G. R.

    Since one aim of Newfoundland's resettlement program is to provide better schools and more highly qualified teachers, abilities of 152 children resettled at a reception center in Arnold's Cove were tested in 1971 to see if they differed from those of children native to the community. Tests used for students in grades 2-11 were the Standard…

  3. The Structure of Mathematical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneaux, W. D.; Rees, Ruth

    1978-01-01

    A mathematics test and the Thurstone PMA Battery were administered to 225 technical students. The item/item correlations were analyzed using both a principal components and a maximum-likelihood method. After varimax rotation, the same structure emerged from both. Results suggest a "mathematical ability" factor independent of…

  4. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  5. Challenging High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  6. Tuneable superradiant thermal emitter assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallawaarachchi, Sudaraka; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Maini, Philip K.

    2017-04-01

    Superradiance is a signature effect in quantum photonics that explains the collective enhancement of emission power by a factor of N2 when N emitters are placed in subwavelength proximity. Although the effect is inherently transient, successful attempts have been made to sustain it in the steady-state regime. Until recently, the effects of superradiance were not considered to be applicable to thermal emitters due to their intrinsic incoherent nature. Novel nanophotonic thermal emitters display favorable coherent characteristics that enable them to obey principles of superradiance. However, published analytical work on conventional superradiant thermal emitter assemblies shows an anomalous power scaling of 1 /N , and therefore increasing the number of thermal emitters leads to a degeneration of power at resonance. This phenomenon immediately renders the effect of thermal superradiance futile since it cannot outperform noncoupled emitters in the steady-state regime. We propose an alternative assembly of thermal emitters with specific features that improves the power scaling while maintaining the effects of superradiance. In essence, we show that our emitter assembly achieves superior power delivery over conventional noncoupled emitter systems at resonance. Additionally, this assembly has the ability to be tuned to operate at specific resonant frequencies, which is a vital requirement for applications such as photothermal cancer therapy.

  7. Thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  8. Thermal properties

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The traditional question at the start of a class on thermal properties of wood is, “Does wood burn?” The students have all been warmed in front of a wood-burning fire before, so they are sure the answer is yes—but since the professor asked the question, there must be some hidden trick to the obvious answer. Going with their experience, their answer is “yes, wood burns...

  9. Thermal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Leonard C.; Schmidt, Shelly J.

    Thermal analysis is a term used to describe a broad range of analytical techniques that measure physical and chemical properties as a function of temperature, time, and atmosphere (inert or oxidizing gas, pressure, and relative humidity). Depending on the technique, test temperatures can range from - 180 to 1000∘ C or more, allowing investigation into a range of applications, including low temperature stability and processing (e.g., freezing and freeze-drying) to high temperature processing and cooking (e.g., extrusion, spray drying, and frying).

  10. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether occupants' anticipated control of their thermal environment can influence their thermal comfort and to explain why the acceptable temperature range in naturally ventilated environments is greater than that in air-conditioned environments, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in which the thermal environment remained the same but the psychological environment varied. The results of the experiments show that the ability to control the environment can improve occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Specifically, occupants' anticipated control decreased their thermal sensation vote (TSV) by 0.4-0.5 and improved their thermal comfort vote (TCV) by 0.3-0.4 in neutral-warm environment. This improvement was due exclusively to psychological factors. In addition, having to pay the cost of cooling had no significant influence on the occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort in this experiment. Thus, having the ability to control the thermal environment can improve occupants' comfort even if there is a monetary cost involved.

  11. Imagery Ability and Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    size of the dots was varied to test visual * . acuity , the number of dots was varied to test the ability to maintain complex images, and the trajectory...REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Report #2 Ti b i / V Q/) _ 4. TITLE ( amd Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT...Mental imagery Visual thinking Spatial reasoning . 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide If necesery mid identify by block numtber) Kosslyn, Brunn

  12. Assessment of renal concentrating ability.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, J R; Donovan, B A

    1979-01-01

    Maximum urine osmolality was measured during a 24-hour control period in normal ambulant and working subjects and hospital inpatients and compared with that achieved after intramuscular injection of 4 microgram desamino-cys-1-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Most of the normal subjects passed maximally concentrated urine at some time during the control period. The results suggest that in less active subjects or hospital inpatients the DDAVP test is a suitable method of assessing renal concentrating ability. PMID:421089

  13. [Vision and car driving ability].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Visual functions relevant for car driving are: Visual acuity, contrast and twilight vision, visual field, ocular motility and alignment and colour vision. Generally accepted and standardized tests are available for visual acuity and visual field. Maximum permissible values have been defined arbitrarily and are hardly supported by studies. European standards have been published comprising also contrast and twilight vision. When examining driving ability progressive and treatable ocular disorders such as cataract and glaucoma have to be considered.

  14. Measuring Multi-tasking Ability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    world MT ability or performance. Consideration of the cognitive operations most likely tapped by the PRP procedure reveal its probable limitations...including error, decreased morale, high training costs, high turnover rates, and attrition. This research shows that it is now possible to develop a...very nature, stressful. Hence, many jobs that require MT also have high turnover rates and attrition. These jobs often require extensive training

  15. Visual Discriminatory Ability Among Prereaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, John Raymond; Ryckman, David B.

    The ability of 50 lower middle-class and 25 upper middle-class prereading children to discriminate between pairs of uppercase alphabet letters was tested. A set of 3x5 cards with a sample stimulus in the upper center section of each card and two alternative choice stimuli just below and to the right and left of the sample was used. The 650 total…

  16. Implicit learning as an ability.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition.

  17. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  18. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  19. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi E-mail: miyamoto@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  20. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  1. Influences of thermal environment on fish growth.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastián; Sanhueza, Nataly; Aguilar, Andrea; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Arriagada, Gabriel; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Soto, Doris; Quiñones, Renato A

    2017-09-01

    Thermoregulation in ectothermic animals is influenced by the ability to effectively respond to thermal variations. While it is known that ectotherms are affected by thermal changes, it remains unknown whether physiological and/or metabolic traits are impacted by modifications to the thermal environment. Our research provides key evidence that fish ectotherms are highly influenced by thermal variability during development, which leads to important modifications at several metabolic levels (e.g., growth trajectories, microstructural alterations, muscle injuries, and molecular mechanisms). In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a wide thermal range (ΔT 6.4°C) during development (posthatch larvae to juveniles) was associated with increases in key thermal performance measures for survival and growth trajectory. Other metabolic traits were also significantly influenced, such as size, muscle cellularity, and molecular growth regulators possibly affected by adaptive processes. In contrast, a restricted thermal range (ΔT 1.4°C) was detrimental to growth, survival, and cellular microstructure as muscle growth could not keep pace with increased metabolic demands. These findings provide a possible basic explanation for the effects of thermal environment during growth. In conclusion, our results highlight the key role of thermal range amplitude on survival and on interactions with major metabolism-regulating processes that have positive adaptive effects for organisms.

  2. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  3. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all p<0.001). The level of drug treatment and the length of driving history were not correlated. Discriminant analysis revealed that the most important features in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Conclusions Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  4. THERMAL STABILITY OF GLASS PLASTICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    COMPOSITE MATERIALS, THERMAL STABILITY), (* GLASS TEXTILES, THERMAL STABILITY), (*LAMINATED PLASTICS , THERMAL STABILITY), HEATING, COOLING, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, FATIGUE(MECHANICS), FLEXURAL STRENGTH, THERMAL STRESSES, USSR

  5. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  6. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  7. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  8. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  9. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  10. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe3Pt with thermal contraction in certain temperature ranges are discussed. It is anticipated that this theory is not limited to volume only and can be used to predict a wide range of properties at finite temperatures. PMID:28772771

  11. Fundamentals of Thermal Expansion and Thermal Contraction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Shang, Shun-Li; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-14

    Thermal expansion is an important property of substances. Its theoretical prediction has been challenging, particularly in cases the volume decreases with temperature, i.e., thermal contraction or negative thermal expansion at high temperatures. In this paper, a new theory recently developed by the authors has been reviewed and further examined in the framework of fundamental thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Its applications to cerium with colossal thermal expansion and Fe₃Pt with thermal contraction in certain temperature ranges are discussed. It is anticipated that this theory is not limited to volume only and can be used to predict a wide range of properties at finite temperatures.

  12. Accessing gelling ability of vegetable proteins using rheological and fluorescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Portugal, Carla A M; Sousa, Isabel; Crespo, João G; Raymundo, Anabela

    2005-08-01

    This work aims to present a comprehensive study about the macroscopic characteristics of globular vegetable proteins, in terms of their gelling ability, by understanding their molecular behaviour, when submitted to a thermal gelling process. The gels of soy, pea and lupin proteins were characterized by rheological techniques. Gelation kinetics, mechanical spectra, as well as the texture of these gels were analyzed and compared. Additionally, capillary viscometry, steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy were used to monitor the structural changes induced by the thermal denaturation, which constitutes the main condition for the formation of a gel structure. Based on these techniques it was possible to establish a relationship between the gelling ability of each protein isolate and their structural resistance to thermal unfolding, enabling us to explain the weakest and the strongest gelling ability observed for lupin and soy proteins isolates, respectively.

  13. Thermal Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Philipp Andreas

    Accidental ignition of flammable gases is a critical safety concern in many industrial applications. Particularly in the aviation industry, the main areas of concern on an aircraft are the fuel tank and adjoining regions, where spilled fuel has a high likelihood of creating a flammable mixture. To this end, a fundamental understanding of the ignition phenomenon is necessary in order to develop more accurate test methods and standards as a means of designing safer air vehicles. The focus of this work is thermal ignition, particularly auto-ignition with emphasis on the effect of heating rate, hot surface ignition and flame propagation, and puffing flames. Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels is traditionally separated into slow reaction, cool flame, and ignition regimes based on pressure and temperature. Standard tests, such as the ASTM E659, are used to determine the lowest temperature required to ignite a specific fuel mixed with air at atmospheric pressure. It is expected that the initial pressure and the rate at which the mixture is heated also influences the limiting temperature and the type of combustion. This study investigates the effect of heating rate, between 4 and 15 K/min, and initial pressure, in the range of 25 to 100 kPa, on ignition of n-hexane air mixtures. Mixtures with equivalence ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.2 were investigated. The problem is also modeled computationally using an extension of Semenov's classical auto-ignition theory with a detailed chemical mechanism. Experiments and simulations both show that in the same reactor either a slow reaction or an ignition event can take place depending on the heating rate. Analysis of the detailed chemistry demonstrates that a mixture which approaches the ignition region slowly undergoes a significant modification of its composition. This change in composition induces a progressive shift of the explosion limit until the mixture is no longer flammable. A mixture that approaches the ignition region

  14. Pilot Line Development of High-Performance Thermal Insulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Staple polyester fiber, 0.5 denier x 1.5 inches long, 15 to 20 crimps/inch, treated with polydimethylsiloxane finish (this fiber comprises 85% of the...It is a cured polydimethylsiloxane (0.1 to 0.2% add-on, by weight) that includes approximately 5%, by weight, of an antistatic detergent. After ouring...Tables 1 and 2. Approximately 300 lb of 0.5 dpf, polydimethylsiloxane -treated polyester tow and 50 lb of 4 dpf, all-polyester, side-by-side, binder

  15. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant.

  16. Cognitive processing of drawing abilities.

    PubMed

    Guérin, F; Ska, B; Belleville, S

    1999-08-01

    This critical review examines constructional apraxia from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. To our knowledge, van Sommers (1989) is the only researcher to present a global cognitive model of drawing abilities. He organizes it into two hierarchical systems: Marr's model of visual perception and a graphic production system. The latter comprises four hierarchically organized components: depiction decisions, production strategy, contingent planning, and articulatory and economic constraints. Van Sommers' model will be discussed in light of other models and on the basis of empirical neuropsychological studies (Farah, 1984; Kosslyn & Koenig, 1992; Roncato, Sartori, Masterson, & Rumiati, 1987; van Sommers, 1989). We find that: (1) the Kosslyn and Koenig visual perception model describes more accurately the perceptual components underlying copying than the visual perception system of van Sommers' drawing model, (2) Van Sommers' arguments in favor of a depiction processing as opposed to visual imagery are not convincing, (3) Van Sommers' assumption that a production strategy is a component is unclear, and (4) articulatory and economic constraints are not cognitive components, but constraints imposed during action programming. This literature review leads to a discussion of future research topics and the specificity of constructional apraxia. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Quantitative thermal diffusivity imaging of disbonds in thermal protective coatings using inductive heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. M.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    An inductive heating technique for making thermal diffusivity images of disbonds between thermal protective coatings and their substrates is presented. Any flaw in the bonding of the coating and the substrate shows as an area of lowered values in the diffusivity image. The benefits of the inductive heating approach lie in its ability to heat the conductive substrate without directly heating the dielectric coating. Results are provided for a series of samples with fabricated disbonds, for a range of coating thicknesses.

  18. Quantitative thermal diffusivity imaging of disbonds in thermal protective coatings using inductive heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. M.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    An inductive heating technique for making thermal diffusivity images of disbonds between thermal protective coatings and their substrates is presented. Any flaw in the bonding of the coating and the substrate shows as an area of lowered values in the diffusivity image. The benefits of the inductive heating approach lie in its ability to heat the conductive substrate without directly heating the dielectric coating. Results are provided for a series of samples with fabricated disbonds, for a range of coating thicknesses.

  19. A SINDA thermal model using CAD/CAE technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Spencer, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The approach to thermal analysis described by this paper is a technique that incorporates Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) to develop a thermal model that has the advantages of Finite Element Methods (FEM) without abandoning the unique advantages of Finite Difference Methods (FDM) in the analysis of thermal systems. The incorporation of existing CAD geometry, the powerful use of a pre and post processor and the ability to do interdisciplinary analysis, will be described.

  20. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  1. A photon thermal diode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E; Dames, Chris

    2014-11-17

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an 'inelastic thermal collimator' element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9 ± 0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%).

  2. Thermal Properties of Soils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-23

    electrical energy. The theory involved in computing the thermal resistivity using the thermal needle method is presented in Appendix C. i The thermal...thermal needle , consist- ing of a stainless steel hypodermic tubing which contains iOR NATIONAL. ,NO. FN-TR-29 23 a heater element and a thermocouple...22 3.1 Thermal Needle ...................................... 22 3.2 Test Procedure ...................................... 23 3.3 Results

  3. Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability.

  4. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  5. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383

  6. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  7. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-14

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  8. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  9. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  10. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  11. The Stratified Adaptive Computerized Ability Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This report describes the stratified adaptive (stradaptive) test as a strategy for tailoring an ability test to individual differences in testee ability; administration of the test is controlled by a time-shared computer system. The rationale of this method is described as it derives from Binet's strategy of ability test administration and…

  12. Innovative Allies: Spatial and Creative Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Steve V.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and creative abilities are important for innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but talents are rarely developed from these abilities by schools, including among gifted children and adolescents who have a high potential to become STEM innovators. This article provides an overview of each ability and makes…

  13. The Gendering of Abilities in Senior PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ability is a foundational concept in education. For example, one's perspective of the nature of ability influences how one conceives of the educability and achievement potential of students. However, ability has generally been under-theorised in physical education (PE), particularly in relation to gender. Moreover, default assumptions…

  14. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  15. Thermal conductivity and thermal instability of sand

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Buried high voltage power cables generate heat when a current is passed through the conductor, and failure of the cable may occur if this causes the temperature to exceed the design limit. The thermal conductivity of the backfill soil of the cable trench greatly influences the temperature rise of the cable, therefore, it is necessary to know how this soil property varies with the different conditions in the cable environment. Thermal instability, a moisture migration phenomenon resulting in a decrease in the thermal conductivity of the backfill soil, has caused thermally induced failure of many cables. Accurate methods of predicting thermal instability are needed so that the maximum amount of electricity may be safety passed through the cable. Laboratory thermal needle tests were performed on several sands to determine how the property of thermal conductivity varied with temperature, moisture content, time, and water content at compaction. Thermal instability was investigated using laboratory tests, scaled model tests, and field tests. Using a specially developed laboratory thermal instability test apparatus, the time to instability for a sand was found to increase with increasing initial moisture content and increasing temperature.

  16. A theory on thermal spalling of rocks with a focus on thermal spallation drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Michael A.; Rossi, Edoardo; Madonna, Claudio; Höser, Dragana; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Thermal cracking of rocks is an intensively studied topic in different research areas and for various engineering problems. In this context, we present a modeling approach which describes thermal spalling of rocks with a focus on thermal spallation drilling. This drilling technology uses high thermal loads to locally destruct the surface of the rock formation. With the presented model, the operating conditions which are required to initiate spalling of rocks can be estimated. Additionally, a Spallability number is introduced allowing a categorization of rocks according to their ability to spall. The presented model is based on linear fracture mechanics and the stress intensity concept. It evaluates if a crack with a certain geometry embedded in a rock with specific properties propagates during exposure to different heat loads and external pressures. Thereby, rapid heat transfer processes are coupled with induced thermal stresses and fracture mechanics in rocks.

  17. Thermal insulator transition induced by interface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2016-10-01

    We develop an effective medium model of thermal conductivity that accounts for both percolation and interface scattering. This model accurately explains the measured increase and decrease of thermal conductivity with loading in composites dominated by percolation and interface scattering, respectively. Our model further predicts that strong interface scattering leads to a sharp decrease in thermal conductivity, or an insulator transition, at high loadings when conduction through the matrix is restricted and heat is forced to diffuse through particles with large interface resistance. The accuracy of our model and its ability to predict transitions between insulating and conducting states suggest it can be a useful tool for designing materials with low or high thermal conductivity for a variety of applications.

  18. Urine concentrating and diluting ability during aging.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeff M

    2012-12-01

    Urine concentrating ability is reduced during normal aging in people and rats. The abundance of many of the key transport proteins that contribute to urine concentrating ability is reduced in the kidney medulla of aged rats. The reductions in water, sodium, and urea transport protein abundances, and their reduced response to water restriction, contribute to the reduced ability of aged rats to concentrate their urine and conserve water. If similar mechanisms occur in human kidneys, it would provide a molecular explanation for the reduced urine concentrating ability in aging and may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches to improve urine concentrating ability and/or nocturnal polyuria.

  19. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  20. A qualitative approach to assessing work ability.

    PubMed

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  1. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2009-01-01

    Existing representations of cognitive ability structure are exclusively based on linear patterns of interrelations. However, a number of developmental and cognitive theories predict that abilities are differentially related across ages (age differentiation-dedifferentiation) and across levels of functioning (ability differentiation). Nonlinear factor analytic models were applied to multivariate cognitive ability data from 6,273 individuals, ages 4 to 101 years, who were selected to be nationally representative of the United States population. Results consistently supported ability differentiation, but were less clear with respect to age differentiation-dedifferentiation. Little evidence for age modification of ability differentiation was found. These findings are particularly informative about the nature of individual differences in cognition, and the developmental course of cognitive ability level and structure. PMID:19586182

  2. Asteroid thermal modeling in the presence of reflected sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    This study addresses thermal modeling of asteroids with a new derivation of the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal (NEATM) model which correctly accounts for the presence of reflected sunlight in short wave IR bands. Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation applies to this case and has important implications. New insight is provided into the ???? parameter in the NEATM model and it is extended to thermal models besides NEATM. The role of surface material properties on ???? is examined using laboratory spectra of meteorites and other asteroid compositional proxies; the common assumption that emissivity ????=0.9 in asteroid thermal models may not be justified and can lead to misestimating physical parameters. In addition, indeterminacy in thermal modeling can limit its ability to uniquely determine temperature and other physical properties. A new curve-fitting approach allows thermal modeling to be done independently of visible-band observational parameters, such as the absolute magnitude ????.

  3. Thermal tolerance, acclimatory capacity and vulnerability to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Calosi, Piero; Bilton, David T; Spicer, John I

    2008-02-23

    Despite evidence that organismal distributions are shifting in response to recent climatic warming, we have little information on direct links between species' physiology and vulnerability to climate change. We demonstrate a positive relationship between upper thermal tolerance and its acclimatory ability in a well-defined clade of closely related European diving beetles. We predict that species with the lowest tolerance to high temperatures will be most at risk from the adverse effects of future warming, since they have both low absolute thermal tolerance and poor acclimatory ability. Upper thermal tolerance is also positively related to species' geographical range size, meaning that species most at risk are already the most geographically restricted ones, being endemic to Mediterranean mountain systems. Our findings on the relationship between tolerance and acclimatory ability contrast with results from marine animals, suggesting that generalizations regarding thermal tolerance and responses to future rapid climate change may be premature.

  4. Thermal NDE method for thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Schmeller, M.D.; Sulit, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility demonstration of a thermal scanning NDE system for thermal spray coatings. Non-bonds were detected between several types of coatings and their substrates. Aluminum anti-skid coatings having very rough surfaces were included. A technique for producing known non-bond areas for calibrating and demonstrating NDE methods was developed.

  5. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  6. Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Measurements of Volcanic Thermal Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Hook, S. J.; Davies, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measurements of high-temperature volcanic features improve our understanding of volcanic processes and our ability to identify renewed volcanic activity, forecast eruptions, and assess hazards. We will present a time-series analysis of ASTER TIR data acquired over 3 different volcanoes that span a range of temperatures typical of volcanic features: 1) crater lake at Mount Ruapehu; 2) dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, and 3) lava lake at Mount Erebus. The goals of this study were to determine a baseline for the thermal behavior of these volcanoes by characterizing non-volcanic background temperature variations as well as identify how temporal changes in the ASTER-derived temperatures relate to dynamic volcanic processes. Also, one of the on-going and future goals of this work is to develop background thermal variation models for many volcanoes to help identify changes that may occur prior to eruptions. Measuring the temporal thermal behavior of well-monitored active volcanoes provides insights on how to interpret TIR data over other volcanoes that are more remote and less well-studied. At Mount Ruapehu, 34 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures (integrated over 90-m pixels) from Apr 2001 to Mar 2006 ranged from 10 to 34 C, reflecting regular seasonal variations, with some thermal anomalies that possibly relate to increased fumarolic activity on the crater floor beneath the lake. At Mount St Helens, 19 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2000 to Feb 2006 ranged from -10 to 96 C. They varied seasonally before the most recent eruption (Oct 2004), and tracked with dome growth after the eruption, relating to dome volume and morphology changes. At Mount Erebus, 115 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2001 to July 2006 ranged from 0 to 90 C. The sub-pixel sized lava lake showed a large range of retrieved temperatures but no systematic variability, possibly due to steam frequently condensing over the lake. Currently

  7. Nano-Localized Thermal Analysis and Mapping of Surface and Sub-Surface Thermal Properties Using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria J; Amaral, Joao S; Silva, Nuno J O; Amaral, Vitor S

    2016-12-01

    Determining and acting on thermo-physical properties at the nanoscale is essential for understanding/managing heat distribution in micro/nanostructured materials and miniaturized devices. Adequate thermal nano-characterization techniques are required to address thermal issues compromising device performance. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a probing and acting technique based on atomic force microscopy using a nano-probe designed to act as a thermometer and resistive heater, achieving high spatial resolution. Enabling direct observation and mapping of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, SThM is becoming a powerful tool with a critical role in several fields, from material science to device thermal management. We present an overview of the different thermal probes, followed by the contribution of SThM in three currently significant research topics. First, in thermal conductivity contrast studies of graphene monolayers deposited on different substrates, SThM proves itself a reliable technique to clarify the intriguing thermal properties of graphene, which is considered an important contributor to improve the performance of downscaled devices and materials. Second, SThM's ability to perform sub-surface imaging is highlighted by thermal conductivity contrast analysis of polymeric composites. Finally, an approach to induce and study local structural transitions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga thin films using localized nano-thermal analysis is presented.

  8. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Germine, Laura T.; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds. PMID:25346673

  9. Face recognition: a model specific ability.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  10. Self-Care Ability in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Atashpeikar, Soulmaz; Jalilazar, Tahereh; Heidarzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the numerous physical and psychological problems in hemo-dialysis patients, they are dependent on others in some daily activities and in fact, they do not have full self-care ability. A few studies have ever been done, particularly in Iran, on self-care ability of hemodialysis patients. The present study aimed to determine self-care ability of these patients in addition to evaluate its association with some demo-graphic characteristics. Methods: This was a descriptive study in 2009 done in Marag-heh, Bonab and Miandoab Hospitals. The study population included 115 hemodialysis patients who were eligible. Data were collected using a combined and modified ques-tionnaire including demographic characteristics and self-care ability items. Results: Self-care ability was desirable in 78.3 percent of the patients. The highest desirable self-care ability in the study participants was related to vascular access (73%) and the highest undesirable self-care ability was related to follow the diet. There was a significant asso-ciation between self-care ability and some demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status and employment status. Conclusion: Hemodialysis patients did not have full self-care ability. It is necessary to enhance their knowledge about diet, complications of hemodialysis and preventive methods through accurate and permanent education so that they can increase their self-care ability. PMID:25276673

  11. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  12. Results of accelerated thermal cycle tests of solar cells modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P.; Mueller, R.; Salama, M.; Yasui, R.

    1976-01-01

    Various candidate solar panel designs were evaluated, both theoretically and experimentally, with respect to their thermal cycling survival capability, and in particular with respect to an accelerated simulation of thermal cycles representative of Viking '75 mission requirements. The experimental results were obtained on 'mini-panels' thermally cycled in a newly installed automated test facility herein described. The resulting damage was analyzed physically and theoretically, and on the basis of these analyses the panel design was suitably modified to significantly improve its ability to withstand the thermal environment. These successful modifications demonstrate the value of the complementary theoretical-experimental approach adopted, and discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  14. Thermal Bond System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-31

    thermally conductive fabric 14. Thermally conductive fabric 14 is a fabric mesh of warp fiber tows 16 and fill fiber tows 18 with interstices 20 formed...fiber tows 16 and fill fiber tows 18 must be made from a thermally conductive material. The 3 0 choice of material for the thermally conductive ones...component 25 removal is of no concern. In all cases, the viscosity of adhesive 12 prior to drying should be low enough to fill interstices 20 between

  15. Graphic Abilities in Relation to Mathematical and Scientific Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study investigated a small range of cognitive abilities, related to visual-spatial intelligence, in adolescents. This specific range of cognitive abilities was termed "graphic abilities" and defined as a range of abilities to visualise and think in three dimensions, originating in the domain of visual-spatial…

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  18. Thermal-Wave Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosencwaig, Allan

    1982-01-01

    Thermal features of and beneath the surface of a sample can be detected and imaged with a thermal-wave microscope. Various methodologies for the excitation and detection of thermal waves are discussed, and several applications, primarily in microelectronics, are presented. (Author)

  19. Small spacecraft power and thermal subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eakman, D.; Lambeck, R.; Mackowski, M.; Slifer, L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This white paper provides a general guide to the conceptual design of satellite power and thermal control subsystems with special emphasis on the unique design aspects associated with small satellites. The operating principles of these technologies are explained and performance characteristics of current and projected components are provided. A tutorial is presented on the design process for both power and thermal subsystems, with emphasis on unique issues relevant to small satellites. The ability of existing technology to meet future performance requirements is discussed. Conclusions and observations are presented that stress cost-effective, high-performance design solutions.

  20. The relationship between comprehension and metacomprehension ability.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Jonas, D; Kallod, M

    1994-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between the ability to comprehend text and the ability to predict future performance and to assess past performance on text. Subjects were poor at predicting performance, which may be why prediction accuracy did not relate to measures of comprehension ability. Measures of comprehension ability did relate to the accuracy with which subjects assessed their performance on tests. Better and faster comprehenders judged their relative levels of test performance over sections of text more accurately than did poorer and slower comprehenders.

  1. Assessment of Learning Abilities Using Rate Measures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Military psychology, *Learning, *Rates, Mental ability, Measurement, Information processing, Computer applications, Performance(Human), Aptitude tests, Perception( Psychology ), Research management, Symposia

  2. Thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea: Thermal constraints and organismal responses.

    PubMed

    Darnell, M Zachary; Nicholson, Haley S; Munguia, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature is one of the primary environmental variables limiting organismal performance, fitness, and species distributions. Yet, understanding temperature effects requires thorough exploration of thermal constraints and organismal responses that can translate to fitness and non-lethal long-term consequences under both constant and changing thermal regimes. We examined the thermal ecology of the fiddler crab Uca panacea, including critical thermal limits, thermal sensitivity of locomotion, operative environmental temperatures, preferred body temperatures, and acclimation ability. Operative environmental temperatures frequently reached the critical thermal maximum (41.8±0.8°C, mean ± s.e.m.), especially in unvegetated microhabitats, indicating the need for behavioral thermoregulation to maintain diurnal activity patterns. Preferred body temperatures (21.1-28.6°C) were substantially below the thermal optimum (30-40°C), although further research is needed to determine the driver of this mismatch. Critical thermal limits shifted 2-4°C in response to exposure to low (20°C) or high (35°C) temperatures, with full acclimation occurring in approximately 9d. This capacity for rapid acclimation, combined with the capacity for behavioral thermoregulation, is a strong candidate mechanism that explains the broad habitat use and could help explain the successful pantropical distribution of fiddler crabs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  4. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Cady, S L; Farmer, J D

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  5. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  6. Necessity of Eigenstate Thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Serafini, Alessio; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Cramer, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Under the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), quantum-quenched systems equilibrate towards canonical, thermal ensembles. While at first glance the ETH might seem a very strong hypothesis, we show that it is indeed not only sufficient but also necessary for thermalization. More specifically, we consider systems coupled to baths with well-defined macroscopic temperature and show that whenever all product states thermalize then the ETH must hold. Our result definitively settles the question of determining whether a quantum system has a thermal behavior, reducing it to checking whether its Hamiltonian satisfies the ETH.

  7. Properties of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    type analyses:, Antistatic additives ;’ Fuel ~o5 aiants / Modified fuels; Corrosion inhibitors.oý V , Fuel composition. - aim ~ " me ~ GOA"fl 15 ft"’k...97 2. Effects of Fuel Corrosion Inhibitor Additives on the Electrical Conductivity of Fuels Containing Antistatic Additives ...determine level of trace metals which had caused thermal insta- bility; to determine the interactive effects of fuel additives ; and to aid in solving

  8. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  9. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jiangang

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc., quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured

  10. Detecting thermal rectification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Cheng-Li; Wu, Chi-Hsun; Huang, Bor-Woei; Chien, Chiao-Ying; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Thermal rectification is a special heat transfer phenomenon that thermal conductance of a sample is higher in one direction than that in the reversed direction. Thermal rectifiers have been proposed to be the building blocks of phononic circuits, high performance thermoelectric devices, and energy-saving materials. Theoretically, thermal rectification has been suggested to be ubiquitous, occurring in wherever nonlinear interactions and broken inversion symmetry are present. However, currently available experimental methods have limited sensitivities and are unable to unravel the interesting effect in many systems. Here, by adopting the concept of nonlinear optics, we propose an improved experimental method to detect minuscule thermal rectification from large background thermal conductance. Experimentally, a SiC nanowire, a SiGe nanowire, and a multiwall BN nanotube are investigated and found their thermal rectification is smaller than 0.2% even after asymmetric mass-loading. The method would be very powerful in revealing interesting phonon properties of many materials.

  11. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  12. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  13. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  14. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  15. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, Sarah-Jane

    1978-01-01

    Explores (1) problems of the validity of tests of spatial ability, and (2) problems of the recessive gene influence theory of the origin of sex differences in spatial ability. Studies of cognitive strategies in spatial problem solving are suggested as a way to further investigate recessive gene influence. (Author/RH)

  16. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  17. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  18. Improving Learning Ability Through Compensatory Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    This book presents a procedure for improving, through the medium of physical education activities, the learning ability of children. Rather than using systematic exercises for the correction of certain perceptual-motor deficiencies, learning ability can be enhanced through active games, rhythmic activities, and self-testing activities. Covering a…

  19. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  20. Highlights from "Research on Ability Grouping."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Chen-Lin C.; Kulik, James A.

    1982-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Except for high-ability students in honors classes, ability grouping has little significant effect on learning outcomes, student attitudes toward subject matter and school, and self-concept. The differences that are found in grouped classes are all positive, however slight, and there is no evidence…

  1. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  2. The Learning Effect of Modeling Ability Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the goal of scientific literacy, besides conveying science and technology concepts, cultivating students' modeling ability has become important. However, in-service teachers face the difficulty that their teaching load increases while they are still bound by limited teaching hours. Teachers may know of modeling ability, life related…

  3. Assessing Social Ability in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James; Lin, Guan Yu; Lin, Yimei

    2006-01-01

    Education is a social practice and the ability to interact socially is important to social cognitive learning and social learning. Online education is frequently criticized because it lacks social interaction, a sense of social engagement, and the benefits of learning with others. Social ability with computer-mediated social mechanisms is key to…

  4. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  5. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  6. Cognitive Style: Ability and Preference Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jerry L.

    This study investigates the preference and ability components of cognitive style as measured by a verbal test for fifth-grade children. Performances from an intellectual ability test, a pictorial cognitive style test, and school achievement tests were included as construct validity variables. The results supported conclusions drawn by Robinson and…

  7. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  8. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  9. Adolescents' Conceptions of Ability and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    Adolescents' developing sense of competence is based on two domains, ability and intelligence. Intelligence testing generally presumes a conception of ability as current capacity that limits the extent to which effort can improve performance. Conceptions of intelligence, and other skills, involve implications about the nature of different forms of…

  10. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window…

  11. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  12. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  13. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  14. Improving Learning Ability Through Compensatory Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    This book presents a procedure for improving, through the medium of physical education activities, the learning ability of children. Rather than using systematic exercises for the correction of certain perceptual-motor deficiencies, learning ability can be enhanced through active games, rhythmic activities, and self-testing activities. Covering a…

  15. Contour Line Portraits: Excited about Artistic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Kari Gertz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a self-portrait project that encouraged students, boosted their self-confidence, and got them excited about their artistic abilities--while producing amazing results. This lesson effectively develops artistic ability by compelling students to see that drawing is quite simply breaking down objects into the…

  16. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...

  17. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  18. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  19. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  20. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  1. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation.

    PubMed

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose.

  2. Thermal history sensing with thermographic phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, A. L.; Rabhiou, A.; Feist, J. P.; Kempf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The ability to measure temperatures on high thermal loaded components in gas turbines and similar prime movers is critical during the design phase if the performance of cooling strategies is to be confirmed. Restricted access and the extreme environment mean that on-line temperature measurement is not always possible and that off-line temperature techniques employing thermal history sensors are sometimes necessary. The authors have developed a new type of sensor based on ceramic phosphors. These show bright narrow band emission that is easily detected and distinguished from the background. Crystallization, phase change and diffusion are all temperature dependent processes that affect the emission characteristics and that, with proper calibration, can be used to form a phosphor based thermal history sensor. Results from the calibration of crystallization in Y2SiO5:Tb and its application in the form of a temperature indicating paint are reviewed. A new embodiment of the phosphor thermal history sensor concept is then presented comprising a YSZ/YAG:Dy composite applied using air plasma spraying in the form of a thermal barrier coating. The coating is shown to function as a thermal history sensor albeit with a limited dynamic range.

  3. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jiangang

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the

  4. Extending Our Understanding of Compliant Thermal Barrier Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demange, Jeffrey J.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barriers and seals are integral components in the thermal protection systems (TPS) of nearly all aerospace vehicles. They are used to minimize the flow of hot gases through interfaces and protect underlying temperature-sensitive components and systems. Although thermal barriers have been used extensively on many aerospace vehicles, the factors affecting their thermal and mechanical performance are not well-understood. Because of this, vehicle TPS designers are often left with little guidance on how to properly design and optimize these barriers. An ongoing effort to better understand thermal barrier performance and develop models and design tools is in progress at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing has been conducted to understand the degree to which insulation density influences structural performance and permeability. In addition, the development of both thermal and mechanical models is ongoing with the goal of providing an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  5. A photon thermal diode

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Wong, Carlaton; Lubner, Sean; Yee, Shannon; Miller, John; Jang, Wanyoung; Hardin, Corey; Fong, Anthony; Garay, Javier E.; Dames, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A thermal diode is a two-terminal nonlinear device that rectifies energy carriers (for example, photons, phonons and electrons) in the thermal domain, the heat transfer analogue to the familiar electrical diode. Effective thermal rectifiers could have an impact on diverse applications ranging from heat engines to refrigeration, thermal regulation of buildings and thermal logic. However, experimental demonstrations have lagged far behind theoretical proposals. Here we present the first experimental results for a photon thermal diode. The device is based on asymmetric scattering of ballistic energy carriers by pyramidal reflectors. Recent theoretical work has predicted that this ballistic mechanism also requires a nonlinearity in order to yield asymmetric thermal transport, a requirement of all thermal diodes arising from the second Law of Thermodynamics, and realized here using an ‘inelastic thermal collimator’ element. Experiments confirm both effects: with pyramids and collimator the thermal rectification is 10.9±0.8%, while without the collimator no rectification is detectable (<0.3%). PMID:25399761

  6. Thermal expansion measurements of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Dries, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    The laser-interferometric-dilatometer system currently operational at NASA-Langley is described. The system, designed to characterize metal matrix composites, features high precision, automated data acquisition, and the ability to test a wide variety of specimen geometries over temperature ranges within 80-422 K. The paper presents typical thermal-expansion measurement data for a Gr/Al rod; Gr/Al and Gr/Mg unidirectional laminates; and a Gr/Mg (+ or -8)s laminate.

  7. Adaptive Photothermal Emission Analysis Techniques for Robust Thermal Property Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Raymond

    The characterization of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is increasingly important because they enable gas turbine engines to operate at high temperatures and efficiency. Phase of photothermal emission analysis (PopTea) has been developed to analyze the thermal behavior of the ceramic top-coat of TBCs, as a nondestructive and noncontact method for measuring thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Most TBC allocations are on actively-cooled high temperature turbine blades, which makes it difficult to precisely model heat transfer in the metallic subsystem. This reduces the ability of rote thermal modeling to reflect the actual physical conditions of the system and can lead to higher uncertainty in measured thermal properties. This dissertation investigates fundamental issues underpinning robust thermal property measurements that are adaptive to non-specific, complex, and evolving system characteristics using the PopTea method. A generic and adaptive subsystem PopTea thermal model was developed to account for complex geometry beyond a well-defined coating and substrate system. Without a priori knowledge of the subsystem characteristics, two different measurement techniques were implemented using the subsystem model. In the first technique, the properties of the subsystem were resolved as part of the PopTea parameter estimation algorithm; and, the second technique independently resolved the subsystem properties using a differential "bare" subsystem. The confidence in thermal properties measured using the generic subsystem model is similar to that from a standard PopTea measurement on a "well-defined" TBC system. Non-systematic bias-error on experimental observations in PopTea measurements due to generic thermal model discrepancies was also mitigated using a regression-based sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis reported measurement uncertainty and was developed into a data reduction method to filter out these "erroneous" observations. It was found

  8. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree.

  9. Why do spatial abilities predict mathematical performance?

    PubMed

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B; Haworth, Claire M A; Davis, Oliver S P; Petrill, Stephen A; Dale, Philip S; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship. © 2014 The Authors Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Thermal spray manual for machinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.; Ginther, C.; Herbstritt, M.; Herbstritt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Thermal Spray Manual For Machinery Components is a National Shipbuilding Research (SP-7) Project. This Manual is being developed by Puget Sound Naval Shipyard with the help of other government thermal spray facilities and SP-7 panel members. The purpose of the manual is to provide marine repair facilities with a ``how to do`` document that will be ``user friendly`` and known to be technically sound through production experience. The manual`s intent is to give marine repair facilities the ability to maximize the thermal spray process as a repair method for machinery components and to give these facilities guidelines on how to become qualified to receive certification that they meet the requirements of Military Standard 1687A.

  11. THERMAL ANNEALING OF REACTOR PRESSURE VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Mikhail A; Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2015-01-01

    Some of the current fleet of nuclear power plants is poised to reach their end of life and will require an operating life time extension. Therefore, the main structural components, including the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), will be subject to higher neutron exposures than originally planned. These longer operating times raise serious concerns regarding our ability to manage the reliability of RPV steels at such high doses. Thermal annealing is the only option that can, to some degree, recover irradiated beltline region transition temperature shift and recover upper shelf energy properties lost during radiation exposure and extend RPV service life. This paper reviews the experience accumulated internationally with development and implementation of thermal annealing to RPV and potential perspectives for carrying out thermal annealing on US nuclear power plant RPVs.

  12. Thermal Canister Experiment on OSS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Thermal Canister Experiment carried by the Space Shuttle STS-3 flight was to determine the ability of a device using controllable heat pipes to maintain simulated instruments at selected temperature levels, in zero gravity and under varying internal and external thermal loads. A total of 11 data points were achieved during the flight, including the control of canister walls, of instrument simulators and of temperatures in two different zones, as well as passive thermal control. The set point variation ranged from 5 to 23 C, with power changes of 165-325 watts. Better fluid distribution in the heat pipes during zero-g operation showed improved performance over ground tests, and a temperature stability of + or - 2 C was demonstrated between Orbiter maneuvers in which the cargo bay was shadowed from the sun and those in which full solar exposure of the cargo bay existed.

  13. Hierarchical Structure of Abilities: Factorial Validation of Higher Order Constructs in Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Patricia

    1981-01-01

    Thurstone's primary mental abilities (1938/1968) involving 57 tests were factor analyzed to produce a comprehensive hierarchical model. Kaiser's varimax solution for primary mental abilities served as the raw data for this study. (Author/GK)

  14. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  15. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  16. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  17. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  18. HYDROGEN ATOM THERMAL PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    JENSEN, L H; SUNDARALINGAM, M

    1964-09-11

    Isotropic hydrogen atom thermal parameters for N,N'- hexamethylenebispropionamide have been determined. They show a definite trend and vary from approximately the same as the mean thermal parameters for atoms other than hydrogen near the center of the molecule to appreciably greater for atoms near the end. The indicated trend for this compound, along with other results, provides the basis for a possible explanation of the anomolous values that have been obtained for hydrogen atom thermal parameters.

  19. Solid state thermal rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  20. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  1. Higher-Stratum Ability Structures on a Basis of Twenty Primary Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Cattell, Raymond B.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty primary abilities were measured using the Comprehensive Ability Battery. Factor analysis produced six oblique second-stratum factors. Four were identified as capacities in Cattell's triadic theory of ability structure. Correlations among factors yielded three oblique third-stratum factors. Implications for a hierarchical conceptualization…

  2. The Relationship between the Ability To Divide Attention and Standard Measures of General Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Sheffer, Limor

    2001-01-01

    Studied individual differences in the ability to allocate processing resources among competing tasks and its relationship with general cognitive ability for 50 Israeli undergraduates performing single and dual tasks. Results suggest that the unique ability to perform dual tasks may become more automatic and less controlled with practice so that…

  3. Space thermal control development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, M. J.; Grodzka, P. G.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations on a number of various phase change materials (PCMs) and PCMs in combination with metals and other materials are reported. The evaluations include the following PCM system performance characteristics: PCM and PCM/filler thermal diffusivities, the effects of long-term thermal cycling, PCM-container compatibility, and catalyst effectiveness and stability. Three PCMs demonstrated performance acceptable enough to be considered for use in prototype aluminum thermal control devices. These three PCMs are lithium nitrate trihydrate with zinc hydroxy nitrate catalyst, acetamide, and myristic acid. Of the fillers tested, aluminum honeycomb filler was found to offer the most increase in system thermal diffusivity.

  4. Thermal Performance Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xuhui; Moreno, Gilbert; Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the thermal performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) in-production automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The thermal performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY16, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system were characterized. Comparison of the two power electronics thermal management systems was also conducted to provide insight into the various cooling strategies to understand the current SOA in thermal management for automotive power electronics and electric motors.

  5. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  6. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  7. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles.

  8. Mars Thermal Inertia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).

    The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  9. Thermal power loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottschlich, Joseph M.; Richter, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a thermal power loop (TPL) to transport thermal power over relatively large distances is presented as an alternative to heat pipes and their derivatives. The TPL is compared to heat pipes, and capillary pumped loops with respect to size, weight, conservation of thermal potential, start-up, and 1-g testing capability. Test results from a proof of feasibility demonstrator at the NASA JPL are discussed. This analysis demonstrates that the development of specific thermal power loops will result in substantial weight and cost savings for many spacecraft.

  10. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  11. Generalist genes and high cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The concept of generalist genes operating across diverse domains of cognitive abilities is now widely accepted. Much less is known about the etiology of the high extreme of performance. Is there more specialization at the high extreme? Using a representative sample of 4,000 12-year-old twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study, we investigated the genetic and environmental overlap between web-based tests of general cognitive ability, reading, mathematics and language performance for the top 15% of the distribution using DF extremes analysis. Generalist genes are just as evident at the high extremes of performance as they are for the entire distribution of abilities and for cognitive disabilities. However, a smaller proportion of the phenotypic intercorrelations appears to be explained by genetic influences for high abilities.

  12. On the Scientific Basis of Ability Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.; Horn, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that despite aberrations, false starts, misapplications, and unfortunate crystallizations of methods and interpretations, the differential psychology of cognitive abilities is an important part of psychological knowledge about human beings. (Author/GC)

  13. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  14. Effect of scraping therapy on weightlifting ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingze; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Yang, Jinsheng; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Wang, Yingying; Gao, Xinyan

    2014-02-01

    To verify the effects of scraping therapy on the weightlifting ability by measuring the subjective sensation, and changes of biomarkers. Five students, who have been trained for 3 years in a sport school in China were participated in this study. A course of scraping therapy was applied to intervene during the normal 7-week of weightlifting training programme. The ability of weightlifting, the scale of rating perceived exertion and serum biochemical markers were measured before and after the intervention. Scraping therapy caused a significant increase in weightlifting ability (P < 0.05). The level of rating perceived exertion remained stable with the increase in the training volume. Immuno-globulin A was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in white blood cell, neutrophil, and testosterone. Scraping therapy may facilitate weightlifting ability mainly by decreasing weight sensation and improving serum biochemical parameters.

  15. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  16. Training Teachers for Mixed Ability Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wragg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of student teachers for mixed ability classes, based on the Nottingham/Leicester project. Outlines a ten-point attack highlighting the areas in which young teachers need to acquire professional skills. (Author/RK)

  17. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Ability Settings.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jason; Filson Moses, Jennifer; Snyder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that one person's expectations can influence the behavior of another person, thereby creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This study examined the effects of ability-based expectations in an experiment in which some participants ("coaches") were assigned false expectations of the basketball free-throw shooting ability of other participants ("players"). Coaches allocated more opportunities to players for whom the false expectation was positive, and fewer shots to players for whom the false expectation was negative. In turn, players who were allocated more shots made a higher percentage of them, thereby confirming their coaches' expectations about their shooting ability, and were more confident in their shooting ability following the task, than players who were allocated fewer shots.

  18. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & Beginning Farmers Communities of Interest News ... 800) 825-4264 Home About The Toolbox AT Database Resources Online Training Contact Us You are here: ...

  19. Predicting cognitive styles from spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on spatial memory reveal that people represent spatial information in 3 different forms: landmark, route, and survey. The aim of this work was to assess spatial abilities in order to predict a person's cognitive style. In order to do this we used 9 different spatial tasks, which were linked with these 3 forms of spatial representations. We found that the 9 spatial tasks are able to distinguish different levels of spatial ability.

  20. Descriptive writing abilities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Neils, J; Boller, F; Gerdeman, B; Cole, M

    1989-10-01

    The descriptive writing abilities of 15 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild to moderate severity were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Sixteen features of written linguistic ability were analyzed. AD subjects wrote shorter descriptive paragraphs than normal elderly subjects. Features related to letter or spelling errors and content words were found to be significantly different between the two groups, whereas functor word errors and number of attempted corrections did not significantly differ between the two groups.

  1. What on Mars is a High Thermal-Inertia Surface?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-08

    Coprates Chasma is located in the huge canyon system, Vallis Marineris. NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter finds indications of high thermal inertia. What do we mean when we describe a surface as having "high thermal inertia"? The term refers to the ability of a material to conduct and store heat, and in planetary science, its measure of the subsurface's ability to store heat during the day and reradiate it during the night. What causes thermal inertia? It depends on the composition of the terrain that we're studying. Here in Coprates Chasma, the site of this observation, we find indications of such high thermal inertia, so an image at high resolution may help us determine the composition and structure to give us an answer. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19357

  2. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  3. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  4. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sanna F; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  8. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  9. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  10. Thermal Properties, Thermal Shock, and Thermal Cycling Behavior of Lanthanum Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingye; Lu, Zhe; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) coatings are newly proposed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems which exhibit lower thermal conductivity and potentially higher thermal stability compared to other traditional thermal barrier systems. In this work, La2Zr2O7 and 8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) single-layer and double-layer TBC systems were deposited using the air plasma spray technique. Thermal properties of the coatings were measured. Furnace heat treatment and jet engine thermal shock tests were implemented to evaluate coating performance during thermal cycling. The measured average thermal conductivity of porous La2Zr2O7 coating ranged from 0.59 to 0.68 W/m/K in the temperature range of 297 K to 1172 K (24 °C to 899 °C), which was approximately 25 pct lower than that of porous 8YSZ (0.84 to 0.87 W/m/K) in the same temperature range. The coefficients of thermal expansion values of La2Zr2O7 were approximately 9 to 10 × 10-6/K from 400 K to 1600 K (127 °C to 1327 °C), which were about 10 pct lower than those of porous 8YSZ. The double-layer coating system consisting of the porous 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 layers had better thermal shock resistance and thermal cycling performance than those of single-layer La2Zr2O7 coating and double-layer coating with dense 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings. This study suggests that porous 8YSZ coating can be employed as a buffer layer in La2Zr2O7-based TBC systems to improve the overall coating durability during service.

  11. Advanced Thermal Energy Storage: Novel Tuning of Critical Fluctuations for Advanced Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: NAVITASMAX is developing a novel thermal energy storage solution. This innovative technology is based on simple and complex supercritical fluids— substances where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist, and tuning the properties of these fluid systems to increase their ability to store more heat. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system during the day and released at night—when the sun is not shining—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in NAVITASMAX’s system at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours.

  12. Assessing the Gap Between Current Movement Ability and Preferred Movement Ability as a Measure of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Joanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background If disability is the gap between what an individual can do and what that individual would like to be able to do, then measures that assess only current ability fall short of describing the impact of disability on the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to examine a potential measure of disability, the gap between current movement ability and preferred movement ability, as recorded with the Movement Ability Measure (MAM). This investigation was performed by establishing the relationship between self-perceived current ability and other measures and examining the evidence of convergence or divergence between the gap and other measures. Design This investigation was a descriptive study. Methods Thirty people who had multiple sclerosis and were ambulatory completed the MAM and 18 other measures of bodily function, activity, and participation. Item response theory methods were used to generate logit estimates of average current movement ability and separate abilities in the 6 dimensions of movement on the MAM. Pearson correlations were calculated between estimated abilities from the MAM and scores from measures expected to be associated with these estimated abilities, as well as between the MAM and additional measures in exploratory analyses of relationships. Results The average current ability and the separate dimensions correlated moderately to strongly (.5–.8) with many of the measures expected to be related and showed additional moderately strong correlations in exploratory analyses. The average gap between current ability and preferred ability correlated moderately with pain (−.56) and a scale of current ability (.46) but diverged from many of the measures. Limitations The limitations of this study included the lack of an intervention to assess the response of the gap to therapy and the use of multiple statistical tests with a small sample. Conclusions The evidence supports the convergent validity for current ability on the MAM but mostly

  13. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  14. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  15. Thermal Writing 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckham, Robert F.

    1987-04-01

    The creating of intelligent marks on a substrate by means of thermal energy has been in use for thousands of years, e.g., branding of livestock and burning images onto wood. During the past 30 years, this type of imaging has been significantly refined. Recent advances allow the creation of color images, 16 shades of gray and letter quality printing on white substrates. Permanent images are now being written with direct thermal processes. The foregoing make thermal writing very attractive for numerous applications. The general technology of how thermal writing is accomplished today, its applications, and why society should use thermal writing are the topics of this paper. To attempt to cover in great technical detail all of the current advancements in thermal writing is beyond our scope here. What is intended is the proposition that THERMAL WRITING is a superior form of creating images on paper substrates for Society's on demand hard copy requirements. First let's look at how thermal writing is being accomplished with today's technologies.

  16. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  17. A thermal ground cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  18. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  19. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, U.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  20. Thermal conductivity of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Kumar, G. N.; Khader, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    A value is described for the thermal conductivity of the frost layer and for the water-ice solid debris mixture. The value of the porous structure is discussed as a function of depth only. Graphs show thermal conductivity as a function of depth and temperature at constant porosity and density.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Thermal radiation measuring arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, H.L.; Sprout, J.C.

    1983-02-08

    In a thermal radiation measuring arrangement, a thermal radiation detector is located at the focal point of a collecting mirror, upon which incident thermal radiation from a surface, such as a building wall, is directed. The thermal radiation detector may be, for example, a thermopile, and provides an output signal having a magnitude proportional to the amount of thermal radiation which it receives. The temperature detection means detects the temperature of the thermal radiation detector and, for example, may detect the cold junction of the thermopile. In a first operating condition, a signal summing means receives the output signal from the thermal radiation detector and the temperature detection means and provides a third output signal proportional to the sum of these first and second output signals. In a second operating condition, a signal biasing means is connected into the signal summing means. The signal biasing means provides a signal to the signal summing means to cause the third output signal to become zero when radiation is received from a reference surface. When the arrangement is in the second operating condition and directed to receive thermal radiation from a second surface different from the reference surface, the signal biasing means maintains the same level of bias to the signal summing means as it did when detecting the radiation from the reference surface.

  3. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, U.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  4. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  5. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  6. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  7. Effect of a cavitation treatment of coals on their physicochemical properties and ability for thermal dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yu. F. Patrakov; N.I. Fedorova; S.A. Semenova

    2007-08-15

    It was found that the cavitation treatment of low-metamorphized coals from the Kuznetsk Basin resulted in not only their mechanical degradation but also changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of coal particles due to the occurrence of oxidation-hydrolysis reactions with water in a supercritical state under cavitation conditions.

  8. A zero-thermal-quenching phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Bo Young; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Eden; Moon, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jong-Sook; Im, Won Bin

    2017-05-01

    Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are efficient light sources used in lighting, high-tech displays, and electronic devices. One of the most significant challenges of pc-WLEDs is the thermal quenching, in which the phosphor suffers from emission loss with increasing temperature during high-power LED operation. Here, we report a blue-emitting Na3-2xSc2(PO4)3:xEu2+ phosphor (λem = 453 nm) that does not exhibit thermal quenching even up to 200 °C. This phenomenon of zero thermal quenching originates from the ability of the phosphor to compensate the emission losses and therefore sustain the luminescence with increasing temperature. The findings are explained by polymorphic modification and possible energy transfer from electron-hole pairs at the thermally activated defect levels to the Eu2+ 5d-band with increasing temperature. Our results could initiate the exploration of phosphors with zero thermal quenching for high-power LED applications.

  9. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800{degree}C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280{degree}F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  10. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800[degree]C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280[degree]F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found.

  11. A zero-thermal-quenching phosphor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Hwa; Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Bo Young; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Eden; Moon, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jong-Sook; Im, Won Bin

    2017-02-13

    Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are efficient light sources used in lighting, high-tech displays, and electronic devices. One of the most significant challenges of pc-WLEDs is the thermal quenching, in which the phosphor suffers from emission loss with increasing temperature during high-power LED operation. Here, we report a blue-emitting Na3-2xSc2(PO4)3:xEu(2+) phosphor (λem = 453 nm) that does not exhibit thermal quenching even up to 200 °C. This phenomenon of zero thermal quenching originates from the ability of the phosphor to compensate the emission losses and therefore sustain the luminescence with increasing temperature. The findings are explained by polymorphic modification and possible energy transfer from electron-hole pairs at the thermally activated defect levels to the Eu(2+) 5d-band with increasing temperature. Our results could initiate the exploration of phosphors with zero thermal quenching for high-power LED applications.

  12. Lecture on Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  13. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  14. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  15. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  16. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher

    2014-07-21

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  17. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  18. Lecture on Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  19. Tunable thermal link

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  20. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  2. Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2003-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used extensively in modern gas turbine engines to thermally insulate air-cooled metallic components from the hot gases in the engine. These coatings typically consist of a zirconia-yttria ceramic that has been applied by either plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition. Future engines will rely even more heavily on TBCs and will require materials that have even higher temperature capability with improved insulation (i.e., lower thermal conductivity even after many hours at high temperature). This report discusses new TBCs that have been developed with these future requirements in mind. The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is funding this effort, which has been conducted primarily at Glenn with contractor support (GE and Howmet) for physical vapor deposition. As stated, the new TBC not only had to be more insulating but the insulation had to persist even after many hours of exposure-that is, the new TBC had to have both lower conductivity and improved sintering resistance. A new type of test rig was developed for this task. This new test approach used a laser to deliver a known high heat flux in an essentially uniform pattern to the surface of the coating, thereby establishing a realistic thermal gradient across its thickness. This gradient was determined from surface and backside pyrometry; and since the heat flux and coating thickness are known, this permitted continuous monitoring of thermal conductivity. Thus, this laser rig allowed very efficient screening of candidate low-conductivity, sinter-resistant TBCs. The coating-design approach selected for these new low-conductivity TBCs was to identify oxide dopants that had the potential to promote the formation of relatively large and stable groupings of defects known as defect clusters. This approach was used because it was felt that such clusters would reduce conductivity while enhancing stability. The approach proved to be

  3. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  4. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge.

  5. Paramedics’ Ability to Perform Drug Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Kathryn J; Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Background: The ability to perform drug calculations accurately is imperative to patient safety. Research into paramedics’ drug calculation abilities was first published in 2000 and for nurses’ abilities the research dates back to the late 1930s. Yet, there have been no studies investigating an undergraduate paramedic student’s ability to perform drug or basic mathematical calculations. The objective of this study was to review the literature and determine the ability of undergraduate and qualified paramedics to perform drug calculations. Methods: A search of the prehospital-related electronic databases was undertaken using the Ovid and EMBASE systems available through the Monash University Library. Databases searched included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, JSTOR, EMBASE and Google Scholar, from their beginning until the end of August 2009. We reviewed references from articles retrieved. Results: The electronic database search located 1,154 articles for review. Six additional articles were identified from reference lists of retrieved articles. Of these, 59 were considered relevant. After reviewing the 59 articles only three met the inclusion criteria. All articles noted some level of mathematical deficiencies amongst their subjects. Conclusions: This study identified only three articles. Results from these limited studies indicate a significant lack of mathematical proficiency amongst the paramedics sampled. A need exists to identify if undergraduate paramedic students are capable of performing the required drug calculations in a non-clinical setting. PMID:20046240

  6. Cognitive Ability and the Demand for Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution. PMID:25343713

  7. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used in turbines for propulsion and power generation. The benefit results from their ability to sustain high thermal gradients in the presence of adequate backside cooling. Lowering the temperature of the metal substrate prolongs the life of the component: whether from environmental attack, creep rupture, or fatigue. Thermal barrier systems exhibit multiple failure mechanisms, depends on the deposition methods of the TBCs, chemical composition of the bond coats, and their working environments. Some of the most prevalent are studied in this thesis. There are two types of thermal barrier systems based on the chemical composition of the bond coats: Pt-aluminide and NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting happens the most in the systems with Pt-aluminide bond coats; while edge delamination is considered a possible failure mechanism for the systems with NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ratcheting is motivated by displacement instability in the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Interactions between cracks induced in TBCs upon thermal cycling have been calculated. Cracks that converge from neighboring imperfections exhibit a minimum energy release rate prior to coalescence. Equating this minimum to the toughness of the TBC provides a criterion for coalescence and failure. Imposing this criterion allows the change in crack length upon cycling and the number of cycles to failure to be ascertained. This simulation capability is used to explore various influences on durability. Samples with NiCoCrAlY bond coat are studied after subjected to thermal cycling in a burner rig. In each case, a dominant delamination has been identified, that extends primarily along the interface between the TGO and the bond coat. Calculations of the delamination energy release rate, upon comparison with the interface toughness, reveals a critical TGO thickness, (h tgo)c ≈ 3mum, comparable to that found experimentally.

  8. Concept of multisensor industrial thermal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancik, Juraj; Scepko, Pavel; Sekerka, Vladimir; Hoffmann, Uwe; Reichardt, Thomas

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the development and system integration of a non-cooled industrial thermal imaging system (ITIS) based on an uncooled linear array 1 X 128 pyroelectric detectors and internal scanner and the concept of multisensor industrial thermal imaging system for inspection/monitoring thermal processes or hazardous environments. In previous time, as first step, was developed a thermal imaging system in which was a two dimensional capability is reached with mounting of the camera on the precise programmable positional unit that exhibits positioning capability in 2 D.o.F. (degree of freedom). As a second stage of a developing an industrial thermal imaging system was mechanical design and construction of an internal scanner for linear array. Internal scanner has ability to create two-dimensional frame with selectable numbers of rows (from 1 to 128). Frame rate is depending on a numbers of rows in a frame (from 128 Hz to 1 Hz) and software averaging. The measured NETD of a thermal imaging system, without frame averaging, is better than 0.5 degrees Celsius (for lens with F equals 0.7 at 300 K). The digital part of a camera is equipped with 32 bit floating point digital signal processor (SHARC, Analog Devices), fieldbus controller (COM20020, SMCS, with implemented low-level protocol ARCNET ANSI ATA 878.1 with data rate 5 Mbit per second) and fieldbus interfaces (for twisted pair and coaxial cable). The positional unit was also attached with fieldbus controller. This paper also deals with a conceptual design of a multi- sensor and multi-actuator system based on a ARCNET Local Area Networks (LAN) with set of nodes like thermal or visible cameras, positional units and other necessary nodes.

  9. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  10. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  11. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan.

  12. Emotional intelligence: new ability or eclectic traits?

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R

    2008-09-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has developed in which some researchers focus on EI as a distinct group of mental abilities, and other researchers instead study an eclectic mix of positive traits such as happiness, self-esteem, and optimism. Clarifying what EI is and is not can help the field by better distinguishing research that is truly pertinent to EI from research that is not. EI--conceptualized as an ability--is an important variable both conceptually and empirically, and it shows incremental validity for predicting socially relevant outcomes.

  13. Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2017-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to number transcoding and mental calculation. Their individual profiles of performance accounted for varying strengths and weaknesses in arithmetic abilities. Our findings showed the pathway for the development of arithmetic abilities in children with dyslexia is not unique. Our study contrasts with the hypotheses suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of the phonological representation deficit and the core number module deficit.

  14. Human voice recognition depends on language ability.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Gabrieli, John D E

    2011-07-29

    The ability to recognize people by their voice is an important social behavior. Individuals differ in how they pronounce words, and listeners may take advantage of language-specific knowledge of speech phonology to facilitate recognizing voices. Impaired phonological processing is characteristic of dyslexia and thought to be a basis for difficulty in learning to read. We tested voice-recognition abilities of dyslexic and control listeners for voices speaking listeners' native language or an unfamiliar language. Individuals with dyslexia exhibited impaired voice-recognition abilities compared with controls only for voices speaking their native language. These results demonstrate the importance of linguistic representations for voice recognition. Humans appear to identify voices by making comparisons between talkers' pronunciations of words and listeners' stored abstract representations of the sounds in those words.

  15. Biological evidence of imagery abilities: intraindividual differences.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Brian D; Monsma, Eva V; Newman-Norlund, Roger D

    2015-08-01

    This study extended motor imagery theories by establishing specificity and verification of expected brain activation patterns during imagery. Eighteen female participants screened with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) as having good imagery abilities were scanned to determine the neural networks active during an arm rotation task. Four experimental conditions (i.e., KINESTHETIC, INTERNAL Perspective, EXTERNAL Perspective, and REST) were randomly presented (counterbalanced for condition) during three brain scans. Behaviorally, moderate interscale correlations were found between the MIQ-3 and Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2, indicating relatedness between the questionnaires. Partially confirming our hypotheses, common and distinct brain activity provides initial biological validation for imagery abilities delineated in the MIQ-3: kinesthetic imagery activated motor-related areas, internal visual imagery activated inferior parietal lobule, and external visual imagery activated temporal, but no occipital areas. Lastly, inconsistent neuroanatomical intraindividual differences per condition were found. These findings relative to recent biological evidence of imagery abilities are highlighted.

  16. The development of metacognitive ability in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Leonora G.; Fleming, Stephen M.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Kilford, Emma J.; Weil, Rimona S.; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Introspection, or metacognition, is the capacity to reflect on our own thoughts and behaviours. Here, we investigated how one specific metacognitive ability (the relationship between task performance and confidence) develops in adolescence, a period of life associated with the emergence of self-concept and enhanced self-awareness. We employed a task that dissociates objective performance on a visual task from metacognitive ability in a group of 56 participants aged between 11 and 41 years. Metacognitive ability improved significantly with age during adolescence, was highest in late adolescence and plateaued going into adulthood. Our results suggest that awareness of one’s own perceptual decisions shows a prolonged developmental trajectory during adolescence. PMID:23376348

  17. Quantitative abilities in a reptile (Podarcis sicula).

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Fraccaroli, Isabel; Gariboldi, Francesco; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    The ability to identify the largest amount of prey available is fundamental for optimizing foraging behaviour in several species. To date, this cognitive skill has been observed in all vertebrate groups except reptiles. In this study we investigated the spontaneous ability of ruin lizards to select the larger amount of food items. In Experiment 1, lizards proved able to select the larger food item when presented with two alternatives differing in size (0.25, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 ratio). In Experiment 2 lizards presented with two groups of food items (1 versus 4, 2 versus 4, 2 versus 3 and 3 versus 4 items) were unable to select the larger group in any contrast. The lack of discrimination in the presence of multiple items represents an exception in numerical cognition studies, raising the question as to whether reptiles' quantitative abilities are different from those of other vertebrate groups.

  18. Human voice recognition depends on language ability

    PubMed Central

    Perrachione, Tyler K.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize people by their voice is an important social behavior. Individuals differ in how they pronounce words, and listeners may take advantage of language-specific knowledge of speech phonology to facilitate recognizing voices. Impaired phonological processing is characteristic of dyslexia and thought to be a basis for difficulty learning to read. We tested voice-recognition abilities of dyslexic and control listeners for voices speaking listeners’ native language or an unfamiliar language. Individuals with dyslexia exhibited impaired voice-recognition abilities compared to controls only for voices speaking their native language. These results demonstrate the importance of linguistic representations for voice recognition. Humans appear to identify voices by making comparisons between talkers’ pronunciations of words and listeners’ stored abstract representations of the sounds in those words. PMID:21798942

  19. Work Ability Index among Finnish dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H

    2009-10-01

    Full-time farmers and particularly dairy farmers who plan to expand their production have voiced concerns about their physical and mental work ability in recent studies. The objectives of this study were to characterize the work ability of dairy farmers and to identify demographic groups at risk of disability and in greatest need of interventions to promote work ability. We conducted a postal survey using the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. The WAI of 399 dairy farmers (245 female and 154 male) was analyzed (response rate 41.5%). The mean WAI score was 36.0 among female and 39.0 among male respondents (scale: 7 = worst to 49 = best). The WAI decreased with age. The WAI was systematically better among males compared to females in all age groups, and the difference was greatest among those over 45 years of age. About one-fourth of females and one-tenth of males over 45 years of age were at an imminent risk of disability (poor WAI). The WAI of farmers in our study was similar to farmers in previous studies where entrepreneurs and salaried workers had better WAI compared to farmers. This study indicates that interventions are needed among older dairy farmers, particularly females, to help them improve their work ability. The first question (of seven) in the WAI questionnaire correlated well with the complete questionnaire-based WAI. The first question could be used in surveys as a condensed version of the WAI, if the same correlation is found in future studies. Based on this study, we recommend using the Work Ability Index questionnaire for assessing the health of those working in agriculture.

  20. Prudence, Emotional State, Personality, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Breaban, Adriana; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Noussair, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment to consider the emotional correlates of prudent decision making. In the experiment, we present subjects with lotteries and measure their emotional response with facial recognition software. They then make binary choices between risky lotteries that distinguish prudent from imprudent individuals. They also perform tasks to measure their cognitive ability and a number of personality characteristics. We find that a more negative emotional state correlates with greater prudence. Higher cognitive ability and less conscientiousness is also associated with greater prudence. PMID:27840616

  1. Generalization ability of perceptrons with continuous outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bös, S.; Kinzel, W.; Opper, M.

    1993-02-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of different input-output relations on the generalization ability of a single-layer perceptron. The input-output relations can be linear, binary, or sigmoid. With this choice we take into account most of the cases which are of present interest. The generalization problem will be realizable or unrealizable if the input-output relations for teacher and student are identical or not. We show that sometimes it can have a positive effect on the generalization ability, if one learns with errors.

  2. Room temperature screening of thermal conductivity by means of thermal transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Cheng, Shudan; Márquez-García, Lourdes; Prest, Martin J.; Akbari-Rahimabadi, Ahmad; Min, Gao

    2016-10-01

    A proof of concept of the possibility to estimate thermal conductivity of bulk disc samples at room temperature by means of thermal decays is demonstrated. An experimental set-up was designed and fabricated, which is able to perform thermal transient measurements by using a specially designed multifunctional probe that has the ability to measure temperature at its tip. Initially, the probe is heated by a heater coil located in its interior until the tip temperature reaches a steady state. Then, the probe is contacted with a disc sample which produces a temperature decay until a new state is reached. The difference between the initial and final states temperatures shows a correlation with the thermal conductivity of the sample. Employing a calibration equation, obtained using reference materials, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Reasonably good random and systematic errors (<13% and ~9% respectively) are obtained. Theoretical simulations performed using COMSOL show a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. This new method involves an inexpensive and simple set-up which can be especially useful for thermal conductivity screening and high-throughput measurements.

  3. Thermal properties of nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Philip, John; Shima, P D

    2012-11-15

    Colloidal suspensions of fine nanomaterials in the size range of 1-100 nm in carrier fluids are known as nanofluids. For the last one decade, nanofluids have been a topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and possible heat transfer applications. Miniaturization and increased operating speeds of gadgets warranted the need for new and innovative cooling concepts for better performance. The low thermal conductivity of conventional heat transfer fluid has been a serious impediment for improving the performance and compactness of engineering equipments. Initial studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions with micrometer-sized particles encountered problems of rapid settling of particles, clogging of flow channels and increased pressure drop in the fluid. These problems are resolved by using dispersions of fine nanometer-sized particles. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies, it is still unclear whether the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids is anomalous or within the predictions of effective medium theory. Further, many reports on thermal conductivity of nanofluids are conflicting due to the complex issues associated with the surface chemistry of nanofluids. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field of nanofluids, especially the important material properties that affect the thermal properties of nanofluids and novel approaches to achieve extremely high thermal conductivities. The background information is also provided for beginners to better understand the subject.

  4. Development and Fatigue Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. Durability of the coating systems remains a critical issue with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Thermal conductivity increase and coating degradation due to sintering and phase changes are known to be detrimental to coating performance. There is a need to characterize the coating thermal fatigue behavior and temperature limit, in order to potentially take full advantage of the current coating capability. In this study, thermal conductivity and cyclic fatigue behaviors of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings were evaluated under high temperature, large thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. The coating degradation and failure processes were assessed by real-time monitoring of the coating thermal conductivity under the test conditions. The ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation driving forces and failure modes under the cyclic thermal loads will be discussed in light of the high temperature mechanical fatigue and fracture testing results.

  5. Thermalized axion inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Notari, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the dynamics of inflationary models with a coupling of the inflaton phi to gauge fields of the form phi F tilde F/f, as in the case of axions. It is known that this leads to an instability, with exponential amplification of gauge fields, controlled by the parameter ξ= dot phi/(2fH), which can strongly affect the generation of cosmological perturbations and even the background. We show that scattering rates involving gauge fields can become larger than the expansion rate H, due to the very large occupation numbers, and create a thermal bath of particles of temperature T during inflation. In the thermal regime, energy is transferred to smaller scales, radically modifying the predictions of this scenario. We thus argue that previous constraints on ξ are alleviated. If the gauge fields have Standard Model interactions, which naturally provides reheating, they thermalize already at ξgtrsim2.9, before perturbativity constraints and also before backreaction takes place. In absence of SM interactions (i.e. for a dark photon), we find that gauge fields and inflaton perturbations thermalize if ξgtrsim3.4 however, observations require ξgtrsim6, which is above the perturbativity and backreaction bounds and so a dedicated study is required. After thermalization, though, the system should evolve non-trivially due to the competition between the instability and the gauge field thermal mass. If the thermal mass and the instabilities equilibrate, we expect an equilibrium temperature of Teq simeq ξ H/bar g where bar g is the effective gauge coupling. Finally, we estimate the spectrum of perturbations if phi is thermal and find that the tensor to scalar ratio is suppressed by H/(2T), if tensors do not thermalize.

  6. Vocabulary Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Relation to Visuospatial Construction Ability

    PubMed Central

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; John, Angela E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This project was designed to identify relative strengths and weaknesses in vocabulary ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS) and to demonstrate the importance of stringent matching criteria for cross-group comparisons. Methods Children with WS and typically developing (TD) children completed standardized assessments of intellectual and language ability. Children with WS also completed a visuospatial construction ability assessment. Results Study 1: Concrete and relational vocabulary standard scores were significantly lower for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS than for TD children. Children with WS earned significantly higher standard scores for concrete than for relational vocabulary. When groups were stringently matched for relational vocabulary size, children with WS did not evidence a specific weakness in spatial vocabulary. Study 2: Standard scores for relational vocabulary were similar to those for visuospatial construction ability for 5 – 7-year-olds with WS. Study 3: 9 – 11-year-olds with WS demonstrated very limited relational vocabulary ability; relational vocabulary ability at 5 – 7 years was highly correlated with later relational language ability. Conclusions Concrete vocabulary is a relative strength for children with WS; relational vocabulary ability is very limited and is at about the level of visuospatial construction ability. Accurate determination of group comparison results depends on stringent group matching. PMID:18658065

  7. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  8. Thermal barrier coating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.; Leibert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A coating system which contains a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating is applied to metal surfaces such as turbine blades and provides both low thermal conductivity and improved adherence when exposed to high temperature gases or liquids. The bond coating contains NiCrAlY and the thermal barrier coating contains a reflective oxide. The reflective oxides ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-MgO have demonstrated significant utility in high temperature turbine applications.

  9. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  10. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization.

    PubMed

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark

    2012-03-16

    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  11. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  12. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  13. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  14. Thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, M. L.

    1988-11-01

    It has recently been shown that an inhomogeneous, anisotropic Hall coefficient, arising from a charge-density-wave domain structure, explains the nonsaturating electrical magnetoresistance of potassium. It is shown here that the same mechanism also explains the observed behavior of the thermal magnetoresistance. The transverse thermal magnetoresistance of a domain structure increases with increasing field, having both a linear and quadratic component. The longitudinal thermal magnetoresistance of a domain structure initially increases linearly with increasing field. Its behavior in higher fields, however, depends on whether or not the domain distribution is symmetric about the field direction. If the distribution is symmetric, saturation occurs; otherwise, a residual increase is possible.

  15. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  16. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  17. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  18. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  19. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  20. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  1. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  2. Test Reliability by Ability Level of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; Sax, Gilbert

    Achievement test reliability as a function of ability was determined for multiple sections of a large university French class (n=193). A 5-option multiple-choice examination was constructed, least attractive distractors were eliminated based on the instructor's judgment, and the resulting three forms of the examination (i.e. 3-, 4-, or 5-choice…

  3. Informal Assessment of Older Readers' Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedow, Mary Dunn

    1991-01-01

    Explores the utility of an informal reading inventory for assessing the reading abilities of college students. Determines the amount and kinds of information that can be learned from an informal reading inventory. Determines whether information gained from the Advanced Reading Inventory differed qualitatively from that obtained from the Nelson…

  4. Cognitive Styles, Spatial Ability, and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterly, David J.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelationships of intelligence, field independence, analytic cognitive style, and spatial and perceptual abilities among boys were examined. The contribution of cognitive style to the prediction of English and mathematics achievement was investigated. Substantial overlap was confirmed between field independence and intelligence. An…

  5. Memory for Words and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Ruth

    This paper examines the relationship between strategies for recall of verbal material and the reading ability of 10-to-13-year-old children. Sixty-five fifth and sixth graders, whose reading levels were determined by the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test (1964), were given an orally presented word-string repetition task. While performance on…

  6. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  7. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies…

  8. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

  9. Research on Assessing Human Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Harry H.

    The primary objectives of this project commonly refereed to as "Assessing Human Abilities" were: (1) to provide reference measures for cognitive factors; and (2) to provide a guide to reference measures for self-report temperament factors. The overall objective was to conduct research in the area of factor analysis directed toward the…

  10. On Developing Students' Spatial Visualisation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risma, Dwi Afrini; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at studying on how students develop their spatial visualisation abilities. In this paper, one of five activities in an ongoing classroom activity is discussed. This paper documents students' learning activity in exploring the building blocks. The goal of teaching experiment is to support the development of students' spatial…

  11. Teacher Knowledge/Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between increased spending for education and student achievement have failed to take into account teacher knowledge and ability. The authors' study showed wide variation within schools and concluded that research on the effects of schooling is weakened by concentrating on entire schools and school systems. (Author/WD)

  12. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  13. Rasch Based Analysis of Reading Ability Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…

  14. Investigating Prosodic Ability in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, Catherine; Howard, Sara; Stojanovik, Vesna; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Wells, Bill

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates whether people with Williams syndrome (WS) have prosodic impairments affecting their expression and comprehension of four main uses of intonation. Two adolescent males with WS were assessed using the PEPS-C battery, which considers prosodic abilities within a psycholinguistic framework, assessing prosodic form and function…

  15. Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In…

  16. Spatial Ability and Cerebral Sensory Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    To provide converging support that the proper integration of analog and propositional representational systems is associated with spatial ability, the visual, auditory, and bimodal brain event-related potentials were recorded from 50 right-handed Caucasian males. Sensory interaction indices were derived for these subjects who had taken the Surface…

  17. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies…

  18. 21st Century Conceptions of Musical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored conceptions of musical ability using an inventory derived from previous qualitative research. Participants included 102 musicians, 95 educators, 132 adult amateur musicians, 60 adults who were not actively engaged in making music, 193 children actively engaged in making music in addition to their engagement with the school…

  19. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  20. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  1. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  2. Dis/Ability through Artists' Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Suesi; Gervais, Julie; Dase, Monica; Griseta, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An individual's concept of disability depends upon one's experience, based on personal, physical, mental, and emotional knowledge (Linton, 1998; Wendell, 1996). The United Nations (United Nations, 2005) defines disability as any restriction or deficiency of ability to perform within the range of what is considered normal for an individual. A…

  3. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  4. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  5. A NATIONAL INVENTORY OF APITUDES AND ABILITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLANAGAN, JOHN C.

    A SURVEY, KNOWN AS PROJECT TALENT, IS TO BE A SERIES OF EXAMINATIONS ADMINISTERED TO 500,000 STUDENTS IN 1,000 SAMPLE SCHOOLS. IT AIMS AT MEASURING THE STUDENT'S PRESENT KNOWLEDGE AND HIS POTENTIAL APTITUDES AND ABILITIES. THE RESULTS OF THIS 1960 CENSUS WILL BE SCORED, ANALYZED, AND EVALUATED BY SPECIAL ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT. THE PROJECT IS BEING…

  6. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  7. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  8. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  9. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal assistance will be provided in the language spoken by such clients....

  10. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  11. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception.

    PubMed

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  12. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities.

  13. Do mental speed and musical abilities interact?

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Wilfried; Galley, Niels; Kluth, Christine

    2003-11-01

    The relation between mental speed and musical ability was investigated. Seventeen subjects aged 3-7 years were divided into two subgroups: one (G1; n = 9) consisted of children who participated in an early childhood music program and who received informal musical guidance, but no special training; the other (G2; n = 8) consisted of highly talented young violin players who received intensive parental support and special training by daily deliberate practice. Mental and musical abilities of both groups were controlled by standardized tests (Kaufman's ABC and Gordon's PMMA) and compared with data taken from recordings of saccadic eye movement using online identification from an electrooculogram (EOG). Results of EOG measurement are referred to as "mental speed," which correlates highly with general mental abilities (intelligence). These results were compared with EOG scores taken from a larger sample of children of the same age range (n = 82) who received no music instruction. The grand average of their scores served as a reference line for mental speed, which is normally expected to be performed by an equivalent age group. Data in the two experimental groups did not differ statistically; however, all musically experienced children had a highly significant advantage in mental age (P <0.01) compared to the reference line of the normal population who did not exhibit any effect of training and practice. This indicates strong interaction between mental speed and music ability, which can be interpreted in terms of the expertise model and cognitive transfer effects.

  14. Self-reported empathic abilities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Montag, C; Heinz, A; Kunz, D; Gallinat, J

    2007-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates impairments of empathic abilities in schizophrenia that may impact outcome and course of the disease. While there is consensus on the presence of deficits in 'theory of mind' in this disorder, i.e. cognitive aspects of mental state attribution, the ability to infer emotional experiences of others, i.e. affective empathy, has not been investigated so far. We assessed multiple dimensions of empathy in 45 schizophrenic patients and 45 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, with a self-rating instrument, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). To control for modulating effects of cognitive deficits, a neuropsychological test battery was employed. Schizophrenic patients showed significantly lower scores in cognitive empathy ('perspective taking': F=12.176, df=1, p=0.001) but more self-related aversive feelings in response to the distress of others ('personal distress: F=16.477, df=1, p<0.001). Self-ratings of affective empathy, i.e. concern for others, did not differ between groups. Results in the domains of empathy were not explained by symptoms or neurocognition as revealed by regression analysis. However, lower scores in 'perspective taking' were found with advancing duration of illness (r=-0.453, p=0.002). Results indicate reductions of cognitive empathy but relatively preserved emotional empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Although previous studies observed deficits in emotion perception and expression, our findings support the concept of differentially disturbed abilities in cognitive and emotional empathy in schizophrenia.

  15. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  16. Cognitive Correlates of Map-Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholl, M. Jeanne; Egeth, Howard E.

    1982-01-01

    When the mathematics and extended range vocabulary subtests on the Relief Format Assessment Test were factor analyzed, altitude estimation (predicted by mathematics aptitude) and terrain analysis (predicted by vocabulary skills) were found to underly map-reading performance. Solutions were found to be dependent on verbal-analytic ability more than…

  17. Identities of Dis/Ability and Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Ridley, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Centring on a small-scale capability-based case study of music provision for adults with profound dis/abilities, this paper considers the significance of music and music education in people's lives. It offers a philosophical defence of music's importance in enjoying a truly human life and then, drawing on an overview of the work of dis/abled…

  18. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  19. Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In…

  20. Designing Playgrounds for Children of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltsman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Provides performance criteria for creating accessibility for and integration of children of all abilities within school playgrounds. Included are recommendations for accessible route designs; play equipment; sand and water play; gathering places and outdoor classrooms; entrances and signage; and fences, enclosures, and barriers. Proposed changes…

  1. Pragmatic Ability and Disability as Emergent Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A holistic approach to pragmatic ability and disability is outlined which takes account both of the behaviour of individuals involved in the communicative process, and also of the underlying factors which contribute to such behaviour. Rather than being seen as resulting directly from a dysfunction in some kind of discrete pragmatic "module" or…

  2. Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex

    2017-05-01

    As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence - especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey - can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.

  3. Response Ability Pathways: A Curriculum for Connecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Nancy; Seger, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a new training curriculum for educators, youth workers, and mentors which draws from research and best practices in positive youth development and positive behavior support. Response Ability Pathways or RAP focuses on three practical interventions: connect to others for support, clarify challenging problems, and restore…

  4. 13 CFR 120.382 - Repayment ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... doubts concerning the small business' proposed business plan for transition to non-defense-related... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repayment ability. 120.382 Section 120.382 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special...

  5. 13 CFR 120.382 - Repayment ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... doubts concerning the small business' proposed business plan for transition to non-defense-related... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repayment ability. 120.382 Section 120.382 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special...

  6. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  7. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  8. Mixed Ability Teaching: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Margaret I.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study of 500 teachers in Great Britain who were interviewed about what they hoped to achieve in their mixed ability classes and the approaches they were using. Examines school policy and its implementation, pupil allocation, teaching advantages and disadvantages, and subject differences and teaching approaches. (CT)

  9. Using Poetry with Mixed Ability Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of using poetry to teach English as a second language to mixed ability classes. Lists the following criteria for selecting poems: (1) universal appeal; (2) surface simplicity, (3) potential depth, (4) affective potential, (5) contemporary language, (6) brevity, and (7) potential for illustration. Describes ways of using two…

  10. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  11. Helping the Student of Low Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, William

    1977-01-01

    A Spanish course is described in which reading ability was gained as a preliminary to a conventional first-year language course. Through passive learning, recognition of vocabulary and grammatical structure was achieved, and correct pronunciation and writing drills reinforced learning. Good results were obtained in the subsequent conventional…

  12. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  13. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  14. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  15. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. An Informal Assessment of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; Dangel, Harry

    1978-01-01

    In a study to determine if a classroom teacher with understanding of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities could predict subtest scores comparable to those obtained from administration of the test itself, seven masters-level special educators evaluated 28 learning disabled (LD) children (ages 6 through 11 years). (PHR)

  17. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  18. Occupational complexity and lifetime cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Smart, Emily L; Gow, Alan J; Deary, Ian J

    2014-12-09

    To examine associations between complexity of main lifetime occupation and cognitive performance in later life. Occupational complexity ratings for data, people, and things were collected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles for 1,066 individuals (men = 534, women = 532) in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. IQ data were available from mean age 11 years. Cognitive ability data across the domains of general ability, processing speed, and memory were available at mean age 70 years. General linear model analyses indicated that complexity of work with people and data were associated with better cognitive performance at age 70, after including age 11 IQ, years of education, and social deprivation. The current findings are supportive of the differential preservation hypotheses that more stimulating environments preserve cognitive ability in later life, although the continued effects into old age are still debated. Studies that have early-life cognitive ability measures are rare, and the current study offers interesting prospects for future research that may further the understanding of successful aging. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Age Norms for Straw-Drinking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lauren; Lewis, Danielle; Reisel, Sharon; Waldrup, Lanae; Wooster, Donna M. Adam

    2000-01-01

    A study of 28 infants (ages 8-12 months) investigated their ability to drink from a straw. Results indicate 22 percent were not able to drink from a straw, whereas 78 percent were able to do so. Data failed to reveal any significant differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity. (Contains nine references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  1. Learning ability in children with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elefant, Cochavit; Wigram, Tony

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present results of a research study examining learning ability in individuals with Rett syndrome. The material for this article was drawn from a more extensive doctoral study, designed to investigate intentional communication in this population, through the use of songs in music therapy. Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder resulting from an X-linked mutation, affecting mainly females, and found across racial and ethnic groups worldwide. One of the main areas affecting functioning in individuals with Rett syndrome is a severe impairment of receptive and expressive communication. This creates difficulties when attempting to reveal their potential learning abilities. This population has been observed as very responsive to music hence music therapy intervention has been advocated in promoting and motivating them to communicate and to learn. Seven girls with Rett syndrome, between ages 4 and 10 participated in the study. A single subject, multiple probe design was applied during 30-min trials, three times per week and lasted 8 months. During the trials the participants were asked to choose from a selection of 18 familiar and unfamiliar songs, while their ability to learn was observed and measured. Findings revealed that all seven girls demonstrated an ability to learn and to sustain learning over time. This intervention demonstrated that individuals with Rett syndrome could be promoted and motivated to communicate and learn when therapeutically employed by a trained music therapists.

  2. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  3. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  4. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  5. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  6. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  7. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  8. Improving Spatial Ability with Mentored Sketching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.; Miller, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    As the result of a qualitative investigation into spatial ability, a teaching technique called mentored sketching was found to be effective for teaching visualization skills to freshman engineering students. This contribution describes the technique, how it evolved, and comments made by students as to its effectiveness. While mentored sketching…

  9. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  10. Immigrants, English Ability and the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiroshi; Zavodny, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent and causes of inequalities in information technology ownership and use between natives and immigrants in the United States, with particular focus on the role of English ability. The results indicate that, during the period 1997-2003, immigrants were significantly less likely to have access to or use a computer and…

  11. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  12. Why Do Spatial Abilities Predict Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Dale, Philip S.; Malykh, Sergey; Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance.…

  13. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  14. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-02-03

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied.

  15. Window Presentation Styles and User's Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastecki, Victoria L.; Berry, Louis H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of spatial ability level and window presentation style of tiled and overlapped computer displays on the achievement of dental hygiene students. Participants were 43 first-term Dental Hygiene students enrolled full-time at a University School of Dental Medicine. Phase one of this project…

  16. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  17. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  18. Effects of Infant Starvation on Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.

    Explored were the effects of starvation during infancy on the learning abilities of 50 children when evaluated between 5 and 14 years of age. All Ss had suffered from pyloric stenosis, a condition which prevents passage of food from the stomach, in infancy for periods ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. Ss were given five tests of various learning…

  19. Nine Actions to Build Students' Mathematics Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    The author was asked to develop a list of actions that teachers could take to build students' mathematics abilities. Too many students fail to graduate and fail to pass state assessments as a result of weak mathematics skills. Even many students who do graduate leave high school lacking sufficient understanding of mathematics to pass college…

  20. Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals have a greater capacity than others to carry out sophisticated information processing about emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. The authors have termed this set of abilities emotional intelligence (EI). Since the introduction of the concept, however, a schism has…

  1. The Development of Mental Abilities in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates the nature and the factor structure of infant intelligence. The Bayley Mental Scale items were administered. According to the analysis, intelligence at any age is a set of separate mental abilities at each age, and there are a variety of paths through which mental development occurs. (JAZ)

  2. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  3. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  4. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  5. Optical spectroscopy of arrays of Ag-Au nanoparticles obtained by vacuum-thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, D. G.; Mel'nikov, I. V.; Savitskii, A. I.; Trifonov, A. Yu.; Redichev, E. N.; Astapenko, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of creating irregular arrays of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles is investigated. The ability to manipulate their optical properties based on the simple engineering processes of thermal spraying followed by low-temperature annealing is demonstrated.

  6. Work ability of health care shift workers: What matters?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Borges, Flavio Notarnicola da Silva; Rotenberg, Lucia; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Soares, Nilson Santos; Rosa, Patricia Lima Ferreira Santa; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Nagai, Roberta; Steluti, Josiane; Landsbergis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying variables associated with inadequate work ability among nursing personnel at a public hospital, considering factors related to socio-demographic, lifestyles, working conditions, and health outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, as part of a larger research study on tolerance to 12 h night work. Nursing staff included registered nurses, nurse technicians, and nurse aides; in total, there were 996 healthcare workers (878 female; 118 male) at the time of the study. Some 696 workers (69.9%) of the population agreed to participate. Data collection (October 2004-July 2005) was based on a comprehensive questionnaire about living and working conditions (including incivility at work, work demands, work control, and support), mental and physical health symptoms (fatigue and sleep problems), and work ability. This report presents analyses of the adapted Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index (WAI) and associated variables. The study population worked one of the following shift schedules at this hospital: 12 h nights followed by 36 h off or 9 h or 6 h day (morning or afternoon) shifts. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 (S.D.+/-10.4) years of age; 31.5% of the participants held two jobs. Statistical analyses using a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model were performed to evaluate the factors associated with inadequate (moderate and low scores) of the WAI. The significantly associated factors were socio-demographic (income responsibility, sole breadwinner, raising kids, age group), working conditions (thermal discomfort, organization of the workplace, and verbal abuse), and health outcomes (high body mass index, obesity, sleep problems, and fatigue). In spite of limitations of the study design, results indicate that the nursing profession is associated with stressful working conditions, contributing to inadequate WAI. This is in addition to bad living conditions and

  7. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  8. The impact of depression on musical ability.

    PubMed

    Reker, Paul; Domschke, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Evers, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    While there is sustained effort to refine the models and to further decrypt the neuronal underpinnings of cerebral music perception, empirical investigations on the associations of music perception with diagnoses others than focal brain damage need to be amplified. In the present study, a validated and standardized clinical test of musical ability was applied to a sample of severely depressed patients. Basic musical capacities of rhythm, melody and pitch perception, recognition of emotions, and musical memory were evaluated and compared to matched healthy controls and reassessed in a follow-up examination after clinical remission. We enroled 21 in-patients with major depression according to ICD-10 (F32 and F33). The score in the test of musical ability (maximum score 70) was 52.3±7.8 for the patient group and 57.8±4.3 for the control group (p=0.010). In particular, melody comparison, rhythm perception, and emotional categorising of music were impaired in patients. In the longitudinal study, patients improved from 53.6±7.8 to 56.2±6.7 (p=0.038); this improvement could be related to clinical improvement on the Hamilton Depression Scale. The sample size is small, in particular in the follow-up study. The results clearly revealed a significant reduction of musical ability in patients with depression. A part of the patients could even be diagnosed with a clinically relevant amusia. Along with significant decrease of depressive symptoms, the patients significantly improved with respect to musical ability. These findings suggest a systematic impact of depression on musical ability, they are of importance for the application of music therapy in depressive patients and for the function of music to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  10. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  11. Analysis of Thermal Radiation Effects on Temperatures in Turbine Engine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are important, and in some instances a necessity, for high temperature applications such as combustor liners, and turbine vanes and rotating blades for current and advanced turbine engines. Some of the insulating materials used for coatings, such as zirconia that currently has widespread use, are partially transparent to thermal radiation. A translucent coating permits energy to be transported internally by radiation, thereby increasing the total energy transfer and acting like an increase in thermal conductivity. This degrades the insulating ability of the coating. Because of the strong dependence of radiant emission on temperature, internal radiative transfer effects are increased as temperatures are raised. Hence evaluating the significance of internal radiation is of importance as temperatures are increased to obtain higher efficiencies in advanced engines.

  12. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical modeling of insensitive explosives in thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.L. III

    1996-05-01

    The ability to predict the response of a weapon system that contains insensitive explosives to elevated temperatures is important in understanding its safety characteristics. To model such a system at elevated temperatures in a finite element computer code requires a variety of capabilities. These modeling capabilities include thermal diffusion and convection to transport the heat to the explosives in the weapon system, temperature based chemical reaction modeling of the decomposition of the explosive materials, and mechanical modeling of both the metal casing and the unreacted and decomposed explosive. The Chemical TOPAZ code has been developed to model coupled thermal/chemical problems where we do not need to model the mass motion. We have also developed the LYNX2D code, based on PALM2D and Chemical TOPAZ, which is an implicit, two-dimensional coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical finite element model computer code. Some representative examples are shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  14. Thermal Expansion "Paradox."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

  15. Thermal cloak-concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Ni, Yushan; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    For macroscopically manipulating heat flow at will, thermal metamaterials have opened a practical way, which possesses a single function, such as either cloaking or concentrating the flow of heat even though environmental temperature varies. By developing a theory of transformation heat transfer for multiple functions, here we introduce the concept of intelligent thermal metamaterials with a dual function, which is in contrast to the existing thermal metamaterials with single functions. By assembling homogeneous isotropic materials and shape-memory alloys, we experimentally fabricate a kind of intelligent thermal metamaterials, which can automatically change from a cloak (or concentrator) to a concentrator (or cloak) when the environmental temperature changes. This work paves an efficient way for a controllable gradient of heat, and also provides guidance both for arbitrarily manipulating the flow of heat and for efficiently designing similar intelligent metamaterials in other fields.

  16. Space tug thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The future development of full capability Space Tug will impose strict requirements upon the thermal design. While requiring a reliable and reusable design, Space Tug must be capable of steady-state and transient thermal operation during any given mission for mission durations of up to seven days and potentially longer periods of time. Maximum flexibility and adaptability of Space Tug to the mission model requires that the vehicle operate within attitude constraints throughout any specific mission. These requirements were translated into a preliminary design study for a geostationary deploy and retrieve mission definition for Space Tug to determine the thermal control design requirements. Results of the study are discussed with emphasis given to some of the unique avenues pursued during the study, as well as the recommended thermal design configuration.

  17. Symposium on thermal anemometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers given at a symposium on thermal anemometry. Topics include: wind turbines x-probe measurements in turbine wakes, air flow metering, fluid flow, and hot-film and hot-wire anemometers.

  18. Thermal hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-06-17

    We explore the near-field radiative thermal energy transfer properties of hyperbolic metamaterials. The presence of unique electromagnetic states in a broad bandwidth leads to super-planckian thermal energy transfer between metamaterials separated by a nano-gap. We consider practical phonon-polaritonic metamaterials for thermal engineering in the mid-infrared range and show that the effect exists in spite of the losses, absorption and finite unit cell size. For thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications requiring energy transfer in the near-infrared range we introduce high temperature hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasmonic materials with a high melting point. Our work paves the way for practical high temperature radiative thermal energy transfer applications of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  19. Space tug thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The future development of full capability Space Tug will impose strict requirements upon the thermal design. While requiring a reliable and reusable design, Space Tug must be capable of steady-state and transient thermal operation during any given mission for mission durations of up to seven days and potentially longer periods of time. Maximum flexibility and adaptability of Space Tug to the mission model requires that the vehicle operate within attitude constraints throughout any specific mission. These requirements were translated into a preliminary design study for a geostationary deploy and retrieve mission definition for Space Tug to determine the thermal control design requirements. Results of the study are discussed with emphasis given to some of the unique avenues pursued during the study, as well as the recommended thermal design configuration.

  20. Thermal atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The static thermal atmosphere is described and its predictions are compared to observations both to test the validity of the classic assumptions and to distinguish and describe those spectral features with diagnostic value.

  1. Thermal Expansion "Paradox."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

  2. Thermal-Expansion Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.; Rives, C.

    1985-01-01

    Precise stable laser system determines coefficients of thermal expansion. Dual-beam interferometer arrangement monitors changes in sample length as function of temperature by following changes inoptical path lengths.

  3. Thermal compensating mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Campbell, Scott R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to provide a device for maintaining the alignment integrity of an alignment sensitive component over a wide range of temperatures. A thermal compensating mount is presented. A cylindrical extension is integrally formed to the alignment sensitive component. Both the extension and component share the same coefficient of thermal expansion. The cylindrical extension is placed into a mounting structure which has a diameter greater than that of the extension. An adhesive secures the cylindrical extension to the mount. The difference between the diameters of the cylindrical extension and the cylindrical receptacle is such that the differential thermal expansion across the extension and the receptacle edges is exactly compensated for by the thermal compensation of the adhesive between them. Accordingly, the alignment sensitive component does not change position when subjected to temperature variations. One application of this invention is laser optical-path folding prisms, which are fixed to the mounting surface by a small amount of epoxy adhesive.

  4. Nanoscale thermal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  5. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  6. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  7. Thermal coupling measurement method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, L. A.; Menichelli, V. J.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow from an embedded heated wire responds to a change in the ambient environment. The wire is part of a self-balancing bridge system, and heat flow is measured directly in watts. Steady-state and transient thermal coupling can be measured directly and is an indication of the thermal resistance and diffusivity for the system under study. The method is applied to an aerospace electroexplosive component.

  8. Thermal dynamic modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojalvo, I. U.

    1972-01-01

    Some thermal dynamic requirements associated with the space shuttle vehicle are reviewed. Pertinent scaling laws are discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the need for conducting reduced-scale dynamic tests of major components at elevated temperatures. Items considered are the development and interpretation of thermal dynamic structural scaling laws, the identification of major related problem areas and a presentation of viable model fabrication, instrumentation, and test procedures.

  9. Effect of Thermal Cycling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    MEASUREMENT METHOD To characterize the surfaces, a real time Twyman -Green phase shifting interferometer was mounted on an air-suspended 8000 lb granite... interferometer and mirror mounts were augmented to decrease their natural resonance frequency. To minimize thermal effects, a thermal insulation... INTERFEROMETER INTERFACE HP COMPUTER Fig. 8. RTI test arrangement. 22 1𔃺a wa M VIl. SURFACE FIGURE RESULTS 1. Uniform heating - 60 K/hr (Figs. 9a

  10. ThermalTracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-10

    The software processes recorded thermal video and detects the flight tracks of birds and bats that passed through the camera's field of view. The output is a set of images that show complete flight tracks for any detections, with the direction of travel indicated and the thermal image of the animal delineated. A report of the descriptive features of each detected track is also output in the form of a comma-separated value text file.

  11. Predicting student performance in sonographic scanning using spatial ability as an ability determinent of skill acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and interpretation of these medical images. Using Ackerman's theory of ability determinants of skilled performance as a conceptual framework, this study explored the relationship of spatial ability and learning sonographic scanning. Beginning first year sonography students from four different educational institutions were administered a spatial abilities test prior to their initial scanning lab coursework. The students' spatial test scores were compared with their scanning competency performance scores. A significant relationship between the students' spatial ability scores and their scanning performance scores was found. This result suggests that the use of spatial ability tests for admission to sonography programs may improve candidate selection, as well as assist programs in adjusting instruction and curriculum for students who demonstrate low spatial ability.

  12. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  13. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  14. College Major Choice and Ability: Why Is General Ability Not Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolj, Tjasa; Polanec, Saso

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of cognitive ability on college major choices using an administrative data set for full-time students enrolled in four-year business and economics programs offered by the largest Slovenian university. In contrast to existing studies, we are able to distinguish between general ability, measured with high school…

  15. Predicting Student Performance in Sonographic Scanning Using Spatial Ability as an Ability Determinent of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Douglas Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability refers to an individual's capacity to visualize and mentally manipulate three dimensional objects. Since sonographers manually manipulate 2D and 3D sonographic images to generate multi-viewed, logical, sequential renderings of an anatomical structure, it can be assumed that spatial ability is central to the perception and…

  16. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  17. Nanoscale thermal probing

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem. PMID:22419968

  18. Identifying distinct thermal components of a creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughton, David A.; Hatch, Christine; Mora, Ethan

    2012-09-01

    Statistical and heat budget methods for analyzing temperature dynamics of creeks are limited by the ability to resolve thermal processes and fine-grained thermal structures, respectively. Here we describe a hybrid method that identifies distinct thermal components in a stream's heat budget using only temperature data and an algorithm that employs mutual information to "unmix" signals in the temperature data. Spatial resolution is limited only by the number of temperature-logging sensors, which can be quite high for distributed-temperature sensors. Process resolution is at the level of thermal components, defined as distinct collections of heat flux elements sharing coordinated (nonindependent) dynamics. Inference can be used to relate thermal components to meteorological forcing and structural heterogeneity in the fluvial system and to suggest novel hypotheses for further testing with targeted heat budget studies. Applying the method to a small, arid-land creek produced two novel hypotheses: (1) lateral conduction of heat from adjacent dry land (bed, terraces) appeared to cause a substantial heating of the stream, augmented by off-channel flow paths, and (2) riparian vegetation was associated with a subtraction of heat from the stream at a rate proportionate to solar insolation, exceeding the maximum decoupling effect of shade by at least 2°C at midday, and suggesting upwelling heat flux from water to tree canopy proportional to sunlight. The method appears useful for generating new hypotheses, for selecting informative sites for detailed heat budgets, for determining the dimensionality of heat budgets in natural streams, and more broadly for associating thermal components to fluvial structure and processes.

  19. Thermal History and Mantle Dynamics of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.

    1997-01-01

    One objective of this research proposal is to develop a 3-D thermal history model for Venus. The basis of our study is a finite-element computer model to simulate thermal convection of fluids with highly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosities in a three-dimensional spherical shell. A three-dimensional model for thermal history studies is necessary for the following reasons. To study planetary thermal evolution, one needs to consider global heat budgets of a planet throughout its evolution history. Hence, three-dimensional models are necessary. This is in contrasts to studies of some local phenomena or local structures where models of lower dimensions may be sufficient. There are different approaches to treat three-dimensional thermal convection problems. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of the various approaches is subjective and dependent on the problem addressed. In our case, we are interested in the effects of viscosities that are highly temperature dependent and that their magnitudes within the computing domain can vary over many orders of magnitude. In order to resolve the rapid change of viscosities, small grid spacings are often necessary. To optimize the amount of computing, variable grids become desirable. Thus, the finite-element numerical approach is chosen for its ability to place grid elements of different sizes over the complete computational domain. For this research proposal, we did not start from scratch and develop the finite element codes from the beginning. Instead, we adopted a finite-element model developed by Baumgardner, a collaborator of this research proposal, for three-dimensional thermal convection with constant viscosity. Over the duration supported by this research proposal, a significant amount of advancements have been accomplished.

  20. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  1. Shift-register coincidence electronics system for thermal neutron counters

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.E.; Collinsworth, P.R.; Krick, M.S.

    1980-04-01

    An improved shift-register, coincidence-counting logic circuit, developed for use with thermal neutron well counters, is described in detail. A distinguishing feature of the circuit is its ability to operate usefully at neutron counting rates of several hundred kHz. A portable electronics package incorporating the new coincidence logic and support circuits is also described.

  2. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills.

  3. [Hypoglycaemia unawareness: judge driving ability prudently].

    PubMed

    Stork, Alexander D M

    2011-01-01

    Several factors can influence the ability to drive by patients with diabetes mellitus. The most important factor would be hypoglycaemia. It seems logical that hypoglycaemia unawareness would be an important risk factor for accidents. However, in everyday practice, hypoglycaemia-related accidents are rare. Moreover, it seems that only a small subset of people with diabetes is responsible for the overall slightly elevated risk of car accidents. It appears that not hypoglycaemia unawareness itself is a risk factor, but primarily a history of previous hypoglycaemia-related accidents. Although ascertaining hypoglycaemia awareness currently seems the most suitable method for the assessment of driving ability, this may not be fair. In the future, we hope to have better methods of assessing the risk of accidents. Until that time, we should apply current law prudently, and mainly preclude from driving those diabetic patients who have experienced loss of consciousness or have needed outside help due to hypoglycaemia.

  4. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  5. Overview of Thermal Ink Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Francis C.

    1989-07-01

    In the recent years, thermal ink jet (bubble jet) has emerged to become a fast growing printing technology with market applications first aimed at the low end, high quality and color workstation printers. The break-through in this ink jet technology came in the areas of low cost/high volume manufacture using semiconductor thin-film processing, improved apparent reliability and the ability of high quality printing on wide range of office papers. Although the print head technology appears simple and compact, the underlining thin-film structures, micro fluid channels and drop generation process are by no mean straight-forward. In fact, the ink chemistry, the material integrity and the device physics are closely coupled to provide the proper functionality of the print engine. Hence optimization of the technology can only be achieved through complete device integration. In this paper, the basic implementations of the thermal ink jet technology is presented. The physics of bubble/drop formation process is described using results obtained from our experimental studies. Different failure modes of the electro-thermal drop generator (in particular, the thin-film resistive heater) are discussed. Results can be extrapolated to obtain a basic understanding in the requirements of the ink media and the material structure. Based on the current knowledge of this printing method, projections of the technology limitations in practical implementations can be made to support a view that thermal ink jet will become the dominant low end printing technology in the near future.

  6. Tribological Studies of Dynamic Thermal Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal seals are required on high-speed vehicles in many dynamic applications such as variable inlets in propulsion systems and control surfaces. These seals, often referred to as dynamic thermal seals, must not only mitigate inboard heat transfer, but must also exhibit sufficient durability when scrubbed against mating surfaces. For high-temperature high-speed vehicle applications, the mating surfaces are often made from thermal protection system (TPS) materials, which are typically rougher and more abrasive than TPS materials used at lower temperatures. The high-temperature TPS materials used can include non-ablative (e.g., lightweight porous oxides, ceramic matrix composites) andor ablative systems (e.g., phenolic systems). Due to the increased need for durable high-temperature dynamic seals, researchers working with the NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on an effort to (a) characterize the tribological performance of state-of-the-art thermal seal materials against a variety of TPS materials and (b) develop approaches for improved wear resistance. Tests were conducted using a recently upgraded high-temperature tribometer to assess wear resistance for a variety of tribopairs under multiple conditions. This data will begin to frame the challenges of using these materials and eventually permit an improved ability to design and implement these critical TPS components.

  7. Patterns of thermal constraint on ectotherm activity.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Alex R; Leal, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Thermal activity constraints play a major role in many aspects of ectotherm ecology, including vulnerability to climate change. Therefore, there is strong interest in developing general models of the temperature dependence of activity. Several models have been put forth (explicitly or implicitly) to describe such constraints; nonetheless, tests of the predictive abilities of these models are lacking. In addition, most models consider activity as a threshold trait instead of considering continuous changes in the vigor of activity among individuals. Using field data for a tropical lizard (Anolis cristatellus) and simulations parameterized by our observations, we determine how well various threshold and continuous-activity models match observed activity patterns. No models accurately predicted activity under all of the thermal conditions that we considered. In addition, simulations showed that the performance of threshold models decreased as temperatures increased, which is a troubling finding given the threat of global climate change. We also find that activity rates are more sensitive to temperature than are the physiological traits often used as a proxy for fitness. We present a model of thermal constraint on activity that integrates aspects of both the threshold model and the continuous-activity model, the general features of which are supported by activity data from other species. Overall, our results demonstrate that greater attention should be given to fine-scale patterns of thermal constraint on activity.

  8. Thermal Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal fatigue and fracture behavior of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings has been investigated under high heat flux and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating crack propagation is studied under laser heat flux cyclic thermal loading, and is correlated with dynamic fatigue and strength test results. The coating stress response and inelasticity, fatigue and creep interactions, and interface damage mechanisms during dynamic thermal fatigue processes are emphasized.

  9. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  10. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society.

  11. Memory abilities in children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vicari, S; Brizzolara, D; Carlesimo, G A; Pezzini, G; Volterra, V

    1996-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic condition characterised by intellectual disability, typical facial dysmorphology and several medical anomalies. A specific neuropsychological profile with a dissociation between language (relatively preserved) and visuo-spatial abilities (more seriously impaired) has been hypothesised in these children. Memory abilities of these patients have not been adequately investigated, although they may substantially contribute to better understanding their neuropsychological profile. The present study aimed at investigating verbal and spatial memory in patients with WS (N = 16). Their performance was compared with that of normally developing children on tasks of verbal and spatial span and immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visuo-perceptual materials. Memory abilities of WS children appear to be characterised by defective visuo-spatial memory, both in the short-term and long-term domain, and a dissociation between normal short- but deficient long-term verbal learning. Results are interpreted by supporting the thesis that intellectual disability reflects the defective functioning of a complex system in which some cognitive competencies may be disrupted more than others (Detterman, 1987; Vicari, Albertini and Caltagirone, 1992).

  12. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction. PMID:26328685

  13. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  14. On the evolution of calculation abilities.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies.

  15. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  16. Effects of fetal testosterone on visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Ashwin, Emma; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether fetal testosterone (FT) measured from second trimester amniotic fluid was related to specific aspects of visuospatial ability, in children aged 7-10 years (35 boys, 29 girls). A series of tasks were used: the children's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) (a test of attention to detail), a ball targeting task (measuring hand-eye coordination), and a computerized mental rotation task (measuring rotational ability). FT was a significant predictor for EFT scores in both boys and girls, with boys also showing a clear advantage for this task. No significant sex differences were observed in targeting. Boys scored higher than girls on mental rotation. However, no significant relationships were observed between FT and targeting or mental rotation. Girls' performance on the mental rotation and targeting tasks was significantly related to age, indicating that these tasks may have been too difficult for the younger children. These results indicate that FT has a significant role in some aspects of cognitive development but that further work is needed to understand its effect on the different aspects of visuospatial ability.

  17. On the Evolution of Calculation Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies. PMID:20725520

  18. Superior numerical abilities following early visual deprivation.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, Julie; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2013-05-01

    In numerical cognition vision has been assumed to play a predominant role in the elaboration of the numerical representations and skills. However, this view has been recently challenged by the discovery that people with early visual deprivation not only have a semantic numerical representation that shares the same spatial properties with that in sighted people, but also have better numerical estimation skills. Here, we show that blind people's superior numerical abilities can be found in different numerical contexts, whether they are familiar or more general. In particular, we found that blind participants demonstrated better numerical estimation abilities than sighted participants in both an ecologic footstep and an unfamiliar oral verbal production task. Blind participants also tend to show greater working memory skills compared to sighted participants. These findings support the notion that vision is not necessary in the development of numerical cognition and indicate that early visual deprivation may even lead to a general enhancement in numerical estimation abilities. Moreover, they further suggest that blind people's greater numerical skills might be accounted by enhanced high-level cognitive processes, such as working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative sound localisation abilities in human listeners.

    PubMed

    Wood, Katherine C; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2015-08-01

    Spatial acuity varies with sound-source azimuth, signal-to-noise ratio, and the spectral characteristics of the sound source. Here, the spatial localisation abilities of listeners were assessed using a relative localisation task. This task tested localisation ability at fixed angular separations throughout space using a two-alternative forced-choice design across a variety of listening conditions. Subjects were required to determine whether a target sound originated to the left or right of a preceding reference in the presence of a multi-source noise background. Experiment 1 demonstrated that subjects' ability to determine the relative location of two sources declined with less favourable signal-to-noise ratios and at peripheral locations. Experiment 2 assessed performance with both broadband and spectrally restricted stimuli designed to limit localisation cues to predominantly interaural level differences or interaural timing differences (ITDs). Predictions generated from topographic, modified topographic, and two-channel models of sound localisation suggest that for low-pass stimuli, where ITD cues were dominant, the two-channel model provides an adequate description of the experimental data, whereas for broadband and high frequency bandpass stimuli none of the models was able to fully account for performance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that relative localisation performance was uninfluenced by shifts in gaze direction.

  20. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.