Science.gov

Sample records for antonia li editors

  1. Jim, Antonia, and the Wolves: Displacement in Cather's "My Antonia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    In one of the most frequently noted incidents in Willa Cather's "My Antonia", Russian immigrant Pavel reveals on his deathbed that, when driving his friend's wedding party sledge, he saved his own life and companion Peter's by throwing the bride and groom to the attacking wolves. Antonia and Jim are fascinated by this story, and readers…

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: One- and two-electron excitations in large angle scattering of Li+ ions from He atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Nakamura, T.; Watanabe, A.; Shimakura, N.

    2002-08-01

    Excitations in Li+-He collisions have been studied at the laboratory energies of 500≤≤Elab≤≤1500 eV by means of differential scattering spectroscopy. Doubly differential cross sections have been measured over a wide range of centre-of-mass angles, 3°≤≤Θ≤≤175°, by detecting all the scattered particles (Li+, Li, He+, He). Increasing the energy, the excitation probability P(Θ)2e for two-electron processes drastically increases and has a specific maximum around Θ = 65° for the highest energy of Elab = 1500 eV. On the other hand, the probability P(Θ)1e for one-electron processes has a broad maximum at the lower energies of Elab≤≤1000 eV, but has a specific structure with double maxima around Θ = 22° and 120° for Elab = 1500 eV. The characteristic features of the P(Θ)1e and P(Θ)2e at Elab = 1500 eV can be well interpreted by electron promotions through rotational coupling between the molecular orbitals 2pσ and 2pπ at the internuclear distances of R<0.35 Å.

  3. ZHE: [Noun] Undefined--An Interview with Performers Antonia Kemi Coker and Tonderai Munyevu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaskan, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012, London-based theatre company Collective Artistes previewed "ZHE: [noun] Undefined," a new play created by director Chuck Mike and performers Tonderai Munyevu and Antonia Kemi Coker. The play follows the true life stories of the two performers, both British Africans, living at the intersections of culture, nationality, gender and…

  4. New Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    It is an honour and a challenge to take up the editorship of the Messenger at this time of ESO's expanding role in European and worldwide astronomy. In order to mark the change, we have made a few adjustments to the appearance without departing from the overall style that Peter Shaver had evolved during his term as editor. I would like to thank Peter for gen-tly coaching me into the position and Jutta Boxheimer, the technical editor, for the high quality of the layout.

  5. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umapathy, Siva

    2017-01-01

    This is an editor's note related to the publication 'Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects' by Raza Rasool and Sumaiya Hasnain, which appeared in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 148 (2015) 435-443.

  6. TOAD Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingle, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1993-01-01

    Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) computer program (LAR-13755), implements format designed to facilitate transfer of data across communication networks and dissimilar host computer systems. Any data file conforming to TOAD format standard called TOAD file. TOAD Editor is interactive software tool for manipulating contents of TOAD files. Commonly used to extract filtered subsets of data for visualization of results of computation. Also offers such user-oriented features as on-line help, clear English error messages, startup file, macroinstructions defined by user, command history, user variables, UNDO features, and full complement of mathematical statistical, and conversion functions. Companion program, TOAD Gateway (LAR-14484), converts data files from variety of other file formats to that of TOAD. TOAD Editor written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. WRR editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    New editors of AGU's Water Resources Research journal will be Soroosh Sorooshian and Roger E. Smith.Soroosh Sorooshian was born in Kerman, Iran. He received his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo, in 1971. He received his M.S. degree in operations research in 1973 and his Ph.D. degree in water resources systems engineering in 1978, both from the University of California, Los Angeles.

  8. MPS Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, William S.; Liu, Ning; Francis, Laurie K.; OReilly, Taifun L.; Schrock, Mitchell; Page, Dennis N.; Morris, John R.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, it was time-consuming to hand-edit data and then set up simulation runs to find the effect and impact of the input data on a spacecraft. MPS Editor provides the user the capability to create/edit/update models and sequences, and immediately try them out using what appears to the user as one piece of software. MPS Editor provides an integrated sequencing environment for users. It provides them with software that can be utilized during development as well as actual operations. In addition, it provides them with a single, consistent, user friendly interface. MPS Editor uses the Eclipse Rich Client Platform to provide an environment that can be tailored to specific missions. It provides the capability to create and edit, and includes an Activity Dictionary to build the simulation spacecraft models, build and edit sequences of commands, and model the effects of those commands on the spacecraft. MPS Editor is written in Java using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It is currently built with four perspectives: the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the Project Adaptation Perspective, the Sequence Building Perspective, and the Sequence Modeling Perspective. Each perspective performs a given task. If a mission doesn't require that task, the unneeded perspective is not added to that project's delivery. In the Activity Dictionary Perspective, the user builds the project-specific activities, observations, calibrations, etc. Typically, this is used during the development phases of the mission, although it can be used later to make changes and updates to the Project Activity Dictionary. In the Adaptation Perspective, the user creates the spacecraft models such as power, data store, etc. Again, this is typically used during development, but will be used to update or add models of the spacecraft. The Sequence Building Perspective allows the user to create a sequence of activities or commands that go to the spacecraft. It provides a simulation of the activities and

  9. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  10. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  11. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  12. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  13. ISTP CDF Skeleton Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimiak, Reine; Harris, Bernard; Williams, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Basic Common Data Format (CDF) tools (e.g., cdfedit) provide no specific support for creating International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/Space Physics Data Facility (ISTP/SPDF) standard files. While it is possible for someone who is familiar with the ISTP/SPDF metadata guidelines to create compliant files using just the basic tools, the process is error-prone and unreasonable for someone without ISTP/SPDF expertise. The key problem is the lack of a tool with specific support for creating files that comply with the ISTP/SPDF guidelines. There are basic CDF tools such as cdfedit and skeletoncdf for creating CDF files, but these have no specific support for creating ISTP/ SPDF compliant files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor is a cross-platform, Java-based GUI editor program that allows someone with only a basic understanding of the ISTP/SPDF guidelines to easily create compliant files. The editor is a simple graphical user interface (GUI) application for creating and editing ISTP/SPDF guideline-compliant skeleton CDF files. The SPDF ISTP CDF skeleton editor consists of the following components: A swing-based Java GUI program, JavaHelp-based manual/ tutorial, Image/Icon files, and HTML Web page for distribution. The editor is available as a traditional Java desktop application as well as a Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP) application. Once started, it functions like a typical Java GUI file editor application for creating/editing application-unique files.

  14. MSSP Associate Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottershead, John E.

    2015-08-01

    MSSP is pleased to announce the appointment of three distinguished researchers, Professors Jerome Antoni, Spilios Fassois and Paolo Pennacchi, as Associate Editors. The broad coverage of MSSP research topics demands editorial expertise in several disciplines and the appointment of an editorial team of the highest quality is essential in maintaining and further enhancing the reputation of MSSP as a journal at the forefront of modern experimental mechanics that combines dynamic systems with measurement technology, signal processing and active control. Brief descriptions of the backgrounds and experience of the Associate Editors are provided in the following paragraphs.

  15. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  16. WRR editor Ronald Cummings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    It has been nearly a year since Ronald Cummings took over as policy sciences editor of Water Resources Research (WRR), and in that time he has worked to make the journal live up to its role as “an interdisciplinary journal integrating research in the social and natural sciences of water.” Cummings takes the “interdisciplinary” part seriously. “I'd like to see a much broader range of policy issues presented to readers,” he says. “I would hope it would then stimulate interchange between our colleagues concerning evolving issues of the '80s and '90s.”Cummings brings a solid background as a resource economist to his 4-year term as editor, which began last January and runs until December 1987. Cummings succeeds Jared Cohon as policy sciences editor. Stephen J. Burges is the WRR editor for hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Now a Professor of Economics and Director of the Program in Natural Resources Economics at the University of New Mexico, Cummings is a past president of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. He has been a consultant in matters of water resources management, forestry management, and energy policy for more than a decade, working on projects in both the United States and Latin America. Since joining the faculty at New Mexico in 1975, he has, among other things, worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation'management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems.

  17. LDAP Browser/Editor

    SciTech Connect

    Gawor, Jarek; Laszewski, Gregor von

    2000-07-18

    The LDAP Browser/Editor provides a user-friendly Java-based interface to LDAP databases with tightly integrated browsing and editing capabilities. Entirely written in Java with help of the JFC (Swingset) and JNDI class libraries. It connects to any X.500, LDAP v2 and v3 servers and supports editing of multiple-value attributes.

  18. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  19. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  20. Guest Editors' Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, Peter; Miller, Wolfram; Sangwal, Keshra; Talik, Ewa

    2014-09-01

    The 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (ICCGE-17) was held in Warsaw during 11 and 16 August 2013. The contributions during the ICCGE-17 were of three types: Invited lectures, oral presentations and poster presentions. The conference participants were also invited to submit manuscripts based on their contributions for publication in the ICCGE-17 Proceedings volume of Journal of Crystal Growth. The present volume contains manuscripts accepted by the guest editors for this conference volume.

  1. ION Configuration Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgen, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    The configuration of ION (Inter - planetary Overlay Network) network nodes is a manual task that is complex, time-consuming, and error-prone. This program seeks to accelerate this job and produce reliable configurations. The ION Configuration Editor is a model-based smart editor based on Eclipse Modeling Framework technology. An ION network designer uses this Eclipse-based GUI to construct a data model of the complete target network and then generate configurations. The data model is captured in an XML file. Intrinsic editor features aid in achieving model correctness, such as field fill-in, type-checking, lists of valid values, and suitable default values. Additionally, an explicit "validation" feature executes custom rules to catch more subtle model errors. A "survey" feature provides a set of reports providing an overview of the entire network, enabling a quick assessment of the model s completeness and correctness. The "configuration" feature produces the main final result, a complete set of ION configuration files (eight distinct file types) for each ION node in the network.

  2. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  3. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Physics and history Arthur I Miller Department of Science & Technology Studies, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Physics and history: a reply David Miller Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK Cathode rays, the electron and Thomson's discovery John Harris 33 Glentham Road, London SW13 9JD, UK Vectors: swallow them whole! David Wheeler Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

  4. New TOR editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    1984-04-01

    David A. Brooks, associate professor at Texas A&M University's oceanography department, has been appointed editor designate of The Oceanography Report (TOR). He succeeds Arnold L. Gordon of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. Gordon, who initiated TOR in September 1981, is the new president-elect of the AGU Ocean Sciences Section.Brooks, a physical oceanographer, has been at Texas A&M for 6 years. His research interests include waves and tides, the interaction of waves and currents, Gulf Stream fluctuations, and Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Maine circulation. Before going to Texas A&M, Brooks was a research associate and graduate faculty member at North Carolina State University in Raleigh.

  5. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    This last year being an odd numbered year, the pages of Nuclear Fusion saw a large influx of expanded papers from the 2012 Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego. Many papers have focused on the scientific and technical challenges posed by ITER. Contributions are steadily increasing from the new superconducting tokamaks in Asia. The ITER Project continues to move ahead. Construction at the Cadarache site is quite remarkable. Buildings completed include the huge Poloidal Field Coils Winding Facility and the Headquarters building, which has been occupied by the ITER staff. Work is progressing on the Assembly building and the Cryostat Workshop. The base of the tokamak complex is being laid. Besides the construction that is taking place and will take place at the site, components from around the world have to navigate the complex route from Marseilles to the site. A test convoy replicating the dimensions and weights of the most exceptional ITER loads successfully traversed that route in 2013. We are pleased to report that the IAEA and ITER have finalized the agreement for ITER authors to publish papers in Nuclear Fusion . Nuclear Fusion is proud to continue its key role in providing the leading forum for the documentation of scientific progress and exchange of research results internationally toward fusion energy. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office appreciates greatly the effort made by our referees to sustain the high quality of the journal. Since January 2005, we have been offering the most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in previous years. The following people have been selected: J.M. Canik, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA I.T. Chapman, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, UK L.-G. Eriksson, Commission of the European Communities, Belgium T. Evans

  6. EDITORIAL: Editor's Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1965 Metrologia has had just three editors, a history of tenure which suggests that those who hold the post find in it sufficient to interest, occupy, challenge and amuse them. I see no reason to doubt that this happy circumstance will continue and look forward to my own period as editor with the intention of retaining, insofar as I am able to interpret them, the best traditions the journal has established so far. As I take up my editorial duties I have become aware that surrounding Metrologia there is a small community of authors, reviewers and readers on whose support the success of the journal entirely depends. It is a community in which the roles change daily with some of its members engaged, even simultaneously, as reader, reviewer and author. I am well aware that the goodwill extended to me as I enter this community is in no small part due the efforts of the outgoing editor, Dr Ralph Hudson, whose easy, engaging and courteous, yet firm, relationship with authors and reviewers emerges clearly from editorial correspondence. I thank him for that he has done and wish him an active and happy retirement. A short foray into the records of Metrologia shows - in the first editorial - that four main kinds of article were originally envisaged: research articles likely to contribute to progress in fundamental scientific measurements, reports of experiments or techniques of particular importance or originality in the area of secondary measurement, articles concerning the decisions of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, and review articles. No balance was specified but a priority was assigned to articles dealing with fundamental metrology. Of the four categories, the first two represent the core of Metrologia's activity and largely determine its reputation as a publication. For this reason, editorial implementation of the policy set by the CIPM is mainly exercised through the operation of a reviewing system which is intentionally strict

  7. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  8. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    . Their scheme is embedded in an experimental ATM network with the potential for guaranteed QoS. The system features QoS support mechanisms in both the network and the end systems. Of particular interest is reported experience with a dynamic QoS adaptation protocol implemented in the network and based on video scaling techniques and filtering. In summary, this special issue provides an up to date review of approaches to QoS management and their practical realization. Of course, no claim is made as to comprehensiveness, but the chosen papers do serve as a highly representative sample of current directions in QoS research. The editors are very much obliged to all authors, reviewers and publishers. Without their excellent work, and the contribution of their valuable time this special issue would not have been possible.

  9. Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    As of 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at position 1,399, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased number and quality of published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers, and one may be curious to see how their factor will develop. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average o nline publication time of just 4.5 months. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes} continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  10. Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    As of 2007, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at 1,461, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased quality of the published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers with roughly the same number of citations. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average online publication time of just 4.5 months. We hope that the year 2008 will be comparably prosperous. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  11. STE - The Software Tools Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Software tools is an excellent book written by B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, published by Addison-Wesley. In it the authors discuss how to write programs that make good tools, and how to program well in the process. One of the tools they develop is a fairly powerful editor, written in Ratfor (a structured form of FORTRAN IV). This program has been implemented on the UCL Starlink VAX (with a few modifications and extensions) and is recommended as the editor to use on the VAX. This note gives a brief introduction to, and description of, the editor which has been abstracted from the book (which you are recommended to buy). There are some short command summary sections at the end of this note. After reading this note you may like to print these short files and use them for reference when using the editor.

  12. Remarks from a retiring Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Louis K.

    2015-10-01

    At the end of 2015 I plan to step down as Chairman of Editors for the Journal of Nuclear Materials. I use the opportunity to express thoughts that have recurred to me but were muted in comparison with the day to day priorities of editorial work. The most important is that I hold the deepest gratitude for your enduring support- authors, reviewers, readers, the Advisory Editorial Board, and my fellow Editors.

  13. Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    pleasure to be Guest Editor and I look forward to future developments in this growing research area and expositions in Distributed Systems Engineering. Peter G Harrison Imperial College, London

  14. Portrait of Antonia Ferri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    After fighting the Nazis as chief of a partisan brigade, Antonio Ferri brought important new information to Langley in 1944 about current German and Italian research in high speed aerodynamics. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 319.

  15. Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    reviewed five manuscripts in the period November 2011 to December 2012 and provided excellent advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in recent years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA-Cadarache, France Jiaqui Dong, Southwestern Institute of Physics, China Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Ambrogio Fasoli, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland Eric Fredrickson, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Manuel Garcia-Munoz, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany William Heidbrink, California University, USA Katsumi Ida, National Inst. For Fusion Science, Japan Peter Stangeby, Toronto University, Canada James Strachan, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA Victor Yavorskij, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2012. Our thanks to them!

  16. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  17. SIERRA Editor v. 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Edward; Friedman-Hill, Ernest; Gibson, Marcus; Heinstein, Martin; & Whittford, Greg

    2010-03-24

    The SIERRA Editor is a syntax editor for text-based input decks for the SIERRA modeling and simulations codes. The SIERRA Editor provides color coded syntax, error checking, hyperlink navigation to referenced entities (e.g. functions and materials), and visual verification of mesh entity references (blocks, sidesets, and nodesets). The SIERRA Editor helps modeling and simulation analysts who use the SIERRA codes to produce syntactically correct input decks.

  18. Learning To Use a Text Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.

    Designed to determine how quickly elementary school children can learn to use a text editor and what editing concepts are difficult for them to master, this study presents preliminary data on children's acquisition of text editor skills and on the kinds of revisions they accomplished with the text editor. Observations were made on a total of 25…

  19. Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Whilst travelling to Vienna to hand over the Editorship of Nuclear Fusion to Ron Stambaugh, I jotted down a few ideas to put in a farewell message. Somewhat unsurprisingly, I find them almost identical to the remarks that Chris Schueller made in handing over to me five years ago. Both of us served in this role for five years, which seems like a good timescale to replace presidents and editors alike; just to allow a fresh approach. In addition, since I have been directly involved in ITER, I have found it increasingly difficult, due to time pressure, to give the journal the attention that it deserves. Therefore, I am very pleased that Ron Stambaugh has agreed to take over as Editor. Not only does he bring the experience as a leading figure in the US fusion programme but, in addition, he has all the contacts, worldwide, from his leadership of the ITPA. I am completely assured that the journal is in a highly competent pair of hands. Such a farewell should not lack my heartfelt thanks to all of those who have made being Editor of Nuclear Fusion so enjoyable and stimulating; readership, authors, referees, the Editorial Board and the NF Office alike. I wish Ron all the best for his tenure and have offered such help and support as I am able to give.

  20. Line-Editor Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    ZED editing program for DEC VAX computer simple, powerful line editor for text, program source code, and nonbinary data. Excels in processing of text by use of procedure files. Also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, online help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. Users of Cambridge implementation devised such ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating pi. Written entirely in C.

  1. A Syntax Directed Editor Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-05

    Much of his work was based on research by Bruce J. MacLennan of the Naval Postgraduate School (Ref 9) and two of Mister MacLennan’s former thesis...of Defense. Requirement for ADA Programming Suport | .:Environments - Stoneman. Washington, D.C. 1980. • .,6. Feiler , Peter H. and Raul Medina-Mora...1982. (AD-A053032). 9. MacLennan, Bruce J. The Automatic Generation of Syntax-Directed Editors. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA., 1981. 10

  2. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2010-02-01

    November 2009 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. The other three have been very helpful in 'minority fields'. We have excluded our Board members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their Special Issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Tomonori Takizuka, JAEA-Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Rudolf Neu, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Sibylle Guenter, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States David R. Mikkelsen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States Peter C. de Vries, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, United Kingdom Yasuhiro Suzuki, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jerzy Wolowski, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Poland Tetsuo Tanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Yasuyuki Yagi, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan Congratulations and many, many thanks! The Guest Editors of special editions deserve a special mention for the excellent help that they have given us. They are: Taik-Soo Hahm, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, United States, Special Issue on H-Mode Physics and Transport Barriers Yaroslav Kolesnichenko, Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine, Special Issue on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Kimitaka Itoh, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan and Howard R. Wilson, University of York, UK, Special Issue on Plasma Instabilities Bernhard Unterberg, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany, Special Issue on Stochastic Fusion Plasma In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2009. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2009 Nuclear Fusion

  3. Donald R. Nielsen New WRR Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    Bridging the gap between the disciplines of engineering and agriculture is a major goal for Water Resources Research (WRR), says Donald R. Nielsen, who was appointed to a 4-year term as WRR editor, effective January 1, 1985. Nielsen succeeds Stephen J. Burges as the WRR editor for hydrology, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Ronald G. Cummings, at the University of New Mexico, is the WRR editor for policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law.

  4. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation

  5. Examining Editor-Author Ethics: Real-World Scenarios from Interviews with Three Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Those who submit manuscripts to academic journals may benefit from a better understanding of how editors weigh ethics in their interactions with authors. In an attempt to ascertain and to understand editors' ethics, we interviewed 3 current academic journal editors of technical and/or business communication journals. We asked them about the…

  6. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  7. [Report of the editors, 2011].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2012-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española (Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months (November 2010 to October 2011): (a) Objectives and attainments during 2011, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2012. In 2011 we have updated the editorial algorithm (revision by the responsible editor of all manuscripts sent to peer review and incorporated an «editorial coordinator»), we have renovated two advise facilities (editorial and scientific committees), we have created a new section called «monthly e-image», and we have promoted Rev Clin Esp annual prizes. From the first January 2010 to 31(st) October 2011 we handled 422 manuscripts (42,2 manuscripts per month, higher than the 2010 figure of 40,4 manuscript/month). Overall we have accepted 26% (originals, 16%). We asked for 343 revisions and obtained 231 (67%). Seventy two percent of the reviewers sent their comments in less than two weeks. The mean time taken to accept or reject a given manuscript has been 26 days. The mean time taken since a manuscript is received to publication (october, novembrer and december issues) has dropped from 334 days in 2010 to 254 in 2011 (24% decrease). The collaboration with the working groups has reported about 2 published manuscripts per issue. Our objectives for 2012 are: (a) to improve the editorial process; (b) main article translation into English; (c) improve some sections (i.e. clinical conference); (d) estimulate working groups collaboration; and (e) improve continued medical education. Revista Clínica Española is an open forum for all internal medicine specialists. We all have the responsibility to make our journal, each day, better.

  8. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Plasmaphysik, Germany) V. Philipps (Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany) S. Zweben (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) Y. Hirano (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) Y. Takase (Tokyo University, Japan) In addition there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2008. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2007 award was Clemente Angioni for the paper entitled `Density response to central electron heating: theoretical investigations and experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade' (Nucl. Fusion 44 8277-845). The winner of the 2008 Nuclear Fusion award is Todd Evans et al for the paper `Suppression of large edge localized modes with edge resonant magnetic fields in high confinement DIII-D plasmas' (Nucl. Fusion 45 595-607). The awards were presented by the IAEA Deputy Director General, Werner Burkart, and the Chairman of the Board of Editors, Mitsuru Kikuchi, on 16 October 2008 at the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Geneva, Switzerland. Given the topicality of these papers for the ITER design, it is a matter of pride to the journal that the work should be published in Nuclear Fusion. Reviews Like many who have worked for a long time in the field, I still make use of Nuclear Fusion Reviews that go back 20 or 30 years. It is particularly useful, therefore, that the Board of Editors has been working to re-activate the review programme. The first fruits will appear in this issue, in the form of `A review of zonal flow experiments', by Akihide Fujisawa. The special procedures for Reviews should be noted: most specifically that they should normally be commissioned by the Board of Editors. However, not only is the Board of Editors working on a programme but I am sure that they would be pleased to consider suggestions for review subjects. Letters The reputation of Nuclear

  9. Editorial Commentary: Editor's Conflict of Interest.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-09-01

    The Editor-in-chief has recused himself from industry consulting, which he performed before assuming the position, and returned related royalties and divested related stock options, in order to mitigate against conflict-of-interest. The Editor discloses affiliation with an institution that receives support from diverse industry partners in support of research and education.

  10. Linguistic Prescriptivism in Letters to the Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukac, Morana

    2016-01-01

    The public's concern with the fate of the standard language has been well documented in the history of the complaint tradition. The print media have for centuries featured letters to the editor on questions of language use. This study examines a corpus of 258 language-related letters to the editor published in the English-speaking print media. By…

  11. [2009 report from the editors].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2010-01-01

    The editors of the Rev Clin Esp present the editorial course of action of the journal over the past year. We have up-dated the design of the journal, its contents (sections) and computerized the editorial process. We processed 467 manuscripts and made an editorial decision on 402 of them between November 2008 and October 2009. A total of 92 manuscripts (23%) were accepted. Fifteen (13%) out of the 119 original articles for which the editorial process was completed were accepted. Our goal for the year 2010 is to make the journal available on the Internet for all those who are subscribers to the Rev Clin Esp as well as for internal medicine residents (for which they must be members of each regional society). Other objectives of the editorial team are to edit the E-cases, for the journal to be a continuing education tool and that the coordinators of the work groups develop a monographic number at least once every two years. These actions aim to increase the impact factor and the quality of the Rev Clin Esp, official publication of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and of Spanish-speaking internal medicine physicians.

  12. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  13. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

  14. Richard Gilbert, Reporter and Assistant City Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Looks at the experiences of Richard Gilbert, reporter and assistant editor for "The Herald Telephone," a daily newspaper in Bloomington, Indiana, and discusses Gilbert's suggested guidelines for high school journalism advisers. (MS)

  15. Report of the editors, 2014.

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) Objectives and attainments in 2014, (b) Editorial activity, 2014, and (c) 2013 impact factor. In 2014 we achieved the 5 planned objectives. We have published the 9 programmed issues and 103% of the planned papers according to the usual fixed sections. We emphasize the publication of 29 editorials, 21 of which are signed by prestigious foreign authors. From the first January to the 30th September 2014 we received 421 manuscripts (46.8 manuscripts per month), a slight lower figure to that obtained in 2013 (50.9 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 404 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 32.3% (originals, 22.4%). We asked for 315 revisions to 240 reviewers and we received 53.3% revisions in less than two weeks (10.4 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 18,3 (less than half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56,6 days in 2009 to 26.6 days in 2014. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 103 days. In 2014 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation (FEMI) has reported 11 published manuscripts. In July 2014 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports gave Rev Clin Esp an Impact Factor of 1,314 (year 2013). This Impact Factor without self-citations would have been 0.705 (in 2009 the global impact factor was 0,584). With the Editorial Committee farewell we welcome the new editorial team and we sincerely thank the SEMI Steering Committee, our colleagues, journal officers, reviewers, readers and authors that since 2009 have trusted on our editorial work.

  16. [Report of the editors, 2010].

    PubMed

    García Puig, Juan; Alonso-Vega, Gabriel Gaspar; Blanco, Juan José Ríos

    2011-01-01

    The Editors of the Rev Clin Esp inform herein on their editorial activity in the last year (November 2009 to October 2010) according to three different sections: (a) Objectives and achievements during 2010, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2011. During 2010, we have updated the editorial algorithm (manuscript time lag). We have developed the "E-case reports" section and we have linked the abstracts of the Annual Congress of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) to a journal supplement (electronically available). Since 2010, the subscribers have been able to receive all of the contents of the Rev Clin Esp on-line and to perform self-evaluations in order to obtain 1.7 credits per each journal issue (continuing education). In 2010 we handled 402 manuscripts (7.2% more than in 2009), 35% of which were accepted for publication. We asked 186 reviewers for their expert opinion, 75% of whom sent their reports in less than two weeks. The mean time needed to reach an editorial decision concerning original manuscripts ("accepted / rejected") was 44.5 days and for papers not sent to external reviewers 19.5 days. Collaboration with the work groups produced good results (2.4 published manuscripts per issue), but this could be improved if all the groups collaborated in all the journal sections. Our objectives for 2011 are to complete the renewal of the Rev Clin Esp scientific committee, in accordance with the SEMI Council, and to continue to proceed with the actions initiated to increase the journal impact factor. Rev Clim Esp is an open forum for all internal medicine specialists. Responsibility falls on all of us to collaborate in order to make our journal a little better day by day.

  17. 2012 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  18. 2013 Editors' Citations for Excellence in Refereeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important services performed for AGU is the conscientious reviewing of submitted papers. Because of the nature of the reviewing process, this service is also one of the least recognized. Every year editors are asked to select the outstanding reviewers from the previous year. The reviewers listed below have been cited by editors of AGU journals and Eos for excellence in refereeing. These individuals are to be commended for consistently providing constructive and thoughtful reviews.

  19. How are Editors Selected, Recruited and Approved?

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Al-Khatib, Aceil

    2016-11-28

    The editors of scholarly journals have a duty to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct of research. They also have a responsibility to maintain the integrity of the literature, and to promote transparency and honesty in reporting research findings. In the process of screening manuscripts they receive for possible publication, editors have the obligation to report infractions to the institutions of offending authors, and request an investigation. Since editors can reject a paper on ethical grounds, they can be considered to be the guardians of ethics who should express high ethical standards in conducting and publishing their own research. An examination of several publishers' websites reveals no such requirement or clear selection criteria for journal editors. Therefore, we aim to discuss the factors that publishers, in a broad sense, should consider when selecting editors for scholarly journals and believe that such criteria should be made public to ensure accountability. This would restore some of the eroding public trust in disseminated research, fortify confidence in the composition and qualification of members of an editorial board, and help to protect the reputations of publishers and editors.

  20. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  1. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last years. The following people have been selected: Marina Becoulet, CEA Cadarache, France Russell Doerner, University of California - San Diego, USA Emiliano Fable, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Germany Akihide Fujisawa, Kyushi University, Japan Gerardo Giruzzi, CEA Cadarache, France Grigory Kagan, LANL, USA Morten Lennholm, CCFE, UK Akinobu Matsuyama, NIFS, Japan Peter Stangeby, University of Toronto, Canada Leonid Zakharov, PPPL, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2011. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2011 Nuclear Fusion Award is H. Urano, for the paper 'Dimensionless parameter dependence of H-mode pedestal width using hydrogen and deuterium plasmas in JT-60U' (Nucl. Fusion 48 045008). The award was presented at the Plasma Conference 2011 (Joint meeting of 28th JSPF Annual Meeting, The 29th Symposium on Plasma Processing, and Division of Plasma Physics, 2011 Autumn Meeting of The Physical Society of Japan). This is the sixth year that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has awarded an annual prize to honour exceptional work published in Nuclear Fusion. IOP Publishing has generously made a contribution of $2500 to the award. The Nuclear Fusion Electronic Archive The journal's electronic archive has been online since the beginning of the year. The archive has been a roaring success and has contributed to the nearly 300 000 downloads of journal papers in 2011. The archive can be accessed via http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Archive. It has direct links to 16 landmark papers, from authors such as Artsimovich and Mercier. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also

  2. [Report of the editors, 2013].

    PubMed

    García Puig, J; Gaspar Alonso-Vega, G; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2014-01-01

    The editors of Revista Clínica Española(Rev Clin Esp) inform on their editorial activity during the last 12 months: (a) objectives and attainments, (b) editorial activity, and (c) objectives for 2014. In 2013 the most relevant modification concerning the editorial activity has been the translation into English of the 5 manuscripts with abstract contained in each issue (http://www.revclinesp.es/). From the first January to the 30th September 2013 we received 458 manuscripts (50.9 manuscripts per month), a similar figure to that obtained in 2012 (51.1 manuscripts per month). The acceptance rate of the 443 manuscripts whose editorial process has been concluded was 23.7% (originals, 11.8%). We asked for 253 revisions to 186 reviewers and we received 74.4% revisions in less than 2 weeks (10.9 days). The mean time to adopt an editorial decision for all manuscripts («accepted»/«rejected») has been 20,3 (half than in 2009). For «originals» this figure has dropped from 56.6 days in 2009 to 22.5 days in 2013. The mean time elapsed from manuscript reception to its on-line publication was 94.8 days in 2013 (110.5 in 2012 and 155.8 in 2011). In 2013 the collaboration with the working groups from the Internal Medicine Spanish Foundation has reported 17 published manuscripts. In 2013 we were informed that the Journal Citation Reports excluded Rev Clin Esp from its impact factor journal list due to its elevated self-citations. We have taken a number of actions to reduce self-citations and we expect to be a minority in 2014. Some other data concerning the editorial policy are encouraging. In this sense, manuscript citation to Rev Clin Esp published articles has seen a substantial increase from 19% in 2008 to 29% in 2012. We work to achieve the digitalization of Rev Clin Esp from 1940 to 1999 (the journal is already digitalized since 2000). The continuous renewal of the journal sections and the working groups collaboration are necessary elements to make our journal, each day

  3. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  4. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  5. A standard syntax-directed editor for hyperprogramming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhogolev, E.A.; Kuz`menkova, E.A.; Mailingova, O.L.; Poprygaev, E.V.

    1995-05-01

    The main operations of a syntax-directed editor are considered. The requirements to the standard syntax-directed editor are stated. The structure of the standard syntax-directed editor and the functions of its components are discussed. The language base properties needed for syntax-directed editor development are described. Methods for transforming the standard syntax-directed editor into a specialized one are carried out.

  6. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Marella de Angelis and her colleagues on precision gravimetry using atomic sensors and from Dr Peter Becker on determination of the Avogadro constant via enriched silicon-28. I recommend setting up a free e-mail alert so that you can read them as soon as they are published! As many of you are already aware, our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen again to 1.297. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization (Thomson ISI) agreeing with my own assessment. Of course the publication of high quality articles in the journal is dependent both on you the authors who trust us with the publication of your best work and on our referees and Editorial Board Members who we depend on to maintain the high standards you have grown to expect. I must also thank our referees for their rapid response when asked to review papers for Measurement Science and Technology. On average, authors receive a decision on their article in 45 days. Therefore I would like to end this message by saying thank you again to all those who have contributed to our success in the past year, and wish you all the best for a successful 2009!

  7. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2007, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal. As many of you are no doubt aware, our latest impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has risen to 1.228. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. The popularity of the journal amongst authors and readers has prompted us to introduce a new subject classification for articles, to make it easier for readers to find articles of interest. The eight subject categories are: Measurement theory and practical developments (e.g. precision measurements, metrology, new measurement principles, signal processing techniques, theory of measurement, calibration); Sensors and sensing systems (based on physical, chemical or biological principles; micro- and nano-scale systems; sensors for physical, chemical and biological quantities); Optical and laser based techniques (e.g. fibre optics, interferometry, etc); Fluid mechanics measurements (e.g. fluid flow, velocimetry, particle sizing, etc); Imaging techniques (e.g. tomography, microscopy, holography, THz, etc); Spectroscopy (e.g. optical, acoustic, dielectric, MS, NMR, ESR, IR, UV-VIS, fluorescence, PCS, x-ray, etc); New and improved techniques for materials evaluation (e.g. non-destructive testing and evaluation, structural measurements); Novel instrumentation. We kindly ask you to assign your paper to a category when you send it to the journal. In order to maintain our rapid

  8. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2008-01-01

    To begin, I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2008 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2007. I took over the editorship of Nuclear Fusion in January, and the year has been one in which the community as a whole has been busier than ever with a variety of duties associated with the ITER project. It was with pride that we published the Progress in the ITER Physics Basis in the June issue of the journal (stacks.iop.org/NF/47/i=6). The task undertaken by the coordinators, authors and referees was a daunting one but one which led to an outstandingly successful issue. The response from readers has been phenomenal and there were in the region of 10 000 downloads of papers in the first month following publication. Looking to 2008 and beyond, the journal will endeavour to continue to support the work of the fusion community. Refereeing As we have done since January 2005, we would like to thank our top ten most loyal referees who have helped the journal with its double-referee peer-review procedure in the past year. At the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Office we are fully aware of the load we put on the shoulders of our referees. At the end of 2004 the Editorial Board decided that a gesture of gratitude should be made to our most loyal referees. We offer them a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. To select the top referees we have adopted the criterion that a researcher should have acted as a referee or adjudicator for at least three different manuscripts during the period from summer 2006 to the end of 2007. We have excluded our Board members and those referees who were already listed in the top ten in the last two years. According to our records the following people met this criterion. Congratulations and many, many thanks! H.L. Berk (Texas University, USA) J.S. DeGrassie (GAT, USA) C. Deutsch (Paris University, France) N. Hayashi (JAEA

  9. A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    appears and presents the hierarchy of CEMenuCells A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP 2 of 27 m arble Final Report for Contract # DAAHO1-93-C-R013 in the...icon, "Default" status, state list, textual description, tool sta- A Command Editor Tool for NEXTSTEP 3 of 27 m arble Final Report for Contract... arble Final Report for Contract # DAAH01-93-C-R013 FIGURE 7 Configuration of a TAV 3.0.. Acietr O ev 3.1 luBman d aetn Cmoe a ConQ summw t. Paletta e

  10. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  11. A Visual Editor in Java for View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan

    2000-01-01

    In this project we continued the development of a visual editor in the Java programming language to create screens on which to display real-time data. The data comes from the numerous systems monitoring the operation of the space shuttle while on the ground and in space, and from the many tests of subsystems. The data can be displayed on any computer platform running a Java-enabled World Wide Web (WWW) browser and connected to the Internet. Previously a special-purpose program bad been written to display data on emulations of character-based display screens used for many years at NASA. The goal now is to display bit-mapped screens created by a visual editor. We report here on the visual editor that creates the display screens. This project continues the work we bad done previously. Previously we had followed the design of the 'beanbox,' a prototype visual editor created by Sun Microsystems. We abandoned this approach and implemented a prototype using a more direct approach. In addition, our prototype is based on newly released Java 2 graphical user interface (GUI) libraries. The result has been a visually more appealing appearance and a more robust application.

  12. Are Editors Out of the Tenure Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    University presses have complained for years that tenure committees unfairly expect their editors to be arbiters of what counts as tenure-worthy work. At the same time, the presses have been caught in a business-side squeeze between dwindling sales (and shrinking subsidies) and the ever-greater pressure on scholars to publish. In this article, the…

  13. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    DOE PAGES

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  14. OPM Scheme Editor 2: A graphical editor for specifying object-protocol structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Min A.; Markowitz, V.M.; Pang, F.; Ben-Shachar, O.

    1993-07-01

    This document describes an X-window based Schema Editor for the Object-Protocol Model (OPM). OPM is a data model that supports the specification of complex object and protocol classes. objects and protocols are qualified in OPM by attributes that are defined over (associated with) value classes. Connections of object and protocol classes are expressed in OPM via attributes. OPM supports the specification (expansion) of protocols in terms of alternative and sequences of component (sub) protocols. The OPM Schema Editor allows specifying, displaying, modifying, and browsing through OPM schemas. The OPM Schema Editor generates an output file that can be used as input to an OPM schema translation tool that maps OPM schemas into definitions for relational database management systems. The OPM Schema Editor was implemented using C++ and the X11 based Motif toolkit, on Sun SPARCstation under Sun Unix OS 4.1. This document consists of the following parts: (1) A tutorial consisting of seven introductory lessons for the OPM Schema Editor. (2) A reference manual describing all the windows and functions of the OPM Schema Editor. (3) An appendix with an overview of OPM.

  15. Editor and Student Views on the Censorship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raburn, Josephine

    Out of 200 newspaper editors randomly selected from a directory, 64 responded to a questionnaire eliciting their opinions on the subject materials most often censored by groups in the United States. The editors' responses were compared to those of 121 freshmen at Cameron University (Oklahoma). A majority of the editors supported the First…

  16. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory.

  17. Unified Meta-Component Model Specification Editor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-20

    relationship between the two major user interface modules, the editor and wizard, and their associated features. Functional to module mapping diagrams are...SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 148 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39- 18

  18. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur

  19. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  20. Meet the Editor: Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    Meinrat Andreae was named the editor of the AGU's journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles last year.Andreae, director of the biogeochemistry department at the Max Plank Institute for Chemistry (MPIC), located in Mainz, Germany said that he plans to maintain the journal as a resource that highlights the broad spectrum of interdisciplinary themes that showcase the interactions between the biosphere and the geosphere. “Our special niche is in the field of larger-scale, more integrative studies that have global scope,” he explained.

  1. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  2. A Tisket, A Tasket--Out of the Editor's Basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-05-01

    In September 1940, the Journal introduced Out of the Editor's Basket for short items of interest: excerpts from letters, pamphlets, newspapers, and periodicals. By 1950, however, the Editor's Basket had evolved into a bulletin board for descriptions of new products and services, and it now contains almost exclusively press releases about recently marketed items. Now over 60 years old, the Editor's Basket still provides interesting tidbits for the Journal's broad readership.

  3. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  4. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  5. Web-Based Media Contents Editor for UCC Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    The purpose of this research is to "design web-based media contents editor for establishing UCC(User Created Contents)-based websites." The web-based editor features user-oriented interfaces and increased convenience, significantly different from previous off-line editors. It allows users to edit media contents online and can be effectively used for online promotion activities of enterprises and organizations. In addition to development of the editor, the research aims to support the entry of enterprises and public agencies to the online market by combining the technology with various UCC items.

  6. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    When Professor Anders Bárány took over as the Executive Editor of Physica Scripta, in 1986, he talked of his trepidation at having to 'dress himself' in his predecessor's 'editorial coveralls'. At that time, they had been worn by Professor Nils Robert Nilsson, a major figure in the physics community, for almost 20 years. Just one year prior to this, Professor Roger Wäppling had been recruited to the position of Subeditor in conjunction with a decision to expand the number of contributions in the field of condensed matter physics, to turn it into one of the dominant subjects in the broad-based journal. Physica Scripta had already gained a reputation for being a high quality journal with wide coverage of both experimental and theoretical physics. Interestingly, in the mid 1980s, the number of papers submitted had been growing and an impressive 250 submissions per year had been attained, with all of the manuscripts being handled in-house. Not many miles away in the town of Uppsala, a group of English students was stepping off a train on a magnificent snowy day in January to embark on their final year projects. A couple of us enjoyed ourselves so much that we stayed on afterwards as PhD students, thereby encountering the mixed pleasure of studying physics in a second language for the first time. I used to copy the notes down meticulously in Swedish, then try to work backwards with a textbook to improve my language skills. One day, returning from a particularly incomprehensible lecture on solid state physics, I showed my roommates my notes and asked if they could please explain what the lecture had been about: 'I don't know', they replied, 'but this bit is about sheep!' Meanwhile, back at Physica Scripta, the journal continued to flourish: 400 submissions were received in 1996, and the march of progress was well underway. Manuscripts could now be sent in on disks and Physica Scripta was available on the World Wide Web. Roger was appointed to manage the journal and

  7. A former Editor views the editorial process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    It was at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco in December 1976, shortly after my appointment as coeditor of Water Resources Research that I first began to realize the strong emotional ties that exist between a scientific community and its journals. Feelings run high, regardless of whether they come from readers, contributors, reviewers, active scientists, or scientific administrators. Opinions are often positive, sometimes negative, usually a mixture of the two; but regardless of their tenor they are delivered to the editor, in person, usually fortissimo. From that day until this, conference life has never been dull. When I meet a colleague in the halls there is never a loss for words, no need to search for a topic of mutual interest; WRR is always there at the ready.

  8. How Newspaper Editors Reacted to "Post's" Pulitzer Prize Hoax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Douglas A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the findings of a nationwide survey of newspaper editors, revealing that most thought that the Janet Cooke hoax had been poorly handled by the "Washington Post." Notes that most of the editors said their newspapers had systems of review for stories coming from anonymous sources. (FL)

  9. Peer reviews and the role of a journal editor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining peer reviews for manuscripts submitted to scientific journals is becoming increasingly difficult. Changes to the system are necessary, and editors must cultivate and maintain a solid base of reviewers to help evaluate journal submissions. This article outlines some steps editors can and sh...

  10. The RAE and Publications: A Review of Journal Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talib, Ameen Ali

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed editors of academic journals about publication issues related to Britain's Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), a process of grading and funding universities based on published research output. Editors were asked about research quality and output, publication practices, academics' willingness to referee manuscripts, and proliferation of…

  11. March 2017 Letters to the Editor-in-Chief.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Letters to the Editor-in-Chief of JOSPT as follows: "Regarding 'Unraveling the Complexity of Low Back Pain'" with Authors' Response "Beall's List Has Vanished: What Next?" with Editor-in-Chief Response J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):219-223. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0202.

  12. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  13. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  14. Editors' message--Hydrogeology Journal in 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford; Olcott, Perry; Schneider, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeology Journal appeared in six issues containing a total of 710 pages and 48 major articles, including 31 Papers and 14 Reports, as well as some Technical Notes and Book Reviews. The number of submitted manuscripts continues to increase. The final issue of 2003 also contained the annual volume index. Hydrogeology Journal (HJ) is an international forum for hydrogeology and related disciplines and authors in 2003 were from about 28 countries. Articles advanced hydrogeologic science and described hydrogeologic systems in many regions worldwide. These articles focused on a variety of general topics and on studies of hydrogeology in 24 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, and U.S.A. The Guest Editor of the 2003 HJ theme issue on “Hydromechanics in Geology and Geotechnics”, Ove Stephansson, assembled a valuable collection of technical reviews and research papers from eminent authors on important aspects of the subject area.

  15. ESDAPT - APT PROGRAMMING EDITOR AND INTERPRETER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1994-01-01

    ESDAPT is a graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. ESDAPT has a graphical user interface that provides the user with an APT syntax sensitive text editor and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statement can also be created using menus and screen picks. ESDAPT interprets APT geometry statements and displays the results in its view windows. Tool paths are generated by batching the APT source to an APT processor (COSMIC P-APT recommended). The tool paths are then displayed in the view windows. Hardcopy output of the view windows is in color PostScript format. ESDAPT is written in C-language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS. ESDAPT requires 4Mb of disk space, 7Mb of RAM, and MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, or OpenWindows version 3 for execution. Program documentation in PostScript format and an executable for OpenWindows version 3 are provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ESDAPT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. This program was developed in 1992.

  16. Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish, Chennupati; Jelinkova, Helena; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Dawson, Martin; Ermers, Ysabel

    2016-01-01

    After nine years of dedicated service as Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics (PQE), J. Gary Eden has retired at the end of December 2015. During his term as the Editor-in-Chief, PQE has grown significantly in size and quality and he has given generously of his time in advising authors, referees, editors, and the journal staff. Gary is an exceptional scientist and a generous individual who has given so much to the community. He is always very positive in every situation, and has created positive environment and supported people with utmost enthusiasm.

  17. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) is a journal that originated in the UK but is now rightly regarded as one of the pre-eminent international journals for the publication of material coming within its remit. It is 50 years old and its maturity is an outcome of the consistent support of high performing authors, a supportive and professional publishing house, dedicated referees, many vigorous and conscientious editorial boards and the collective input of the 10 previous Editors as listed in his incoming editorial (January 2000 issue) by the retiring Editor, Professor Alun Beddoe. The scientific climate and it associated publication modus operandi in the 1950s was very different from that at the current time and the journal has evolved to reflect this. Hence today the scope of content is somewhat broader, the size of the journal is vastly greater, the whole publication process is slicker and more efficient and a paper in PMB is highly prized by its authors and those who look to quality factors and impact. The quality of the journal still relies on the voluntary labour and expertise of its busy international referees and Board members. For many years I have tried to place my own research material in PMB and encourage my teams to do likewise, not only acknowledging the prestige of the journal but also because of the extraordinarily fast turnaround time of all the processes without any loss of quality. This serves us very well and the publishing team are to be congratulated. Some things seem to change more slowly or not at all, however. The prediction, when I started my research career, that books and journals would be dinosaurs by now has manifestly not come true and, whilst most of us are addicted (and why not?) to the electronic ways of doing things that can be done by more traditional ways, PMB and a packet of reprints from time to time arriving by post still has a reassuring feel despite the fact that the papers have been `on-line' for a while before. An incoming

  18. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-02-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  19. Editorial independence and the editor-owner relationship: good editors never die, they just cross the line.

    PubMed

    Lapeña, J F

    2009-12-01

    The concept of editorial freedom or independence is examined in the light of the editor-owner relationship. Like individual and national freedom or independence, it is a rhetorical concept whose realisation flows from internal achievement as much as it depends on external validation. This freedom entails roles and responsibilities embodied in specific codes of practice for editors, such as the guidelines espoused by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Association of Medical Editors. The calling to embody these guidelines makes editing a vocation that demands isolation and distancing, separation and solitude. It involves bracketing one's biases, prejudgments and preconceptions. With such detachment comes real freedom; one that requires a moral fibre and trustworthiness that uphold truth and right, whether in full view of public scrutiny, or in the aloneness of private secrecy. The stereotypical tension between academic and commercial concerns highlights the editor-owner relationship, and bears directly on editorial independence. In practice, journal owners overstep their prerogatives. The absence of clear contracts defining editorial independence and the lack of established mechanisms governing the editor-owner relationship affect many small- to medium-sized journals in developing countries. Even large journals in developed and democratic nations or totalitarian states and societies are not spared. At the end of the day, editorial freedom exists only insofar as it is tolerated, or until editors cross the line.

  20. An interview with Rong Li. Interview by Kathryn Senior.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong

    2010-04-01

    Rong Li is an Investigator at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, USA. Her lab is made up of a lively team who are all fascinated by cellular asymmetry, division and evolution. Rong joined Development as an editor in 2009. We interviewed Rong to find out about her work and career, her interest in developmental biology and her new role with the journal.

  1. The Letters Not Sent by a Journal Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    In the late hours of the night, even the most conscientious of journal editors may slip into writing imaginary letters to cherished authors and reviewers. Here are some of the letters that I composed:

  2. Bibliography or Bust: The "Angst" of Scholarly Editors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Richard Hauer

    1980-01-01

    Provides evidence indicating not only that the market for articles on literature and language is saturated with submissions, but that the glut creates burgeoning problems for editors, including the problem of rejecting publishable items. (RL)

  3. ANNOUNCEMENT: Greetings from the Editor and Publisher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wäppling, Roger; Williams, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Physica Scripta is an international physics journal published for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on behalf of the Nordic Science Academies and Physical Societies. This issue marks the beginning of the partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP). We look forward to a fruitful relationship in which Physica Scripta can profit from the international reach of IOP. Authors and readers will benefit from advance publication of articles on the web prior to receiving each month's journal issue. The peer-review system will continue to be managed by Professor Roger Wäppling who will assess each paper before assigning it to an external editor or sending it for refereeing. IOP will receive new article submissions and generate electronic documents suitable for use in the refereeing process. The editorial office in Sweden will then be responsible for these manuscripts up to the final publication decision. Accepted articles will be sent to IOP for copy-editing, typesetting, production and distribution. We aim to provide our authors, referees and readers with an enhanced service for this well-established journal. IOP will maintain and augment Physica Scripta's record in publishing a broad range of high-quality research papers and we will continue to publish Topical Issues as supplements to the regular 12 issues. The popular Comments articles will continue to be published in conjunction with regular papers under this new partnership. We hope that our subscribers will continue to enjoy reading Physica Scripta as a valuable resource for general physics research.

  4. Adapting a thesis to publication style: meeting editors' expectations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1996-01-01

    Every year hundreds of thesis reports are completed by graduate students. Many of these end up on nursing journal editors' desks, only to be rejected. What characteristics of a thesis lead to rejection? How can authors develop quality research manuscripts? How can faculty teach graduate students the difference between a thesis and manuscript. This article answers these questions by providing advice from 15 critical care and research journal editors.

  5. Substrate Utilization in the Critically Ill (Letter to the Editor)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    pen.sagepub.com/ Nutrition Journal of Parenteral and Enteral http://pen.sagepub.com/content/33/1/111 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI...Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: The American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition can be found at:Journal of...the Editor Dear Editor, Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Volume 33 Number 1 January/February 2009 111 © 2009 American Society for Parenteral

  6. ZED- A LINE EDITOR FOR THE DEC VAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The ZED editor for the DEC VAX is a simple, yet powerful line editor for text, program source code, and non-binary data. Line editors can be superior to screen editors in some cases, such as executing complex multiple or conditional commands, or editing via slow modem lines. ZED excels in the area of text processing by using procedure files. For example, such procedures can reformat a file of addresses or remove all comment lines from a FORTRAN program. In addition to command files, ZED also features versatile search qualifiers, global changes, conditionals, on-line help, hexadecimal mode, space compression, looping, logical combinations of search strings, journaling, visible control characters, and automatic detabbing. The ZED editor was originally developed at Cambridge University in London and has been continuously enhanced since 1976. Users of the Cambridge implementation have devised such elaborate ZED procedures as chess games, calculators, and programs for evaluating Pi. This implementation of ZED strives to maintain the characteristics of the Cambridge editor. A complete ZED manual is included on the tape. ZED is written entirely in C for either batch or interactive execution on the DEC VAX under VMS 4.X and requires 80,896 bytes of memory. This program was released in 1988 and updated in 1989.

  7. L.I. Novikova's Research School: Main Ideas and Prospects for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Natalia Leonidovna; Stepanov, Pavel Valentinovich; Shakurova, Marina Viktorovna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the main ideas of L.I. Novikova's research school "Systems Approach to Character Education (Russian Vospitaniye-Editor) and Socialization in Children and Young Adults," which is the leading research school in the sphere of education. It also shows how these ideas were developed in the activities of five generations…

  8. EzEditor: a versatile sequence alignment editor for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon-Seong; Lee, Kihyun; Park, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Bong-Soo; Cho, Yong-Joon; Ha, Sung-Min; Chun, Jongsik

    2014-02-01

    EzEditor is a Java-based molecular sequence editor allowing manipulation of both DNA and protein sequence alignments for phylogenetic analysis. It has multiple features optimized to connect initial computer-generated multiple alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analysis by providing manual editing with reference to biological information specific to the genes under consideration. It provides various functionalities for editing rRNA alignments using secondary structure information. In addition, it supports simultaneous editing of both DNA sequences and their translated protein sequences for protein-coding genes. EzEditor is, to our knowledge, the first sequence editing software designed for both rRNA- and protein-coding genes with the visualization of biologically relevant information and should be useful in molecular phylogenetic studies. EzEditor is based on Java, can be run on all major computer operating systems and is freely available from http://sw.ezbiocloud.net/ezeditor/.

  9. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David

    2012-01-01

    It is a pleasure and an honour for me to be taking over as Editor-in-Chief of Measurement Science and Technology. MST is well known across research communities worldwide as a leading journal in which to publish new techniques and instrumentation. It has gained this enviable position largely because of the excellent guidance of its Editorial Board and dedicated staff at Institute of Physics Publishing over many years. I want to highlight in particular the contribution of the outgoing Editor Peter Hauptmann, and other Editors before him, in making the journal truly international. We thank Peter immensely for all his hard work in leading the journal, having exceptionally served two terms, each of five years. I come into the post of Editor at a very interesting and challenging time for research. The global recession is leading to cuts in research funding in many countries, researchers and their outputs are coming under closer scrutiny than ever before, and more is being expected of them. Journals play a critical role in monitoring and maintaining research standards, but we should be careful not to assume that journal Impact Factor is the sole measure of research quality. Although expediency may sometimes demand it, Impact Factor, as practitioners know, is subject dependent. One of the great things about science and technology for me is its level playing field. The key point is still innovation no matter where the work is done or where it is published. MST has a long pedigree of being the natural home of the highest quality papers from leading researchers wishing to report novel instrumentation and techniques. 2013 will mark the 90th anniversary of MST and we look forward to celebrating in style its sustained success. I recall with pride the first paper I published in Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (as MST was previously titled) back in 1977. The paper reported the design and application of an early fluorescence lifetime spectrometer that I had constructed

  10. SIRE: A Simple Interactive Rule Editor for NICBES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1988-01-01

    To support evolution of domain expertise, and its representation in an expert system knowledge base, a user-friendly rule base editor is mandatory. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES), a prototype of an expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope power storage management system, does not provide such an editor. In the following, a description of a Simple Interactive Rule Base Editor (SIRE) for NICBES is described. The SIRE provides a consistent internal representation of the NICBES knowledge base. It supports knowledge presentation and provides a user-friendly and code language independent medium for rule addition and modification. The SIRE is integrated with NICBES via an interface module. This module provides translation of the internal representation to Prolog-type rules (Horn clauses), latter rule assertion, and a simple mechanism for rule selection for its Prolog inference engine.

  11. Writing filter processes for the SAGA editor, appendix G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirslis, Peter A.

    1985-01-01

    The SAGA editor provides a mechanism by which separate processes can be invoked during an editing session to traverse portions of the parse tree being edited. These processes, termed filter processes, read, analyze, and possibly transform the parse tree, returning the result to the editor. By defining new commands with the editor's user defined command facility, which invoke filter processes, authors of filter can provide complex operations as simple commands. A tree plotter, pretty printer, and Pascal tree transformation program were already written using this facility. The filter processes are introduced, parse tree structure is described and the library interface made available to the programmer. Also discussed is how to compile and run filter processes. Examples are presented to illustrate aspect of each of these areas.

  12. Implementing a computerized text-management system: an editor's view

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of sophisticated function-key-driven programs for handling text on a video-display terminal enables the editorial staff of a publications department to take an active role on a computerized text-management team, along with compositors and other keyboard operators. Although there are still many things that editors cannot do on a computer terminal, the bulk of manipulating straight text can be speeded, and the problems of rekeyboarding and interpretation of editorial markings can be largely bypassed. The computer also gives editors new tools that open the way for greater control over both the editorial process and the quality of technical publishing. 5 figures.

  13. EDITORIAL: New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology New Editor-in-Chief for Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is proud to announce the appointment of Professor Mark Reed, Yale University, as the new Editor-in-Chief from January 2009. Mark Reed holds the Harold Hodgkinson Chair of Engineering and Applied Science at Yale University. He has made significant contributions in the areas of quantum dots, electronic transport in nanoscale and mesoscopic systems, artificially structured materials and devices, and molecular electronics. Professor Reed has been associated with the journal as an Editorial Board member for a number of years and we are delighted that he has agreed to take on the scientific leadership of the journal in its 20th year. We also take the opportunity to thank Professor Mark Welland, Cambridge University, for his work as Editor-in-Chief since 2001, and for presiding over the re-launch and remarkable growth of the journal since then. Nanotechnology is unique in that it was the first peer-reviewed journal in the area of nanoscience, the first issue appearing in 1990. Since then it has established a distinguished publication record and has become a leading journal covering all aspects of nanoscale science and technology, as well as specializing in in-depth, comprehensive articles not seen in letter format journals. Published weekly and featuring subject sections, the journal is truly multidisciplinary in nature and is an excellent medium to quickly deliver your research results to readers worldwide. Nanotechnology is proud to be offering some of the fastest publication times around (less than three months on average from receipt to online publication). We offer free online access to all published papers for 30 days, ensuring that anyone with access to the internet will be able to read your paper. We were also the first journal to give our authors the opportunity to communicate their research to a wider audience through nanotechweb.org and other IOP websites. See the journal's homepage at www.iop.org/Journals/nano for more details. We are looking

  14. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-02-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  15. Righting the Wrongs of Writing: Copy Editors Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jaclyn J.; Wall, Judy

    1975-01-01

    The major part of APGA Press production editors' jobs is copy editing manuscripts before they are set in type. Two APGA Press Staff members use specific examples to illustrate the grammatical and stylistic errors that cause problems for them and, if not corrected, for readers. (Author)

  16. Females' participation in psychopharmacology research as authors, editors, and subjects.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Durgin, Amy; Bradley, Kelly P; Porter, Lindsay K; Van Wagner, Karen; Weeden, Marc; Panos, John J

    2009-04-01

    This study determined the involvement of women as first authors and other authors for every article published in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, and Psychopharmacology in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006. Their involvement as editors also was determined. Women's participation as authors, but not as editors, slightly increased over time. In 2006, 43% of first authors, 38% of other authors, and 24% of editors were women. The gender of subjects was examined for the same years and journals, but could not be determined for 6% and 9% of articles employing nonhuman and human subjects, respectively. In 2006, when subjects' gender could be determined, 77% of articles involving nonhuman subjects used only males, 9% only females, and 14% both males and females. In articles using human subjects in that same year, 17% involved only males, 6% only females, and 77% both males and females. Women researchers clearly make substantial contributions to the psychopharmacology literature, but are nonetheless underrepresented as editors. Findings regarding subjects indicate that there is growing recognition of the importance of gender as a determinant of drug effects, although the vast majority of nonhuman studies continue to involve only male subjects.

  17. Publishing in Educational Psychology Journals: Comments from Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihalani, Priya K.; Mayrath, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The following paper emphasizes the importance of publishing and learning how to publish in educational psychology journals. We have compiled a set of recommendations based on advice from editors in the field and several other sources on how to publish. Additionally, this paper provides a step-by-step guide that graduate students and junior faculty…

  18. Particle size fraction -Response: Letter to the Editors

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editors: We, the undersigned, would like to comment on the article by Cho et al. (Cho et al. 2009), which was published in the November 2009 issue (volume 11, number 11, page 1682-1689) of Environmental Health Perspectives. We read the paper with great interest as the dis...

  19. IN DEFENSE OF ECORISK ASSESSMENT (LETTER TO EDITOR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dear Editor: We are writing to convey a more accurate portrayal of the status of ecological ("environmental" in Europe) risk assessment that was presented in the recent article by M. Power and L.S. McCarty (Fallacies in Ecological Risk Assessment Practices," August 1997, pp 370A-...

  20. Most Business Editors Find Journalism Graduates Still Unprepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardue, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, a study was published in "Newspaper Research Journal" that explored the preparedness of graduating journalism students to cover business news. In 2012, a follow-up survey of business editors at the nation's daily newspapers was done to see whether progress had been made in the training of journalism students for the…

  1. LACE: A Web-Based, Structured Editor for PDS Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M.; Keller, R.; Sarram, P.

    2015-06-01

    PDS has moved to XML-based metadata, but many scientists are not familiar with XML and find its structure complicated. For these reasons, we have created LACE, an editor for PDS metadata that hides the complexity of XML from the user.

  2. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, Laragh; Momen, Hooman

    2006-08-01

    Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.

  3. Editors-in-Chief of Medical Journals: Are They Experts, Authorities, Both, or Neither?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsindely, Sandor; Schubert, Andras

    1989-01-01

    Uses citation analysis to study the professional status and influence of the editors-in-chief of 769 medical journals. Finds that these editors-in-chief are, at least in their own specialties, not necessarily experts but authorities. (SR)

  4. EDITORIAL: Outgoing Editor-in-Chief Outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    I started in 2002 as Editor-in-Chief of a well established journal—MST (Measurement Science and Technology). It was a time when modern means of communication offered new opportunities for the scientific community—for all scientists and engineers whether at universities, in industry or at other institutions—to access better quality information in a shorter time. This development helped us to be more efficient in our daily scientific work and to anticipate new trends faster than before. A flood of information was created by different search engines. A few online journals or journals published in emerging countries with a similar profile to MST appeared on the market. MST had to provide new answers in response to these developments. In 2002 I postulated two requirements to the journal. Firstly, the publisher has to be up to date. My impression over the years has been that IOPP is excellently organized. That has made it easier for the board members and all our reviewers to concentrate on the scientific aspects of our input to the journal. During all my visits to Bristol or my contacts with the IOPP staff I always met very professional and enthusiastic staff members. They have not only supported and encouraged the ideas and initiatives of the Editorial Board members, but they have also worked hard on establishing one of the most effective journal operations in the field of measurement science and technology. Many authors are well aware of this. Thus I am able to declare that the first requirement for a successful journal has been met. Secondly, the scientific level has to be high and the journal should attract readers from all over the world. This task was the responsibility of the Editorial Board members and of myself. Our strategy was on the one hand to ensure continuity in MST but on the other hand to be open to new trends and developments. Examples of these new aspects of the journal are fields like micro- and nanometrology, measurement techniques for

  5. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Jan Michael

    2011-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Paul Corkum will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2011. During my term as Editor-in-Chief atomic, molecular and optical science has continued to change rapidly: we have seen ultracold physics widening its original emphasis on Bose-Einstein condensates to the entanglement of light and matter in the most general sense towards a science of information. At the same time attosecond science and interaction of matter with short x-ray pulses develops rapidly. I am very happy that J. Phys. B with Paul Corkum as Editor-in-Chief will play a central role in publishing exciting results from this field. I would like to thank the publishing team at J. Phys. B for their fantastic job, in particular for the quality of the refereeing system the team has been able to maintain while at the same time bringing down the publication times considerably. I thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for the support of J. Phys. B.

  6. FLAn: A Free Hypermedia Editor to Create Foreign Language Learning Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Glossing words is done via special software called multimedia editors. Foreign Language Annotator (FLAn), created by Thibeault (2011), is one of these multimedia editors. FLAn (Foreign Language Annotator), a free hypermedia editor that works on both Macs and PCs, allows instructors to turn static texts into dynamic learning units by attaching…

  7. Preparing Students To Work on Newspaper Copy Desks: Are Educators Meeting Editors' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auman, Ann E.; Cook, Betsy B.

    A study surveyed two groups in the fall of 1994, journalism educators and newspaper editors. Educators completed a survey regarding the course content and skill areas emphasized in beginning level copy editing courses, while editors were asked to respond to questions regarding the skills they expect entry-level copy editors to have. Respondents…

  8. PREFACE: Introductory remarks from the Editors Introductory remarks from the Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.; Meseguer, A.; Marques, F.

    2012-06-01

    The local organizers of the 4th BIFD (Bifurcations and Instabilities in Fluid Dynamics) Symposium held in Barcelona on 18-21 July 2011 would like to thank the editors of Fluid Dynamics Research for offering us the opportunity of publishing a peer-reviewed special issue of the journal with a selection of the contributions presented at this conference. We thank both the authors and the referees for working with us on the rather tight schedule necessary to release the issue within one year of the date of the conference. We also thank the invited speakers, B Eckhardt, L Tuckerman, and J M Vega, for contributing keynote papers to this special issue. The series of BIFD symposia started as a small workshop in Madeira, Portugal, in 2004 with no more than 20 participants. This number increased rapidly during the second and third symposia held in 2006 (Denmark) and 2009 (United Kingdom), with 40 and 110 participants, respectively. The 4th BIFD symposium has consolidated this event as one of the leading conferences in hydrodynamic stability, with nearly 200 participants from around the world. The main goal of this conference is to bring together scientists and engineers from different disciplines directly or indirectly related to fluid dynamics, bifurcation theory and hydrodynamic stability theory. The conference covered many research areas within the aforementioned fields, ranging from thermal, shear and centrifugal flows to biofluids, films, drops, viscoelastic flows and magnetohydrodynamics. The structure of the conference, with invited plenary talks and focused sessions, helped the participants find their home in the conference and share state-of-the-art knowledge within the field of hydrodynamic instabilities. The financial support from MICINN (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Grant no FIS2009-08065-E) and UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya) is greatly appreciated. The local organizers would also like to thank ETSAB (Barcelona School of Architecture

  9. From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, Tom K.

    2015-07-01

    Life Sciences in Space Research had a prominent presence at the International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR) meeting held in Kyoto, Japan from May 25th-29th, with seven of the eleven editors attending the meeting. A journal booth was also put up at the pre-ICRR satellite meeting on Space Radiation and Heavy Ions in Therapy (SRHITS) held a few days earlier in Osaka. Since the inception of LSSR last year, the editors and publisher have promoted the journal at a number of major conferences including COSPAR 2014 in Moscow, the annual meeting of the Radiation Research Society and the NASA Space Radiation Investigators Meeting. These efforts have increased awareness of the journal among investigators in space life sciences and related fields. The number of monthly downloads of articles from the journal website averages 2000, a respectable number for a brand new journal.

  10. Wysession begins term as Eos Section Editor for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, Michael

    In mid-April, Michael Wysession, an associate professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University, embarked on a 3-year term as section editor of Eos for seismology. Wysession brings to the position a strong background in research and teaching. Below are a few remarks from Wysession.“I recently became the new seismology editor for Eos. I look forward to presenting the many exciting areas of seismological research to the entire geophysical community. I have taught at Washington University since obtaining my Ph.D. at Northwestern University in 1991. My interest in seismology began during my undergraduate years at Brown University (Sc.B., 1984), but my experience as an educator began after I graduated and taught high school math and physics in Staten Island, N.Y.

  11. William E. Edmonston, Jr.: Editor, 1968-1976.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F; Frischholz, Edward J

    2010-10-01

    This article is part of an occasional series profiling editors of the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis (AJCH). William E. Edmonston was the second editor, succeeding Milton H. Erickson. His research focused on the use of conditioning paradigms and psychophysiological measures to explore a wide variety of hypnotic phenomena, leading to a "neo-Pavlovian" theory of neutral hypnosis as physiological relaxation (anesis). A longtime professor of psychology at Colgate University, he created an interdisciplinary undergraduate major in neuroscience, and was named New York State College Professor of the Year in 1988. He gave the Journal a new look, and a greater balance of clinical and experimental papers. The article also provides background on George Barton Cutten, George H. Estabrooks, and Frank A. Pattie, pioneers of hypnosis who were linked to Edmonston.

  12. Towards a document structure editor for software requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, Vincent J.; Lekkos, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    Of the six or seven phases of the software engineering life cycle, requirements analysis tends to be the least understood and the least formalized. Correspondingly, a scarcity of useful software tools exist which aid in the development of user and system requirements. It is proposed that requirements analysis should culminate in a set of documents similar to those that usually accompany a delivered Software product. The design of a software tool, the Document Structure Editor, which facilitates the development of such documentation.

  13. Incremental Expression Parsing for Syntax-Directed Editors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    Cretsna*refr a+b+cde ftth I / \\ ,:I \\ I’\\ / , I \\ b- ’ I I € d Figure 4-3: Correct syntax tree for"a + (b + c" d" e) ftgth" The tokens between, the...Schwartz. The Design of a Language-Directed Editor for Block-Structured Languages. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN SIGOA Symposium on Text Manipulation

  14. Reference Accuracy: Authors', Reviewers', Editors', and Publishers' Contributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientific authors are responsible for the accuracy of their writings and references to others' works. However, relying on authors is not enough when it comes to processing their manuscripts. Joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, editors, and publishers throughout the publishing process may prevent most reference errors. This article analyzes essential aspects of bibliographic management and focuses on the importance of validating references by all stakeholders of scholarly publishing. PMID:25469055

  15. JGR-Solid Earth and Planets GP editor appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken Hoffman (Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo) has been appointed GP editor for papers submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth and Planets. His tenure will be from January 1987 to December 1988. Hoffman holds a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of California, Berkeley, and has published extensively in the areas of rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, lunar paleointensity, and most recently, geomagnetic dipole field reversal modeling.

  16. A perspective on computer documentation: System developer vs. technical editor

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, L.F.

    1995-12-31

    Between the computer-knowledgeable {open_quotes}techie{close_quotes} and the technical writer is a chasm created by differences in knowledge bases and skills. Although this gap is widened by misunderstandings and misconceptions of system development roles, it is bridged by mutual need and dual appreciation. Often the editor/writer is {open_quotes}behind{close_quotes} from beginning to end. The writer normally joins the team after the programmers are well into system development and do not want to {open_quotes}waste time{close_quotes} discussing fundamentals. The writer is usually excluded from technical discussions because it is assumed that he/she would not understand anyway. Later in the system development cycle, the writer has no time to polish the documentation before a new version of the software is issued which implies that the documentation must be revised. Nevertheless, the editor/writer`s product is critical for the end-user`s appreciation of the software, a fact which promotes unity to complete the comprehensive package of software and documentation. This paper explores the planks in the bridge that spans the chasm between developers and their fundamental PR agents, the technical editors/writers. This paper defines approaches (e.g., The Circling Theory) and techniques (Bold Thrust!) employed for effective communication -- between software developer and technical writer as well as between the software and the end-user.

  17. CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosa, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

  18. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Gorin, Sergey V; Koroleva, Anna M; Kitas, George D

    2016-09-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions.

  19. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Keith

    2005-01-01

    I am very pleased to announce that Professor Jan-Michael Rost will be taking on the position of Editor-in-Chief at Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) from the beginning of January 2005. As Editor-in-Chief I have seen the journal respond to the rapid and exciting developments in atomic, molecular and optical physics of recent years. There will, I am sure, be a great deal of new and important science in our field in the years ahead. I am also sure that Jan-Michael will do a fantastic job in guiding the journal through these times. The publishing team at J. Phys. B is a superbly responsive and effective one that does a great job in publishing the science we do. I want to thank them all for the help and support they have given me in the role of Editor-in-Chief and wish them the very best for the future. Last and certainly not least I would like to thank you, the authors, referees and readers, for making J. Phys. B such a great journal to have been a part of.

  20. Statement on Publication Ethics for Editors and Publishers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The digitization and related developments in journal editing and publishing necessitate increasing the awareness of all stakeholders of science communication in the emerging global problems and possible solutions. Journal editors and publishers are frequently encountered with the fast-growing problems of authorship, conflicts of interest, peer review, research misconduct, unethical citations, and inappropriate journal impact metrics. While the number of erroneous and unethical research papers and wasteful, or 'predatory', journals is increasing exponentially, responsible editors are urged to 'clean' the literature by correcting or retracting related articles. Indexers are advised to implement measures for accepting truly influential and ethical journals and delisting sources with predatory publishing practices. Updating knowledge and skills of authors, editors and publishers, developing and endorsing recommendations of global editorial associations, and (re)drafting journal instructions can be viewed as potential tools for improving ethics of academic journals. The aim of this Statement is to increase awareness of all stakeholders of science communication of the emerging ethical issues in journal editing and publishing and initiate a campaign of upgrading and enforcing related journal instructions. PMID:27510376

  1. Solubility of Li/sub 2/S in LiF-LiCl-LiBr electrolyte: measurements and calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczuk, Z.; Vissers, D.R.; Saboungi, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    High performance lithium-alloy/iron sulfide cells are currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory and at several industrial firms for electric vehicle propulsion. These cells operate at high temperatures and utilize Li-Al or Li-Si negative electrodes, FeS positive electrodes, and a molten salt electrolyte. In the early work, the molten salt was the LiCl-KCl eutectic (58.2 mol % LiCl-41.8 mol % KCl), but in recent work various electrolyte compositions have been used, i.e., LiCl-rich LiCl--KCl (typically 67 mole % LiCl), LiF-LiCl-KCl, or LiF-LiCl-LiBr (1). The use of these electrolytes requires cell operating temperatures in the range of 703-773 K. As these cells are cycled, it has been shown that, when LiCl-KCl electrolytes were used, local electrolyte compositional changes occurred because of ion transport processes and chemical reactions in the cells. However, despite the temperature or the nature of the electrolyte, iron and lithium sulfide are the final discharge products. Thus, a systematic investigation of the solubility of Li/sub 2/S in a variety of electrolytes containing LiCl as a function of temperature is of technological importance in the development of these cells. We report new solubility measurements of Li/sub 2/S in the LiF-LiCl--LiBr eutectic solution (22 mol %-31 mol %-47 mol %) at 739 and 773 K. The observed increase of Li/sub 2/S solubility as the solvent is changed from LiCl-KCl to LiF-LiCl-LiBr and then to LiF-LiCl is explained in terms of known molten salt theories.

  2. Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief, Ronald Stambaugh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    I am very pleased to join the outstanding leadership team for the journal Nuclear Fusion as Scientific Editor. The journal's high position in the field of fusion energy research derives in no small measure from the efforts of the IAEA team in Vienna, the production and marketing of IOP Publishing, the Board of Editors led by its chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, the Associate Editor for Inertial Confinement Max Tabak and the outgoing Scientific Editor, Paul Thomas. During Paul's five year tenure submissions have grown by over 40%. The usage of the electronic journal has grown year by year with about 300 000 full text downloads of Nuclear Fusion articles in 2011, an impressive figure due in part to the launch of the full 50 year archive. High quality has been maintained while times for peer review and publishing have been reduced and the journal achieved some of the highest impact factors ever (as high as 4.27). The journal has contributed greatly to building the international scientific basis for fusion. I was privileged to serve from 2003 to 2010 as chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) which published in Nuclear Fusion the first ITER Physics Basis (1999) and its later update (2007). The scientific basis that has been developed to date for fusion has led to the construction of major facilities to demonstrate the production of power-plant relevant levels of fusion reactions. We look forward to the journal continuing to play a key role in the international effort toward fusion energy as these exciting major facilities and the various approaches to fusion continue to be developed. It is clear that Nuclear Fusion maintains its position in the field because of the perceived high quality of the submissions, the refereeing and the editorial processes, and the availability and utility of the online journal. The creation of the Nuclear Fusion Prize, led by the Board of Editors chairman Mitsuru Kikuchi, for the most outstanding

  3. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2004-04-01

    On 1 January, 2004, I assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. I will start by saying that I will do my best to justify the confidence of the journal management and publishing staff in my abilities. I was fortunate to have been able to work, as an Editorial Board member, with my predecessor, the previous Editor-in-Chief, Professor Allister Ferguson. Allister has provided a high degree of intellectual stewardship for the journal in the last five years. He has made the job appear a worthy challenge for me. I therefore take this opportunity to thank Allister on behalf of the Editorial Board and publishing staff of the journal. Several other factors contributed to my decision to accept this position. The first is the group of people who actually go about the business of publishing. The Senior Publisher, Nicola Gulley (and her predecessor Sophy Le Masurier); the Managing Editor, Jill Membrey; the Publishing Administrators, Nina Blakesley and Sarah Towell; the Production Editor, Katie Gerrard and their office staff form an amazing group and have managed to make the operation of the journal incredibly efficient. An index of this is the speed with which incoming manuscripts are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and its web publication, if accepted, is 130 days. This is three to five times shorter than for most other journals. A factor that contributes to this success is a responsive pool of referees that the publishing staff have as a valuable resource. Ultimately, the standard bearers of any journal are the referees. Therefore, a grateful `thank you' is due from all of us at J. Phys. D to all our referees, who diligently perform this honourable task. The Associate Editors of the journal, Professors Lawler, Margaritondo and O'Grady, also provide immense scientific leadership. They help in defining new directions for the journal and in the publishing process. Last, but not least, a remarkable asset of

  4. Problems faced by editors of peer reviewed medical journals.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Shaukat A

    2004-01-01

    Forty-six medical and dental journals are published from Pakistan of which only 29 are currently recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council. Only a few are peer reviewed. Six are indexed in Medline while EMBASE Excerpta Medica and World Health Organization Index Medicus for Eastern Mediterranean Region cover others. Editors of the peer reviewed medical journals are faced with numerous problems, which relate to the authors. Some of these are: shortage of quality of manuscripts, poor quality of reviewers, problems with indexation in international indexing services particularly Medline, duplicate submission and authorship and lastly, financial problems. Patronage from the Pharma industry is the major source of revenue which itself has serious implications. Editing a medical journal is a very stressful job and the editors have to work under too many pressures. A lot of useful data is presented at medical conferences, but a vast majority of it remains unpublished for various reasons, which adversely affects the citation rate from scientists from the developing third world countries in the world of medical literature. A few lectures on medical writing and research methodology to final year medical students will expose them to the art of medical writing. Specialty organizations can be persuaded to have a session on medical writing at their conferences, which will be extremely helpful not only to the potential new authors but also others, thereby improving the quality of their manuscripts. In addition to regular seminars, workshops for authors, reviewers and training courses for editors, subscribing to local medical journals by healthcare professionals and libraries are some of the measures that will help improve the situation to a great extent.

  5. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre

  6. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-02-01

    I am Professor Ephrahim Garcia, an Associate Professor at Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. I have been at Cornell University since 2002, spent four years as a Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency from 1998-2002, and before that seven years at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. I have served on the Editorial Advisory Board of Smart Materials and Structures (SMS) for the last six years. It is a humbling thing to be asked to take up the post of Editor-in-Chief in a field with so many talented researchers. I would like to say a heartfelt thanks to the members of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing for their confidence in me. Most importantly, I would like to thank Professor Vijay Varadan of the University of Arkansas and Professor Richard Claus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University for their efforts in launching the journal 16 years ago. They have been stewards, promoters and, especially Vijay, key to the operation and function of SMS for all these years, and our research community is indebted to them. Professors Varadan and Claus have dedicated their careers to the area of smart materials and structures and we are very grateful for their leadership, mentoring and contribution. SMS is a thriving journal offering papers on all technical areas concerned with smart materials, systems and structures from the micro- and nanoscale to the macroscale. The journal is undergoing some major changes, including the recent transferal of papers to IOP Publishing's peer-review management system. With this new system authors can expect fast publication times of around 4 or 5 months from submission, and excellent author service. In this world of ever changing technology, the Editorial Board and I aim to reduce the time to publication for researchers in this exciting area of science and engineering. I am in the process of

  7. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  8. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  9. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  10. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  11. 29 CFR 793.8 - “News editor.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âNews editor.â 793.8 Section 793.8 Labor Regulations... Exemption § 793.8 “News editor.” A news editor is an employee who gathers, edits and rewrites the news. He may also select and prepare news items for broadcast and present the news on the air. An employee...

  12. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement. PMID:28177308

  13. Gene targeting, genome editing: from Dolly to editors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenfang; Proudfoot, Chris; Lillico, Simon G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    One of the most powerful strategies to investigate biology we have as scientists, is the ability to transfer genetic material in a controlled and deliberate manner between organisms. When applied to livestock, applications worthy of commercial venture can be devised. Although initial methods used to generate transgenic livestock resulted in random transgene insertion, the development of SCNT technology enabled homologous recombination gene targeting strategies to be used in livestock. Much has been accomplished using this approach. However, now we have the ability to change a specific base in the genome without leaving any other DNA mark, with no need for a transgene. With the advent of the genome editors this is now possible and like other significant technological leaps, the result is an even greater diversity of possible applications. Indeed, in merely 5 years, these 'molecular scissors' have enabled the production of more than 300 differently edited pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. The advent of genome editors has brought genetic engineering of livestock to a position where industry, the public and politicians are all eager to see real use of genetically engineered livestock to address societal needs. Since the first transgenic livestock reported just over three decades ago the field of livestock biotechnology has come a long way-but the most exciting period is just starting.

  14. A Generic Metadata Editor Supporting System Using Drupal CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Banks, N. G.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    Metadata handling is a key factor in preserving and reusing scientific data. In recent years, standardized structural metadata has become widely used in Geoscience communities. However, there exist many different standards in Geosciences, such as the current version of the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC CSDGM), the Ecological Markup Language (EML), the Geography Markup Language (GML), and the emerging ISO 19115 and related standards. In addition, there are many different subsets within the Geoscience subdomain such as the Biological Profile of the FGDC (CSDGM), or for geopolitical regions, such as the European Profile or the North American Profile in the ISO standards. It is therefore desirable to have a software foundation to support metadata creation and editing for multiple standards and profiles, without re-inventing the wheels. We have developed a software module as a generic, flexible software system to do just that: to facilitate the support for multiple metadata standards and profiles. The software consists of a set of modules for the Drupal Content Management System (CMS), with minimal inter-dependencies to other Drupal modules. There are two steps in using the system's metadata functions. First, an administrator can use the system to design a user form, based on an XML schema and its instances. The form definition is named and stored in the Drupal database as a XML blob content. Second, users in an editor role can then use the persisted XML definition to render an actual metadata entry form, for creating or editing a metadata record. Behind the scenes, the form definition XML is transformed into a PHP array, which is then rendered via Drupal Form API. When the form is submitted the posted values are used to modify a metadata record. Drupal hooks can be used to perform custom processing on metadata record before and after submission. It is trivial to store the metadata record as an actual XML file

  15. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  16. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li.

    PubMed

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Motsegood, Perry N; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  17. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.

  18. Presence of Li clusters in molten LiCl-Li

    DOE PAGES

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; ...

    2016-05-05

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. ln the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. Furthermore, this observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8, in a molten salt matrix.more » It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable.« less

  19. Presence of Li Clusters in Molten LiCl-Li

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Augustus; Phillips, William C.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.; Motsegood, Perry N.; Chidambaram, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Molten mixtures of lithium chloride and metallic lithium are of significant interest in various metal oxide reduction processes. These solutions have been reported to exhibit seemingly anomalous physical characteristics that lack a comprehensive explanation. In the current work, the physical chemistry of molten solutions of lithium chloride and metallic lithium, with and without lithium oxide, was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra obtained from these solutions were in agreement with the previously reported spectrum of the lithium cluster, Li8. This observation is indicative of a nanofluid type colloidal suspension of Li8 in a molten salt matrix. It is suggested that the formation and suspension of lithium clusters in lithium chloride is the cause of various phenomena exhibited by these solutions that were previously unexplainable. PMID:27145895

  20. Madame Li Li: Communist Revolutionary, Adult Educator, Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Prior to 1949 the Chinese Communist Party orchestrated innovative and participatory forms of adult education. This article concerns Madame Li Li, a leading Chinese Communist woman adult educator. Western delegates at the International Council for Adult Education 1984 Shanghai symposium on adult education were fascinated by Madame Li Li because,…

  1. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  2. Highlighting impact: Do editors' selections identify influential papers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    A recent trend in scientific publishing is that journal editors highlight each week a select set among the papers published (usually) in their respective journals. The highlighted papers are deemed of higher quality, importance, or interest than the 'average' paper and feature prominently in the publishers' websites. We perform a citation analysis of the highlighted papers for a number of journals from various publishers in physics. By comparing the performance of highlighted papers relative to (a) typical papers and (b) highly cited papers in their source journals and in other journals in the field, we explore whether, and to what extent, the selection process at the time of publication identifies papers that will turn out to be influential. We discuss the broader implications for research assessment.

  3. Upcoming IJTMB Initiatives from the Interim Executive Editor

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2016-01-01

    It is an honor and a privilege to be appointed the Interim Executive Editor for the IJTMB; I am lucky to have some initiatives that were already in development by the previous editorial team that I hope to bring to fruition over the next few months. First, I hope to increase the Journal’s Internet presence through social media to expand readership and encourage new submitters. The second initiative is a mentoring program to assist writers with their submissions to the Journal. Finally, I, and the rest of the editorial staff, will continue to evaluate the process, procedures, and forms used in peer review. I hope to move these initiatives forward and by doing so, bring in new readers, submitters, and reviewers to the Journal. PMID:27974945

  4. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

  5. Andreae is New Editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2004-10-01

    As the incoming editor of Global Biogeochemical Cycles, I would like to introduce myself and my ideas for the journal to Eos readers and to current and potential GBC authors. I've had a somewhat ``roaming'' scientific evolution, coming from ``straight'' chemistry through hard-rock geochemistry to chemical oceanography, the field in which I did my Ph.D. I taught marine chemistry at Florida State University for a number of years, and developed an interest in ocean/atmosphere interactions and atmospheric chemistry. In 1987 I took on my present job at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, in Mainz, Germany, and, after leaving the seacoast, my interests shifted to interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere, including the role of vegetation fires. My present focus is on the role of biogenic aerosols and biomass smoke in regulating cloud properties and influencing climate.

  6. The X-windows interactive navigation data editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    A new computer program called the X-Windows Interactive Data Editor (XIDE) was developed and demonstrated as a prototype application for editing radio metric data in the orbit-determination process. The program runs on a variety of workstations and employs pull-down menus and graphical displays, which allow users to easily inspect and edit radio metric data in the orbit data files received from the Deep Space Network (DSN). The XIDE program is based on the Open Software Foundation OSF/Motif Graphical User Interface (GUI) and has proven to be an efficient tool for editing radio metric data in the navigation operations environment. It was adopted by the Magellan Navigation Team as their primary data-editing tool. Because the software was designed from the beginning to be portable, the prototype was successfully moved to new workstation environments. It was also itegrated into the design of the next-generation software tool for DSN multimission navigation interactive launch support.

  7. The Editor and Publisher as Public Official: The Ultimate Conflict of Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Don

    A fifteen-item Likert scale and indepth personal interviews were used to collect data in a study that examined whether five individuals who held both the role of editor and public official were perceived as able to perform in a socially responsible manner as editors of their community newspapers in their estimation and in the estimation of a…

  8. A Coorientational Study of Food Public Relations Practitioners, Editors and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodell, Joyce Elaine

    Survey data on newspaper food editors and newspaper readers were collected through a title-rating technique. Analysis of responses to 40 food titles and leads indicated three newspaper food-editor types: transitional, traditional, and "new guard." Food-page readers fell into two types: information oriented (nutritionists) and cooking…

  9. A "Situational" and "Coorientational" Measure of Specialized Magazine Editors' Perceptions of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was undertaken of specialized magazine editors' perceptions of audience characteristics as well as the perceived role of their publications. Specifically, the study examines the relationship between the editors' perceptions of reader problem recognition, level of involvement, constraint recognition, and possession of reference criteria and…

  10. Adolescent Sexual Initiation through the Lens of Letters to the Editor Published in Polish Teenage Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…

  11. A survey of orthopaedic journal editors determining the criteria of manuscript selection for publication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the characteristics of editors and criteria used by orthopaedic journal editors in assessing submitted manuscripts. Methods Between 2008 to 2009 all 70 editors of Medline listed orthopaedic journals were approached prospectively with a questionnaire to determine the criteria used in assessing manuscripts for publication. Results There was a 42% response rate. There was 1 female editor and the rest were male with 57% greater than 60 years of age. 67% of the editors worked in university teaching hospitals and 90% of publications were in English. The review process differed between journals with 59% using a review proforma, 52% reviewing an anonymised manuscript, 76% using a routine statistical review and 59% of journals used 2 reviewers routinely. In 89% of the editors surveyed, the editor was able to overrule the final decision of the reviewers. Important design factors considered for manuscript acceptance were that the study conclusions were justified (80%), that the statistical analysis was appropriate (76%), that the findings could change practice (72%). The level of evidence (70%) and type of study (62%) were deemed less important. When asked what factors were important in the manuscript influencing acceptance, 73% cited an understandable manuscript, 53% cited a well written manuscript and 50% a thorough literature review as very important factors. Conclusions The editorial and review process in orthopaedic journals uses different approaches. There may be a risk of language bias among editors of orthopaedic journals with under-representation of non-English publications in the orthopaedic literature. PMID:21527007

  12. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9)...

  13. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9)...

  14. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer. 793...)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Requirements for Exemption § 793.11 Combination announcer, news... as a news editor. In such cases, the primary employment test under the section 13(b)(9)...

  15. Editorial Page Editors and Endorsements: Chain-owned vs. Independent Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Dizier, Byron

    Questionnaires were sent to 114 of the 228 editorial page editors at newspapers in the United States with daily circulations greater than 50,000 for a study that compared (1) the editor-publisher relationship existing at chains to that found at independent papers, and (2) the 1984 presidential endorsements made by chains to those by independent…

  16. "Clones," Codes, and Conflicts of Interest in Cartooning: Cartoonists and Editors Look at Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    A study examined differences between political cartoonists and op-ed page editors on both traditional ethical issues (such as conflicts of interest) and the special, style-related concerns of editorial cartoonists. Hypotheses proposed were that editors and cartoonists (1) would condemn "cloning" or copying, reflecting an ethical…

  17. Letter to the editor of TAAP, in response to letter from Anders et al.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To the Editor, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology: We would like to address the letter to the editor submitted by Anders et al. regarding the substantive issues raised regarding our paper "Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physi...

  18. Debunking the Mutilated Boy: A Study of Newspaper Editors and an Inflammatory Rumor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    A study examined how newspaper editors resolve issues relating to rumors--that is whether to cover stories which may turn out to be false. The "mutilated boy" rumor was chosen for its antiquity and endurance, its powerful theme, and its ability to create intense anxiety in a community. Thirty-three of the 86 editors who responded to the…

  19. Dr. Bruce Squires witnessed vast changes during tenure as CMAJ editor

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Bruce Squires retired in September after spending 10 years as editor of CMAJ. During his tenure the editor's responsibilities expanded greatly because of the CMA's foray into the publishing of medical books and additional journals and other publications. In this article, people who have worked with Squires reflect on his term with CMAJ. Imagesp570-a

  20. EDITORIAL: A word from the new Editor-in-Chief A word from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    TIn the autumn of 2010 I became the Editor-in Chief of European Journal of Physics (EJP). EJP is a place for teachers, instructors and professors to exchange their views on teaching physics at university level and share their experience. It is general opinion that no good research is possible without connection with good, high-quality teaching, at the university level in particular. Therefore excellence in physics teaching is important to the physics community. European Journal of Physics is proud of its contribution to achieving this goal. As Editor-in-Chief, I will continue to work to this general objective of the journal. We will publish articles on specific topics in physics, stressing originality of presentation and suitability for use in students'laboratories, lectures and physics teaching in general. We will also publish more pedagogical papers presenting the achievements of particular teaching methods. In addition, we will continue to publish special sections on particular areas of physics, as well as the annual special section on physics competitions. European Journal of Physics is in good shape. Due to the work of the previous editors and the publisher, the readership is high and growing steadily, and many excellent papers are being submitted and published. I hope that this positive trend for the journal will continue, and I will do my best to keep to this high standard. A few words about myself. I work in the Institute of Physics in Warsaw, Poland. My main research interests are in theoretical quantum optics and I have published about 80 research papers on this topic. For many years I was involved in teaching physics at university and in high school. I am a co-author of a textbook on physics for high-school students and of a problem book in quantum mechanics. For the last ten years, I have been involved in the International Physics Olympiad and over the last few years I have been a member of the Editorial Board of European Journal of Physics.

  1. THE NEW ONLINE METADATA EDITOR FOR GENERATING STRUCTURED METADATA

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Shrestha, Biva; Palanisamy, Giri; Hook, Leslie A; Killeffer, Terri S; Boden, Thomas A; Cook, Robert B; Zolly, Lisa; Hutchison, Viv; Frame, Mike; Cialella, Alice; Lazer, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Nobody is better suited to describe data than the scientist who created it. This description about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset [1]. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [2][4]. OME is part of ORNL s Mercury software fleet [2][3]. It was jointly developed to support projects funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). OME s architecture provides a customizable interface to support project-specific requirements. Using this new architecture, the ORNL team developed OME instances for USGS s Core Science Analytics, Synthesis, and Libraries (CSAS&L), DOE s Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, and the international Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide ATlas (SOCAT). Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. From the information on the form, the Metadata Editor can create an XML file on the server that the editor is installed or to the user s personal computer. Researchers can also use the ORNL Metadata Editor to modify existing XML metadata files. As an example, an NGEE Arctic scientist use OME to register

  2. The New Online Metadata Editor for Generating Structured Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Shrestha, B.; Palanisamy, G.; Hook, L.; Killeffer, T.; Boden, T.; Cook, R. B.; Zolly, L.; Hutchison, V.; Frame, M. T.; Cialella, A. T.; Lazer, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nobody is better suited to "describe" data than the scientist who created it. This "description" about a data is called Metadata. In general terms, Metadata represents the who, what, when, where, why and how of the dataset. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is the preferred output format for metadata, as it makes it portable and, more importantly, suitable for system discoverability. The newly developed ORNL Metadata Editor (OME) is a Web-based tool that allows users to create and maintain XML files containing key information, or metadata, about the research. Metadata include information about the specific projects, parameters, time periods, and locations associated with the data. Such information helps put the research findings in context. In addition, the metadata produced using OME will allow other researchers to find these data via Metadata clearinghouses like Mercury [1] [2]. Researchers simply use the ORNL Metadata Editor to enter relevant metadata into a Web-based form. How is OME helping Big Data Centers like ORNL DAAC? The ORNL DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers managed by the ESDIS Project. The ORNL DAAC archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program. The DAAC provides data and information relevant to biogeochemical dynamics, ecological data, and environmental processes, critical for understanding the dynamics relating to the biological components of the Earth's environment. Typically data produced, archived and analyzed is at a scale of multiple petabytes, which makes the discoverability of the data very challenging. Without proper metadata associated with the data, it is difficult to find the data you are looking for and equally difficult to use and understand the data. OME will allow data centers like the ORNL DAAC to produce meaningful, high quality, standards-based, descriptive information about their data products in-turn helping with the data discoverability and

  3. Training the unseasoned technical writer-editor: From the trainee's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many unseasoned technical writer-editors who are not adequately trained may become seasoned inadequately trained technical writer-editors. This problem can occur when a trainee is involved in an ineffective training program, but it can be alleviated by the trainer's assessing the unseasoned writer's talents, becoming involved with the trainee's growth in writing and editing skills, and helping him to visualize his potential as a technical writer-editor. Assessment, support, mentoring, and nurturing are important elements in the trainee's growth process and in any good training or internship program. 1 ref.

  4. Response to the Letter to the Editor by D. Richardson: Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongjie; Liu, Youxun; Zhou, Sufeng; Fu, Yun; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This response refers to: Xu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Fu, Y.; Li, C. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1042. Merlot, A.M.; Sahni, S.; Lane, D.J.R.; Richardson, V.; Huang, M.L.H.; Kalinowski, D.S.; Richardson, D.R. Letter to the Editor: Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques and. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1916. PMID:27854349

  5. With or without "Li."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mingquan

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how the important distinction between the locative and nonlocative implication of a noun is essential for the presence of the Chinese locative particle "li," identifying groups of nouns that can not take the particle, nouns that optionally use the particle, and nouns that must use the particle. (CB)

  6. EDITORIAL: Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief Farewell from the outgoing Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2011-12-01

    At the end of 2011 I will retire as Editor-in-Chief of Semiconductor Science and Technology, and I am very pleased to announce that the job will be taken over by Professor Kornelius Nielsch. In the ten years I have held this position, I have seen many new topics entering the journal: spintronics, organic semiconductors, and Dirac fermion physics, to name just a few. The journal has also witnessed a strong internationalization of the authorship, with an especially strong increase in contributions from the Far East—a growth that is likely to continue in the coming years. I am certain that Kornelius will do an excellent job in guiding the journal through the developments of the coming decade. I would like to thank the publishing team of SST, or rather the three consecutive teams I witnessed during my tenure at the journal, for the help and support they have given me. The people at IOP Publishing are doing a great job in running the journal, and have made it possible to considerably reduce the time to publication for our submissions. I much enjoyed the collaboration with the other members of the Editorial Board; our annual meetings have always been a source of inspiration. Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank you, the scientific community, authors, referees and readers, for your continuing support of the journal.

  7. Writing Science Effectively: Biology and English Students in an Author-Editor Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkala, Irene; Gessell, Donna A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the design of a collaborative learning community linking students in biology and English courses in author-editor relationships. Delineates the steps of the project and provides sample evaluations for both groups. (Contains 19 references.) (DDR)

  8. Issues in Communication Education: An Interview with Joe Ayers (Editor 1999-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Heather; Hazel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Joe Ayres, editor of this journal from 1999 to 2002. Addresses issues such as curriculum content, competencies for undergraduate students, graduate students, student retention, and the role of mentoring in higher education. (SG)

  9. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... editor and chief engineer. The 13(b)(9) exemption, as was made clear during the debate on the amendment... television stations. It is known at the time of such debate that these stations employ only a small number...

  10. Excited states in ^9Li from d(^8Li,p)^9Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, S. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Tang, X.; Wiringa, R. W.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Paul, M.

    2004-10-01

    We have studied levels in ^9Li from the d(^8Li,p)^9Li reaction using an unstable ^8Li beam produced at the ATLAS "in-flight" production facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The ^8Li beam bombarded a solid CD2 target. Protons from the d(^8Li,p)^9Li reaction were detected at backward angles in the laboratory using segmented silicon detectors, in coincidence with forward scattered ^7,8,9Li ions. The neutron spectroscopic factors determined from the d(^8Li,p)^9Li reaction can be used as a sensitive test for modern calculations of the structure of ^9Li. Experimental proton angular distributions for low-lying levels in ^9Li will be presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Work Supported by the U. S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, Contract numbers W-31-109-ENG-38 (ANL), DE-FG02-04R41320 (WMU) and DE-FG02-98ER4106 (NWU), and the Faculty Research and Creative Activities Fund, Western Michigan University (WMU).

  11. Special Article: Ronald D. Miller: tribute to a past editor-in-chief.

    PubMed

    Tuman, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    For anesthesiologists around the world who have practiced or trained in the past 4 decades, the name Ronald Miller, MD, has been synonymous with a commitment to excellence that has been evident in all aspects of his remarkable career as a distinguished clinician-scientist, editor, writer, and educator. Dr. Miller's contributions as Editor-in-Chief of Anesthesia & Analgesia (1991-2006) have stimulated this salutation of his career and of his influence on transforming the Journal.

  12. Exploring why and how journal editors retract articles: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Editors have a responsibility to retract seriously flawed articles from their journals. However, there appears to be little consistency in journals' policies or procedures for this. In a qualitative study, we therefore interviewed editors of science journals using semi-structured interviews to investigate their experience of retracting articles. We identified potential barriers to retraction, difficulties in the process and also sources of support and encouragement. Our findings have been used as the basis for guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics.

  13. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In the 13 years since it was first published the "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (the Vancouver style), developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, has been widely accepted by both authors and editors; over 400 journals have stated that they will consider manuscripts that conform to its requirements. This is the fourth edition of the "Uniform requirements." PMID:8287338

  14. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    As I begin my tenure as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM), I look upon this opportunity as both an honour and a real challenge. The journal is in great shape thanks to the work of my predecessors, Marshall Stoneham and David Ferry. The journal's solid reputation is based largely on the work these gentlemen have done over the past decade. The other main reason for the success of JPCM is the amazing staff in Bristol; keep up the good work, please. When discussing the journal with scientists from all corners of the globe, one thing is always mentioned—JPCM is a very reliable journal with well-written, high-quality papers, and a fast but rigorous peer-review process that provides fair, detailed and constructive referee reports for the benefit of authors. This is due almost entirely to our great authors and referees; we rely on them every day—thank you. As the new Editor-in-Chief I hope to continue to improve still further the journal's status in condensed matter science. As mentioned above, our reputation is excellent, but the reality is that we live in a world of bibliometrics and rankings. Over the past few years JPCM has been repositioned as a journal at the forefront of condensed matter physics, and the impact of the journal should increase further as a result of continued emphasis on commissioning in cutting-edge areas identified by the Editorial Board and the journal team. In addition to regular papers, JPCM has a number of other content streams that authors and readers can benefit from. Fast track communications (FTCs) offer exceptionally fast publication for work of the highest impact and urgency. By their select nature, FTCs benefit from personal treatment by the Editorial Board and the average receipt-to-first-decision time is just 11 days (the average receipt-to-publication time is just 45 days). Topical reviews in JPCM make the journal one of the most authoritative sources of review content for condensed matter physics

  15. Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Molina, Gustavo; Cock-Rada, Alicia María

    2016-06-03

    The Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized clinically by the appearance of tumors in multiple organs generally at an early age. This hereditary condition is caused by germinal mutations in the TP53 gene, which codifies for the tumoural suppressor gene p53. We present the case of a patient aged 31 with clinical and molecular diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who presented two synchronous tumors: a leiomyosarcoma on the forearm and a phyllodes breast tumour. She had a family history of cancer, including a son diagnosed with a cortical adrenal carcinoma when he was three years old, who died at five from the disease. Furthermore, her maternal grandmother and great-grandmother died of stomach cancer at 56 and 60 years old, respectively, while her other great-grandmother and a great aunt presented with breast cancer at the ages of 60 and 40, respectively. After genetic counseling, complete sequencing and analysis of duplications and deletions in the TP53 gene were ordered prior to diagnosis. The molecular analysis of a DNA sample taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed the germinal mutation c.527G>T (p.Cys176Phe) on exon 5 of the TP53 gene, a deleterious mutation described previously in tumoural tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first published case in Colombia of Li-Fraumeni syndrome with confirmed molecular diagnosis. The diagnosis and management of Li-Fraumeni syndrome should be performed by a multidisciplinary team, and genetic counselling should be offered to patients and their relatives.

  16. EDITORIAL: Thank you and farewell from the Founding Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskes, Mike

    2005-07-01

    I have been involved with Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering (MSMSE) from the very beginning when it was merely an idea, over 14 years ago, to the current journal that is well supported by the community. During my time as Editor there have been many changes in the journal, including the introduction of electronic submissions, web-based services and free printed colour where it is essential to the article, as well as completely free colour online. The journal has seen excellent growth in the number and quality of submissions and the number of articles published continues to rise, enabling us to expand the journal to eight issues in 2005. Web accesses and downloads have greatly surpassed even my wildest dreams. In my opinion, the emergence of MSMSE as a top materials modelling journal has confirmed the vision of Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) and the Executive Board that this area of science and engineering was ripe for a specialized journal. I feel that, having seen the journal through the early years and watched it grow into a successful arena for multidisciplinary materials research, it is now an appropriate time for me to hand over the reins. The journal has a great foundation for future growth and development and is supported by an excellent Editorial Board, who have given me a great deal of help and advice over the years. I feel sure that they will continue to support the journal when Bill Curtin, Brown University, takes over on 1 July 2005. Bill has the diverse experience in modelling at the atomic, dislocation, and continuum levels to lead the journal to new heights. Finally I would like to thank all of the readers, authors and referees who have greatly contributed to MSMSE over the years. Thank you for your support and help, and I hope you will continue to support the journal. Last, but not least, I would like to thank the staff at IOPP. Without their expert assistance, the journal could not have been as successful as it is

  17. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API) with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format. For developers, it can be

  18. CHAIRMEN'S PREFACE AND EDITORS' NOTE: Unification of Fundamental Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Lars; Nilsson, Jan S.; Salomonson, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1987-01-01

    Vainshtein. We had hoped that the Nobel Symposium should be a signal for improved relations between East and West, but in this respect we failed. The Symposium was held in the small town of Marstrand, a summer resort on an island outside Göteborg. The idea was to have it relatively close to home and to show the participants perhaps the best part of the local nature. Another motive was to keep the participants semi-isolated to provide ample time for discussions. With the somewhat heavy programme we found that even so, the days were not long enough. This Symposium was the second Nobel Symposium on elementary particle physics. The first one, also organized by our group, was held in 1968. We hope and believe that the next one need not be awaited another 18 years! The Symposium was made possible by a generous grant from the Nobel Foundation. An additional grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was also essential. A grant from Nordita made it possible to invite some ten Nordic observers. We also gratefully acknowledge help with the organization of the Symposium from the city of Goteborg, the city of Kungälv, Volvo, Skandinaviska Enskilda banken, Ericsson AB and IBM Sweden. We thank all the participants for all their efforts, to come to our remote part of the world, to give excellent talks, to write up their talks astonishingly quickly and to share with us so much of their knowledge and expertise. Last but not least we are indebted to the members of the organizing committee, members of the group and the secretarial staff. Goteborg, August 1986 Editors' NoteIn these Proceedings the lectures are given in the order of their oral presentation at the Symposium. Regrettably, a few contributors could not participate (V. Gribov, A. Linde, V. Ogievetsky, M. Shifman and A. M. Polyakov). Their contributions have been placed close to the end of the Proceedings. As these authors did not have the opportunity of correcting the proofs, responsibility for printing errors must rest with

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Curie temperature suppression of ferromagnetic nanosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, W. H.; Sun, Chang Q.; Tay, B. K.; Li, S.; Bai, H. L.; Jiang, E. Y.

    2002-06-01

    Based on the recent bond-order-bond-length-bond-strength correlation mechanism (Sun C Q, Chen T P, Tay B K, Li S, Huang H, Zhang Y B, Pan L K, Lau S P and Sun X W 2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 3470) and the criterion of thermal-vibration-exchange-interaction energy equilibrium, an atomistic model has been developed for the Curie temperature (TC) suppression of ferromagnetic nanosolids. At TC, the atomic thermal vibration energy (EV) overcomes the atomic cohesive energy (Ecoh), which triggers the order-disorder transition of the spin-spin exchange interaction. Besides, the coordination-number (CN) imperfection at a surface enhances the strength of the bonds of the surface atoms. The CN reduction and bond-strength enhancement modifies the surface atomic Ecoh from that of an atom inside the bulk. As such, the critical EV for an atom at a free surface will be different from the bulk value and, hence, the TC of a nanosolid will change with the portion of surface atoms. Matching between predictions and experimental observations on the TC suppression of Fe, Ni and Co nanofilms evidences the validity of the current premise, in which no assumptions or freely adjustable parameters are involved.

  20. G. K. Batchelor. Founding editor of the Journal of Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, D. G.

    1999-05-01

    Although developments in fluid mechanics continue at a heady pace, and are reported in JFM at about 800 pages per month, things in the editorial management of JFM change only slowly. There is a continuity among the JFM Editorial Team and among the policies they espouse and implement that appears to be appreciated by the fluid mechanics community. A major change has, however, occurred from January 1999, in that George Batchelor has, after 43 years as Editor, stepped down from the day-to-day handling of papers and from the formulation of policies and practices, and allowed himself to be named on our masthead as Founding Editor. I say ‘allowed’ because George's initial wish was not to be so named, feeling that this might be seen as an immodest and presumptuous title. But Founding Editor is exactly what George was and is. He launched JFM in May 1956, having persuaded Taylor & Francis to be the publisher and printer, and having enlisted the help of G. F. Carrier, W. C. Griffith and M. J. Lighthill as Associate Editors, and T. Brooke Benjamin and I. Proudman as Assistant Editors. Then, as now, all members of the JFM Editorial Team were to work autonomously in the handling of papers, with complete delegated authority and similar workloads, but all following similar procedures and with similar philosophies, and all under the watchful eye of G. K. B.

  1. [The relevance of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for medical publishing and research].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2014-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is a leading independent institution providing guidance for the report of biomedical research and health related topics in medical journals. Established in 1978, it is currently constituted by editors of fourteen general medical journals from different countries, plus one representative for the US National Library of Medicine and one representative for the World Association of Biomedical Journal Editors. Since 1978 the Committee provides a document, originally named "Uniform Requirements…", "to help authors, editors, and others involved in peer review and biomedical publishing create and distribute accurate, clear, unbiased medical journal articles". This document has been updated several times and the last version was released in August 2013, now renamed "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals", available in www.icmje.org and citable as "ICMJE Recommendations". A vast proportion of medical journals, worldwide, have adopted these recommendations as rules. The ICMJE discusses and provides guidance on several relevant aspects including criteria on authorship, peer review, scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, clinical trials registration, good editorial practices, the relations between editors and journal owners, the protection of individuals subject to medical research, the solvency of electronic publications, among others. The 2013 ICMJE Annual Meeting took place in Santiago, Chile, in November 4 and 5. The photograph shows attendants to the final session.

  2. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) for CEO Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, Mike; Heydorn, James

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade and replace its mission planning and mission operations software systems, which were developed in the Space Shuttle era of the 1980s and 1990s. The impetuses for this change were the planned transition of all workstations to the Windows 7 64-bit operating system and the desire for more efficient and effective use of Satellite Tool Kit (STK) software required for reliable International Space Station (ISS) Earth location tracking. An additional requirement of this new system was the use of the same SQL database of CEO science sites from the SMMS, which was also being developed. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) is the essential, all-in-one tool now used by CEO staff to perform daily ISS mission planning to meet its requirement to acquire astronaut photography of specific sites on Earth. The sites are part of a managed, long-term database that has been defined and developed for scientific, educational, and public interest. SIMPLE's end product is a set of basic time and location data computed for an operator-selected set of targets that the ISS crew will be asked to photograph (photography is typically planned 12 to 36 hours out). The CEO operator uses SIMPLE to (a) specify a payload operations planning period; (b) acquire and validate the best available ephemeris data (vectors) for the ISS during the planning period; (c) ingest and display mission-specific site information from the CEO database; (d) identify and display potential current dynamic event targets as map features; (e) compute and display time and location information for each target; (f) screen and select targets based on known crew availability constraints, obliquity constraints, and real-time evaluated constraints to target visibility due to illumination (sun elevation) and atmospheric conditions (weather); and finally (g) incorporate basic, computed time and location information for each selected

  3. Calorimetric studies of Cu-Li, Li-Sn, and Cu-Li-Sn.

    PubMed

    Fürtauer, S; Tserenjav, E; Yakymovych, A; Flandorfer, H

    2013-06-01

    Integral molar enthalpies of mixing were determined by drop calorimetry for Cu-Li-Sn at 1073 K along five sections xCu/xSn ≈ 1:1, xCu/xSn ≈ 2:3, xCu/xSn ≈ 1:4, xLi/xSn ≈ 1:1, and xLi/xSn ≈ 1:4. The integral and partial molar mixing enthalpies of Cu-Li and Li-Sn were measured at the same temperature, for Li-Sn in addition at 773 K. All binary data could be described by Redlich-Kister-polynomials. Cu-Li shows an endothermic mixing effect with a maximum in the integral molar mixing enthalpy of ∼5300 J · mol(-1) at xCu = 0.5, Li-Sn an exothermic minimum of ∼ -37,000 J · mol(-1) at xSn ∼ 0.2. For Li-Sn no significant temperature dependence between 773 K and 1073 K could be deduced. Our measured ternary data were fitted on the basis of an extended Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model for substitutional solutions. Additionally, a comparison of these results to the extrapolation model of Chou is given.

  4. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's screen, sorted, exchanged, duplicated, removed, replaced, inserted, or transferred to and from external files. It also offers a number of useful features including on-line help, macros, a command history, an 'undo' option, variables, and a full compliment of mathematical functions and conversion factors. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and completely self-contained, the TOAD editor is very portable and has already been installed on SUN, SGI/IRIS, and CONVEX hosts.

  5. Conflicts of interest for medical publishers and editors: protecting the integrity of scientific scholarship.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapan S; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2011-09-01

    Competition of interest may exist at all levels in the medical publication process. Ensuring the integrity of scientific scholarship involves protecting editorial independence, promoting the use of scientific arbitration boards, promoting transparency throughout all stages of publication, and protecting the relationship between the publisher and its editors through an effective legal framework. It is incumbent upon the publisher, editors, authors, and readers to ensure that the highest standards of scientific scholarship are upheld. Doing so will help reduce fraud and misrepresentation in medical research and increase the trustworthiness of landmark findings in science.

  6. A Java chemical structure editor supporting the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL).

    PubMed

    Trepalin, Sergei V; Yarkov, Alexander V; Pletnev, Igor V; Gakh, Andrei A

    2006-03-29

    A compact Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) chemical structure editor (Java applet) is described. The small size (approximately 200 KB) of the applet allows its use to display and edit chemical structures in various Internet applications. The editor supports the MCDL format, in which structures are presented in compact canonical form and is capable of restoring bond orders as well as of managing atom and bond drawing overlap. A small database of cage and large cyclic fragment is used for optimal representation of difficult-to-draw molecules. The improved algorithm of the structure diagram generation can be used for other chemical notations that lack atomic coordinates (SMILES, InChI).

  7. An interactive editor for definition of touch-sensitive zones for a graphic display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1987-01-01

    In the continuing effort to develop more efficient man-machine communications methods, touch displays have shown potential as straightforward input systems. The development of software necessary to handle such systems, however, can become tedious. In order to reduce the need for redundant programming, a touch editor has been developed which allows a programmer to interactively define touch-sensitive areas for a graphic display. The information produced during the editing process is written to a data file, which can be accessed easily when needed by an application program. This paper outlines the structure, logic, and use of the editor, as well as the hardware with which it is presently compatible.

  8. Magazine or journal--what is the difference? The role of the monitoring editor.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    Scientific communication, career advancement, and funding decisions are all dependent on research publications. The way manuscripts are handled by high-visibility, professionally edited magazines differs from the way academic journals evaluate manuscripts, using active scientists as monitoring editors. In this essay, I discuss the benefits that come with the involvement of active scientists. I enumerate the decisions a monitoring editor has to make, and how he or she goes about making them. Finally, I indicate ways in which authors can help to make the process a smoother and more positive experience.

  9. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; ...

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  10. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  11. 6Li from Solar Flares.

    PubMed

    Ramaty; Tatischeff; Thibaud; Kozlovsky; Mandzhavidze

    2000-05-10

    By introducing a hitherto ignored 6Li producing process, due to accelerated 3He reactions with 4He, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more 6Li than 7Li. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data, we demonstrate that the 6Li produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric 7Li, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare-produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  12. Recovery of Li from alloys of Al- Li and Li- Al using engineered scavenger compounds

    DOEpatents

    Riley, W. D.; Jong, B. W.; Collins, W. K.; Gerdemann, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing lithium of high purity from lithium aluminum alloys using an engineered scavenger compound, comprising: I) preparing an engineered scavenger compound by: a) mixing and heating compounds of TiO2 and Li2CO3 at a temperature sufficient to dry the compounds and convert Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to Li.sub.2 O; and b) mixing and heating the compounds at a temperature sufficient to produce a scavenger Li.sub.2 O.3TiO.sub.2 compound; II) loading the scavenger into one of two electrode baskets in a three electrode cell reactor and placing an Al-Li alloy in a second electrode basket of the three electrode cell reactor; III) heating the cell to a temperature sufficient to enable a mixture of KCl-LiCl contained in a crucible in the cell to reach its melting point and become a molten bath; IV) immersing the baskets in the bath until an electrical connection is made between the baskets to charge the scavenger compound with Li until there is an initial current and voltage followed by a fall off ending current and voltage; and V) making a connection between the basket electrode containing engineered scavenger compound and a steel rod electrode disposed between the basket electrodes and applying a current to cause Li to leave the scavenger compound and become electrodeposited on the steel rod electrode.

  13. EDITORIAL: Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014 Editorial from the new Editor-in-Chief for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. G.

    2014-02-01

    I am honoured to take on the leadership of Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST) as the successor to Professor Mark J Kushner, with whom I have had the pleasure to work on the journal for many years. Under Mark's insightful and energetic leadership over the last six years, PSST has cemented its position as the journal of choice within its subject area and is now one of the most successful journals in the field. In this first issue of 2014, I would like to reflect on some of the events and achievements of 2013. At the start of the year the PSST Editorial Board, recognizing the vital importance of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) data to low-temperature plasma physics, agreed that PSST would accept papers reporting such new data, generated through both experiment and theory. Jonathan Tennyson joined the Editorial Board to represent this area. In March Anne Bourdon joined the Associate Editor team and has since then played a key part in the journal's review process alongside our other Editors. During the autumn, PSST moved to a new editorial management system. In December Deborah O'Connell was awarded the 2013 Hershkowitz Early Career Award and Review and joins the Editorial Board as of 2014. I would also like to thank Miles Turner for his work in leading the drafting of a guide on the details necessary in the reporting of the results of computer simulations; the main conclusions of this report have been incorporated into the journal policy. Overall 2013 has been another successful year for PSST; paper submissions were up by 8% on the previous year and there was the highest ever number of downloads of PSST papers in one year. Another noteworthy feature of 2013 was the continuing improvement in publication times while maintaining our high standards for acceptance and providing expert feedback coupled with encouragement particularly to younger researchers and groups. Largely as a result of the hard work of our referees and Associate Editors, the average time

  14. Guidelines for Reviewers and the Editor at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetsel, H. B.

    The main purpose of this report is to help novice reviewers accelerate their apprenticeship at the Nuclear Safety Information Center, a computerized information service sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Guidelines for reviewers are presented in Part 1; Part 2 contains guidelines for the novice editor. The goal of the reviewers and…

  15. The Newspaper Editor As Graphic Strategist. ANPA News Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mario R.

    This report discusses the graphic strategies available to editors for positioning the day's news. The purposes of the report are: (1) to introduce those in charge of designing the newspaper page to the structural approach to design (the structural approach is defined as incorporating horizontal and vertical structures in the available spaces,…

  16. Persnickety editor, Founding Father, Mentor and Friend: The Legacy of Fred Mumpton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Dr Fred Munpton, the founder of the International Committee on Natural Zeolites (ICNZ), by one of his students, who later succeed him as president of the ICNZ. The tribute reflects on Dr. Mumpton's skills as an editor and his zeal for the study of natural zeolites.

  17. Parting messages from current and former editors of the Journal of Andrology.

    PubMed

    Bartke, Andrzej; Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; Desjardins, Claude; Lewis, Ron; Tindall, Don; Hamilton, David W; Pryor, Jon L; Schlegel, Peter N; Hardy, Matthew P; Burnett, Arthur L Bud; Darney, Sally P; Sandlow, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The proposal to produce this final commemorative issue for the Journal of Andrology arose during our regular discussions as current editors soon after it was announced that the Journal would complete its own life course and merge into a new publication (to be named Andrology) with the International Journal of Andrology. We considered the momentous occasion to be one that should be celebrated with an enduring tribute in recognition of the Journal's exceptional 33-year existence. Among the various contributions sought for inclusion in this issue, we envisioned an article assembling collected short essays from all living former editors drawing on notable events and highlights, if not less well-known challenges and successes arising during their editorship eras. We thought that any such production of musings, viewpoints, and most of all words of wisdom from those who have had major roles in the direction and accomplishments of the Journal would offer an illuminating read for the society's members and friends and provide all readers another venue to share in and enjoy the Journal's great history. We are enthralled to have gathered these collections, all personal compositions of the former editors-in-chief, and for their effort that has helped us complete this special endeavor we express to them our tremendous gratitude. Serving as the Journal's last editors, we are also grateful to contribute our essay at the very end as part of this joyous chronicle.

  18. Book Selection Criteria of Children's Book Editors and Elementary Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeon, Helen M.

    This paper describes a study of the criteria children's book editors and elementary classroom teachers use to select fiction books for children in grades four, five, and six. A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Children's Book Council and to elementary classroom teachers of grades four, five, and six in each elementary school in…

  19. University-government relationships in the training of technical writers-editors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohrer, Freda F.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional and nontraditional methods of training technical writers-editors are reviewed. Combining work experience with classroom instruction in the form of cooperative education provides a method of strengthening the Federal career service in professional occupations. The NASA Langley experience that successfully introduced students to the special demands of technical writing and editing is described.

  20. Improving the Yield of Rural Education Research: An Editor's Swan Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coladarci, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    In my 15th and final year as JRRE editor, I identify methodological and substantive shortcomings in the rural education research literature and, in turn, suggest strategies for improvement. I structure my observations around the following considerations: describing the rural context of research, making the rural argument, framing the research…

  1. Editorial: Conflict of interest policy for Editors of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrity in the publication process requires impartiality at all levels of review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN) adheres to the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writin...

  2. Professional Wisdom and Writing for Publication: Qualitative Interviews with Editors and Authors in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2013-01-01

    College and university faculty members specializing in early childhood education face some unique challenges in scholarly writing. The purpose of this research was to use open-ended interviews as a way to gather the collective wisdom of a group of key informants about academic writing and publishing in the field. Twenty-two editors and/or authors,…

  3. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  4. Interview with the editor: David L. Turpin by Robert P. Scholz.

    PubMed

    Turpin, David L

    2010-04-01

    David L. Turpin has worked on dental journals for over 30 years--from his early days on the Pacific Coast Society of Orthodontists Bulletin, to the Angle Orthodontist, and to the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. He will retire as editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics at the end of 2010.

  5. Advancing the Profession through Journals: The Editor-Author-Profession Partnership [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These three papers are from a symposium on professional journals that was facilitated by Wim J. Nijhoff at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) conference. "Advancing the Profession through Journals: The Editor-Author-Profession Partnership" (Gary N. McLean) describes the purpose and operation of the "Human Resource…

  6. 29 CFR 793.11 - Combination announcer, news editor and chief engineer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... television stations. It is known at the time of such debate that these stations employ only a small number of employees and that, at times, an employee of such a station may perform a variety of duties in connection... editor and chief engineer. The 13(b)(9) exemption, as was made clear during the debate on the...

  7. The CZMIL manual editor (CME): a new tool for analyzing bathymetric lidar waveforms and editing point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Gary Q.; Depner, Jan; Hilderbrand, Ronnie; Ramnath, Vinod

    2010-04-01

    The University of Southern Mississippi's Center of Higher Learning has developed a Waveform Viewer, Attribute Viewer, and a 3D Editor for use in the CZMIL Point Cloud Manual Editor (CME). The Waveform Viewer displays various channels of CZMIL waveforms within the 2D/3D editor interface of CME. This module provides the user an interactive tool set consisting of a cross sectioning mechanism for the intensity time-bin relationship, waveform file output, and zooming capabilities. The Attribute Viewer provides the data analyst with information to analyze various environmental and spatial parameters that might contribute to errors in the measured points. The 3D Editor offers the benefits of capturing depth outliers; an intuitive visual connectivity with the 2D editor; and the implementation of volumetric directional slice isolation of data outliers.

  8. Guidelines, editors, pharma and the biological paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2007-01-01

    relatively recent survey of 2002, it was found that about 60% of 192 authors of clinical practice guidelines reported they had financial connections with the companies whose drugs were under consideration. There is a strong case for making CPGs based not just on effectivity but cost effectivity. The various ramifications of this need to be spelt out. Work of bodies like the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Collaboration and Guidelines Advisory Committee (GAC) are also worth a close look.Even the actions of Foundations that work for disease amelioration have come under scrutiny. The process of setting up 'Best Practices' Guidelines for interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and clinicians has already begun and can have important consequences for patient care. Similarly, Good Publication Practice (GPP) for pharmaceutical companies have also been set up aimed at improving the behaviour of drug companies while reporting drug trialsThe rapidly increasing trend toward influence and control by industry has become a concern for many. It is of such importance that the Association of American Medical Colleges has issued two relatively new documents - one, in 2001, on how to deal with individual conflicts of interest; and the other, in 2002, on how to deal with institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research. Academic Medical Centers (AMCs), as also medical education and research institutions at other places, have to adopt means that minimize their conflicts of interest.Both medical associations and research journal editors are getting concerned with individual and institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research and documents are now available which address these issues. The 2001 ICMJE revision calls for full disclosure of the sponsor's role in research, as well as assurance that the investigators are independent of the sponsor, are fully accountable for the design and conduct of the trial, have

  9. Electron-impact Ionization Of Li2 And Li+2

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} and Li{sup +}{sub 2} are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single configuration self-consistent field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice ({tau}, {theta}), which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single particle Schrodinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted-waves with S-matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.0 and for Li{sup +}{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.9 are presented.

  10. Outgassing in the LiD/LiOH System

    SciTech Connect

    Schildbach, M; Siekhaus, W; Dinh, L; McLean II, W

    2003-10-17

    Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed on lithium hydroxide (LiOH) polycrystallites and LiD/LiOH composite nanocrystals. Our studies revealed that LiOH grains are thermally decomposed into Li{sub 2}O, releasing water, following a three dimensional phase boundary movement from the surface inward. The rate of H{sub 2}O released is controlled by a rate constant that is expressed as: d{alpha}/dt ={upsilon}.e {sup -E/RT}.f({alpha}) where t is time; {alpha} is the reacted fraction (0 to 1); {upsilon} is the pre-exponential factor which includes many constants describing the initial state of the sample such as three dimensional shape factors of initial particles, molecular mass, density, stoichiometric factors of chemical reaction, active surface and number of lattice imperfections, and so forth; E is the activation energy for the rate controlling process, R is the gas molar constant, and f({alpha}) is an analytical function which is determined by the rate-limiting reaction mechanism (random nucleation, diffusion, phase boundary motion, etc.). Due to fewer neighboring bonds at the surface, surface lithium hydroxide decomposes at low activation energies of {approx} 86-92 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 2.7 x 10{sup 6}-1.2 x 10{sup 7} s{sup -1}. Near-surface hydroxide, having bonding much like bulk hydroxide but experiencing more stress/strain, decomposes at activation energies of {approx} 89-108 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 9.5 x 10{sup 5}-9.3 x 10{sup 7}s{sup -1}. Bulk lithium hydroxide, however, decomposes at higher activation energies of {approx} 115-142 kJ/mol with corresponding pre-exponential factors of {approx} 4.8 x 10{sup 6}-1.2 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. Bulk lithium hydroxide is very stable if stored at room temperature. However, lithium hydroxide molecules at or near the surface of the grains slowly decompose, in a vacuum

  11. Li+ ionic conductivities and diffusion mechanisms in Li-based imides and lithium amide.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wu, Guotao; Xiong, Zhitao; Feng, Yuan Ping; Chen, Ping

    2012-02-07

    In this study, both experimental ionic conductivity measurements and the first-principles simulations are employed to investigate the Li(+) ionic diffusion properties in lithium-based imides (Li(2)NH, Li(2)Mg(NH)(2) and Li(2)Ca(NH)(2)) and lithium amide (LiNH(2)). The experimental results show that Li(+) ions present superionic conductivity in Li(2)NH (2.54 × 10(-4) S cm(-1)) and moderate ionic conductivity in Li(2)Ca(NH)(2) (6.40 × 10(-6) S cm(-1)) at room temperature; while conduction of Li(+) ions is hardly detectable in Li(2)Mg(NH)(2) and LiNH(2) at room temperature. The simulation results indicate that Li(+) ion diffusion in Li(2)NH may be mediated by Frenkel pair defects or charged vacancies, and the diffusion pathway is more likely via a series of intermediate jumps between octahedral and tetrahedral sites along the [001] direction. The calculated activation energy and pre-exponential factor for Li(+) ion conduction in Li(2)NH are well comparable with the experimentally determined values, showing the consistency of experimental and theoretical investigations. The calculation of the defect formation energy in LiNH(2) reveals that Li defects are difficult to create to mediate the Li(+) ion diffusion, resulting in the poor Li(+) ion conduction in LiNH(2) at room temperature.

  12. Polymorphism of LiAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, V. V.; Dmytriv, G. S.; Tarasiuk, I. I.; Chumak, I. V.; Pauly, H.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2010-02-01

    A phase transition from the cubic CsCl-type structure (Pm-3m space group) into a tetragonal UPb-type structure (I4 1/amd) is observed for the LiAg binary compound at ambient conditions. The crystal structure of the tetragonal modification of the LiAg binary compound was solved by direct methods in SHELXS on the base of structure factors which were extracted from a powder diffraction pattern and refined by SHELXL and the Rietveld method ( a = 3.9605(1), c = 8.2825(2) Å, Bragg R-factor = 4.81, Rf-factor = 4.87). Elevated temperatures and/or a small Li-excess versus the equimolar composition favour the cubic structure whereas ambient and lower temperatures and/or a small Li-deficiency stabilize the tetragonal structure. This reconstructive transition is reversible but proceeds slowly.

  13. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  14. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  16. [Co-editors and editors with Jewish origins of the first German journals for anaesthesia. Their fate under National Socialism and an attempt at a biographical appreciation].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Goetz, A E

    2010-09-01

    The decision to publish the journals Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie in 1928 was an important step towards the professionalization of anaesthesiology in Germany. The appearance of both journals, which for economic reasons merged into Schmerz - Narkose - Anaesthesie 1 year later, was initiated and vehemently supported by Jewish physicians. As editors and co-editors they were deeply involved with the editorial tasks of the journals for years from the early beginnings. When the National Socialistic Party took over the government in Germany many of the Jewish colleagues were forced to quit their editorial tasks, were eliminated and replaced by "Arians", they were persecuted and often arrested, forced to emigrate or decided to commit suicide due to inhumane personal circumstances. It is our intention to recall the biography and the terrible fate of the nearly unknown Jewish members of the editorial board of the first German anaesthesia journals. Moreover the biographic sketches promote a continuous discussion about the victims of an inhumane and barbarous ideology.

  17. Influencing health debates through letters to the editor: the case of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Laura M

    2009-04-01

    In this article I use the case of male circumcision (MC) to examine how grassroots activists, medical professionals, other stakeholders, and ordinary people employ letters to the editor (LTEs) to influence public health debates. I also show how journalistic practices affect the use of LTEs. Seventy LTEs about MC from U.S. newspapers between 1985 and 2006 are analyzed using qualitative methods. Pro-MC, anti-MC, and neutral LTE writers supported their stances on similar grounds, described adversaries as biased, and stressed medical and scientific authority. Yet only MC advocates and neutralists trivialized MC and declined to justify their stances, suggesting distinctive dynamics for LTEs about widely accepted practices. The prevalence of debated practices and activists' efforts to piggyback on related issues also affect LTE content. Editors chose LTEs to address readers' critiques, enact news values like balance and controversy, and showcase writers with strong claims to legitimacy, thereby mediating public health debates.

  18. PriorsEditor: a tool for the creation and use of positional priors in motif discovery

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Kjetil; Drabløs, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Computational methods designed to discover transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequences often have a tendency to make a lot of false predictions. One way to improve accuracy in motif discovery is to rely on positional priors to focus the search to parts of a sequence that are considered more likely to contain functional binding sites. We present here a program called PriorsEditor that can be used to create such positional priors tracks based on a combination of several features, including phylogenetic conservation, nucleosome occupancy, histone modifications, physical properties of the DNA helix and many more. Availability: PriorsEditor is available as a web start application and downloadable archive from http://tare.medisin.ntnu.no/priorseditor (requires Java 1.6). The web site also provides tutorials, screenshots and example protocol scripts. Contact: kjetil.klepper@ntnu.no PMID:20628076

  19. Editor's perspective on the ECSS dedicated issue on green tides in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Most of us learned about the extraordinary macroalgal bloom in the Yellow Sea through press reports previous to the 2008 Olympic competition in China. I was made aware of the extensive research efforts on this remarkable case of human-prompted, large-scale environmental change by discussions with Dr. Dongyan Liu during the 2012 ECSA conference in Venice. It soon became evident that it would be of great interest to the international audience to bring together results from the many different research projects on different aspects of this topic, taking place in different institutions and agencies. I therefore suggested that a committee of guest editors for the Issue be organized. The guest editors were charged with inviting the many researchers involved in work on the different aspects of the "green tide" phenomenon to contribute articles, request reviews of the submissions, and with helping me in editing the submissions.

  20. Writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Blackmore, Heather; Kitas, George D

    2011-11-01

    Review articles comprehensively covering a specific topic are crucial for successful research and academic projects. Most editors consider review articles for special and regular issues of journals. Writing a review requires deep knowledge and understanding of a field. The aim of this review is to analyze the main steps in writing a narrative biomedical review and to consider points that may increase the chances of success. We performed a comprehensive search through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science using the following keywords: review of the literature, narrative review, title, abstract, authorship, ethics, peer review, research methods, medical writing, scientific writing, and writing standards. Opinions expressed in the review are also based on personal experience as authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

  1. Programming the Navier-Stokes computer: An abstract machine model and a visual editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David; Crockett, Tom; Tomboulian, Sherry

    1988-01-01

    The Navier-Stokes computer is a parallel computer designed to solve Computational Fluid Dynamics problems. Each processor contains several floating point units which can be configured under program control to implement a vector pipeline with several inputs and outputs. Since the development of an effective compiler for this computer appears to be very difficult, machine level programming seems necessary and support tools for this process have been studied. These support tools are organized into a graphical program editor. A programming process is described by which appropriate computations may be efficiently implemented on the Navier-Stokes computer. The graphical editor would support this programming process, verifying various programmer choices for correctness and deducing values such as pipeline delays and network configurations. Step by step details are provided and demonstrated with two example programs.

  2. Red`s natural editor: A program designed to edit FORTRAN programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    This program allows the user to edit files using a completely natural method. You don`t need a lot of time to learn how to use this program; it`s as simple as using a typewriter. Even while you are reading this report you can start editing files. Although it is as simple as using a typewriter, this is a full screen editor, so that you can overwrite (replace) anything, delete or insert characters or lines, copy or move lines, find or change anything. All of this can be done without using any complicated combinations of key strokes (as you are forced to memorize with other editors). This program is written in standard FORTRAN. Although it was designed and implemented on an IBM-PC, it can be easily adapted for use on virtually any graphics terminal.

  3. Ensuring the Quality, Fairness, and Integrity of Journal Peer Review: A Possible Role of Editors.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of literature has identified potential problems that can compromise the quality, fairness, and integrity of journal peer review, including inadequate review, inconsistent reviewer reports, reviewer biases, and ethical transgressions by reviewers. We examine the evidence concerning these problems and discuss proposed reforms, including double-blind and open review. Regardless of the outcome of additional research or attempts at reforming the system, it is clear that editors are the linchpin of peer review, since they make decisions that have a significant impact on the process and its outcome. We consider some of the steps editors should take to promote quality, fairness and integrity in different stages of the peer review process and make some recommendations for editorial conduct and decision-making.

  4. How the public responded to the Schiavo controversy: evidence from letters to editors.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Karczewska, Marta; Seidler, Matthew; Amaram, Rakesh; Illes, Judy

    2010-09-01

    The history and genesis of major public clinical ethics controversies is intimately related to the publication of opinions and responses in media coverage. To provide a sample of public response in the media, this paper reports the results of a content analysis of letters to editors published in the four most prolific American newspapers for the Schiavo controversy. Opinions expressed in the letters sampled strongly supported the use of living wills and strongly condemned public attention to the case as well as political interventions. Letters tended to be against withdrawal of life support, proxy consent and associated procedures as well as against court decisions and legal procedures. In comparison with reports written by journalists, letters to editors contained fewer controversial claims about Schiavo''s neurological condition and behavioural repertoire but similar loaded language to describe withdrawal of life support. Distinct public discourses can be encountered in different stakeholders suggesting complex and extensive pluralism even within the media.

  5. [Hendrik Burger, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Medicine 1904- 1913].

    PubMed

    van't Hof, S E

    2007-07-28

    Hendrik Burger (1864-1957) became the sixth editor-in-chief of the Journal before gaining international fame as a professor of otorhinolaryngology. He was more a teacher than researcher, and his clinic in Amsterdam became an internationally renowned training centre. He advocated better public healthcare for children who were deaf/mute or had impaired hearing and founded schools for these children. A prolific writer, Burger contributed more than 400 papers to the Journal.

  6. [Stanisława Adamowiczowa--first editor in-chief of Journal "Przeglad Epidemiologiczny"].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    First issue of Epidemiological Review was published in 1920. First editor in chief was Stanisława Adamowiczowa, PhD (1888-1965), who had worked in National Central Epidemiological Institute since 1919, and later, for period of 45 years, interrupted by breaks resulting from political situation, worked in National Institute of Hygiene. In this jubilee article, we present scientific resume of S. Adamowiczowa which focuses on her achievements in infectious diseases epidemiology, and particularly in analysis and evaluation of current epidemiological data distribution in Poland and worldwide in the period. She was the pioneer in systemic organization of registries of new cases of diseases in the highly populated Polish cities; she initiated use of statistical methods in this field. As editor in chief of Epidemiological Review, she started publishing Epidemiological Chronicle, which is continuously added as a supplement to every second issue, each year. Name of S. Adamowiczowa is associated with Ludwik Rajchman--director of Hygiene Section in League of Nations, with Witold Chodźko PhD--she led courses in National School of Hygiene in Warsaw, with prof. Marcin Kacprzak--as co-author and co-editor of books on hygiene and epidemiology. A brief list of scientific publications of S. Adamowiczowa is also presented.

  7. Conflicts of interest in biomedical publications: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A; Kitas, George D

    2013-12-01

    This article overviews evidence on common instances of conflict of interest (COI) in research publications from general and specialized fields of biomedicine. Financial COIs are viewed as the most powerful source of bias, which may even distort citation outcomes of sponsored publications. The urge to boost journal citation indicators by stakeholders of science communication is viewed as a new secondary interest, which may compromize the interaction between authors, peer reviewers and editors. Comprehensive policies on disclosure of financial and non-financial COIs in scholarly journals are presented as proxies of their indexing in evidence-based databases, and examples of successful medical journals are discussed in detail. Reports on clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines may be unduly influenced by author-pharmaceutical industry relations, but these publications do not always contain explicit disclosures to allow the readers to judge the reliability of the published conclusions and practice-changing recommendations. The article emphasizes the importance of adhering to the guidance on COI from learned associations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It also considers joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers and editors as a foundation for appropriately defining and disclosing potential COIs.

  8. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years? Transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Holland, G R; Giannobile, W V; Hancocks, S; Robinson, P G; Lynch, C D

    2014-05-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Chris Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/ position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in.

  9. How is research publishing going to progress in the next 20 years?: transcription of session for editors, associate editors, publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing held at IADR meeting in Seattle on Wednesday, 20 March 2013.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Rex Holland, G; Giannobile, William V; Hancocks, Stephen; Robinson, Peter G; Lynch, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    On March 20th 2013, a one-hour session for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing was held at the IADR International Session in Seattle. Organised by Kenneth Eaton and Christopher Lynch (Chair and Secretary, respectively, of the British Dental Editors Forum), the meeting sought to bring together leading international experts in dental publishing, as well as authors, reviewers and students engaged in research. The meeting was an overwhelming success, with more than 100 attendees. A panel involving four leading dental editors led a discussion on anticipated developments in publishing dental research with much involvement and contribution from audience members. This was the third such meeting held at the IADR for Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. A follow-up session will take place in Cape Town on 25 June 2014 as part of the annual IADR meeting. The transcript of the Seattle meeting is reproduced in this article. Where possible speakers are identified by name. At the first time of mention their role/position is also stated, thereafter only their name appears. We are grateful to Stephen Hancocks Ltd. for their generous sponsorship of this event. For those who were not able to attend the authors hope this article gives a flavour of the discussions and will encourage colleagues to attend future events. Involvement is open to Editors, Associate Editors, Publishers and others with an interest in scientific publishing. It is a very open group and all those with an interest will be welcome to join in.

  10. Li-6/Li-7, B-10/B-11, and Li-7/B-11/Si-28 individual IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Song, L.-G.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Fan, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    At the initial stage of the development of our solar system, the solar nebula is presumably composed of H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7, which were made during the Big Band, and C, N, O, . . ., which are products of nearby supernova explosions. Li-6 nuclei (together with about equal amounts of Li-7), Be-9, B-10, and B-11 were produced later by cosmic ray particles bombarding the local interstellar C, N, O, . . . nuclei before the nebula condensed to become the Sun and the planets. Thus, the ratio Li-6/Li-7 is a measure of the length of the early epoch of the solar system. In this paper we shall report the measurement of Li-7/Li-6, B-11/B-10, and Li-7/B-11/Si-28 of four IDP's obtained from Johnson Space Center and discuss the findings.

  11. Li2S Film Formation on Lithium Anode Surface of Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiao; Bertolini, Samuel; Balbuena, Perla B; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of lithium sulfide (Li2S) on the Li metal anode surface adversely impacts the performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In this study, a first-principles approach including density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations is employed to theoretically elucidate the Li2S/Li metal surface interactions and the nucleation and growth of a Li2S film on the anode surface due to long-chain polysulfide decomposition during battery operation. DFT analyses of the energetic properties and electronic structures demonstrate that a single molecule adsorption on Li surface releases energy forming chemical bonds between the S atoms and Li atoms from the anode surface. Reaction pathways of the Li2S film formation on Li metal surfaces are investigated based on DFT calculations. It is found that a distorted Li2S (111) plane forms on a Li(110) surface and a perfect Li2S (111) plane forms on a Li(111) surface. The total energy of the system decreases along the reaction pathway; hence Li2S film formation on the Li anode surface is thermodynamically favorable. The calculated difference charge density of the Li2S film/Li surface suggests that the precipitated film would interact with the Li anode via strong chemical bonds. AIMD simulations reveal the role of the anode surface structure and the origin of the Li2S formation via decomposition of Li2S8 polysulfide species formed at the cathode side and dissolved in the electrolyte medium in which they travel to the anode side during battery cycling.

  12. Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tuqiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel, low-cost approach to stabilization of Li metal anodes for high-performance rechargeable batteries was developed. Electrolyte additives are selected and used in Li cell electrolyte systems, promoting formation of a protective coating on Li metal anodes for improved cycle and safety performance. Li batteries developed from the new system will show significantly improved battery performance characteristics, including energy/power density, cycle/ calendar life, cost, and safety.

  13. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Progress in marine sciences often follows the development of new methods. The Invited Feature Article "New Insight into Particulate Mineral and Organic Matter in Coastal Ocean Waters through Optical Inversion" by Xiaodong Zhang, Robert Hans Stavn, Alexander U. Falster, Deric J. Gray, and Richard W. Gould demonstrates a new method that uses scattering and transmissometer data to differentiate between particle size distribution of suspended mineral and that of suspended organic matter. The method helps define the particular groups of phytoplankton that may be dominant, whether organic detritus may be more significant in suspended organic matter, add insight on the dominant size classes of mineral aggregates, and helps differentiate between organic detritus-dominated systems and biogenic-dominated systems.

  14. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, was founded in 1957 by Niels Bohr and Torsten Gustafsson at Blegdamsvej in Copenhagen, joint to Bohr's legendary Institute. Today, memories of Bohr and his famous visitors -- Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Lev Landau and many others -- strongly contribute to Nordita's genius loci and inspire next generations of her visitors. Nordita awards ``Nordic Project'' grants to individual Nordic physicists to help conduct a world-class research in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway, and Sweden). Research reported here was generously supported by the Nordic Project "Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Black Hole and Neutron Star sources" awarded in 2005 to Marek Abramowicz. The Project supported the ``Nordita Workdays on QPO" (March 25 -- April 1, 2005) organized by Marek Abramowicz, Axel Brandenburg and Juri Poutanen with help of Hanne Bergen, Helle http://www.nordita.dk/positions/norproject.html

  15. Editor's note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Ruben Kosyan and Violeta Velikova describe the disastrous anthropogenic impact on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine over the last 100 years and its inverse correlation with economic development as exemplified by improving water quality during a downturn in the economy. This degradation is now accelerating from the renovation and construction of ports and terminals, the development of resorts, hazardous industrial development, oil and gas exploration, and unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices. There appears to be no enforcement of protected areas. In the absence of scientific research on these issues, coastal zone management appears to be based on 'learning after seeing disastrous effects'. Without recognition of the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, the Black Sea coast and the coastal waters will deteriorate, as was observed between the 1970s and the 1990s.

  16. Editor's Note.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Bruce

    2011-05-27

    The Research Article "A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus" by F. Wolfe-Simon et al., published online 2 December 2010, was the subject of extensive discussion and criticism following its online publication. Science received a wide range of correspondence that raised specific concerns about the Research Article's methods and interpretations. Eight Technical Comments that represent the main concerns, as well as a Technical Response by Wolfe-Simon et al., are published online in Science Express at the addresses listed in this note. They have been peer-reviewed and revised according to Science's standard procedure.

  17. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    The widespread eutrophication of coastal waters clearly involves increased nitrogen loads, in most cases with nitrogen derived from human activities on contributing watersheds. This has prompted regulators, managers, and other stakeholders to set standards for water quality that involve lowering nitrogen loads to estuaries and other coastal waters. To carry out the proscribed lowering of nitrogen loads there are a number of options. In many instances and sites with high human density and intense activity, advanced wastewater treatment plants are unavoidable, but such environmental engineering approaches are costly. There are many coastal zones with lower population densities where other, less costly alternative strategies might be less expensive and more attuned to "green" approaches.

  18. Editor's Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzens, Susan E.

    1986-01-01

    Offers perspectives and ideas on a range of issues related to policy-relevant research in science studies. Identifies and discusses major challenges and problems involved in science policy studies. Presents an overview of articles that address the theme of funding and knowledge growth. (ML)

  19. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  20. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Astronomische Nachrichten is a collection of original papers on local helioseismology, which covers topics discussed at the first HELAS local helioseismology workshop held on 2006 September 25-27 at Nice Observatory, France.

  1. Editor's Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-10-01

    In the article "Indian summer monsoon rainfall: Dancing with the tunes of the sun", published in New Astronomy 35 (2015) 8, it was omitted to state that at the time this article was submitted the author Dr. Willie Soon received funding from the Southern Company Services under agreement for SAO Proposal PS0182-9-11. We have no indication that this funding has influenced the results presented in the article.

  2. The interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio toward Zeta Ophiuchi and Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Hawkins, Isabel; Wright, Edward L.

    1993-01-01

    High S/N, high-resolution observations of the interstellar Li absorption lines toward the stars Zeta Ophiuchi and Zeta Persei are reported. Li I line profiles indicate the presence of both the Li-7 and Li-6 doublets in these two sightlines. Best-fit values for the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio are 6.8 (+1.4/-1.7) towards Zeta Ophiuchi and 5.5 (+ 1.3/-1.1) toward Zeta Persei. Measurement of 6.8 (+1.4/-1.7) for the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio towards Zeta Ophiuchi does not support the lower limit of 25 determined by Ferlet and Dennefeld (1984). The current value of the interstellar Li-7/Li-6 isotope ratio is the result of various lithium production and destruction processes involving stars, cosmic rays, and the big bang.

  3. LiDy(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi-Moumen, Fathia; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO3)4, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy⋯Li distances of 3.54 (1) and 3.48 (1) Å. The DyO8 dodeca­hedra and LiO4 tetra­hedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2). PMID:21202729

  4. New Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, Rebecca

    2014-04-01

    We are delighted to announce that Professor Martin Evans of University of Edinburgh has been appointed as the new Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical. Martin Evans has been Editor of the Statistical Physics section of the journal since 2009. Prior to this, he served as a Board Member for the journal. His areas of research include statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium systems, phase transitions and scaling regimes in nonequilibrium statistical physics, glassy dynamics, phase transitions and ordering in driven diffusive systems, mass transport models, condensation models, zero range processes and exclusion processes. We very much look forward to working with Martin to continue to improve the journal's quality and interest to the readership. We would like to thank our outgoing Editor-in-Chief, Professor Murray Batchelor. Murray has worked hard and provided excellent guidance in improving the quality of the journal and the service that the journal provides to authors, referees and readers. During the last five years, we have raised the quality threshold for acceptance in the journal and currently reject over 70% of submissions. As a result, papers published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical are amongst the best in the field. We have also maintained and improved on our excellent receipt-to-first-decision times, which now average under 40 days for papers. With the help of Martin Evans and our distinguished Editorial Board, we will be working to further improve the quality of the journal whilst continuing to offer excellent services to our readers, authors and referees. We hope that you benefit from reading the journal. If you have any comments or questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at jphysa@iop.org. Rebecca Gillan Publisher

  5. Advanced software development workstation. Engineering scripting language graphical editor: DRAFT design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Engineering Scripting Language (ESL) is a language designed to allow nonprogramming users to write Higher Order Language (HOL) programs by drawing directed graphs to represent the program and having the system generate the corresponding program in HOL. The ESL system supports user generation of HOL programs through the manipulation of directed graphs. The components of this graphs (nodes, ports, and connectors) are objects each of which has its own properties and property values. The purpose of the ESL graphical editor is to allow the user to create or edit graph objects which represent programs.

  6. Quality and peer review of research: an adjudicating role for editors.

    PubMed

    Newton, Douglas P

    2010-05-01

    Peer review gives research a stamp of approval, but the reviews themselves can be flawed. This is potentially serious for the writer, the journal, and journal user. This study describes shortcomings of the peer review process and condenses them into an explanatory framework involving situational, personal, social, and ethical factors. Some proposals to improve matters are impractical and may make them worse. Some data is offered which illustrates the problem and suggests a potential solution. Informed editors who avoid mechanical approaches engage cautiously and critically with reviews and guard against bias, even in themselves, could make a significant difference.

  7. Correcting the record of structural publications requires joint effort of the community and journal editors.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Seriously flawed and even fictional models of biomolecular crystal structures, although rare, still persist in the record of structural repositories and databases. The ensuing problems of database contamination and persistence of publications based on incorrect structure models must be effectively addressed. The burden cannot be simply left to the critical voices who take the effort to contribute dissenting comments that are mostly ignored. The entire structural biology community, and particularly the journal editors who exercise significant power in this respect, must engage in a constructive dialog lest structural biology lose its credibility as an evidence-based empirical science.

  8. Parallel public spheres: distance and discourse in letters to the editor.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Andrew J; Vaisey, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    This article examines letters to the editor as one of the ways citizens seek to enact a public sphere using technological mediation. Using a sample of all letters received by a metropolitan newspaper during a three-month period (N = 1,113), the authors demonstrate that the tone and argumentative styles of letters differ with the scope of the issues the letters address. Local issues evoke more reasoned, conciliatory tones, while issues beyond the local context evoke more emotional, confrontational tones, even after controlling for individual writers' characteristics and anger as a motivation to write.

  9. Nanoscale spinel LiFeTiO4 for intercalation pseudocapacitive Li(+) storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiyong; Knapp, Michael; Yavuz, Murat; Ren, Shuhua; Witte, Ralf; Heinzmann, Ralf; Hahn, Horst; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Indris, Sylvio

    2015-01-14

    Intercalation pseudocapacitive Li(+) storage has been recognized recently in metal oxide materials, wherein Li(+) intercalation into the lattice is not solid-state diffusion-limited. This may bridge the performance gap between electrochemical capacitors and battery materials. To date, only a few materials with desired crystal structure and with well-defined nanoarchitectures have been found to exhibit such attractive behaviour. Herein, we report for the first time that nanoscale spinel LiFeTiO4 as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries exhibits intercalation pseudocapacitive Li(+) storage behaviour. Nanoscale LiFeTiO4 nanoparticles with native carbon coating were synthesized by a sol-gel route. A fast and large-amount of Li(+) storage (up to 1.6 Li(+) per formula unit over cycling) in the nanoscale LiFeTiO4 host has been achieved without compromising kinetics.

  10. [Revista Médica de Chile: A new member in the "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors"].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto

    2010-06-01

    After a worldwide call for applications that took place in 2009, two medical journals were selected to become new members of the "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)": Chinese Medical Journal and Revista Médica de Chile. Both Editors: Getu Zhaori, MD, and Humberto Reyes, MD, respectively, attended the ICMJE Meeting, 12-14 April 2010, in Queenstown, New Zealand. The meeting agenda included several topics that had been studied in advance by the attendants: editors or deputy editors of the 14 journals integrating this Committee plus a representative for the U.S. National Library of Medicine and another one for the World Association of Medical Journal Editors (WAME). The Committee agreed in new recommendations tending to safeguard the integrity and transparency of every manuscript published in all journals that adhere to the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URM)". These recommendations will be published shortly in ICMJE member journals. An important issue discussed refers to improvements in the "ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest"' that had some changes, a glossary of terms will be attached to it and the Instructions will be accompanied by translations into the official WHO languages as well as other languages used by ICMJE member journals. For our journal it is an honor and a great responsibility to become a member of this highly qualified Committee, the only journal published in Spanish and the first one from Latin America.

  11. LiDAR: Providing structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vierling, Lee A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Asner, Gregory P.; Stoker, Jason M.; Johnson, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of MacArthur, three-dimensional (3-D) structural information on the environment has fundamentally transformed scientific understanding of ecological phenomena (MacArthur and MacArthur 1961). Early data on ecosystem structure were painstakingly laborious to collect. However, as reviewed and reported in recent volumes of Frontiers(eg Vierling et al. 2008; Asner et al.2011), advances in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote-sensing technology provide quantitative and repeatable measurements of 3-D ecosystem structure that enable novel ecological insights at scales ranging from the plot, to the landscape, to the globe. Indeed, annual publication of studies using LiDAR to interpret ecological phenomena increased 17-fold during the past decade, with over 180 new studies appearing in 2010 (ISI Web of Science search conducted on 23 Mar 2011: [{lidar AND ecol*} OR {lidar AND fores*} OR {lidar AND plant*}]).

  12. Ontology-Based Controlled Natural Language Editor Using CFG with Lexical Dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgoong, Hyun; Kim, Hong-Gee

    In recent years, CNL (Controlled Natural Language) has received much attention with regard to ontology-based knowledge acquisition systems. CNLs, as subsets of natural languages, can be useful for both humans and computers by eliminating ambiguity of natural languages. Our previous work, OntoPath [10], proposed to edit natural language-like narratives that are structured in RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples, using a domain-specific ontology as their language constituents. However, our previous work and other systems employing CFG for grammar definition have difficulties in enlarging the expression capacity. A newly developed editor, which we propose in this paper, permits grammar definitions through CFG-LD (Context-Free Grammar with Lexical Dependency) that includes sequential and semantic structures of the grammars. With CFG describing the sequential structure of grammar, lexical dependencies between sentence elements can be designated in the definition system. Through the defined grammars, the implemented editor guides users' narratives in more familiar expressions with a domain-specific ontology and translates the content into RDF triples.

  13. Semi-automated XML markup of biosystematic legacy literature with the GoldenGATE editor.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Guido; Böhm, Klemens; Agosti, Donat

    2007-01-01

    Today, digitization of legacy literature is a big issue. This also applies to the domain of biosystematics, where this process has just started. Digitized biosystematics literature requires a very precise and fine grained markup in order to be useful for detailed search, data linkage and mining. However, manual markup on sentence level and below is cumbersome and time consuming. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GoldenGATE editor, which is designed for the special needs of marking up OCR output with XML. It is built in order to support the user in this process as far as possible: Its functionality ranges from easy, intuitive tagging through markup conversion to dynamic binding of configurable plug-ins provided by third parties. Our evaluation shows that marking up an OCR document using GoldenGATE is three to four times faster than with an off-the-shelf XML editor like XML-Spy. Using domain-specific NLP-based plug-ins, these numbers are even higher.

  14. Diffusion and possible freezing phases of Li-ions in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiu, Yuen; Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Ehlers, Georg; Vaknin, David

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies of LiFePO4 single crystal reveal new Li-ion diffusion properties relevant to its function as Li-battery materials. In the past decade there has been broad interest in LiFePO4 and its related compounds, largely due to the applications of these materials as cathodes in Li- batteries. This is owing to these materials' high charge-discharge ability and conductivity, both of which are by virtue of the Li-ions' high mobility. In this talk, we present our findings on the temperature and directional dependence of Li-ions' diffusion in LiFePO4. LiFePO4 adopts the olivine structure at room temperature (Space group: Pnma), which contains channels along principal crystalline directions that allow Li-ion motion. Elastic neutron scattering reveals lowering of symmetry from the Pnma structure below room temperature, which can be interpreted as the freezing of Li-ions, and can be subsequently linked to the reported decrease in Li-ion conductivity. Inelastic neutron scattering, in the 35K to 720K temperature range, shows temperature dependence, as well as anisotropy (i.e. along 0K0 versus 00L) of Li-ion diffusion. Ames Laboratory is supported by U.S. DOE, BES, DMSE, under Contract #DE-AC02-07CH11358. Spallation Neutron Source of Oak Ridge National Laboratory is sponsored by U.S. DOE, BES, SUFD.

  15. Ultralong Lifespan and Ultrafast Li Storage: Single-Crystal LiFePO4 Nanomeshes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Hui Juan; Feng, Yang Yang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-27

    A novel LiFePO4 material, in the shape of a nanomesh, has been rationally designed and synthesized based on the low crystal-mismatch strategy. The LiFePO4 nanomesh possesses several advantages in morphology and crystal structure, including a mesoporous structure, its crystal orientation that is along the [010] direction, and a shortened Li-ion diffusion path. These properties are favorable for their application as cathode in Li-ion batteries, as these will accelerate the Li-ion diffusion rate, improve the Li-ion exchange between the LiFePO4 nanomesh and the electrolyte, and reduce the Li-ion capacitive behavior during Li intercalation. So the LiFePO4 nanomesh exhibits a high specific capacity, enhanced rate capability, and strengthened cyclability. The method developed here can also be extended to other similar systems, for instance, LiMnPO4 , LiCoPO4 , and LiNiPO4 , and may find more applications in the designed synthesis of functional materials.

  16. Thermal stability of LiPF 6 salt and Li-ion battery electrolytes containing LiPF 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross, Philip N.

    The thermal stability of the neat lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) salt and of 1 molal (m) solutions of LiPF 6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Pure LiPF 6 salt is thermally stable up to 107 °C in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing lithium fluoride (LiF) as solid and PF 5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF 6 and water vapor to form phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF 3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF). No new products were observed in 1 m solutions of LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 85 °C for 300-420 h did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, no alkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF 6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  17. Li+ ion dynamics in strontium bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2004-11-01

    Ion transport in Li2O-Bi2O3-SrO glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10 Hz-2 MHz and in the temperature range 263-483 K. The variation of the dc conductivity and the activation energy of these glasses with composition has been compared with those of bismuthate and lead bismuthate glasses. The frequency dependent conductivity has been studied using both modulus and conductivity formalisms. We have observed that the variation of the power law exponent with Li2O content is in contrast to that for the Li2O-Bi2O3 and Li2O-Bi2O3-PbO glasses. The values of the non-exponential parameter for the Li2O-Bi2O3-SrO glasses are lower than those for the binary Li2O-Bi2O3 glasses.

  18. The Editors' Recollections on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of The American Journal of Human Genetics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Volume 1, Number 1 of The American Journal of Human Genetics was published in September 1949. The first paper was an 18-page preface to the journal by H. J. Muller, president of The American Society of Human Genetics, entitled “Progress and Prospects in Human Genetics.” Charles W. Cotterman served as the first editor, and since that time a dozen other human geneticists have shared that distinction. In recognition of the 60th anniversary of AJHG, recollections of five editors are recorded here.

  19. Korean association of medical journal editors at the forefront of improving the quality and indexing chances of its member journals.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2013-05-01

    The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications.

  20. René Marcelle (December 30, 1931-December 18, 2011), the first editor-in-chief of Photosynthesis Research.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Marcelle, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    This tribute honors the first editor-in-chief of Photosynthesis Research, René Marcelle the Belgian plant physiologist who, with publishers in The Netherlands, launched the journal in 1980. Here, we present a glimpse of René Marcelle's early life, his education and research, as well as his editorial work for the journal and other conferences in plant physiology. He worked on control of photosynthesis, both the biological and environmental aspects, as well as on crassulacean acid metabolism. He is best remembered as a kind-hearted and humane editor.

  1. Measurement of Solubility of Metallic Lithium Dissolved in Molten LiCl-Li2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Adam J.; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-10-01

    The solubility of lithium metal in molten LiCl-Li2O mixtures has been measured at various concentrations of Li2O ranging from 0 wt.% to 2.7 wt.% at a temperature of approximately 670-680°C. After contacting molten lithium with molten LiCl-Li2O for several hours to achieve equilibrium saturation, samples were taken by freezing the salt onto a room-temperature steel rod and dissolving in water for analysis. Both volume of hydrogen gas generated and volume of titrated HCl were measured to investigate two different approaches to calculating the lithium concentration. There appeared to be no effect of Li2O concentration on the Li solubility in the salt. But the results vary between different methods of deducing the amount of dissolved Li. The H2 collection method is recommended, but care must be taken to ensure all of the H2 has been included.

  2. Interaction of 11Li with 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinodkumar, A. M.; Loveland, W.; Yanez, R.; Leonard, M.; Yao, L.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Morton, A. C.; Ottewell, D.; Preddy, D.; Trinczek, M.

    2013-04-01

    Background: 11Li is one of the most studied halo nuclei. The fusion of 11Li with 208Pb is the subject of a number of theoretical studies with widely differing predictions, ranging over four orders of magnitude, for the fusion excitation function.Purpose: The purpose was to measure the excitation function for the 11Li + 208Pb reaction.Methods: A stacked foil and degrader assembly of 208Pb targets was irradiated with a 11Li beam producing center-of-target beam energies from above-barrier to near-barrier energies (40-29 MeV). The intensity of the 11Li beam (chopped) was 1250 particles/s and the beam on-target time was 34 h. The α decay of the stopped evaporation residues (EVRs) was detected in an α-detector array at each beam energy in the beam-off period (the beam was on for ≤5 ns and then off for 170 ns).Results: The observed nuclidic yields of 212/215At and 214At are consistent with being produced in the complete fusion of 11Li with 208Pb. The observed yields of 213At appear to be the result of the breakup of 11Li into 9Li+2n, with the 9Li fusing with 208Pb. The magnitudes of the total fusion cross sections are substantially less than most theoretical predictions.Conclusions: It is possible to measure the EVR production cross sections resulting from the interaction of 11Li with 208Pb using current-generation radioactive beam facilities. Both complete fusion and breakup fusion processes occur in the interaction of 11Li with 208Pb. An important breakup process leads to the fusion of the 9Li fragment with 208Pb.

  3. On the Photoelectron Spectra of Li4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The most stable structure for Li4(-) is found to be the rhombus. Electron detachment from this structure does not seem able to fully explain the photoelectron spectra. The computed results are consistent with those Rao, Jena, and Ray who have proposed that the experimental spectra consists of a superposition of detachment from the Li4(-) rhombus and tetrahedron, forming the singlet and triplet states of Li4, respectively.

  4. Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. Objective This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia’s medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the medical readership against that of other health care websites between Wikipedia’s natural language editions and its relationship with disease prevalence. Fourth, we surveyed the quantity/characteristics of Wikipedia’s medical contributors, including year-over-year participation trends and editor demographics. Methods Using a well-defined categorization infrastructure, we identified medically pertinent English-language Wikipedia articles and links to their foreign language equivalents. With these, Wikipedia can be queried to produce metadata and full texts for entire article histories. Wikipedia also makes available hourly reports that aggregate reader traffic at per-article granularity. An online survey was used to determine the background of contributors. Standard mining and visualization techniques (eg, aggregation queries, cumulative distribution functions, and/or correlation metrics) were applied to each of these datasets. Analysis focused on year-end 2013, but historical data permitted some longitudinal analysis. Results Wikipedia’s medical content (at the end of 2013) was made up of more than 155,000 articles and 1 billion bytes of text across more than 255 languages. This content was supported by more than 950,000 references. Content was viewed more than 4.88 billion times in 2013. This makes it one of if not the most viewed medical resource(s) globally. The core editor community numbered less than 300 and declined over the past 5 years. The members of this

  5. Li-rich anti-perovskite Li3OCl films with enhanced ionic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, XJ; Wu, G; Howard, JW; Chen, AP; Zhao, YS; Daemen, LL; Jia, QX

    2014-08-13

    Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and their room-temperature ionic conductivity can be improved by more than an order of magnitude in comparison with its bulk counterpart. The cyclability of Li3OCl films in contact with lithium was evaluated using a Li/Li3OCl/Li symmetric cell, showing self-stabilization during cycling test.

  6. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  7. EDITORIAL: A few words from the new Editor-in-Chief A few words from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-04-01

    As I begin my mandate as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, I can look back with great pleasure at many years of service, as a member of the Editorial Board, to this outstanding instrument of scientific dissemination. Having witnessed the exceptional quantitative and qualitative growth of the journal, I must consider this appointment both an honour and a real challenge. The success of the journal is primarily based on three assets: the authors' talent of course, but also the illuminated leadership of my predecessors at the journal helm and the highly competent, dedicated and responsive staff. I would like to praise, in particular, the leadership of my immediate predecessor and good friend, Pallab Battacharya, the pilot of the years of major qualitative growth. Being Pallab's successor makes my new responsibility even more challenging! The IOP personnel is a key asset for the journal: in my rather broad experience in scientific publishing, I have never seen such a combination of professional experience, commitment and willingness to innovate—a traditional strength of JPD. Regrettably, I cannot acknowledge here all the women and men who contributed to the success of the journal; however, I would like to explicitly acknowledge the outstanding work of Sarah Quin over the past decade. In my new duty, I can fortunately count on her successor, Olivia Roche, whose excellent professional and managerial qualities we can already appreciate. How should we view the future of the journal? In my view, with reasonable optimism. Notwithstanding the tough competition, our journal has a solid reputation and increasing visibility. It has consistently belonged to the small elite group of top journals preferred by applied physics authors worldwide. My program as Editor-in-Chief is both simple and very testing: to continue to enhance this elite status. The challenge comes from a variety of factors: first, 'applied physics' is a continuously evolving notion, even

  8. Lithiation of Li2SnO3 and Li2SnS3 in context of Li-ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jason; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    The closed pack layered crystal material (space group 15 (C 2 / c)) Li2 SnO3 has been studied as a possible anode material since the late 1990's. The material undergoes an irreversible decomposition to Li2 O and LiX Sn alloys during the first lithiation cycle. The crystal material Li2 SnS3 of the same structure was recently proposed as an electrolyte material. The question is posed whether Li2 SnS3 would be a good electrolyte or whether it could function as an anode material similar to Li2 SnO3 . In this research a model is proposed for the lithiation process of Li2 SnO3 and Li2 SnS3 ; Li - Li2 SnS3 interfaces are also examined. The results show Li2 SnO3 begins to decompose at approximately Li2 + 0 . 5 SnO3 . In Li2 SnS3 the lithiation process shows it can lithiate to Li2 + 1 SnS3 without significant lattice distortion, volume expansion, or decomposition. Li - Li2 SnS3 interfaces are shown to be unstable, showing the formation of Li2 S . Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1105485 and DMR-1507942.

  9. Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaskill, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

  10. Interview with Future Medicinal Chemistry's US Senior Editor, Iwao Ojima. Interview by Issac Bruce.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Iwao

    2012-10-01

    Professor Iwao Ojima studied at the University of Tokyo (Japan) before being appointed as a Senior Research Fellow and Group Leader at the Sagami Institute of Chemical Research. He is now Director of the Institute of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery at State University of New York (USA) and has been a visiting professor in European, North American and Asian academic institutions. Professor Ojima agreed to serve as the US Senior Editor of Future Medicinal Chemistry when it launched in 2009 and continues to provide his expertise to the journal. Professor Ojima spoke to Future Medicinal Chemistry about why medicinal chemistry is such an exciting field to work in, the state of the pharmaceutical industry, and what features and issues make this journal unique.

  11. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories.

  12. JOSPT Experiences Tremendous Growth, Change in 14 Years With Editor-in-Chief Simoneau in Charge.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John A

    2015-12-01

    As Editor-in-Chief, Dr Guy G. Simoneau and his editorial board have taken JOSPT from an acceptable US-based journal to a highly influential worldwide force behind contemporary orthopaedic and sports physical therapy research and practice. Today, the bridge Dr Simoneau constructed spans the orthopaedic and sports physical therapy globe for the betterment of clinical practice and research. His work fully supports JOSPT's latest strategic plan to provide value-added knowledge translation, develop a broader authorship and readership, increase global marketing of the JOSPT brand, and expand current relationships to new partners and stakeholders. The bridge places JOSPT on very firm footing, tying its rich history to the promise of an exciting and successful future.

  13. ESCHER: An interactive mesh-generating editor for preparing finite-element input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakes, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    ESCHER is an interactive mesh generation and editing program designed to help the user create a finite-element mesh, create additional input for finite-element analysis, including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and slidelines, and generate a NEUTRAL FILE that can be postprocessed for input into several finite-element codes, including ADINA, ADINAT, DYNA, NIKE, TSAAS, and ABUQUS. Two important ESCHER capabilities, interactive geometry creation and mesh archival storge are described in detail. Also described is the interactive command language and the use of interactive graphics. The archival storage and restart file is a modular, entity-based mesh data file. Modules of this file correspond to separate editing modes in the mesh editor, with data definition syntax preserved between the interactive commands and the archival storage file. Because ESCHER was expected to be highly interactive, extensive user documentation was provided in the form of an interactive HELP package.

  14. Prior Publication and Redundancy in Contemporary Science: Are Authors and Editors at the Crossroads?

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Sonia Maria Ramos; Roig, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    We discuss prior publication and redundancy in contemporary science in the context of changing perceptions of originality in the communication of research results. These perceptions have been changing in the publication realm, particularly in the last 15 years. Presenting a brief overview of the literature, we address some of the conflicts that are likely to arise between authors and editors. We illustrate our approach with conference presentations that are later published as journal articles and focus on a recent retraction of an article that had been previously published as a conference proceedings. Although we do not make definitive pronouncements on the matter-as many concepts are evolving-we do argue that conference papers that contain sufficient details for others to attempt a replication and are indexed in scientific databases such as PubMed, challenge some currently held assumptions of prior publication and originality in the sciences. Our view is that these important issues are in need of further clarification and harmonization within the science publishing community. This need is more evident when we consider current notions of research integrity when it comes to communication to peers. Revisiting long-standing views about what constitutes prior publication and developing a clearer set of guidelines for authors and editors to follow should reduce conflicts in the research environment, which already exerts considerable pressure, especially on newcomers in academia. However, while clearer guidelines are timely, developing them is only part of the challenge. The present times seem to call for deeper changes in the research and publication systems.

  15. Modification of LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte for LiAl/FeS{sub 2} batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Henriksen, G.L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1996-06-01

    The bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery is being developed to achieve the high performance and long cycle life needed for electric vehicle application. The molten-salt (400 to 440 C operation) electrolyte composition for this battery has evolved to support these objectives. An earlier change to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is responsible for significantly increased cycle life (up to 1,000 cycles). Recent electrolyte modification has significantly improved cell performance; approximately 50% increased power, with increased high rate capacity utilization. Results are based on power-demanding EV driving profile test at 600 W/kg. The effects of adding small amounts (1--5 mol%) of LiF and LiI to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte are discussed. By cyclic voltammetry, the modified electrolytes exhibit improved FeS{sub 2} electrochemistry. Electrolyte conductivity is little changed, but high current density (200 mA/cm{sup 2}) performance improved by approximately 50%. A specific feature of the LiI addition is an enhanced cell overcharge tolerance rate from 2.5 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2}. The rate of overcharge tolerance is related to electrolyte properties and negative electrode lithium activity. As a result, the charge balancing of a bipolar battery configuration with molten-salt electrolyte is improved to accept greater cell-to-cell deviations.

  16. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  17. On-Line Student Publications: Do Student Editors at Public Universities Shed Their First Amendment Rights in Cyberspace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senat, Joey

    The First Amendment rights of students at public universities and colleges are well established by federal and state courts. Where a publication has been created as a forum for student expression, college authorities may not exercise anything but advisory control over editorial decisions of student editors. On-line student newspapers and literary…

  18. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,747 were sent for peer review. This subset of 2747 papers was then analysed in detail.   Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and five days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). Moreover, editors acting as reviewers had no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife's peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach.

  19. A TV Reporter, an Adviser's Internship, a TV Anchor/Reporter, an Assignment Editor, a TV Photojournalist's Bag of Tricks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrow, Kris; Youngblood, Steve; Madden, Tracy; Hamburger, Jeff; Johnson, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Intends to help high school journalism students understand the field they are preparing for by presenting brief descriptions of a day in the work life of a television news reporter, a TV anchor/reporter, and a television news assignment editor. Describes the five-week internship at a local television news station of a journalism instructor. (SR)

  20. 77 FR 74175 - Solicitation of Review Editors for the Draft Report of the National Climate Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Report of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC). AGENCY: Office of... editors of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) National Climate... Research Program at email@usgcrp.gov . More information on the National Climate Assessment can be found...

  1. The effects of an editor serving as one of the reviewers during the peer-review process

    PubMed Central

    Giordan, Marco; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Collings, Andrew M.; Vaggi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Publishing in scientific journals is one of the most important ways in which scientists disseminate research to their peers and to the wider public. Pre-publication peer review underpins this process, but peer review is subject to various criticisms and is under pressure from growth in the number of scientific publications. Methods Here we examine an element of the editorial process at eLife, in which the Reviewing Editor usually serves as one of the referees, to see what effect this has on decision times, decision type, and the number of citations. We analysed a dataset of 8,905 research submissions to eLife since June 2012, of which 2,747 were sent for peer review. This subset of 2747 papers was then analysed in detail.   Results The Reviewing Editor serving as one of the peer reviewers results in faster decision times on average, with the time to final decision ten days faster for accepted submissions (n=1,405) and five days faster for papers that were rejected after peer review (n=1,099). Moreover, editors acting as reviewers had no effect on whether submissions were accepted or rejected, and a very small (but significant) effect on citation rates. Conclusions An important aspect of eLife’s peer-review process is shown to be effective, given that decision times are faster when the Reviewing Editor serves as a reviewer. Other journals hoping to improve decision times could consider adopting a similar approach. PMID:27508056

  2. The ACPA Journal and Its Editors, 1959-1984: History, Perspectives, Issues, and Visions regarding our Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoster, David A., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the history of the "Journal of College Student Personnel" from the perspectives of its current and past editors. Presents a framework for understanding student affairs work in which models and knowledge from selected disciplines can be synthesized. Includes responses from additional authors. (JAC)

  3. Serials Management in the Electronic Era: Papers in Honor of Peter Gellatly, Founding Editor of "The Serials Librarian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jim, Ed.; Williams, James W., Ed.

    This book assesses progress and technical changes in the field of serials management and anticipates future directions and challenges for librarians. The book consists of 18 chapters: (1) "Introduction" (Jim Cole and James W. Williams); (2) "Peter Gellatly--Editor with a Deft Touch" (Ruth C. Carter); (3) "The "Deseret…

  4. Li ion diffusion in LiAlO2 investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiwei; Lei, Li; Jiang, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Tang, Mingjun; He, Duanwei

    2014-11-01

    The temperature dependence of Li ions behavior of γ-LiAlO2 has been studied from 78 to 873 K. On heating, the Li ions underwent positional disordering along the structural channels, with the Li ions related modes at 220, 366 and 400 cm-1 broadening and weakening dramatically. An anomalous maximum in the bandwidths of the Li ions related modes is observed. It should be apparent that there are at least two distinct thermally activated processes. A model suggested by Andrade and Porto is used to describe the linewidth of a phonon.

  5. Response to Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kim, Gunwoo; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-06

    We described a lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery comprising a graphene electrode, a dimethoxyethane-based electrolyte, and H2O and lithium iodide (LiI) additives, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) being the predominant discharge product. We demonstrate, in contrast to the work of Shen et al., that the chemical reactivity between LiOH and the triiodide ion (I3 (-)) to form IO3 (-) indicates that LiOH can be removed on charging; the electrodes do not clog, even after multiple cycles, confirming that solid products are reversibly removed.

  6. Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  7. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium Li-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency, CE. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the “dry” electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies.

  8. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium Li-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency, CE. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the “dry” electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies. PMID:27703188

  9. The Impact of Li Grain Size on Coulombic Efficiency in Li Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, B. Layla; Stevens, Andrew; Qian, Jiangfeng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-10-05

    One of the most promising means to increase the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium (Li)-ion batteries is to replace the graphite anode with a Li metal anode1, 2, 3. While the direct use of Li metal may be highly advantageous4,5, at present its practical application is limited by issues related to dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency (CE)6. Here operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is used to directly image the deposition/stripping of Li at the anode-electrolyte interface in a Li-based battery. A non-aqueous electrolyte containing small amounts of H2O as an additive results in remarkably different deposition/stripping properties as compared to the "dry" electrolyte when operated under identical electrochemical conditions. The electrolyte with the additive deposits more Li during the first cycle, with the grain sizes of the Li deposits being significantly larger and more variable. The stripping of the Li upon discharge is also more complete, i.e., there is a higher cycling CE. This suggests that larger grain sizes are indicative of better performance by leading to more uniform Li deposition and an overall decrease in the formation of Li dendrites and side reactions with electrolyte components, thus potentially paving the way for the direct use of Li metal in battery technologies.

  10. Response to Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kim, Gunwoo; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Bayley, Paul M; Liu, Zigeng; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-06

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries cycle reversibly with lithium iodide (LiI) additives in dimethoxyethane (DME) to form lithium hydroxide (LiOH). Viswanathan et al. argue that because the standard redox potential of the four-electron (e(-)) reaction, 4OH(-) ↔ 2H2O + O2 + 4e(-), is at 3.34 V versus Li(+)/Li, LiOH cannot be removed by the triiodide ion (I3(-)). However, under nonaqueous conditions, this reaction will occur at a different potential. LiOH also reacts chemically with I3(-) to form IO3(-), further studies being required to determine the relative rates of the two reactions on electrochemical charge.

  11. Mixed salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB for stable LiFePO4-based batteries at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xilin; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Yaohui; Ding, Fei; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To achieve stable long-term cycling stability at elevated temperatures, mixed salts of LiTFSI and LiBOB are used to replace LiPF6 salt in non-aqueous electrolytes for LiFePO4-based batteries. It is found that adding LiBOB in LiTFSI-based electrolytes effectively prevents the severe corrosion to Al current collectors that often is observed in LiTFSI-based electrolytes, which have high thermal stability. The cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB-based electrolytes demonstrate superior high temperature (60 °C) stability and very similar room temperature performance (i.e., cycling stability and rate capability) when compared to cells using the LiPF6-based electrolyte.

  12. Investigation of the role of 10Li resonances in the halo structure of 11Li through the 11Li(p,d)10Li transfer reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Sanetullaev, A.; Kanungo, R.; Tanaka, J.; ...

    2016-03-02

    Here, the first measurement of the one-neutron transfer reaction 11Li(p,d)10Li performed using the IRIS facility at TRIUMF with a 5.7A MeV11Li beam interacting with a solid H2 target is reported. The 10Li residue was populated strongly as a resonance peak with energy Er = 0.62 ± 0.04 MeV having a total width Γ = 0.33 ± 0.07 MeV. The angular distribution of this resonance is characterized by neutron occupying the 1p1/2 orbital. A DWBA analysis yields a spectroscopic factor of 0.67 ± 0.12 for p1/2 removal strength from the ground state of 11Li to the region of the peak.

  13. New Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics New Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The Institute of Physics is delighted to announce that the new Editor-in-Chief for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics will be Professor Giorgio Margaritondo of École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Giorgio will, with the help of his world-class Editorial Board, maintain standards of scientific rigour whilst ensuring that research published is of the highest quality. 'I would like to praise, in particular, the leadership of my immediate predecessor and good friend, Pallab Battacharya, the pilot of the years of major qualitative growth.' said Professor Margaritondo. 'Being Pallab's successor makes my new responsibility even more challenging!' Professor Margaritondo received the Laurea Summa cum Laude from the University of Rome in 1969. He has been a full professor of Applied Physics at the EPFL since 1990. In 2001, he became Dean of the EPFL Faculty of Basic Sciences. In 2004, he was nominated Provost and he served until 2010, when he became Dean of Continuing Education. He previously worked at the Italian National Research Council, at Bell Laboratories and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research activity concerns the physics of semiconductors and superconductors (electronic states, surfaces and interfaces) and of biological systems; his main experimental techniques are electron spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy, x-ray imaging and scanning near-field microscopy, including experiments with synchrotron light and with free electron lasers. Author of more than 650 scientific publications and 9 books, he was also coordinator in 1995-98 of the scientific division of the Elettra synchrotron in Trieste. In 1997-2003 he was coordinator of the European Commission Round Table on synchrotron radiation. He is the president of the Council of the European Commission Integrated Initiative on Synchrotron and Free Electron Laser Science (IA-SFS and then ELISA), the largest network in the world in this domain. He is Fellow of the American Physical

  14. Retraction Statement: "Overexpression of miR-708 and its targets in the childhood common precursor B-cell ALL" by Xue Li, MMed, Dong Li, PhD, Yong Zhuang, MMed, Qing Shi, BSc, Wei Wei, MMed, and Xiuli Ju, MD, PhD.

    PubMed

    2017-05-01

    The above article, published online 23 August 2013 in Pediatric Blood and Cancer, Volume 60, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 2060-2067, has been retracted by agreement among the authors, the journal's Editor-in-Chief, Peter E. Newburger, M.D., and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The decision to retract was agreed upon following notification that the paper substantially duplicates a prior study already published in Chinese https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23611221. The authors were not aware that publication in another language would constitute a duplicate publication and, upon being informed of this fact, have agreed to withdraw the paper from Pediatric Blood and Cancer. Reference Li X, Li D, Zhuang Y, Shi Q, Wei W and Ju X. Overexpression of miR-708 and its targets in the childhood common precursor B-cell ALL. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60: 2060-2067. doi:10.1002/pbc.24583.

  15. Utility of Li and Li Isotopes as Tracers of Continental Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, R. H.; Wimpenny, J. B.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Kisakurek, B.; Hathorne, E. C.; Anand, P.; Burton, K. W.

    2008-12-01

    Lithium is potentially an attractive tracer of continental weathering because its two isotopes have a large relative mass difference, it is unaffected by biological activity and it is only slightly incompatible during magmatic processes so tends to be relatively uniformly distributed in the Earth's crust. Moreover, Li is conservative in the oceans, with a residence time of ca. 1 million years, and it is isotopically uniform on a global scale (δ7Li ~+31‰). Seminal work by Lui Chan and her co-workers has shown that the Li and Li isotope balance of the oceans is maintained by inputs of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids at oceanic ridges (with δ7Li ~+6.7‰) and dissolved Li from rivers (average δ7Li = +23‰), and low-temperature removal of Li into oceanic basalts and marine sediments. Despite this potential, relatively little is known about the behaviour of Li during continental weathering. In this study, we will present an overview of the work that we have conducted on Li and Li isotopes in rivers, soils and estuaries from catchments in Greenland, Iceland and the Himalaya, as well as laboratory studies of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Each of these case studies illustrates the effects of weathering processes on the riverine isotope signal, and the estuarine data illustrate how this signal is transferred to the oceans. Our data suggest that variations in rock type have little effect on riverine δ7Li; the principal control is preferential removal of 6Li into secondary minerals formed during weathering, leaving the residual waters enriched in 7Li. In subglacial environments, where weathering rates are very low, uptake of Li by ferric oxyhydroxides formed during sulphide oxidation is important. Our results clearly demonstrate that weathering processes can exert a significant effect on the Li isotope composition of natural waters. In order to understand whether changes in such processes with time are preserved, we have also generated records of the past

  16. Chen Li: China's elder psychologist.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G H

    1998-01-01

    Chen Li is one of a small group of psychologists in China who trained abroad early in their careers, returned to teach and do research, and continued doing so into later life beyond normal retirement age. His contacts with a number of prominent psychologists in England and Germany in the 1930s, and his inadvertent position at the center of a political row in China in the 1960s, leading to the shutting down of psychology for 10 years, made him historically important. Known for his work in organizational psychology and education, he is a distinguished psychologist and educational leader. Although trained as an experimentalist, he now embraces a broader view of psychology but remains emphatic it should be applied to real-life problems.

  17. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  18. Effect of a pyrrolidinium zwitterion on charge/discharge cycle properties of Li/LiCoO2 and graphite/Li cells containing an ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Seitaro; Yoshizawa-Fujita, Masahiro; Takeoka, Yuko; Rikukawa, Masahiro

    2016-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) containing zwitterions have been studied as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The effects of addition of a pyrrolidinium zwitterion in an IL electrolyte on the thermal and electrochemical stability and charge/discharge properties of Li/LiCoO2 and graphite/Li cells were investigated. The thermal decomposition temperature of the IL electrolyte composed of N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([P13][FSA])/lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) with 3-(1-butylpyrrolidinium)propane-1-sulfonate (Bpyps) as the zwitterionic additive, the thermal decomposition temperature was about 300 °C. The electrochemical window of [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA/Bpyps was 0-+5.4 V vs. Li/Li+, which was almost identical to that of [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA. Li|electrolyte|LiCoO2 cells containing the IL/Bpyps electrolyte system exhibited high capacities in the cut-off voltage range of 3.0-4.6 V, even after 50 cycles. The increase in the interfacial resistance between the electrolyte and cathode with cycling was suppressed. In the cyclic voltammograms of cells employing a graphite electrode, the intercalation/deintercalation of lithium ions were observed in the range of 0 and + 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Further, graphite|electrolyte|Li cells containing [P13][FSA]/LiTFSA/Bpyps exhibited stable charge/discharge cycle behaviour over 50 cycles.

  19. First-principles study of Li ion diffusion in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Chuying; Shi, Siqi; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Xuejie; Chen, Liquan

    2004-03-01

    The diffusion mechanism of Li ions in the olivine LiFePO4 is investigated from first-principles calculations. The energy barriers for possible spatial hopping pathways are calculated with the adiabatic trajectory method. The calculations show that the energy barriers running along the c axis are about 0.6, 1.2, and 1.5 eV for LiFePO4, FePO4, and Li0.5FePO4, respectively. However, the other migration pathways have much higher energy barriers resulting in very low probability of Li-ion migration. This means that the diffusion in LiFePO4 is one dimensional. The one-dimensional diffusion behavior has also been shown with full ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, through which the diffusion behavior is directly observed.

  20. Li ion diffusion mechanisms in LiFePO4: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Tse, John S

    2011-11-17

    The mechanisms for thermal (self) diffusion of Li ions in fully lithiated LiFePO(4) have been investigated with spin polarized ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. The effect of electron correlation is taken into account with the GGA+U formalism. It was found that Li ion diffusion is not a continuous process but through a series of jumps from one site to another. A dominant process is the hopping between neighboring Li sites around the PO(4) groups, which results in a zigzag pathway along the crystallographic b-axis. This observation is in agreement with a recent neutron diffraction experiment. A second process involves the collaborative movements of the Fe ions leading to the formation of antisite defects and promotes Li diffusion across the Li ion channels. The finding of the second mechanism demonstrates the benefit of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation in sampling diffusion pathways that may not be anticipated.

  1. First-principle studies on the Li-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Liu, Yunxian; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian

    2017-01-01

    First-principle evolutionary calculation was performed to search for all probable stable lithium tellurium compounds. In addition to the well-known structures of Fm-3m Li2Te and Pnma Li2Te, several novel structures, including those of P4/nmm Li2Te, Imma Li8Te2, and C2/m Li9Te2, were determined under high pressure. The transformation sequence of Li2Te induced by pressure was presented as follows. The phase transition occurred at 7.5 GPa while transforming from Fm-3m phase to Pnma structure, then transformed to P4/nmm phase at 14 GPa. P4/nmm Li2Te can remain stable at least up to 140 GPa. Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were stable at 8-120 GPa and 80-120 GPa, respectively. Interestingly, Li8Te2 and Li9Te2 were predicted to be metallic under high pressure, Li2Te would metalize on compression. P4/nmm Li2Te is likely a super ionic conductor due to the special characteristic. Metallic P4/nmm Li2Te may be a candidate mixed conductor material under extreme pressure. Charge transfer was studied using Bader charge analysis. Charge transferred from Li to Te, and the relative debilitated ionicity between Li and Te atoms existed at high pressure.

  2. Macedonian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering: open journal systems--editor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Zdravkovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration--requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software.

  3. [Medical Officer Ellerman, lecturer in pharmacology and editor of the Nederlandsch Lancet].

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Patrick P A M; Bolk, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    George Lievin Henri Ellerman (1817-1849) followed his medical-military training at the Military Medical Training College (RKMG) in Utrecht, the Netherlands, from 1835 to 1839, and gained his PhD from Leiden University in 1841. From 1843 to 1849 he was a lecturer in pharmacology at the RKMG. He was one of the first editors of the Nederlandsch Lancet. Together with his fellow board members Donders and Jansen he set this journal on a new course. Due to the new mix of scientific and practice-oriented articles the journal developed into the most important medical scientific journal in the Netherlands; it was however not among the journals that merged to become the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde [Dutch Journal of Medicine]. In 1846 Ellerman published a Dutch translation of Friedrich Oesterlen's textbook of pharmacology 'Handbuch der Heilmittellehre'. This book was considered to be a complete and lucid survey of pharmacology and a major step towards a more scientific pharmacology. After his death at the age of 32, he was remembered as a good scientist and dedicated, hardworking lecturer.

  4. Getting published well requires fulfilling editors' and reviewers' needs and desires.

    PubMed

    Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2013-12-01

    Publication in international scientific journals provides an unparalleled opportunity for authors to showcase their work. Where authors publish affects how the community values the work. This value directly determines the impact of the work on the field-papers must be read and cited to advance the field, and because the scientific literature is vast, only a subset of the literature is widely read and cited. Moreover, the value placed on the work also affects the authors' scientific reputation and career advancement. Consequently, it is essential that manuscripts receive the recognition they deserve by being published in one of the "best" journals that the scientific findings allow. Several factors determine where a paper is published: how well the topic of the paper fits the scope of the journal, the quality of the study and the manuscript describing it, the advance the paper makes in its field, the importance of the advance, and the extent to which the paper impacts the broader community of science. As scientists, we assume that our papers will be assessed objectively using only well defined scientific standards, but editors and reviewers also view papers subjectively, having biases of what defines a high-quality publication based on Western standards. Therefore, scientists trained in other parts of the world can be significantly disadvantaged in getting their papers published in the best journals. Here, I present concrete suggestions for improving the perception of a paper in the reader's minds, increasing the likelihood that it will get published well.

  5. Seven decades of history of science: I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), second editor of Isis.

    PubMed

    Dauben, Joseph W; Gleason, Mary Louise; Smith, George E

    2009-03-01

    I. Bernard Cohen (1914-2003), the first American to receive a Ph.D. in history of science, was a Harvard undergraduate ('37) and then a Ph.D. student and protégé of George Sarton, founder of Isis and the History of Science Society. He went on to succeed Sarton as editor of Isis (1952-1958) and, later, president of the Society (1961-1962); he was also a president of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Cohen was an internationally recognized Newton scholar; his interests were encyclopedic, ranging from science and public policy to the history of computers, with several decades as a special consultant for history of computing with IBM. Among his hundreds of publications were such major books as Franklin and Newton (1956), The Birth of a New Physics (1959; rpt., 1985), The Newtonian Revolution (1980), Revolution in Science (1985), Science and the Founding Fathers (1995), Howard Aiken: Portrait of a Computer Pioneer (1999), and his last book, The Triumph of Numbers (2005), not to mention two jointly authored contributions, the variorum edition and new English translation of Newton's Principia, which will surely still be read a century from now.

  6. Line shift, line asymmetry, and the ^6Li/^7Li isotopic ratio determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, R.; Steffen, M.; Chand, H.; Bonifacio, P.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Petitjean, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Line asymmetries are generated by convective Doppler shifts in stellar atmospheres, especially in metal-poor stars, where convective motions penetrate to higher atmospheric levels. Such asymmetries are usually neglected in abundance analyses. The determination of the ^6Li/^7Li isotopic ratio is prone to suffering from such asymmetries, as the contribution of ^6Li is a slight blending reinforcement of the red wing of each component of the corresponding ^7Li line, with respect to its blue wing. Aims: The present paper studies the halo star HD 74000 and estimates the impact of convection-related asymmetries on the Li isotopic ratio determination. Methods: Two methods are used to meet this aim. The first, which is purely empirical, consists in deriving a template profile from another element that can be assumed to originate in the same stellar atmospheric layers as Li I, producing absorption lines of approximately the same equivalent width as individual components of the ^7Li I resonance line. The second method consists in conducting the abundance analysis based on NLTE line formation in a 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere, taking into account the effects of photospheric convection. Results: The results of the first method show that the convective asymmetry generates an excess absorption in the red wing of the ^7Li absorption feature that mimics the presence of ^6Li at a level comparable to the hitherto published values. This opens the possibility that only an upper limit on ^6Li/^7Li has thus far been derived. The second method confirms these findings. Conclusions: From this work, it appears that a systematic reappraisal of former determinations of ^6Li abundances in halo stars is warranted. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), under prog. ID 75.D-0600. Tables 1-3, and additional references are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Layered Li-Mn-M-oxides as cathodes for Li-ion batteries:. Recent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaju, K. M.; Subba Rao, G. V.; Chowdari, B. V. R.

    2002-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for manganese (Mn) based mixed oxides which can effectively replace the presently used LiCoO2 as cathode in Li-ion batteries (LIB). The well-studied spinel, LiMn2O4 and its doped derivatives give a capacity of 100-120 mAh/g, but show capacity-fading on cycling especially above 55°C. The layered LiMnO2, isostructural to LiCoO2 (so called O3-structure) can be a viable cathode. However, studies have shown that it undergoes conversion to spinel structure on cycling and thus gives capacity-fading. Other alternative systems recently studied are: O2-structured layered Li-M-Mn-oxides with the general formula Li(2/3)+x(MyMn1-y)O2, M = Li, Ni, Co; x ≤ 0.33 and y = 0.1-0.67, O3-Li(Ni1/2Mn1/2)O2, Li(NixCo1-2xMnx)O2, and M'-substituted Li2MnO3 (M' = Ni, Co, Cr). Some of them are shown to have stable cycling performance, good rate-capability and structural stability over charge-discharge cycling in the 2.5-4.6 V region. Further, the electrochemical processes in the above mixed oxides have been shown to involve Ni2+/4+ or Cr3+/6+ redox couple, thus invoking novel ideas to develop new cathode materials. A brief review of the work done on the above O2- and O3-layered Li-Mn-M-oxides (M = metal) as cathodes for LIB is presented.

  8. Antiperovskite Li 3 OCl superionic conductor films for solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lü, Xujie; Howard, John W.; Chen, Aiping; ...

    2016-02-02

    We prepared antiperovskite Li3OCl superionic conductor films via pulsed laser deposition using a composite target. A significantly enhanced ionic conductivity of 2.0 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature is achieved, and this value is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of its bulk counterpart. Moreover, the applicability of Li3OCl as a solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated.

  9. [Letters to the editor published in Peruvian biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Chalco-Huamán, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    This bibliometric study describes the characteristics of letters to the editor published between 2006-2013 in biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru.253 letters (10.3% of total publications) were collected. Most letters (139) were in the Peruvian Journal of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, with marked increase throughout those years. 25% of letters submitted included medical student participation. 14% of authors presented with international affiliations and 27% with endogenous affiliation - common in university journals (Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Revista Médica Herediana).The usual criteria justifying the publication of letters were: opinion of medical fact or public domain (35.6%) and discussion of results, methodological flaws or interpretation (22.9%). In biomedical journals indexed in SciELO Peru the letters to the editor comprise a percentage of publications that has increased in recent years, with low publication of letters of findings or primary data, compared with opinion or criticism.

  10. [Luis Hidalgo y Carpio, Editor of Gaceta Médica de México (1818-1879)].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Martha Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Luis Hidalgo y Carpio (1818-1879) was a notable physician who made important contributions to the field of medicine during his time. Nevertheless, reference sources on the aspect from Hidalgo y Carpio that we would like to emphasize (i.e. as an editor of a medical journal) are scarce since precisely when Hidalgo y Carpio was named President of the Medical Society (later the Academia Nacional de Medicina), in 1987, the publication of the Gaceta Médica de México was temporarily interrupted. Hidalgo y Carpio played a key role as an editor at a time when the medical community of Mexico required a means whereby the scientific achievements could be published and discussed among peers and colleagues. Under Hidalgo y Carpio, the Gaceta Médica de México soon reached a wide audience, not only as a periodical publication but also for the prestige of the Academy that represented.

  11. Uniform second Li ion intercalation in solid state ɛ-LiVOPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangoh, Linda W.; Sallis, Shawn; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Wen, Bohua; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Guo, Jinghua; Ma, Lu; Wu, Tianpin; Lee, Tien-Lin; Schlueter, Christoph; Ong, Shyue Ping; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Piper, Louis F. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full, reversible intercalation of two Li+ has not yet been achieved in promising VOPO4 electrodes. A pronounced Li+ gradient has been reported in the low voltage window (i.e., second lithium reaction) that is thought to originate from disrupted kinetics in the high voltage regime (i.e., first lithium reaction). Here, we employ a combination of hard and soft x-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy techniques to depth profile solid state synthesized LiVOPO4 cycled within the low voltage window only. Analysis of the vanadium environment revealed no evidence of a Li+ gradient, which combined with almost full theoretical capacity confirms that disrupted kinetics in the high voltage window are responsible for hindering full two lithium insertion. Furthermore, we argue that the uniform Li+ intercalation is a prerequisite for the formation of intermediate phases Li1.50VOPO4 and Li1.75VOPO4. The evolution from LiVOPO4 to Li2VOPO4 via the intermediate phases is confirmed by direct comparison between O K-edge absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  12. Strain imaging of a LiCoO2 cathode in a Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Osaka, Ryuma; Butsugan, Kenta; Takata, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Li-ion batteries have been recognized as promising devices for a sustainable society. Layered LiCoO2 and graphite are commonly used as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. When charging and discharging, Li-ions are extracted or inserted into the interlayers, which causes changes in volume. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) can allow high resolution imaging of these volume changes, which enables us to investigate Li-ion migration without destruction. We observed volume changes in the LiCoO2 cathode using SPM and successfully imaged the distribution of the volume changes corresponding to the LiCoO2 particles. Volume changes in the interspace were significantly larger than those in the particles. The large volume changes are caused by electrolyte flux induced by changes in concentration of Li ions. The volume changes were greatly reduced when the electrolyte dried out. The dry-out and infiltration of electrolyte between the LiCoO2 particles and the current collector spread out with the procedure of degradation of the batteries. The boundaries between the dry-out and infiltration regions acted as barriers of electrolyte flux.

  13. [100]-Oriented LiFePO4 Nanoflakes toward High Rate Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaojin; Peng, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-13

    [100] is believed to be a tough diffusion direction for Li(+) in LiFePO4, leading to the belief that the rate performance of [100]-oriented LiFePO4 is poor. Here we report the fabrication of 12 nm-thick [100]-oriented LiFePO4 nanoflakes by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The nanoflakes exhibit unexpectedly excellent electrochemical performance, in stark contrast to what was previously believed. Such an exceptional result is attributed to a decreased thermodynamic transformation barrier height (Δμb) associated with increased active population.

  14. Ferromagnetism in chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; Ye, Ning; Xu, Liuwei; Sang, Yuanhua; Chen, Yanxue; Song, Wei; Long, Xifa; Wang, Jiyang; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The ferromagnetism of bulk LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 at room temperature was investigated for the first time in the present work. The stoichiometric LiNbO3 is non-magnetic, while congruent LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 show very weak ferromagnetism. After chemical reduction in a mixture of zinc and lithium carbonate powders under flowing nitrogen, the ferromagnetic behavior of each sample became clear, with an increased value of magnetization. The saturation magnetization, the magnetic remanence and the coercive field of reduced congruent LiNbO3 are 7.0  ×  10-3 emu g-1, 0.65  ×  10-3 emu g-1 and 0.050 kOe, respectively. The ferromagnetism of chemically reduced LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 can be explained by considering the intrinsic Li vacancies, the appearance of Nb4+ (or Ta4+) on the surface with non-zero net spin and the oxygen vacancies at the surface.

  15. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  16. Nanotechnology in Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaibo, Hitomi

    2010-06-04

    This is the second of three talks on nanostructures for li-ion batteries. The talks provide an up-to-date review of the issues and challenges facing Li-ion battery research with special focus on how nanostructures/ nanotechnology are being applied to this field. Novel materials reported as prospective candidates for anode, cathode and electrolyte will be summarized. The expected role of nanostructures in improving the performance of Li-ion batteries and the actual pros and cons of using such structures in this device will be addressed. Electrochemical experiments used to study Li-ion batteries will also be discussed. This includes the introduction to the standard experimental set-up and how experimental data (from charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, etc) are interpreted.

  17. Li + grafting of ion irradiated polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Rybka, V.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Öchsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    1999-02-01

    Foils of oriented polyethylene (PE) were irradiated with 63 keV Ar + and 155 keV Xe + ions to different fluences at room temperature and then doped from water solution of LiCl. The as irradiated and irradiated plus doped samples were examined by IR, EPR and neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique. The sheet resistance was also measured by the standard two points method. After Li salt doping of ion modified layer of PE, a reaction between degraded macromolecules and Li occur and thus a new chemical structure C-Li + is formed. Owing to the presence of these cations on the polymer chain, the irradiated plus doped layer exhibits higher electric conductivity compared to as-irradiated ones.

  18. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  19. Laboratory submillimeter transition frequencies of Li-7H and Li-6H. [used for abundance investigations in red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, G. M.; Herbst, E.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental (J = 1 - 0) rotational transition frequencies of Li-7H and Li-6H in their ground (v = 0) vibrational states and of Li-7H in its first excited (v = 1) vibrational state have been measured in the laboratory. Use of these transition frequencies should permit astronomical investigations of LiH abundances in red giant stars of high lithium abundance.

  20. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-07

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries.

  1. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornreich, Philip

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and clear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiN bo, Cylinder Fiber. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a "D". The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the "D" shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO3 layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber made.

  2. LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully fabricate optical fiber with a thin layer of LiNbO3 at the boundary of the glass core and dear glass cladding. The construction of this fiber is based on our successful Semiconductor Cylinder Fibers (SCF). A schematic representation of a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber is shown. These fibers can be used as light modulators, sonar detectors and in other applications. The core diameter of the fiber is sufficiently small compared to the light wavelength and the indices of refraction of the core and cladding glasses are sufficiently close in value so that there is sufficient light at the core cladding boundary to interact with the LiNbO3 layer. This fiber functions best when just a single light mode propagates through the fiber. The idea for a LiNbO3 Cylinder Fiber came from Dr. Tracee Jamison of NASA. The optical properties of LiNbO3 can be changed with strain or the application of an electric field. Thus these fibers can be used as acoustic sensors as for example in a sonar. They can also be used as electric field operated light modulators. However, for this application the fibers would be made with a cross section in the form of a 'D'. The core with its surrounding LiNbO, layer would be close to the flat portion of the 'D' shaped fiber. Two metal contacts would be deposited on the flat portion of the fiber on either side of the core. A voltage applied across these contacts will result in an electric field in the core region that can be used for modulating the optical properties of the LiNbO, layer. To our knowledge this is the first ever LiNbO, Cylinder Fiber made.

  3. Lost in Translation (LiT)

    PubMed Central

    Dollery, Colin T

    2014-01-01

    Translational medicine is a roller coaster with occasional brilliant successes and a large majority of failures. Lost in Translation 1 (‘LiT1’), beginning in the 1950s, was a golden era built upon earlier advances in experimental physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, with a dash of serendipity, that led to the discovery of many new drugs for serious illnesses. LiT2 saw the large-scale industrialization of drug discovery using high-throughput screens and assays based on affinity for the target molecule. The links between drug development and university sciences and medicine weakened, but there were still some brilliant successes. In LiT3, the coverage of translational medicine expanded from molecular biology to drug budgets, with much greater emphasis on safety and official regulation. Compared with R&D expenditure, the number of breakthrough discoveries in LiT3 was disappointing, but monoclonal antibodies for immunity and inflammation brought in a new golden era and kinase inhibitors such as imatinib were breakthroughs in cancer. The pharmaceutical industry is trying to revive the LiT1 approach by using phenotypic assays and closer links with academia. LiT4 faces a data explosion generated by the genome project, GWAS, ENCODE and the ‘omics’ that is in danger of leaving LiT4 in a computerized cloud. Industrial laboratories are filled with masses of automated machinery while the scientists sit in a separate room viewing the results on their computers. Big Data will need Big Thinking in LiT4 but with so many unmet medical needs and so many new opportunities being revealed there are high hopes that the roller coaster will ride high again. PMID:24428732

  4. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  5. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  6. Studies on the thermoluminescence spectra and thermal stability of LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,Cu,Na and LiF:Mg,Cu,Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.; Townsend, P. D.

    2005-09-01

    Four thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at 60-90, 100-130, 130-180 and 180-220 °C (the main peak) were observed from LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,Cu,Na and LiF:Mg,Cu,Si. The recorded emission bands were at 375 and 414 nm in LiF:Mg,Cu, at 379 and 424 nm in LiF:Mg,Cu,Na and 378 and 425 nm in LiF:Mg,Cu,Si. The loss of TL intensity and temperature shift of the main peak were observed in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,Cu,Na, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si and LiF:Mg as well as in LiF:Mg,Cu,P, when the sample was heated to above 270 °C. It is suggested that those are the common behaviors in the Mg doped LiF samples, if the concentration of magnesium is properly high. Those behaviors are supposed to be associated with the precipitated phase of Mg and the secondary phase - Mg/(other impurities) complex.

  7. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  8. LiGa(OTf)(sub 4) as an Electrolyte Salt for Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, V. Prakash; Prakash, G. K. Syria; Hu, Jinbo; Yan, Ping; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, ratnakumar; Chin, Keith; Surampudi, Subarao

    2008-01-01

    Lithium tetrakis(trifluoromethane sulfo - nato)gallate [abbreviated "LiGa(OTf)4" (wherein "OTf" signifies trifluoro - methanesulfonate)] has been found to be promising as an electrolyte salt for incorporation into both liquid and polymer electrolytes in both rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. This and other ingredients have been investigated in continuing research oriented toward im proving the performances of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells, especially at low temperatures. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. As described in more detail in those articles, lithiumion cells most commonly contain nonaqueous electrolyte solutions consisting of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in mixtures of cyclic and linear alkyl carbonates, including ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Although such LiPF6-based electrolyte solutions are generally highly ionically conductive and electrochemically stable, as needed for good cell performance, there is interest in identifying alternate lithium electrolyte salts that, relative to LiPF6, are more resilient at high temperature and are less expensive. Experiments have been performed on LiGa(OTf)4 as well as on several other candidate lithium salts in pursuit of this interest. As part of these experiments, LiGa(OTf)4 was synthesized by the reaction of Ga(OTf)3 with an equimolar portion of LiOTf in a solvent consisting of anhydrous acetonitrile. Evaporation of the solvent yielded LiGa(OTf)4 as a colorless crystalline solid. The LiGa(OTf)4 and the other salts were incorporated into solutions with PC and DMC. The resulting electrolyte solutions exhibited reasonably high ionic conductivities over a relatively wide temperature range down to 40 C (see figure). In cyclic

  9. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  10. The crystalline phases present in carbon cathodes of discharged Li/SOCl2-LiAlCl4 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. M.; Surampudi, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-05-01

    The X-ray diffraction patterns of 100 percent discharged Schawinigan black cathodes from Li/SOCl2-LiAlCl4 cells were obtained using a high resolution Guinier camera. The previous assignments of the diffraction lines to Li2O2 and rhombohedral sulfur are all found to be incorrect; all sharp Bragg diffraction lines not assignable to anhydrous LiCl can be assigned to LiCl.H2O.

  11. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  12. MindEdit: A P300-based text editor for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Elsawy, Amr S; Eldawlatly, Seif; Taher, Mohamed; Aly, Gamal M

    2017-01-01

    Practical application of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) requires that the whole BCI system be portable. The mobility of BCI systems involves two aspects: making the electroencephalography (EEG) recording devices portable, and developing software applications with low computational complexity to be able to run on low computational-power devices such as tablets and smartphones. This paper addresses the development of MindEdit; a P300-based text editor for Android-based devices. Given the limited resources of mobile devices and their limited computational power, a novel ensemble classifier is utilized that uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) features to identify P300 evoked potentials from EEG recordings. PCA computations in the proposed method are channel-based as opposed to concatenating all channels as in traditional feature extraction methods; thus, this method has less computational complexity compared to traditional P300 detection methods. The performance of the method is demonstrated on data recorded from MindEdit on an Android tablet using the Emotiv wireless neuroheadset. Results demonstrate the capability of the introduced PCA ensemble classifier to classify P300 data with maximum average accuracy of 78.37±16.09% for cross-validation data and 77.5±19.69% for online test data using only 10 trials per symbol and a 33-character training dataset. Our analysis indicates that the introduced method outperforms traditional feature extraction methods. For a faster operation of MindEdit, a variable number of trials scheme is introduced that resulted in an online average accuracy of 64.17±19.6% and a maximum bitrate of 6.25bit/min. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using the developed BCI application with mobile devices.

  13. Representing the nature of science in a science textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiuseppe, Maurizio

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise

  14. Structural and electrochemical stability of Li-rich layer structured Li2MoO3 in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Gao, Yurui; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Li2MnO3 is an important component of the Li-rich Mn-based high-capacity cathode material for lithium ion batteries, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiM‧O2 composites. Replacing Li2MnO3 with iso-structured Li2MoO3 is expected to improve the rate performance and suppress the oxygen release of the composites at high potentials due to the higher electric conductivity of Li2MoO3 and its more facile charge compensation (by Mo4+/Mo6+ redox) upon Li removal than that of Li2MnO3. As part of our series work on the Li2MoO3-based Li-rich layer structured cathode materials, this article is to study the structural and performance stability of Li2MoO3 in air. The obtained information will shed light on the development and application of xLi2MoO3·(1 - x)LiM‧O2 composite cathode materials though Li2MoO3 will not be applied as an independent cathode material.

  15. Association and Diffusion of Li(+) in Carboxymethylcellulose Solutions for Environmentally Friendly Li-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Casalegno, Mosè; Castiglione, Franca; Passarello, Marco; Mele, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano; Raos, Guido

    2016-07-21

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been proposed as a polymeric binder for electrodes in environmentally friendly Li-ion batteries. Its physical properties and interaction with Li(+) ions in water are interesting not only from the point of view of electrode preparation-processability in water is one of the main reasons for its environmental friendliness-but also for its possible application in aqueous Li-ion batteries. We combine molecular dynamics simulations and variable-time pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR spectroscopy to investigate Li(+) transport in CMC-based solutions. Both the simulations and experimental results show that, at concentrations at which Li-CMC has a gel-like consistency, the Li(+) diffusion coefficient is still very close to that in water. These Li(+) ions interact preferentially with the carboxylate groups of CMC, giving rise to a rich variety of coordination patterns. However, the diffusion of Li(+) in these systems is essentially unrestricted, with a fast, nanosecond-scale exchange of the ions between CMC and the aqueous environment.

  16. forced overdischarge related safety aspects of Li/SO2 and Li/SOCl2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an experiment investigating overdischarge behavior of two types of Li/SO2 cells are presented. Forced overdischarges of the Li/LiBr, CH3CN/SO2 cell can result in unsafe behavior such as venting with fire and release of toxic gases. The hazards may be minimized or eliminated by careful cell design considerations and practice of high standards of quality contol in cell manufacture. Seemingly safe cells at 25 C when forced overdischarged at -25 C, even at low currents, exhibited incipient signs of hazards. Their cathodes indicated signs of shock sensitivity. Cathode limited Li/SOCl2 cells were safe during forced overdischarge for long periods of time. Lithium limited Li/SOCl2 cells in which practically all Li had been used up before cell reversal did not exhibit hazardous behavior. Anode limited Li/SOCl2 cells, but not Li limited, exhibited detonations, all during overdischarges at relatively low current densities of or = 1 mA/sq cm 2. Anode potentials 4v with large oscillations preceeded the events. The events were confined to the anode and the temperature rose high enough to melt Ni grids.

  17. Kinetic behavior of LiFeMgPO 4 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Wang, Chunsheng; Kasavajjula, Uday

    LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 material was prepared by mechanical milling method, followed by heat treatment. The equilibrium potential-composition isotherm of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 and charge-discharge kinetics of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 were measured using galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), potential-step chronoamperometry (PSCA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate performance of the cathode is controlled by the charge-transfer kinetics, electronic conductivity, Li-ion diffusion capability, and phase transformation rate. Since LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 has a fast charge-transfer reaction and high electronic and ionic diffusivity, the phase transformation between LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 and Li 0.1Fe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 begins to play a more important role in the charge-discharge process, as is evident by an inductive loop induced by the phase transformation in the low frequency region of EIS. The phase purity and morphology of LiFe 0.9Mg 0.1PO 4 were also observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Cosmic Li6 and Li7 problems and BBN with long-lived charged massive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    Charged massive particles (CHAMPs), when present during the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) era, may significantly alter the synthesis of light elements when compared to a standard BBN scenario. This is due to the formation of bound states with nuclei. This paper presents a detailed numerical and analytical analysis of such CHAMP BBN. All reactions important for predicting light-element yields are calculated within the Born approximation. Three previously neglected effects are treated in detail: (a) photodestruction of bound states due to electromagnetic cascades induced by the CHAMP decay, (b) late-time efficient destruction/production of H2, Li6, and Li7 due to reactions on charge Z=1 nuclei bound to CHAMPs, and (c) CHAMP exchange between nuclei. Each of these effects may induce orders-of-magnitude changes in the final abundance yields. The study focuses on the impact of CHAMPs on a possible simultaneous solution of the Li6 and Li7 problems. It is shown that a previously suggested simultaneous solution of the Li6 and Li7 problems for a relic decaying at τx≈1000sec⁡ is only weakly dependent on the relic being neutral or charged, unless its hadronic branching ratio is small, Bh≪10-4. By use of a Monte Carlo analysis it is shown that within CHAMP BBN the existence of further parameter space for a simultaneous solution of the Li6 and Li7 problem for long decay times τx≳106sec⁡ seems possible but fairly unlikely.

  19. Observation and Analysis of LiCa and LiMg Excimers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Approved for public release: distribution unlimited Accession Fn7 NTIS GRA&I ( ’ DTIC T.AB , . Justifi -’ : _ ByDistributill/ AvnilVliitv Codcs...10 1. Molecular State Characterization ......................10 2. Electronic Transitions in Li~g and LiCa...11 E Energy ................... ............................16 R Internuclear Separation (A) ...........................16 T Electronic

  20. Simulated electrolyte-metal interfaces -- Li3PO4 and Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Du, Yaojun A.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2007-03-01

    There has recently been a lot of interest in solid electrolyte materials such as LiPON developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in Li-ion batteries and other technologies. We report on the results of our model calculations on idealized interfaces between Li3PO4 and Li metal, studying the structural stability and the ion mobility, using first-principles density functional techniques with the PWscf and pwpaw codes. Starting with a supercell constructed from Li3PO4 in its crystalline γ-phase structure and several layers of Li metal, we used optimization and molecular dynamics techniques to find several meta-stable configurations. The qualitative features of the results are consistent with experimental evidence that the electrolyte is quite stable with respect to Li metal. In addition to stability analyses, we plan to study Li-ion diffusion across the interface. J. B. Bates, N. J. Dudney, and co-workers, Solid State Ionics, 53-56, 647-654 (1992). http://www.pwscf.org and http://pwpaw.wfu.edu. N. J. Dudney in Gholam-Abbas Nazri and Gianfranco Pistoia, Eds., Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology, Chapt. 20, pp. 623-642, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-4020-7628-2.

  1. Excitation functions of {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 7}Li reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Prepolec, L.; Soic, N.; Blagus, S.; Miljanic, D.; Siketic, Z.; Skukan, N.; Uroic, M.; Milin, M.

    2009-08-26

    Differential cross sections of {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 7}Li nuclear reactions have been measured at forward angles (10 deg. and 20 deg.), using particle identification detector telescopes, over the energy range 2.75-10.00 MeV. Excitation functions have been obtained for low-lying residual-nucleus states. The well pronounced peak in the excitation function of {sup 7}Li({sup 7}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 10}Be(3.37 MeV,2{sup +}) at beam energy about 8 MeV, first observed by Wyborny and Carlson in 1971 at 0 deg., has been observed at 10 deg., but is less evident at 20 deg. The cross section obtained for the {sup 7}Li({sup 7}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 10}Be(g.s,0{sup +}) reaction is about ten times smaller. The well pronounced peak in the excitation function of {sup 7}Li({sup 7}Li,{sup 4}He){sup 10}Be(3.37 MeV,2{sup +}) reaction could correspond to excited states in {sup 14}C, at excitation energies around 30 MeV.

  2. Interaction of water with LiCl, LiBr, and LiI in the deeply supercooled region.

    PubMed

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2007-12-07

    The hydration mechanism of lithium halides was studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The lithium halides embedded in thin films of amorphous solid water segregate to the surface at temperatures higher than 135-140 K, with efficiency increasing in the order of LiCl, LiBr, and LiI. A monolayer of LiCl and LiI adsorbed on the surface of amorphous solid water tends to diffuse into the bulk at 160 K. The infrared absorption band revealed that the aqueous lithium-halide solutions and crystals are formed simultaneously at 160 K; these phenomena are explicable as a consequence of the evolution of supercooled liquid water. The strong surfactant effect is inferred to arise from hydration of a contact ion pair having hydrophilic (lithium) and hydrophobic (halide) moieties. Furthermore, bulk diffusion of lithium halides might result from the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair in supercooled liquid water. The presence of two liquid phases of water with different local structures is probably responsible for the formation of these two hydrates, consistent with the calculated result reported by Jungwirth and Tobias[J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6361 (2002)].

  3. A design optimization methodology for Li+ batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmon, Stephanie; Maute, Kurt; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    Design optimization for functionally graded battery electrodes is shown to improve the usable energy capacity of Li batteries predicted by computational simulations and numerically optimizing the electrode porosities and particle radii. A multi-scale battery model which accounts for nonlinear transient transport processes, electrochemical reactions, and mechanical deformations is used to predict the usable energy storage capacity of the battery over a range of discharge rates. A multi-objective formulation of the design problem is introduced to maximize the usable capacity over a range of discharge rates while limiting the mechanical stresses. The optimization problem is solved via a gradient based optimization. A LiMn2O4 cathode is simulated with a PEO-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte and both a Li Foil (half cell) and LiC6 anode. Studies were performed on both half and full cell configurations resulting in distinctly different optimal electrode designs. The numerical results show that the highest rate discharge drives the simulations and the optimal designs are dominated by Li+ transport rates. The results also suggest that spatially varying electrode porosities and active particle sizes provides an efficient approach to improve the power-to-energy density of Li+ batteries. For the half cell configuration, the optimal design improves the discharge capacity by 29% while for the full cell the discharge capacity was improved 61% relative to an initial design with a uniform electrode structure. Most of the improvement in capacity was due to the spatially varying porosity, with up to 5% of the gains attributed to the particle radii design variables.

  4. Clustering of Fe atoms in liquid Li and its effect on the viscosity of liquid Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xianglai; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu

    2016-04-01

    The clustering processes of Fe atoms in liquid Li at different temperatures and the effect from the Fe clusters on the viscosity of liquid Li are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation combined with the embedded atom method. The clustering processes are vividly captured by the microstructure evolution snapshots and the details are uncovered by the cluster analysis results. The cluster analysis results indicate the higher the temperature the faster the clustering process, and the temperature-dependent mixing enthalpy of Li-Fe (solute) dilute solution also suggests that high temperature is beneficial to Fe atoms’ clustering. In addition, our results show that the Fe clusters can dramatically increase the viscosity of liquid Li by lowering the diffusivity of the Li atoms around it, and the larger the clusters the larger the viscosity increment.

  5. Characteristic of Absorption Heat Transfer using LiBr+LiI Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    LiBr-H20 absorption chiller is widely used in Japan, and many research have been made for absorption characteristic in terms of enhancing heat transfer. Another study have been performed for widening working range with higher crystallization limits, and it was reported that adding LiI salt to LiBr-H20 working fluid provide about 5 [mass%] higher crystallization limit under the condition of absorption pressure range. It is necessary to reveal absorption heat transfer performance to utilize this working fluid pair for absorption chiller. In this study absorption heat transfer characteristic was investigated for horizontal and vertical tube. As a result, it was found that heat transfer coefficient increased as mass flow rate of solution increased and mass concentration of solution decrease and that these characteristic were almost the same as LiBr solution, though this solution gave slightly less heat transfer coefficient than LiBr solution.

  6. Effect of Li/Nb Ratio on Growth and Spectrometric Characterization of Hf:Fe:LiNbO3 Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li; Wu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Jing-Jie; Xu, Chao; Su, Yan-Qing; Xu, Yu-Heng

    Hf:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique with various ratios of Li/Nb = 0.946, 1.05, 1.20 and 1.38 in the melt. The crystal composition and defect structure were analyzed by XRD, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy. The results show that the threshold concentration of Hf in LiNbO3 crystals decrease with the increasing of the Li/Nb ratio; when the Li/Nb ratio is 1.05, the threshold concentration of Hf is less than 2 mol%, largely under the threshold concentration of Hf ions in congruent Hf:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal (4 mol).1-3 With the increase of Li/Nb, Hf ions first replace the Nb4+ Li; when the concentration of Hf ions is higher than the threshold value, Hf ions occurs on normal Nb and Li sites.

  7. Li-FSI Impurity Impact Study: Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pupek, Krzysztof; Dzwiniel, Trevor; Krumdick, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI ) as an alternative to LiPF6 and as an additive to electrolytes used in lithium-ion cells. LiFSI has attracted attention because it is reported to have higher ionic conductivity, better high temperature stability, and enhanced stability toward hydrolysis, Also, LiFSI additive to electrolytes can bring benefits of improved storage properties and reduced gas evolution in the cells. Different levels of different electrochemically active impurities could affect the performance of LiFSI as an electrolyte salt for Li-ion batteries, generating inconsistent and conflicting interpretations of the experimental data.

  8. Composition gradients in electrolyzed LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Analysis of transport in a mixed electrolyte has previously predicted significant composition gradients in the LiCl-KCl electrolyte of high temperature LiS/ batteries. Composition gradients in quenched electrolyzed LiCl-KCl eutectic contained in yttria felt are measured with high distance resolution by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The reported results include composition profiles of LiCl-KCl coontained in porous Y2O3 and electrolyzed in three cells, two with solid Li-Al electrodes and one with a porous Li-Al anode.

  9. Suppressing The Growth Of Dendrites In Secondary Li Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Evan D.; Perrone, David E.; Shen, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed technique for suppressing growth of lithium dendrites in rechargeable lithium electrochemical power cells involves periodic interruption of steady charging current with short, high-current discharge pulses. Technique applicable to lithium cells of several different types, including Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/Vo(x), and Li/MnO(2). Cells candidates for use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high-energy-density rechargeable batteries needed.

  10. Theory of laser enhancement and suppression of cold reactions: the fermion-boson 6Li+7Li2<-->(variant Planck's over 2pi omega0) 6Li7Li+7Li radiative collision.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Parker, Gregory A; Brumer, Paul; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2008-03-28

    We present a nonperturbative time-dependent quantum mechanical theory of the laser catalysis and control of a bifurcating A+BC<-->(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))ABC*(v)<-->(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0) )AB+C reaction, with ABC*(v) denoting an intermediate, electronically excited, complex of ABC in the vth vibrational state. We apply this theory to the low collision energy fermion-boson light-induced exchange reaction, (6)Li((2)S)+(7)Li(2)((3)Sigma(u)(+))<-->(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))((6)Li(7)Li(7)Li)*<-->(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))(6)Li(7)Li((3)Sigma(+))+(7)Li((2)S). We show that at very low collision energies and energetically narrow (approximately 0.01 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets, it is possible to tune the yield of the exchange reaction from 0 to near-unity (yield >or=99%) values. Controllability is somewhat reduced at collisions involving energetically wider (approximately 1 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets. At these energetic bandwidths, the radiative reactive control, although still impressive, is limited to the 0%-76% reactive-probabilities range.

  11. Thermodynamic optimization of the Li-Pb system aided by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenyang; Guo, Cuiping; Li, Changrong; Du, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    The Li-Pb system was optimized using CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. The enthalpies of formation of eight intermetallic compounds Li4Pb (Li22Pb5), Li7Pb2, Li10Pb3, Li3Pb, Li8Pb3, Li5Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb at 0 K were calculated from first-principles calculations with DFT + GGA approximations. The liquid phase was treated as (Li,Li0.8Pb0.2,Pb) using an associated solution model because a short-range-order phenomenon was proven to exist in liquid. The solution phases fcc and bcc were described as (Li,Pb) with a simple substitutional model. The intermetallic compounds Li4Pb, Li3Pb and Li5Pb2 were treated as stoichiometric compounds. With certain solubility ranges, the intermetallic compounds Li7Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb were modeled as Li7(Li,Pb)2, (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) and (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) using the two-sublattice model. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters in the Li-Pb system was obtained in the present work.

  12. Formation and reduction behaviors of zirconium oxide compounds in LiCl-Li2O melt at 923 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nakayoshi, Akira; Kofuji, Hirohide

    2015-11-01

    The reduction behaviors of ZrO2, Li2ZrO3 and (U,Pu,Zr)O2 in a LiCl-Li2O salt bath at 923 K were investigated. This study was conducted as part of a feasibility study on the pyrochemical treatment of damaged fuel debris generated by severe accidents at light water reactors. It was demonstrated in electrolytic reduction tests that the uranium in synthetic corium specimens of (U,Pu,Zr)O2 with various ZrO2 contents could be reduced to the metallic form and that part of the zirconium was converted to Li2ZrO3. Zirconium metal and Li2ZrO3 were obtained by the reduction of ZrO2. The reduction of Li2ZrO3 did not proceed even in LiCl containing no Li2O. Moreover, the stable chemical forms of the ZrO2-Li2O complex oxide were investigated as a function of the Li2O concentration in LiCl. ZrO2 was converted to Li2ZrO3 at a Li2O concentration of 0.018 wt%. As the Li2O concentration was increased, Li2ZrO3 was converted to Li6Zr2O7 and then to Li8ZrO6. It is suggested that the removal of Li2ZrO3 from the reduction product is a key point in the pyrochemical treatment of corium.

  13. NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    2008-10-01

    The Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods are now standard routines in various data analyses, irrespective of ones own preference to the more conventional approach based on so-called frequentists understanding of the notion of the probability. It is not the purpose of the Editor to show all achievements of these methods in various branches of science, technology and medicine. In the case of condensed matter physics most of the oldest examples of Bayesian analysis can be found in the excellent tutorial textbooks by Sivia and Skilling [1], and Bretthorst [2], while the application of the Maximum Entropy Methods were described in `Maximum Entropy in Action' [3]. On the list of questions addressed one finds such problems as deconvolution and reconstruction of the complicated spectra, e.g. counting the number of lines hidden within the spectrum observed with always finite resolution, reconstruction of charge, spin and momentum density distribution from an incomplete sets of data, etc. On the theoretical side one might find problems like estimation of interatomic potentials [4], application of the MEM to quantum Monte Carlo data [5], Bayesian approach to inverse quantum statistics [6], very general to statistical mechanics [7] etc. Obviously, in spite of the power of the Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, it is not possible for everything to be solved in a unique way by application of these particular methods of analysis, and one of the problems which is often raised is connected not only with a uniqueness of a reconstruction of a given distribution (map) but also with its accuracy (error maps). In this `Comments' section we present a few papers showing more recent advances and views, and highlighting some of the aforementioned problems. References [1] Sivia D S and Skilling J 2006 Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Bretthorst G L 1988 Bayesian Spectruim Analysis and Parameter Estimation (Berlin: Springer) [3] Buck B and

  14. Corrosion studies of LiH thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, J. P.; King, M. O.; Galloway, E. C.; Watts, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of LiH and its corrosion products were studied using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thin films were grown on Ni(100) in an ultra high vacuum system using an electron beam evaporator. Characteristic Li KLL AES peaks were identified for Li, LiH, Li2O and LiOH which facilitated identification of thin film composition. XPS of the O 1s region revealed three distinct chemical shifts which were attributed to Li2O, LiOH and chemisorbed H2O. We show that exposing LiH to very low H2O partial pressures results in formation of LiOH/Li2O domains on LiH. We also show that these XPS peaks can be linked to reaction mechanisms in the TPD profiles. TPD traces have been explicitly modelled to determine the activation energies of the reactions and compare favourably with previous measurements on bulk LiH samples.

  15. Enhanced electrochemical performance of Li-rich cathode Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 by surface modification with lithium ion conductor Li3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Luo, Shaohua; Ren, Jie; Wang, Dan; Qi, Xiwei

    2016-05-01

    Li-rich layered cathode Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is prepared via a co-precipitation followed with high-temperature calcination, and then successfully modified with nano-Li3PO4 by ball milling and annealing. The TEM and EDS reveal that Li3PO4 is homogeneously coated on the particle surface of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2. And the electrochemical performance of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is significantly improved by coating with lithium ion conductor Li3PO4. The Li3PO4-coated sample delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 284.7 mAhg-1 at 0.05 C, and retains 192.6 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, which is higher than that of the pristine sample (244 mAhg-1 at 0.05 C and 168.2 mAhg-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 C). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that the resistance for Li/Li3PO4-coated Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 cell was reduced compared to Li/Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2, which indicates the Li3PO4 coating layer with high ionic conductivity (6.6 × 10-8 S cm-1) facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions through the interface between electrode and electrolyte and accelerates the charge transfer process. What is more, the Li3PO4 coating layer can also act as a protection layer to protect the cathode material from encroachment of electrolyte. The two aspects account for the enhanced electrochemical performance of Li3PO4-coated Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2.

  16. Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-15

    Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

  17. Re-evaluation of the eutectic region of the LiBr-KBr-LiF system

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.; Guidotti, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    The separator pellet in a thermal battery consists of electrolyte immobilized by a binder (typically, MgO powder). The melting point of the electrolyte determines the effective operating window for its use in a thermal battery. The development of a two-hour thermal battery required the use of a molten salt that had a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl-KCl eutectic which melts at 352 C. Several candidate eutectic electrolyte systems were evaluated for their suitability for this application. One was the LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic used at Argonne National Laboratories for high-temperature rechargeable batteries for electric-vehicle applications. Using a custom-designed high-temperature conductivity cell, the authors were able to readily determine the liquidus region for the various compositions studied around the original eutectic for the LiBr-KBr-LiF system. The actual eutectic composition was found to be 60.0 m/o LiBr-37.5 m/o KBr-2.5 m/o LiF with a melting point of 324 {+-} 0.5 C.

  18. Radiative Association in Li+ + H- collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, A. S.; Gadéa, F. X.

    Radiative association is one of the ways of forming LiH in low density environments. Its formation in collisions of Li(2p) +H(1s) has been shown to be about five orders of magnitude faster than for Li(2s) + H(1s) [1]. We investigate LiH formation in Li+ + H- collisions, considering association on both the C and D Σ states as about 96% of the mutual neutralization is to these states at low energy [2]. A quantal description of the process [3] has been used. The potentials are from ref. [4] and the dipole moments from ref. [5]. Similar results were obtained from both the C and D states. At 1000 K the total radiative association rate coefficient from the D state is 9.2× 10-15 cm3/s, compared to 2.1 × 10-20 cm3/s in Li(2s) + H(1s) collisions [6]. British Council support is gratefully acknowledged. {[1]} Gianturco F.A., Gori Giorgi P., 1996, Phys. Rev. A 54, 4073 {[2]} Croft H., Dickinson A.S., Gadéa F. X., 1999, MNRAS 304, 327 {[3]} Babb J.F., Kirby K.P., 1998, in The Molecular Astrophysics of Stars and Galaxies, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 11 {[4]} Gadéa F. X., Boutalib A., 1993, J. Phys. B 26, 61 {[5]} Berriche H., Gadéa F. X., 1995, Chem. Phys. Letts. 247 85 {[6]} Stancil P. C., Dalgarno A., 1997, ApJ 479, 543

  19. Electrochemical Investigations of the Interface at Li/Li+ Ion Conducting Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-04

    the electronic conductivity is obtained in addition to the ionic conductivity. Investigations on solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have been intense...at open circuit. There has been interest in developing solid electrolytes using PEO-type polymers for solid-state lithium batteries. Although the...Subramanian, Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers Vol. 1, H.S. Nalwa, Editor, John Wiley & Sons ( 1997 ) p. 687. 2. H. Schultz, H. Lehmann

  20. Asymptotic and near-target direct breakup of 6Li and 7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Sunil; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Cook, K. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Carter, I. P.; Jeung, D. Y.; Mohanto, G.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Prasad, E.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Vo-Phuoc, K.; Williams, E.; Gasques, L. R.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Linares, R.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Li,76 and 9Be are weakly bound against breakup into their cluster constituents. Breakup location is important for determining the role of breakup in above-barrier complete fusion suppression. Recent works have pointed out that experimental observables can be used to separate near-target and asymptotic breakup. Purpose: Our purpose is to distinguish near-target and asymptotic direct breakup of Li,76 in reactions with nuclei in different mass regions. Method: Charged particle coincidence measurements are carried out with pulsed Li,76 beams on 58Ni and 64Zn targets at sub-barrier energies and compared with previous measurements using 208Pb and 209Bi targets. A detector array providing a large angular coverage is used, along with time-of-flight information to give definitive particle identification of the direct breakup fragments. Results: In interactions of 6Li with 58Ni and 64Zn, direct breakup occurs only asymptotically far away from the target. However, in interactions with 208Pb and 209Bi, near-target breakup occurs in addition to asymptotic breakup. Direct breakup of 7Li into α -t is not observed in interactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. However, near-target dominated direct breakup was observed in measurements with 208Pb and 209Bi. A modified version of the Monte Carlo classical trajectory model code platypus, which explicitly takes into account lifetimes associated with unbound states, is used to simulate sub-barrier breakup reactions. Conclusions: Near-target breakup in interactions with Li,76 is an important mechanism only for the heavy targets 208Pb and 209Bi. There is insignificant near-target direct breakup of 6Li and no direct breakup of 7Li in reactions with 58Ni and 64Zn. Therefore, direct breakup is unlikely to suppress the above-barrier fusion cross section in reactions of Li,76 with 58Ni and 64Zn nuclei.

  1. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  2. A survey of the awareness, knowledge, policies and views of veterinary journal Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines for publication of research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wider adoption of reporting guidelines by veterinary journals could improve the quality of published veterinary research. The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and views of veterinary Editors-in-Chief on reporting guidelines, identify the policies of their journals, and determine their information needs. Editors-in-Chief of 185 journals on the contact list for the International Association of Veterinary Editors (IAVE) were surveyed in April 2012 using an online questionnaire which contained both closed and open questions. Results The response rate was 36.8% (68/185). Thirty-six of 68 editors (52.9%) stated they knew what a reporting guideline was before receiving the questionnaire. Editors said they had found out about reporting guidelines primarily through articles in other journals, via the Internet and through their own journal. Twenty of 57 respondents (35.1%) said their journal referred to reporting guidelines in its instructions to authors. CONSORT, REFLECT, and ARRIVE were the most frequently cited. Forty-four of 68 respondents (68.2%) believed that reporting guidelines should be adopted by all refereed veterinary journals. Qualitative analysis of the open questions revealed that lack of knowledge, fear, resistance to change, and difficulty in implementation were perceived as barriers to the adoption of reporting guidelines by journals. Editors suggested that reporting guidelines be promoted through communication and education of the veterinary community, with roles for the IAVE and universities. Many respondents believed a consensus policy on guideline implementation was needed for veterinary journals. Conclusions Further communication and education about reporting guidelines for editors, authors and reviewers has the potential to increase their adoption by veterinary journals in the future. PMID:24410882

  3. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Balbekov, V.

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  4. The 'LiC Detector Toy' program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regler, M.; Mitaroff, W.; Valentan, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Höfler, R.

    2008-07-01

    LiC is a simple but powerful and flexible software tool, written in MatLab, for basic detector design studies (geometries, material budgets) by determining the resolution of reconstructed track parameters. It is based on a helix track model including multiple scattering, and consists of a simplified simulation of the detector followed by track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. After a short description of LiC's main characteristics, we demonstrate its capabilities by applying this tool in a performance study of the LDC and SiD detector concepts at the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  5. Solid State Li-ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    demonstrated that the vapor deposition of thin lithium films onto Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic solid -state electrolyte (SSE) pellets can improve...and S.-H. Lee, “Glass–ceramic Li2S–P2S5 electrolytes prepared by a single step ball billing process and their application for all- solid -state lithium ...Kitaura, A. Hayashi, T. Ohtomo, S. Hama and M. Tatsumisago, “Fabrication of electrode– electrolyte interfaces in all- solid -state rechargeable lithium

  6. Role of dopants in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Kh. Moussavi Zarandi, A.; Afarideh, H.; Shahmaleki, S.

    2013-06-15

    In this study, electronic structure of LiF crystal doped with Mg,Cu,P impurities was studied with WIEN2k code on the basis of FPLAPW+lo method. Results show that in Mg-doped LiF composition, an electronic trap was created with impurity concentration of 1.56% and 3.125%. In this condition, the electronic trap with increasing the percentage of the impurities up to 4.687% is annihilated. It was found, that by doping of Mg and Cu or P simultaneously, a hole-trap is created in valence band. It was realized that in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Cu impurity and Li atom, have a key role in creation of levels which lead to create electronic and hole traps. Mg impurity and F atom, only have a role in creation of electronic traps. In addition, P impurity has a main role in creation of the electronic and hole traps in LiF:Mg,Cu,P. The activation energy of electronic and hole trap in LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P crystalline lattice were obtained as 0.3 and 5.5 eV, 0.92 and 3.4 eV and 0.75 and 3.1 eV, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) and (b) shows changes in electronic structure and band gap energy of LiF crystal due to presence of Mg and Cu, Mg and P ions respectively. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of LiF, LiF:Mg,Cu, LiF:Mg,P and LiF:Mg,Cu,P materials were studied with WIEN2K code. • In LiF:Mg,Cu and LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li atom and Cu impurity have a key role in creation of levels. • F atom and Mg impurity only have a role in creation of electronic traps. • In LiF:Mg,Cu,P, P impurity has a main role in creation of electronic and hole traps.

  7. Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gettemy, Donald J.; Harker, William C.; Lindholm, Glenn; Barnes, Norman P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the absorption coefficient for KTP, LiIO3, and LiNbO3 are discussed. The variation of the refractive index with temperature has been measured for KTP and LiIO3. It is necessary to know both the absorption coefficient beta and the variation in the indexes of refraction with temperature change dn/dT to determine the average power limit of a nonlinear interaction. With the dn/dT information, it is also possible to estimate the temperature half width of any nonlinear interaction by calculating the variation of the phase-matching condition with temperature.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of LiZnP and LiZnAs semiconductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montag, Benjamin W.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Arpin, Kevin R.; Sunder, Madhana; Nelson, Kyle A.; Ugorowski, Philip B.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-02-01

    Research for a reliable solid-state semiconductor neutron detector continues because such a device has not been developed, and would have greater efficiency, than present-day gas-filled 3He and 10BF3 neutron detectors. Further, a semiconductor neutron detector would be more compact and rugged than most gas-filled or scintillator neutron detectors. The 6Li(n,t)4He reaction yields a total Q value of 4.78 MeV, a larger yield than the 10B(n,α)7Li, and is easily identified above background radiation interactions. Hence, devices composed of either natural Li (naturally 7.5% 6Li) or enriched 6Li (approximately 95% 6Li) may provide a semiconductor material for compact high-efficiency neutron detectors. A sub-branch of the III-V semiconductors, the filled tetrahedral compounds, known as Nowotny-Juza compounds (AIBIICV), are desirable for their cubic crystal structure and semiconducting electrical properties. These compounds were originally studied for photonic applications. In the present work, Equimolar portions of Li, Zn, and P or As were sealed under vacuum (10-6 Torr) in quartz ampoules with a boron nitride lining, and loaded into a compounding furnace. The ampoule was heated to 200 °C to form the Li-Zn alloy, subsequently heated to 560 °C to form the ternary compound, LiZnP or LiZnAs, and finally annealed to promote crystallization. The chemical composition of the synthesized starting material was confirmed at Galbraith Laboratories, Inc. by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which showed the compounds can be reacted in equal ratios, 1-1-1, to form ternary compounds. Recent additions to the procedure have produced higher yields, and greater synthesis reliability. Synthesized powders were also characterized by x-ray diffraction, where lattice constants of 5.751±.001 Å and 5.939±.002 Å for LiZnP and LiZnAs, respectively, were determined.

  9. Electrolytes in Support of 5V Li-ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-16

    candidates LiCoPO4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, Li2FeCoPO4 etc, projected to deliver 15~40% more energy than state-of-art LiFePO4 The additive invented by SEDD is...battery pack for HEV as example: 300 V hybrid electric system • requires at least 100 LiFePO4 Li ion cells in series • power electronics, protection...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE The “5V” Li ion cathode needs a “5V” electrolyte • Potentially up to 40% greater energy density than LiFePO4 • Higher voltage at

  10. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  11. Performance of new 10 kW class MCFC using Li/K and Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) uses generally mixture of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate (Li/K) as the electrolyte. NiO cathode dissolution is one of serious problems for MCFC life. The NiO cathode has been found to dissolve into the electrolyte as Ni{sup 2+} ion which is reduced to metallic Ni by H{sub 2} in the fuel gas and bridges the anode and the cathode. The bridges short circuit and degrade cell performance and shorten cell life. Since solubility of NiO in mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate (Li/Na) is lower than in Li/K, it takes longer time to take place slowing by NiO cathode dissolution in Li/Na compared with in Li/K. The ionic conductivity of Li/Na is higher than of Li/K, however, oxygen solubility in Li/Na is lower 9 than in Li/K. A new 10 kW class MCFC stack composed of Li/K cells and Li/Na cells, was tested. Basic performance of the Li/K cells and Li/Na cells of the stack was reported.

  12. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4–8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  13. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

  14. A new species of the leafhopper genus Multiformis Li & Li (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jian; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-24

    The species of the Oriental leafhopper genus Multiformis Li & Li are reviewed. A new species, Multiformis ramosus sp. nov., from Yunnan Province, China is described and a key to all known species of Multiformis is provided.

  15. Li-ion diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 battery materials detected by muon spin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Umegaki, Izumi; Mukai, Kazuhiko; Miwa, Kazutoshi; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Suter, Andreas; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Lord, James S.; Mânsson, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Lithium diffusion in spinel Li4Ti5O12 and LiTi2O4 compounds for future battery applications has been studied with muon spin relaxation (μ+SR ) . Measurements were performed on both thin-film and powder samples in the temperature range between 25 and 500 K. For Li4Ti5O12 and above about ˜200 K , the field distribution width (Δ ) is found to decrease gradually, while the field fluctuation rate (ν ) increases exponentially with temperature. For LiTi2O4 , on the contrary, the Δ (T ) curve shows a steplike decrease at ˜350 K , around which the ν (T ) curve exhibits a local maximum. These behaviors suggest that Li+ starts to diffuse above around 200 K for both spinels. Assuming a jump diffusion of Li+ at the tetrahedral 8 a site to the vacant octahedral 16 c site, diffusion coefficients of Li+ at 300 K in the film samples are estimated as (3.2 ±0.8 ) ×10-11 cm2/s for Li4Ti5O12 and (3.6 ±1.1 ) ×10-11 cm2/s for LiTi2O4 . Further, some small differences are found in both thermal activation energies and Li-ion diffusion coefficients between the powder and thin-film samples.

  16. Soft X-Ray Irradiation Effects of Li2O2, Li2CO3 and Li2O Revealed by Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ruimin; Chuang, Yi-De; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2012-01-01

    Li2O2, Li2CO3, and Li2O are three critical compounds in lithium-air and lithium-ion energy storage systems. Extensive measurements have been carried out to study the chemical species and their evolutions at difference stages of the device operation. While x-ray spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful tools for such purpose, no systematic study on the irradiation effects have been reported. Here we carry out extensive time, position, and irradiation dependent Li K-edge soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on these compounds with so far the best energy resolution. The ultra-high resolution in the current study allows the features in the absorption spectra to be well-resolved. The spectral lineshape thus serves as the fingerprints of these compounds, enabling the tracking of their evolution under x-ray irradiation. We found that both Li2O2 and Li2CO3 evidently evolve towards Li2O under the soft x-ray irradiation with Li2CO3 exhibiting a surprisingly higher sensitivity to x-rays than Li2O2. On the other hand, Li2O remains the most stable compound despite experiencing substantial irradiation dose. We thus conclude that high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy could unambiguously fingerprint different chemical species, but special cautions on irradiation effects would be needed in performing the experiments and interpreting the data properly. PMID:23145116

  17. LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary fluoride eutectic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishinuma, Kosuke; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-04-01

    LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary eutectic scintillators were grown by the µ-PD method. In the solidified eutectic the phases were uniformly distributed in the transverse direction and aligned along the growth direction. For the Eu-doped samples, the expected emission peak observed at 425 nm was ascribed to Eu2+ 5d-4f transition from Eu:CaF2 under X-ray excitation. The LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary eutectic scintillators showed a light yield around 7,000 photons/neutron and decay time of 260 ns (73.6%) and 50 ns (26.4%).

  18. Enabling High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries through Li{sub 2}O Activation.

    SciTech Connect

    Abouimrane, Ali; Cui, Yanjie; Chen, Zonghai; Belharouak, Ilias; Yahia, Hamdi B.; Wu, Huiming; Assary, Rajeev; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Lithium oxide (Li2O) is activated in the presence of a layered composite cathode material (HEM) significantly increasing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The degree of activation depends on the current rate, electrolyte salt, and anode type. In full-cell tests, the Li2O was used as a lithium source to counter the first-cycle irreversibility of high-capacity composite alloy anodes. When Li2O is mixed with HEM to serve as a cathode, the electrochemical performance was improved in a full cell having an SiO-SnCoC composite as an anode. The mechanism behind the Li2O activation could also explain the first charge plateau and the abnormal high capacity associated with these high energy cathode materials.

  19. Raman scattering efficiency in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Neufeld, S.; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Zrenner, A.; Schmidt, W. G.

    2015-06-01

    LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 crystals are investigated here in a combined experimental and theoretical study that uses Raman spectroscopy in a complete set of scattering geometries and corresponding density-functional theory calculations to provide microscopic information on their vibrational properties. The Raman scattering efficiency is computed from first principles in order to univocally assign the measured Raman peaks to the calculated eigenvectors. Measured and calculated Raman spectra are shown to be in qualitative agreement and confirm the mode assignment by Margueron et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 111, 104105 (2012), 10.1063/1.4716001], thus finally settling a long debate. While the two crystals show rather similar vibrational properties overall, the E-TO9 mode is markedly different in the two oxides. The deviations are explained by a different anion-cation bond type in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 crystals.

  20. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  1. Electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys by codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 melts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong De; Zhang, Mi Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Cao, Dian Xue; Jing, Xiao Yan; He, Li Yi; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-07

    This work presents electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys via codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca on a molybdenum electrode in KCl-LiCl-MgCl(2)-CaCl(2) melts at 943 K. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of calcium on pre-deposited magnesium leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Ca alloy, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Ca alloy leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Li-Ca solution. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg, Li and Ca occurs at current densities more negative than -0.31 A cm(-2) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl(2) (5 wt%) melts containing 1 wt% CaCl(2). Chronoamperograms demonstrated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is -2.200 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is formed when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.200 V. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg-Li-Ca alloys with different phases were formed via galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructures of typical alpha and beta phases of Mg-Li-Ca alloys were characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) showed that the element Ca mainly distributes along grain boundary in Mg-Li-Ca alloys. The results of inductively coupled plasma analysis determined that the chemical compositions of Mg-Li-Ca alloys correspond with the phase structures of XRD patterns, and the lithium and calcium contents of Mg-Li-Ca alloys depend on the concentrations of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2).

  2. LiYbCl4(THF)4

    PubMed Central

    Richtera, Lukas; Jancik, Vojtech; Hermanova, Sona; Krpoun, Karel; Thompson-Montero, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, di-μ-chlorido-dichlorido-1κ2 Cl-tetra­kis­(tetra­hydro­furan)-1κ2 O,2κ2 O-lithiumytterbium(III), [LiYbCl4(C4H8O)4], was prepared by the reaction of YbCl3(THF)3 with LiCl in THF (THF is tetra­hydro­furan). The central motif of the structure is a Yb(μ-Cl)2Li ring. The Yb atom is hexa­coordinated to four Cl atoms and two THF mol­ecules oriented in a trans fashion. The Li atom has a tetra­hedral environment and is coordinated to two Cl atoms and two THF mol­ecules. No inter­molecular inter­actions other than van der Waals forces were observed. Two of the THF mol­ecules are disordered over two positions. PMID:21754604

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sarcoma family syndrome of Li and Fraumeni Sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome SBLA syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & ... Topic: Bone Cancer Health Topic: Breast Cancer Health Topic: Cancer Health Topic: Soft Tissue ...

  4. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Favalli, Andrea; Chung, Kiwhan; Macarthur, Duncan W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  5. Pt and Pd catalyzed oxidation of Li2O2 and DMSO during Li-O2 battery charging.

    PubMed

    Gittleson, Forrest S; Ryu, Won-Hee; Schwab, Mark; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-05-05

    Rechargeable Li-O2 and Li-air batteries require electrode and electrolyte materials that synergistically promote long-term cell operation. In this study, we investigate the role of noble metals Pt and Pd as catalysts in the Li-O2 oxidation process and their compatibility with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based electrolytes. We identify a basis for low potential Li2O2 evolution followed by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte to form carbonate side products.

  6. On the reduction of generalized polylogarithms to Li n and Li2 ,2 and on the evaluation thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frellesvig, Hjalte; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    We give expressions for all generalized polylogarithms up to weight four in terms of the functions log, Li n , and Li2,2, valid for arbitrary complex variables. Furthermore we provide algorithms for manipulation and numerical evaluation of Li n and Li2,2, and add codes in Mathematica and C++ implementing the results. With these results we calculate a number of previously unknown integrals, which we add in appendix C.

  7. The editor, the publisher, and his mother: the representation of lesbians and gays in the New York Times.

    PubMed

    Chomsky, Daniel; Barclay, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The attention and prominence given to issues in media outlets may affect the importance citizens attribute to them, so the actors who influence mass media coverage decisions may have political power in society generally. This article seeks to measure the relative influence of journalists, social trends, events, government officials, editors, and owners on the New York Times coverage of lesbians and gays from 1960 to 1995. Although many factors affected the nature and frequency of such coverage, the findings of this article show that the owners of the Times exerted decisive influence. Documentary evidence reveals that the Times' owners actively intervened to suppress coverage of lesbians and gays until 1987, even as reporters and editors recognized that increased social visibility made them newsworthy. Statistical analysis confirms that, although some actual events and statements of officials attracted attention from the newspaper throughout the period, they were more likely to generate prominent coverage after 1987 when the stories were consistent with the enthusiasms of the owners.

  8. Phase relationships in positive electrodes of high temperature Li-Al/LiCl-KCl/FeS2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Tani, B.; Otto, N. C.; Roche, M. F.; Vissers, D. R.

    1982-05-01

    The phases present in FeS2 electrodes operated in LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte are determined by X-ray diffraction and metallographic examination. The phases are FeS2, KFeS2, Li3Fe2S4, Li2.33Fe0.67S2, Fe/1-x/S, Li2FeS2, LiK6Fe24S26Cl, Li2S, and Fe. The metallographic and crystallographic characteristics of these phases are given. The sequence of Li-Fe-S phases in the FeS2 electrode is found to be in accord with the sequence predicted from the equilibrium LiFe-S phase diagram. It is noted that two of the Li-Fe-S phases found at room temperature (Li2.33Fe0.67S2 and Li2FeS2) result from decomposition on cooling of a solid solution phase: Li/2+x/Fe/1-x/S2, x ranging from 0 to 0.33.

  9. In-house fabrication and testing capabilities for Li and Li-ion 18650 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.

    2010-04-01

    For over 10 years Sandia Labs have been involved in an US DOE-funded program aimed at developing electric vehicle batteries for transportation applications. Currently this program is called "Advanced Battery Research (ABR)." In this effort we were preparing 18650 cells with electrodes supplied by or purchased from private companies for thermal abuse and electrical characterization studies. Lately, we are coating our own electrodes, building cells and evaluating performance. This paper describes our extensive in-house facilities for slurry making, electrode coating, cell winding etc. In addition, facilities for electrical testing and thermal abuse will be described. This facility allows us to readjust our focus quickly to the changing demands of the still evolving ABR program. Additionally, we continue to make cells for our internal use. We made several 18650 cells both primary (Li-CFx) and secondary (Li-ion) and evaluated performance. For example Li-CFx cells gave ~2.9Ahr capacity at room temperature. Our high voltage Li-ion cells consisting of carbon anode and cathode based on LiNi 0.4Mn 0.3Co 0.3O2 in organic electrolytes exhibited reproducible behavior and gave capacity on the order of 1Ahr. Performance of Li-ion cells at different temperatures and thermal abuse characteristics will be presented.

  10. Correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in β-Li3PS4 fast Li+ conductor

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Lu; Liu, Zengcai; ...

    2015-07-06

    Our letter reports the correlation of anisotropy and directional conduction in the fast Li+ conductor β-Li3PS4, one of the low-symmetry crystalline electrolyte candidates. The material has both high conductivity and good stability that serves well for the large-scale energy storage applications of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The anisotropic physical properties, demonstrated here by the thermal expansion coefficients, are crucial for compatibility in the solid-state system and battery performance. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements were done to determine the crystal structure and thermal stability. Moreover, the crystallographic b-axis was revealed as a fast expansion direction, while negligible thermal expansion wasmore » observed along the a-axis around the battery operating temperatures. The anisotropic behavior has its structural origin from the Li+ conduction channels with incomplete Li occupancy and a flexible connection of LiS4 and PS4 tetrahedra within the framework. This indicates a strong correlation in the direction of the ionic transport in the low-symmetry Li+ conductor.« less

  11. Epitaxial thin film growth of LiH using a liquid-Li atomic template

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Ohsawa, Takeo; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-24

    We report on the synthesis of lithium hydride (LiH) epitaxial thin films through the hydrogenation of a Li melt, forming abrupt LiH/MgO interface. Experimental and first-principles molecular dynamics studies reveal a comprehensive microscopic picture of the crystallization processes, which sheds light on the fundamental atomistic growth processes that have remained unknown in the vapor-liquid-solid method. We found that the periodic structure that formed, because of the liquid-Li atoms at the film/MgO-substrate interface, serves as an atomic template for the epitaxial growth of LiH crystals. In contrast, films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates indicated polycrystalline films with a LiAlO{sub 2} secondary phase. These results and the proposed growth process provide insights into the preparation of other alkaline metal hydride thin films on oxides. Further, our investigations open the way to explore fundamental physics and chemistry of metal hydrides including possible phenomena that emerge at the heterointerfaces of metal hydrides.

  12. Capturing and Processing Soil GHG Fluxes Using the LI-COR LI-8100A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; McDermitt, Dayle; Hupp, Jason; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Rod

    2015-04-01

    The LI-COR LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System is designed to measure soil CO2 efflux using automated chambers and a non-steady state measurement protocol. While CO2 is an important gas in many contexts, it is not the only gas of interest for many research applications. With some simple plumbing modifications, many third party analyzers capable of measuring other trace gases, e.g. N2O, CH4, or 13CO2 etc., can be interfaced with the LI-8100A System, and LI-COR's data processing software (SoilFluxPro™) can be used to compute fluxes for these additional gases. In this paper we describe considerations for selecting an appropriate third party analyzer to interface with the system, how to integrate data into the system, and the procedure used to compute fluxes of additional gases in SoilFluxPro™. A case study is presented to demonstrate methane flux measurements using an Ultra-Portable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (Ultra-Portable GGA, model 915-0011), manufactured by Los Gatos Research and integrated into the LI-8100A System. Laboratory and field test results show that the soil CO2 efflux based on the time series of CO2 data measured either with the LI-8100A System or with the Ultra-Portable GGA are essentially the same. This suggests that soil GHG fluxes measured with both systems are reliable.

  13. Li diffusion and substitution in chemically diverse synthetic zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, D.

    2015-12-01

    Li concentrations and 7Li/6Li ratios in zircon may potentially trace crustal recycling because continental and mantle-derived zircons yield distinct values (Ushikubo et al. 2008; Bouvier et al. 2012). To some extent, the usefulness of these differences may depend upon the retentively of Li in zircon. Cherniak and Watson (2010) measured relatively high diffusivities for Li; here we sought to discover the scenarios under which Li mobility might be inhibited by charge compensating cations. We conducted "in" diffusion experiments in synthetic Lu-doped (~5000 ppm), P-doped (~250 ppm), and nearly pure zircon following the procedure in Cherniak and Watson (2010). In separate experiments, Li was ion implanted at depth within polished Mud Tank zircon slabs to form a Gaussian Li concentration profile; the relaxed concentration profile was measured after heating the zircon slabs. In all experiments, which ranged from 920 to 650 oC, calculated diffusivities were in agreement with a previously established Arrhenius relationship calibrated on trace element poor Mud Tank zircon (Cherniak and Watson, 2010). We also conducted complementary LA-ICP-MS mapping on the surfaces of P- and Lu-doped synthetic zircon crystals after the Li diffusion results were obtained. This revealed heterogeneous though patterned correlation between Li+Lu in the near surface of the crystal (no strong patterns emerged for P+Li). And finally, we observed that synthetic sector-zoned zircon exhibits near step function Li concentration profiles - correlating with changes in the rare earth element concentrations across these sectors - which allowed us to examine Li diffusion in yet another manner. Re-heating these grains followed by LA-ICP-MS analysis revealed significant Li migration, with no detectable migration of the rare earth elements. While our experiments cannot be considered exhaustive, we have yet to find a scenario where Li mobility in synthetic zircon depends on charge compensating cations.

  14. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  15. A New Insight into the Polaron-Li Complex Diffusion in Cathode Material LiFe1-yMnyPO4 for Li Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Van An; Nara, Jun; Ohno, Takahisa

    2012-04-01

    Based on the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid density functionals study, we proposed a new insight into the diffusion of polaron-Li vacancy complexes in LiFe1-yMnyPO4 (y=0,1/2,1). It is found that the polaron migrates along a crossing or a parallel path relative to the Li moving direction. In LiFePO4, the complex diffusion along the zigzag pathway is favorable and has a barrier of 600 meV, while the diffusion along the parallel pathway with a barrier of 623 meV is favorable in LiMnPO4. For LiFe1/2Mn1/2PO4, since the polaron is formed within a single Fe layer, the diffusion proceeds along the parallel pathway with a barrier of 635 meV.

  16. Revision of the Li13Si4 structure

    PubMed Central

    Zeilinger, Michael; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Besides Li17Si4, Li16.42Si4, and Li15Si4, another lithium-rich representative in the Li–Si system is the phase Li13Si4 (trideca­lithium tetra­silicide), the structure of which has been determined previously [Frank et al. (1975 ▶). Z. Naturforsch. Teil B, 30, 10–13]. A careful analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of Li13Si4 revealed discrepancies between experimentally observed and calculated Bragg positions. Therefore, we redetermined the structure of Li13Si4 on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compared to the previous structure report, decisive differences are (i) the introduction of a split position for one Li site [occupancy ratio 0.838 (7):0.162 (7)], (ii) the anisotropic refinement of atomic displacement parameters for all atoms, and (iii) a high accuracy of atom positions and unit-cell parameters. The asymmetric unit of Li13Si4 contains two Si and seven Li atoms. Except for one Li atom situated on a site with symmetry 2/m, all other atoms are on mirror planes. The structure consists of isolated Si atoms as well as Si–Si dumbbells surrounded by Li atoms. Each Si atom is either 12- or 13-coordinated. The isolated Si atoms are situated in the ab plane at z = 0 and are strictly separated from the Si–Si dumbbells at z = 0.5. PMID:24454148

  17. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  18. Ab-initio studies on Li doping, Li-pairs, and complexes between Li and intrinsic defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidya, R.; Ravindran, P.; Fjellvâg, H.

    2012-06-01

    First-principles density functional calculations have been performed on Li-doped ZnO using all-electron projector augmented plane wave method. Li was considered at six different interstitial sites (Lii), including anti-bonding and bond-center sites and also in substitutional sites such as at Zn-site (Lizn) and at oxygen site (Lio) in the ZnO matrix. Stability of LiZn over Lii is shown to depend on synthetic condition, viz., LiZn is found to be more stable than Lii under O-rich conditions. Hybrid density functional calculations performed on LiZn indicate that it is a deep acceptor with (0/-) transition taking place at 0.74 eV above valence band maximum. The local vibrational frequencies for Li-dopants are calculated and compared with reported values. In addition, we considered the formation of Li-pair complexes and their role on electronic properties of ZnO. Present study suggests that at extreme oxygen-rich synthesis condition, a pair of acceptor type LiZn-complex is found to be stable over the compensating Lii + LiZn pair. The stability of complexes formed between Li impurities and various intrinsic defects is also investigated and their role on electronic properties of ZnO has been analyzed. We have shown that a complex between LiZn and oxygen vacancy has less formation energy and donor-type character and could compensate the holes generated by Li-doping in ZnO.

  19. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses.

    PubMed

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  20. Nanoscale coating of LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) nanobelts with Li+-conductive Li2TiO3: toward better rate capabilities for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Peng, Qing; Wang, Weiyang; Nan, Caiyun; Li, Lihong; Li, Yadong

    2013-02-06

    By using a novel coating approach based on the reaction between MC(2)O(4)·xH(2)O and Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4), a series of nanoscale Li(2)TiO(3)-coated LiMO(2) nanobelts with varied Ni, Co, and Mn contents was prepared for the first time. The complete, thin Li(2)TiO(3) coating layer strongly adheres to the host material and has a 3D diffusion path for Li(+) ions. It is doped with Ni(2+) and Co(3+) ions in addition to Ti(4+) in LiMO(2), both of which were found to favor Li(+)-ion transfer at the interface. As a result, the coated nanobelts show improved rate, cycling, and thermal capabilities when used as the cathode for Li-ion battery.

  1. Exploring Half Metals in Li-based Half Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, B.; Shaughnessy, M.; Fong, C. Y.

    2011-11-01

    We examine the electronic and magnetic properties of three Li-related half Heusler alloys, namely LiMnN, LiMnP, and LiMnSi in a structure close to the well-known zinc-blende structure in the attempt to search for new half metallic materials. If they do demonstrate half metallic properties, this will open new grounds for finding half metallic spintronic materials. Our results will furnish guidelines for future exploration of alkali-related half metals. Using the primitive cell LiMnSi is a half metal, while the pnictides are not. However when the conventional cell is used, we find that Li3Mn4P4 and Li3Mn4N4 are half metals. The physical reason for these two pnictides to be half metallic and for their magnetic moment per unit cell will be presented.

  2. Investigation of structural, mechanical, electronic, optical, and dynamical properties of cubic BaLiF3, BaLiH3, and SrLiH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.; Salmankurt, Bahadır; Duman, Sıtkı

    2016-03-01

    The structural, mechanical, electronic, optical, and dynamical properties of BaLiF3, BaLiH3, and SrLiH3 cubic perovskite materials are theoretically investigated by using first principles calculations. Obtained results are in reasonable agreement with other available theoretical and experimental studies. The considered materials are found to be mechanically stable in the cubic structure. We found that all materials are brittle. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential has been used here to obtain an accurate band order. The calculated band-gap energy value of BaLiF3 (8.26 eV) within the mBJ potential agrees very well with the experimentally reported value of 8.41 eV. In order to have a deeper understanding of the bonding mechanism and the effect of atomic relaxation on the electronic band structure, the total and partial density of states have also been calculated. We have investigated the fundamental optical properties, such as the real ɛ 1(ω) and imaginary ɛ 2(ω) parts of the dielectric function, absorption coefficient α(ω), reflectivity R(ω), and refractive index n(ω) in the energy range from 0 to 40 eV within the mBJ potential. The band-gap energy obtained from the absorption spectrum is around 8.76, 3.99, and 3.31 eV for BaLiF3, BaLiH3, and SrLiH3 crystals, respectively. It should be noted that BaLiF3 could be a strong potential candidate as a laser material for the development of a vacuum-ultraviolet light emitting diode once direct transition is confirmed by experimental studies. Finally, we have calculated the lattice dynamical properties of BaLiF3, BaLiH3, SrLiH3, and SrLiF3 crystals. The full phonon dispersion curves of these materials are reported for the first time. Our results clearly indicate that the materials are dynamically stable, except for SrLiF3, in the cubic structure. The obtained zone-center phonon frequencies of BaLiF3, BaLiH3, and SrLiH3 accord very well with previous experimental measurements.

  3. Mass of {sup 11}Li from the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, T.; Savajols, H.; Mittig, W.; Caamano, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Tanihata, I.; Alcorta, M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Bieri, R.; Buchmann, L.; Davids, B.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Mills, W.; Mythili, S.; Openshaw, R.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Ruprecht, G.; Sheffer, G.; Shotter, A. C.

    2009-03-15

    The mass of {sup 11}Li has been determined from Q-value measurements of the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction. The experiment was performed at TRIUMF laboratory with the GANIL active target MAYA. Energy-energy and angle-angle kinematics reconstruction give a Q value of 8.119(22) MeV for the reaction. The derived {sup 11}Li two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=363(22) keV.

  4. Solution-processable glass LiI-Li4SnS4 superionic conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Kern Ho Park; Oh, Dae Yang; Choi, Young Eun; ...

    2015-12-22

    The new, highly conductive (4.1 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 30 °C), highly deformable, and dry-air-stable glass 0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4 is prepared using a homogeneous methanol solution. Furthermore, the solution process enables the wetting of any exposed surface of the active materials with highly conductive solidified electrolytes (0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4), resulting in considerable improvements in electrochemical performances of these electrodes over conventional mixture electrodes.

  5. G-LiHT: Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence; Nelson, Ross; Morton, Douglas; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Masek, Jeffrey; Middleton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have developed an ultra-portable, low-cost, multi-sensor remote sensing system for studying the form and function of terrestrial ecosystems. G-LiHT integrates two LIDARs, a 905 nanometer single beam profiler and 1550 nm scanner, with a narrowband (1.5 nanometers) VNIR imaging spectrometer and a broadband (8-14 micrometers) thermal imager. The small footprint (approximately 12 centimeters) LIDAR data and approximately 1 meter ground resolution imagery are advantageous for high resolution applications such as the delineation of canopy crowns, characterization of canopy gaps, and the identification of sparse, low-stature vegetation, which is difficult to detect from space-based instruments and large-footprint LiDAR. The hyperspectral and thermal imagery can be used to characterize species composition, variations in biophysical variables (e.g., photosynthetic pigments), surface temperature, and responses to environmental stressors (e.g., heat, moisture loss). Additionally, the combination of LIDAR optical, and thermal data from G-LiHT is being used to assess forest health by sensing differences in foliage density, photosynthetic pigments, and transpiration. Low operating costs (approximately $1 ha) have allowed us to evaluate seasonal differences in LiDAR, passive optical and thermal data, which provides insight into year-round observations from space. Canopy characteristics and tree allometry (e.g., crown height:width, canopy:ground reflectance) derived from G-LiHT data are being used to generate realistic scenes for radiative transfer models, which in turn are being used to improve instrument design and ensure continuity between LiDAR instruments. G-LiHT has been installed and tested in aircraft with fuselage viewports and in a custom wing-mounted pod that allows G-LiHT to be flown on any Cessna 206, a common aircraft in use throughout the world. G-LiHT is currently being used for forest biomass and growth estimation

  6. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively.

  7. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet: Letter to the Editor

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-05-01

    Letter to the Editors from Leonard Evans, Bloomfield Hills, MI: Single-vehicle crashes, which account for half of occupant fatalities, are not mentioned in 'Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet', by Thomas P. Wenzel and Marc Ross (March-April). Simple physics shows that in such crashes risk declines as vehicle mass increases. The authors write 'driving imported luxury cars carries extremely low risk, for reasons that are not obvious'. The reasons are obvious--the cars are purchased by low-risk drivers. If they swapped vehicles with drivers of sports cars (which have high risk), the risks would stick with the drivers, not the vehicles. The article reflects the American belief that death on our roads can be substantially reduced by making vehicles in which it is safer to crash. From 1979 through 2002, Great Britain, Canada and Australia reduced fatalities by an average of 49 percent, compared with 16 percent in the U.S. Accumulating the differences over this time shows that by merely matching the safety performance of these other countries, about 200,000 fewer Americans would have died. These trends continue. In 2006 the U.S. recorded 42,642 traffic deaths, a modest 22 percent decline from our all-time high. Sweden recorded 445, a reduction of 66 percent from their all-time high. The obsessive focus on vehicles rather than on countermeasures that scientific research shows substantially reduce risk is at the core of our dramatic safety failure. The only way to substantially reduce deaths is to reduce the risk of crashing, not to make it safer to crash. The response from Drs. Wenzel and Ross: Of course Dr. Evans is correct in stating that driver behavior influences crash risk. In our article we made clear that our estimates of risk include how well a vehicle/driver combination avoids a crash, as well as how crash-worthy a vehicle (and robust a driver) is once a crash occurs. We also analyzed two variables that can account for driver behavior: the fraction of all

  8. Enhanced Performance of Li|LiFePO4 Cells Using CsPF6 as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-20

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structure during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode was further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  9. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Lu, Ziheng; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate compared to its tetragonal counterpart, most of the Li hops in the cubic LLZO do not contribute to the diffusivity due to the dominance of back-and-forth type jumps. The hopping analysis and local Li configuration statistics give evidence that Li diffusivity in cubic LLZO is limited by the low vacancy concentration. The hopping statistics also shows uncorrelated Poisson-like diffusion for Li in the cubic LLZO, and correlated diffusion for Li in the tetragonal LLZO in the temporal scale. Further analysis of the spatio-temporal correlation using site-to-site mutual information confirms the weak site dependence of Li diffusion in the cubic LLZO as the origin for the uncorrelated diffusion. This work puts forward a perspective on combining machine learning and information theory to interpret results of molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi; Lu, Ziheng; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-01-17

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate compared to its tetragonal counterpart, most of the Li hops in the cubic LLZO do not contribute to the diffusivity due to the dominance of back-and-forth type jumps. The hopping analysis and local Li configuration statistics give evidence that Li diffusivity in cubic LLZO is limited by the low vacancy concentration. The hopping statistics also shows uncorrelated Poisson-like diffusion for Li in the cubic LLZO, and correlated diffusion for Li in the tetragonal LLZO in the temporal scale. Further analysis of the spatio-temporal correlation using site-to-site mutual information confirms the weak site dependence of Li diffusion in the cubic LLZO as the origin for the uncorrelated diffusion. This work puts forward a perspective on combining machine learning and information theory to interpret results of molecular dynamics simulations.

  11. Data mining of molecular dynamics data reveals Li diffusion characteristics in garnet Li7La3Zr2O12

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi; Lu, Ziheng; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Li diffusion in solid conductors is essential for the next generation Li batteries. Here we show that density-based clustering of the trajectories computed using molecular dynamics simulations helps elucidate the Li diffusion mechanism within the Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) crystal lattice. This unsupervised learning method recognizes lattice sites, is able to give the site type, and can identify Li hopping events. Results show that, while the cubic LLZO has a much higher hopping rate compared to its tetragonal counterpart, most of the Li hops in the cubic LLZO do not contribute to the diffusivity due to the dominance of back-and-forth type jumps. The hopping analysis and local Li configuration statistics give evidence that Li diffusivity in cubic LLZO is limited by the low vacancy concentration. The hopping statistics also shows uncorrelated Poisson-like diffusion for Li in the cubic LLZO, and correlated diffusion for Li in the tetragonal LLZO in the temporal scale. Further analysis of the spatio-temporal correlation using site-to-site mutual information confirms the weak site dependence of Li diffusion in the cubic LLZO as the origin for the uncorrelated diffusion. This work puts forward a perspective on combining machine learning and information theory to interpret results of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:28094317

  12. Enhanced performance of Li|LiFePO4 cells using CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-01

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structures during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode is further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Carbon Nano Fiber/LiFePO 4 composites for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneswari, M. S.; Bramnik, N. N.; Ensling, D.; Ehrenberg, H.; Jaegermann, W.

    Carbon Nano Fibers (CNFs) coated with LiFePO 4 particles have been prepared by a non-aqueous sol-gel technique. The functionalization of the CNFs by HNO 3 acid treatment has been confirmed by Raman and XPS analyses. The samples pure LiFePO 4 and LiFePO 4-CNF have been characterized by XRD, SEM, RAMAN, XPS and electrochemical analysis. The LiFePO 4-CNF sample shows better electrochemical performance compared to as-prepared LiFePO 4. LiFePO 4-CNF (10 wt.%) delivers a higher specific capacity (∼140 mAh g -1) than LiFePO 4 with carbon black (25 wt.%) added after synthesis (∼120 mAh g -1) at 0.1C.

  14. Influence of surface modification of LiCoO2 by organic compounds on electrochemical and thermal properties of Li/LiCoO2 rechargeable cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Kyuna, Tomohiro; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-ichi

    2011-03-01

    LiCoO2 is the most famous positive electrode (cathode) for lithium ion cells. When LiCoO2 is charged at high charge voltages far from 4.2 V, cycleability of LiCoO2 becomes worse. Causes for this deterioration are instability of pure LiCoO2 crystalline structure and an oxidation of electrolyte solutions LiCoO2 at higher charge voltages. This electrolyte oxidation accompanies with the partial reduction of LiCoO2. We think more important factor is the oxidation of electrolyte solutions. In this work, influence of 10 organic compounds on electrochemical and thermal properties of LiCoO2 cells was examined as electrolyte additives. As a base electrolyte solution, 1 M (M: mol L-1) LiPF6-ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) (mixing volume ratio = 3:7) was used. These compounds are o-terphenyl (o-TP), Ph-X (CH3)n (n = 1 or 2, X = N, O or S) compounds, adamantyl toluene compounds, furans and thiophenes. These additives had the oxidation potentials (Eox) between 3.4 and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. These Eox values were lower than that (6.30 V vs. Li/Li+) of the base electrolyte. These additives are oxidized on LiCoO2 during charge of the LiCoO2 cells. Oxidation products suppress the excess oxidation of electrolyte solutions on LiCoO2. As a typical example of these organic compounds, o-TP (Eox: 4.52 V) was used to check the fundamental properties of these organic additives. Charge-discharge cycling tests were carried out for the Li/LiCoO2 cells with and without o-TP. Constant current charge at 4.5 V is mainly used as a charge method. Cells with 0.1 wt.% o-TP exhibited slightly better cycling performance and lower polarization than those without additives. Lower polarization arises from a decrease in a resistance of interface between electrolyte solutions and LiCoO2 by surface film formation resulted from oxidation of o-TP. Oxidation products were found by mass spectroscopy analysis to be mixture of several polycondensation compounds made from two to four terphenly

  15. Comparative study of EC/DMC LiTFSI and LiPF 6 electrolytes for electrochemical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Ghamouss, Fouad; Tran-Van, François; Lemordant, Daniel; Anouti, Mérièm

    Lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt are potentially a good alternative to LiPF 6 since it could both improve the chemical and thermal stability as salt for electrolyte. This work presents a systematic comparative study between LiPF 6 and LiTFSI in a mixture of EC/DMC on the basis of some of their physicochemical properties. Transport properties (viscosity and conductivity) are compared at various temperatures from -20 to 80 °C. Using Walden rule, we have demonstrated that LiTFSI 1 M in EC/DMC is more ionic than LiPF 6 1 M in the same binary solvent. Moreover, the electrochemical storage properties of an activated carbon electrode were investigated in EC/DMC mixture containing LiTFSI or LiPF 6. The specific capacitance C s of activated carbon was determined from the Galvanostatic charge-discharge curve between 2 and 3.7 V, at low current densities. The capacitance values were found to be 100 and 90 F g -1 respectively for LiTFSI and LiPF 6 electrolytes at 2 mA g -1. On the basis of the physicochemical and electrochemical measurements, we have correlated the improvement of the specific capacitance with activated carbon to the increase of the ionicity of the LiTFSI salt in EC/DMC binary system. The drawback concerning the corrosion of aluminium collectors was resolved by adding a few percentage of LiPF 6 (1%) in the binary electrolyte. Finally, we have studied the electrochemical behavior of intercalation-deintercalation of lithium in the graphite electrode with EC/DMC + LiTFSI as electrolyte. Results of this study indicate that the realization of asymmetric graphite/activated carbon supercapacitors with LiFTSI based electrolyte is possible.

  16. Li + ion diffusion in nanoscale alumina coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle; Bernstein, Noam

    Nanoscale coatings of alumina are used to stabilize surfaces for a variety of technologies. Diffusion of ions through these coatings is of primary importance: in some cases, diffusion is unwanted (e.g. corrosion) and in others (e.g. electrode materials), it is necessary. In this work DFT and AIMD calculations are used to investigate Li+ ion diffusion through a nano-layer of alumina, examining the phase (alpha, gamma, and amorphous), ion concentration, and electron count dependence. We look at the role of the surface itself in promoting diffusion. One of our main findings is that as the number of ions or charge increases, the diffusivity rises. We show how our data can explain electrochemical data from coated LiCoO2 cathodes and may point toward better and more efficient coatings for stabilizing electrodes.

  17. Metastable structure of Li13Si4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Bahmann, Silvia; Kortus, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The Li13Si4 phase is one out of several crystalline lithium silicide phases, which is a potential electrode material for lithium ion batteries and contains a high theoretical specific capacity. By means of ab initio methods like density functional theory (DFT) many properties such as heat capacity or heat of formation can be calculated. These properties are based on the calculation of phonon frequencies, which contain information about the thermodynamical stability. The current unit cell of "Li13Si4" given in the ICSD database is unstable with respect to DFT calculations. We propose a modified unit cell that is stable in the calculations. The evolutionary algorithm EVO found a structure very similar to the ICSD one with both of them containing metastable lithium positions. Molecular dynamic simulations show a phase transition between both structures where these metastable lithium atoms move. This phase transition is achieved by a very fast one-dimensional lithium diffusion and stabilizes this phase.

  18. High current LiSOCl2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debiccari, Daniel J.

    The paper describes cell construction, performance, and safety aspects of two high-rate active Li/SOCl2 batteries designed to operate at current densities as high as 26 mA/sq cm in pulse modes of 20 millisec to several minutes. Both cell designs employ a flat-plate arrangement of electrodes, a cyanoacrylate-coated anode, a bonded carbon/copper cathode, and a 1.6 M electrolyte. The major differences of the two designs are the size of the cell and the method of anode attachment. The two batteries were shown to provide over 10 times the mission life of the Ni-Cd batteries; thus, they will eliminate the logistic problems associated with the recharge requirements of the latter. In addition, a replacement of the Ni-Cd battery types with lighter Li-thionyl chloride batteries will significantly reduce battery weight and increase its capacity.

  19. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  20. Composite Solid Electrolyte Containing Li+- Conducting Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, A. John; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2006-01-01

    Improved composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) are being developed for use in lithium-ion power cells. The matrix components of these composites, like those of some prior CSPEs, are high-molecular-weight dielectric polymers [generally based on polyethylene oxide (PEO)]. The filler components of these composites are continuous, highly-Li(+)-conductive, inorganic fibers. PEO-based polymers alone would be suitable for use as solid electrolytes, were it not for the fact that their room-temperature Li(+)-ion conductivities lie in the range between 10(exp -6) and 10(exp -8) S/cm, too low for practical applications. In a prior approach to formulating a CSPE, one utilizes nonconductive nanoscale inorganic filler particles to increase the interfacial stability of the conductive phase. The filler particles also trap some electrolyte impurities. The achievable increase in conductivity is limited by the nonconductive nature of the filler particles.

  1. Core excitation of Li by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwary, S.N.

    1985-07-01

    Cross sections for the excitation of a core electron, which leads to autoionization, in lithium (Li) atomic system by electron impact have been calculated with use of the single-configuration Hartree-Fock wave function within the asymptotic Green's-function approximation (AGFA) in the low-bombarding-energy region. Comparison is made with available results. Our investigation demonstrates that the AGFA supports the R-matrix as well as the distorted-wave Born-approximation behavior.

  2. Thermal and Cycle-Life Behavior of Commercial Li-ion and Li-Polymer Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.; Quinzio, M. V.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerated and real-time LEO cycle-life test data will be presented for a range of commercial Li-ion and Li-polymer (gel type) cells indicating the ranges of performance that can be obtained, and the performance screening tests that must be done to assure long life. The data show large performance variability between cells, as well as a highly variable degradation signature during non-cycling periods within the life tests. High-resolution Dynamic Calorimetry data will be presented showing the complex series of reactions occurring within these Li cells as they are cycled. Data will also be presented for cells being tested using an Adaptive Charge Control Algorithm (ACCA) that continuously adapts itself to changes in cell performance, operation, or environment to both find and maintain the optimum recharge over life. The ACCA has been used to prevent all unneeded overcharge for Li cells, NiCd cells and NiH2 cells. While this is important for all these cell types, it is most critical for Li-ion cells, which are not designed with electrochemical tolerance for overcharge.

  3. Probing the capacity loss of Li3VO4 anode upon Li insertion and extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chaoyi; Wen, Yanwei; Shan, Bin; Zhai, Tianyou; Li, Huiqiao

    2017-04-01

    Fast progresses have been made for Li3VO4 since it is firstly reported as an anode material in 2013. However, most of current works focus on its performance improvement in capacity, rate and cycle capability, little study has been done to address its charge/discharge mechanism. Herein, we try to give a comprehensive understanding of its charge/discharge behaviours and capacity loss mechanism. By controlling the depth of discharge, it is found that the first irreversible capacity loss is related to the formation of SEI film as well as the structure distortion initiated by first lithiation. And the cycle performance of Li3VO4 can also be influenced by the discharge depth. First principle calculation is also performed to predict the structure changes of Li3VO4 upon different Li insertion amounts, and the results prove that the volume expansion and crystal distortion becomes more irreversibly at deep discharge. Along with cycle number, the accumulated structure deterioration results in the decline of material crystallization and structure orders, leading to capacity loss upon cycles. Based on the systematically analysis, future optimization of Li3VO4 are also proposed, for instance, the interface modification by surface coating or optimization of electrolyte components, and structure stabilization by ion doping.

  4. A new active Li-Mn-O compound for high energy density Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Freire, M; Kosova, N V; Jordy, C; Chateigner, D; Lebedev, O I; Maignan, A; Pralong, V

    2016-02-01

    The search for new materials that could improve the energy density of Li-ion batteries is one of today's most challenging issues. Many families of transition metal oxides as well as transition metal polyanionic frameworks have been proposed during the past twenty years. Among them, manganese oxides, such as the LiMn2O4 spinel or the overlithiated oxide Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2, have been intensively studied owing to the low toxicity of manganese-based materials and the high redox potential of the Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) couple. In this work, we report on a new electrochemically active compound with the 'Li4Mn2O5' composition, prepared by direct mechanochemical synthesis at room temperature. This rock-salt-type nanostructured material shows a discharge capacity of 355 mAh g(-1), which is the highest yet reported among the known lithium manganese oxide electrode materials. According to the magnetic measurements, this exceptional capacity results from the electrochemical activity of the Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) and O(2-)/O(-) redox couples, and, importantly, of the Mn(4+)/Mn(5+) couple also.

  5. A new active Li-Mn-O compound for high energy density Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, M.; Kosova, N. V.; Jordy, C.; Chateigner, D.; Lebedev, O. I.; Maignan, A.; Pralong, V.

    2016-02-01

    The search for new materials that could improve the energy density of Li-ion batteries is one of today’s most challenging issues. Many families of transition metal oxides as well as transition metal polyanionic frameworks have been proposed during the past twenty years. Among them, manganese oxides, such as the LiMn2O4 spinel or the overlithiated oxide Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2, have been intensively studied owing to the low toxicity of manganese-based materials and the high redox potential of the Mn3+/Mn4+ couple. In this work, we report on a new electrochemically active compound with the `Li4Mn2O5’ composition, prepared by direct mechanochemical synthesis at room temperature. This rock-salt-type nanostructured material shows a discharge capacity of 355 mAh g-1, which is the highest yet reported among the known lithium manganese oxide electrode materials. According to the magnetic measurements, this exceptional capacity results from the electrochemical activity of the Mn3+/Mn4+ and O2-/O- redox couples, and, importantly, of the Mn4+/Mn5+ couple also.

  6. Rika-Shoshi, the First Physics Experiment Textbook Published in Japanese and its Editor, Jun'ichi Udagawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Akabane, Akira; Shozawa, Jun; Tamaki, Toyomi

    The aim of this study is to examine the teaching of physics experiment at elementary and secondary school levels at the time when Japanese science education commenced. In this report, we focused on the first Japanese textbook of physics experiment, Rika-Shoshi, published in 1882 and the editor of the book, Udagawa Jun'ichi. Many experiments in Rika-Shoshi can be performed using low-cost everyday materials. We compare Rika-Shoshi with the original English textbooks and describe Udagawa's physics teaching in the Gunma Normal School based on the documents in the Gunma University archives. We discuss how we can learn from physics education as taught about 130 years ago.

  7. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  8. [Book review] Ecological Scale - Theory and Applications by D.L. Peterson and V. Thomas Parker, editors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Covering the complexity of the scale topic, this volume represents an important compilation of information on a topic that is often misunderstood, and one for which little attention is paid (although, thankfully, this seems to be on the decline). Although technical, this book provides full exposure to the scale issue in ecology and is an important reference for researchers and resource managers who are working to understand and preserve ecological function in parks. The authors and editors have combined to provide a needed examination of a very important topic. In summary, why purchase all those books on scale when just one will do? The mountain of information alone stuffed into this one book should prompt all parks to get a copy and have it on hand as a quick and ready reference.

  9. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  10. Composite Solid Electrolyte for Li Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.; Peled, E.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical, bulk and interfacial properties of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) based composite solid electrolyte (CSE) comprising LiI, PEO, and Al2O3 have been evaluated for Li battery applications. The bulk interfacial and transport properties of the CSEs seem to strongly depend on the alumina particle size. For the CSE films with 0.05 micron alumina while the bulk conductivity is around 10(exp -4) (mho/cm) at 103 C, the Li ion transport number seems to be close to unity at the same temperature. Compared to the PEO electrolyte this polymer composite electrolyte seems to exhibit robust mechanical and interfacial properties. We have studied three different films with three different alumina sizes in the range 0.01-0.3 micron. Effects of Al2O3 particle size on the electrochemical performance of polymer composite electrolyte is discussed. With TiS2 as cathode a 10 mAh small capacity cell was charged and discharged at C/40 and C/20 rates respectively.

  11. Prussian Blue Mg—Li Hybrid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li+ insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two “high voltage” Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg2+; 3.0 V vs Li/Li+) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g−1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g−1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g−1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system. PMID:27818909

  12. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg(2+) ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li(+) insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg(2+); 3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g(-1) are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g(-1) (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g(-1) (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  13. Interfacial Li-ion localization in hierarchical carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nicholas W.; Rios, Orlando; Maroulas, Vasileios; Keffer, David J.

    2016-10-24

    An understanding of the nanoscale structure and energetics of carbon composites is critical for their applications in electric energy storage. Here, we study the properties of carbon anodes synthesized from low-cost renewable lignin biopolymers for use in energy storage applications such as Li-ion batteries. The anodes possess both nanoscale and mesoscale order, consisting of carbon nanocrystallites distributed within an amorphous carbon matrix. Molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally validated model of the anode is used to elucidate the nature of Li-ion storage. We report the discovery of a novel mechanism of Li-ion storage, one in which Li+ is not intercalated between layers of carbon (as is the case in graphitic anodes), but rather is localized at the interface of crystalline carbon domains. In particular, the effects of Li-ion binding energy on the Li-Li, Li-H, and Li-C pair distribution functions are revealed, along with the effect on charge distribution. As a result, the atomic environments surrounding the Li-ions are grouped on the basis of ion energy and then convolved into archetypal structural motifs that reveal deep insight into the geometry of ion localization in disordered systems.

  14. High performance MCFC using Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Donado, R.A.; Ong, E.T.; Sishtla, C.I.

    1995-08-01

    The substitution of a lithium/ sodium carbonate (Li/Na) mixture for the lithium/potassium carbonate (Li/K) electrolyte used in MCFCs holds the promise of higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current density at both electrodes, lower vapor pressure, and lower cathode dissolution rates. However, when the substitution is made in cells optimized for use with the Li/K electrolyte, the promised increase in performance is not realized. As a consequence the literature contains conflicting data with regard to the performance, compositional stability, and chemical reactivity of the Li/Na electrolyte. Experiments conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) concluded that the source of the problem is the different wetting characteristics of the two electrolytes. Electrode pore structures optimized for use with Li/K do not work well with Li/Na. Using proprietary methods and materials, IGT was able to optimize a set of electrodes for the Li/Na electrolyte. Experiments conducted in bench-scale cells have confirmed the superior performance of the Li/Na electrolyte compared to the Li/K electrolyte. The Li/Na cells exhibited a 5 to 8 percent improvement in overall performance, a substantial decrease in the rate of cathode dissolution, and a decreased decay rate. The longest running cell has logged over 13,000 hours of operation with a decay rate of less than 2 mV/1000 hours.

  15. Li2OHCl crystalline electrolyte for stable metallic lithium anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Hood, Zachary D.; Wang, Hui; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; ...

    2016-01-22

    In a classic example of stability from instability, we show that Li2OHCl solid electrolyte forms a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) with metallic lithium anode. The Li2OHCl solid electrolyte can be readily achieved through simple mixing of air-stable LiOH and LiCl precursors with a mild processing temperature under 400 °C. Additionally, we show that continuous, dense Li2OHCl membranes can be fabricated at temperatures less than 400 °C, standing in great contrast to current processing temperatures of over 1600 °C for most oxide-based solid electrolytes. The ionic conductivity and Arrhenius activation energy were explored for the LiOH-LiCl system of crystalline solidmore » electrolytes where Li2OHCl with increased crystal defects was found to have the highest ionic conductivity and reasonable Arrhenius activation energy. The Li2OHCl solid electrolyte displays stability against metallic lithium, even in extreme conditions past the melting point of lithium metal. Furthermore, to understand this excellent stability, we show that SEI formation is critical in stabilizing the interface between metallic lithium and the Li2OHCl solid electrolyte.« less

  16. Interfacial Li-ion localization in hierarchical carbon anodes

    DOE PAGES

    McNutt, Nicholas W.; Rios, Orlando; Maroulas, Vasileios; ...

    2016-10-24

    An understanding of the nanoscale structure and energetics of carbon composites is critical for their applications in electric energy storage. Here, we study the properties of carbon anodes synthesized from low-cost renewable lignin biopolymers for use in energy storage applications such as Li-ion batteries. The anodes possess both nanoscale and mesoscale order, consisting of carbon nanocrystallites distributed within an amorphous carbon matrix. Molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally validated model of the anode is used to elucidate the nature of Li-ion storage. We report the discovery of a novel mechanism of Li-ion storage, one in which Li+ is not intercalatedmore » between layers of carbon (as is the case in graphitic anodes), but rather is localized at the interface of crystalline carbon domains. In particular, the effects of Li-ion binding energy on the Li-Li, Li-H, and Li-C pair distribution functions are revealed, along with the effect on charge distribution. As a result, the atomic environments surrounding the Li-ions are grouped on the basis of ion energy and then convolved into archetypal structural motifs that reveal deep insight into the geometry of ion localization in disordered systems.« less

  17. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-12-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  18. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-12-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  19. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu–Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. PMID:25473128

  20. Nanoparticle shapes of LiMnPO4, Li+ diffusion orientation and diffusion coefficients for high volumetric energy Li+ ion cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Nam Hee; Yin, Hui; Vavrova, Tatiana; Lim, Jonathan H.-W.; Steiner, Ullrich; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles of LiMnPO4 were fabricated in rod, elongated as well as cubic shapes. The 1D Li+ preferred diffusion direction for each shape was determined via electron diffraction spot patterns. The shape of nano-LiMnPO4 varied the diffusion coefficient of Li+ because the Li+ diffusion direction and the path length were different. The particles with the shortest dimension along the b-axis provided the highest diffusion coefficient, resulting in the highest gravimetric capacity of 135, 100 and 60 mAh g-1 at 0.05C, 1C and 10C, respectively. Using ball-milling, a higher loading of nano-LiMnPO4 in the electrode was achieved, increasing the volumetric capacity to 263 mAh cm-3, which is ca. 3.5 times higher than the one obtained by hand-mixing of electrode materials. Thus, the electrochemical performance is governed by both the diffusion coefficient of Li+, which is dependent on the shape of LiMnPO4 nanoparticles and the secondary composite structure.

  1. Characterizing Lava Flows With LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligne, N. I.; Cashman, K. V.; Deardorff, N.; Dietterich, H. R.; House, P. K.; Soule, S.

    2009-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in volcanology in predictive modeling of lava flow paths, both for assessment of potential hazards and specific predictions of lava flow paths. Topographic analysis of a lava flow is potentially useful for mapping and quantifying flow surface morphologies, which in turn can be used to determine flow emplacement conditions, such as effusion rate, steadiness of flow, and interactions with pre-existing topography and surface water. However, this has been limited in application because of the coarse resolution of most DEMs. In recent years, use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) airborne laser altimetry, capable of producing high resolution (≤ 1 meter) DEMs, has become increasingly common in the geomorphic and mapping community. However, volcanologists have made little use of airborne LiDAR. Here we compare information obtained using field observations and standard (10 meter) DEMs against LiDAR high resolution DEMs to assess the usefulness, capabilities, and limitations of LiDAR as applicable to lava flows. We compare morphologic characteristics of five lava flows of different compositions, tectonic settings, flow extents, slopes, and eruption duration: (1) 1984 Mauna Loa lava flow, Hawaii; (2) December 1974 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii; (3) c. 1600 ybp Collier Cone lava flow, central Oregon Cascades; (4) Holocene lava flows from the Sand Mountain volcanic chain, central Oregon Cascades; and (5) Pleistocene lava flows along the Owyhee River, eastern Oregon basin and range. These lava flows range in composition from basalt to andesite, and have eruption durations ranging from 6 hours (observed) to years (inferred). We measure channel width, levee and flow front heights, compression ridge amplitude, wavelength and tumuli dimensions, and surface roughness. For all but the smallest scale features, LiDAR is easily used to quantify these features, which often is impossible or technically challenging to do in the field, while

  2. Quantum dynamics of H + LiF and Li + HF collisions at ultracold temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weck, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The rapid progress in experimental methods such as photoassociation and Feshbach resonance methods led recently to the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates of molecules. This technical breakthrough opens new perspectives in the study of intermolecular interactions and offers new opportunites for the study of rovibrational relaxation and chemical reactivity in ultracold gases. In this work, we present quantum scattering calculations of H + LiF and Li + HF collisions at cold and ultracold temperatures for which the reactions proceed by quantum tunneling of the relatively heavy F atom through a barrier along the reaction path. Particular effort is made here to assign resonances due to the decay of metastable states of the LiFH and HLiF van der Waals complexes. The unusually deep van der Waals wells give rise to long-lived collision complexes and narrow scattering resonances in the energy dependence of reaction cross sections. The effect of vibrational excitation on the reactivity is also explored.

  3. Li + ion diffusion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film electrode prepared by PVP sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young Ho; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2004-06-01

    Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin films for rechargeable lithium batteries were prepared by a sol-gel method with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Interfacial properties of lithium insertion into Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). Redox peaks in CV were very sharp even at a fast scan rate of 50 mV s -1, indicating that Li 4Ti 5O 12 thin film had a fast electrochemical response, and that an apparent chemical diffusion coefficient of Li + ion was estimated to be 6.8×10 -11 cm 2 s -1 from a dependence of peak current on sweep rates. From EIS, it can be seen that Li + ions become more mobile at 1.55 V vs. Li/Li +, corresponding to a two-phase region, and the chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion ranged from 10 -10 to 10 -12 cm 2 s -1 at various potentials. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li + ion in Li 4Ti 5O 12 were also estimated from PITT. They were in a range of 10 -11-10 -12 cm 2 s -1.

  4. Spectroscopic information of 6Li from elastic scattering of deuterons, 3He and 4He by 6Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The elastic scattering of deuterons, 3He and 4He on 6Li at different incident energies have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model (OM) using ECIS88 as well as SPI GENOA codes. The optical potential parameters were extracted in the phenomenological treatment. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental differential cross-sections was obtained in whole angular range. Parameters for real part of potential have been also calculated microscopically with double-folding model for the d, 3He and 4He scattering, respectively, using DFPOT code. The elastic transfer mechanism has been studied by coupled reaction channel (CRC) method using FRESCO code. Spectroscopic amplitudes of 6Li ≡ t + 3He and 6Li ≡ α + d configurations have been extracted from d, 3He and 4He scattering on 6Li at wide energy range. A comparison between spectroscopic amplitudes obtained from deuteron and α elastically scattering from 6Li has been made. The extracted spectroscopic amplitudes of 6Li ≡ 4He + d(SF = SA2) from 6Li(d, 6Li)d and 6Li(α, 6Li)α are not the same as expected theoretically.

  5. A Stable, Magnetic, and Metallic Li3O4 Compound as a Discharge Product in a Li-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guochun; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2014-08-07

    The Li-air battery with the specific energy exceeding that of a Li ion battery has been aimed as the next-generation battery. The improvement of the performance of the Li-air battery needs a full resolution of the actual discharge products. Li2O2 has been long recognized as the main discharge product, with which, however, there are obvious failures on the understanding of various experimental observations (e.g., magnetism, oxygen K-edge spectrum, etc.) on discharge products. There is a possibility of the existence of other Li-O compounds unknown thus far. Here, a hitherto unknown Li3O4 compound as a discharge product of the Li-air battery was predicted through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The new compound has a unique structure featuring the mixture of superoxide O2(-) and peroxide O2(2-), the first such example in the Li-O system. The existence of superoxide O2(-) creates magnetism and hole-doped metallicity. Findings of Li3O4 gave rise to direct explanations of the unresolved experimental magnetism, triple peaks of oxygen K-edge spectra, and the Raman peak at 1125 cm(-1) of the discharge products. Our work enables an opportunity for the performance of capacity, charge overpotential, and round-trip efficiency of the Li-air battery.

  6. Sylvia Taylor Johnson, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" (1994-2001): A World-Class Champion Runner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gerunda B.; Wallace, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    With characteristic crystal clarity and advanced, sharply honed research skills, Dr. Sylvia T. Johnson was able to take full advantage of holding the position of Editor-in-Chief of "The Journal of Negro Education" from 1994 to 2001. This article summarizes her accomplishments through the many hats she wore.

  7. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  8. Erratum: Letter to the Editor: Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} is the reprint of a corrected table from a previous paper about the exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11.

  9. Letter to the editor for the article "Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy".

    PubMed

    Song, T Ted

    2014-01-01

    Letter to the Editor for "Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy" by Tsai et al. There are limitations of this study note mentioning such as method of compression, role of propulsion, defining those patients who are at risk of prophylaxis and future studies.

  10. On Paper or Hypermedia? The Effect of Procedural Information in Digital Video Format in the Learning of a Music Score Editor Program by Novice Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Jesus Tejada; Saenz de Jubera, Magdalena

    This study, by means of an experimental design, examines whether the use of an electronic manual is more effective and efficient than a print manual for the training of novice users with a music score editor program. Differences in access to the two types of manuals were looked for, and information on users' perceptions regarding the materials…

  11. Problems of Journalism; Proceedings of the 1975 Annual Convention of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (Washington, D.C., April 16-18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Newspaper Editors, Easton, PA.

    This document reports the 1975 proceedings of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) convention held in Washington, D.C., April 16-18. The contents include a list of officers and directors, past presidents of the society, and a copy of the ASNE Code of Ethics. Also contained in the document are reports on such individual sessions as…

  12. GUEST EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION: Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysanthis, Panos K.

    1996-12-01

    Computer Science Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA This special issue focuses on current efforts to represent and support workflows that integrate information systems and human resources within a business or manufacturing enterprise. Workflows may also be viewed as an emerging computational paradigm for effective structuring of cooperative applications involving human users and access to diverse data types not necessarily maintained by traditional database management systems. A workflow is an automated organizational process (also called business process) which consists of a set of activities or tasks that need to be executed in a particular controlled order over a combination of heterogeneous database systems and legacy systems. Within workflows, tasks are performed cooperatively by either human or computational agents in accordance with their roles in the organizational hierarchy. The challenge in facilitating the implementation of workflows lies in developing efficient workflow management systems. A workflow management system (also called workflow server, workflow engine or workflow enactment system) provides the necessary interfaces for coordination and communication among human and computational agents to execute the tasks involved in a workflow and controls the execution orderings of tasks as well as the flow of data that these tasks manipulate. That is, the workflow management system is responsible for correctly and reliably supporting the specification, execution, and monitoring of workflows. The six papers selected (out of the twenty-seven submitted for this special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering) address different aspects of these three functional components of a workflow management system. In the first paper, `Correctness issues in workflow management', Kamath and Ramamritham discuss the important issue of correctness in workflow management that constitutes a prerequisite for the use of workflows in the automation of the critical organizational/business processes. In particular, this paper examines the issues of execution atomicity and failure atomicity, differentiating between correctness requirements of system failures and logical failures, and surveys techniques that can be used to ensure data consistency in workflow management systems. While the first paper is concerned with correctness assuming transactional workflows in which selective transactional properties are associated with individual tasks or the entire workflow, the second paper, `Scheduling workflows by enforcing intertask dependencies' by Attie et al, assumes that the tasks can be either transactions or other activities involving legacy systems. This second paper describes the modelling and specification of conditions involving events and dependencies among tasks within a workflow using temporal logic and finite state automata. It also presents a scheduling algorithm that enforces all stated dependencies by executing at any given time only those events that are allowed by all the dependency automata and in an order as specified by the dependencies. In any system with decentralized control, there is a need to effectively cope with the tension that exists between autonomy and consistency requirements. In `A three-level atomicity model for decentralized workflow management systems', Ben-Shaul and Heineman focus on the specific requirement of enforcing failure atomicity in decentralized, autonomous and interacting workflow management systems. Their paper describes a model in which each workflow manager must be able to specify the sequence of tasks that comprise an atomic unit for the purposes of correctness, and the degrees of local and global atomicity for the purpose of cooperation with other workflow managers. The paper also discusses a realization of this model in which treaties and summits provide an agreement mechanism, while underlying transaction managers are responsible for maintaining failure atomicity. The fourth and fifth papers are experience papers describing a workflow management system and a large scale workflow application, respectively. Schill and Mittasch, in `Workflow management systems on top of OSF DCE and OMG CORBA', describe a decentralized workflow management system and discuss its implementation using two standardized middleware platforms, namely, OSF DCE and OMG CORBA. The system supports a new approach to workflow management, introducing several new concepts such as data type management for integrating various types of data and quality of service for various services provided by servers. A problem common to both database applications and workflows is the handling of missing and incomplete information. This is particularly pervasive in an `electronic market' with a huge number of retail outlets producing and exchanging volumes of data, the application discussed in `Information flow in the DAMA project beyond database managers: information flow managers'. Motivated by the need for a method that allows a task to proceed in a timely manner if not all data produced by other tasks are available by its deadline, Russell et al propose an architectural framework and a language that can be used to detect, approximate and, later on, to adjust missing data if necessary. The final paper, `The evolution towards flexible workflow systems' by Nutt, is complementary to the other papers and is a survey of issues and of work related to both workflow and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) areas. In particular, the paper provides a model and a categorization of the dimensions which workflow management and CSCW systems share. Besides summarizing the recent advancements towards efficient workflow management, the papers in this special issue suggest areas open to investigation and it is our hope that they will also provide the stimulus for further research and development in the area of workflow management systems.

  13. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Vinoski, Steve

    1997-09-01

    The organization of a distributed system can have a tremendous impact on its capabilities, its performance, and its ability to evolve to meet changing requirements. For example, the client - server organization model has proven to be adequate for organizing a distributed system as a number of distributed servers that offer various functions to client processes across the network. However, it lacks peer-to-peer capabilities, and experience with the model has been predominantly in the context of local networks. To achieve peer-to-peer cooperation in a more global context, systems issues of scale, heterogeneity, configuration management, accounting and sharing are crucial, and the complexity of migrating from locally distributed to more global systems demands new tools and techniques. An emphasis on interfaces and modules leads to the modelling of a complex distributed system as a collection of interacting objects that communicate with each other only using requests sent to well defined interfaces. Although object granularity typically varies at different levels of a system architecture, the same object abstraction can be applied to various levels of a computing architecture. Since 1989, the Object Management Group (OMG), an international software consortium, has been defining an architecture for distributed object systems called the Object Management Architecture (OMA). At the core of the OMA is a `software bus' called an Object Request Broker (ORB), which is specified by the OMG Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification. The OMA distributed object model fits the structure of heterogeneous distributed applications, and is applied in all layers of the OMA. For example, each of the OMG Object Services, such as the OMG Naming Service, is structured as a set of distributed objects that communicate using the ORB. Similarly, higher-level OMA components such as Common Facilities and Domain Interfaces are also organized as distributed objects that can be layered over both Object Services and the ORB. The OMG creates specifications, not code, but the interfaces it standardizes are always derived from demonstrated technology submitted by member companies. The specified interfaces are written in a neutral Interface Definition Language (IDL) that defines contractual interfaces with potential clients. Interfaces written in IDL can be translated to a number of programming languages via OMG standard language mappings so that they can be used to develop components. The resulting components can transparently communicate with other components written in different languages and running on different operating systems and machine types. The ORB is responsible for providing the illusion of `virtual homogeneity' regardless of the programming languages, tools, operating systems and networks used to realize and support these components. With the adoption of the CORBA 2.0 specification in 1995, these components are able to interoperate across multi-vendor CORBA-based products. More than 700 member companies have joined the OMG, including Hewlett-Packard, Digital, Siemens, IONA Technologies, Netscape, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft and IBM, which makes it the largest standards body in existence. These companies continue to work together within the OMG to refine and enhance the OMA and its components. This special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering publishes five papers that were originally presented at the `Distributed Object-Based Platforms' track of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), which was held in Wailea on Maui on 6 - 10 January 1997. The papers, which were selected based on their quality and the range of topics they cover, address different aspects of CORBA, including advanced aspects such as fault tolerance and transactions. These papers discuss the use of CORBA and evaluate CORBA-based development for different types of distributed object systems and architectures. The first paper, by S Rahkila and S Stenberg, discusses the application of CORBA to telecommunication management networks. In the second paper, P Narasimhan, L E Moser and P M Melliar-Smith present a fault-tolerant extension of an ORB. The third paper, by J Liang, S Sédillot and B Traverson, provides an overview of the CORBA Transaction Service and its integration with the ISO Distributed Transaction Processing protocol. In the fourth paper, D Sherer, T Murer and A Würtz discuss the evolution of a cooperative software engineering infrastructure to a CORBA-based framework. The fifth paper, by R Fatoohi, evaluates the communication performance of a commercially-available Object Request Broker (Orbix from IONA Technologies) on several networks, and compares the performance with that of more traditional communication primitives (e.g., BSD UNIX sockets and PVM). We wish to thank both the referees and the authors of these papers, as their cooperation was fundamental in ensuring timely publication.

  14. Li-Ion Cell Development for Low Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Sakamoto, J. S.; Surampudi, S.; Wolfenstine, J.

    2000-01-01

    JPL is involved in the development of rechargeable Li-ion cells for future Mars Exploration Missions. The specific objectives are to improve the Li-ion cell cycle life performance and rate capability at low temperature (<<-20 C) in order to enhance survivability of the Mars lander and rover batteries. Poor Li-ion rate capability at low temperature has been attributed to: (1) the electrolytes becoming viscous or freezing and/or (2) reduced electrode capacity that results from decreased Li diffusivity. Our efforts focus on increasing the rate capability at low temperature for Li-ion cells. In order to improve the rate capability we evaluated the following: (1) cathode performance at low temperatures, (2) electrode active material particle size on low temperature performance and (3) Li diffusivity at room temperature and low temperatures. In this paper, we will discuss the results of our study.

  15. Fabrication development of Li 2O pebbles by wet process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Fuchinoue, Katsuhiro; Saito, Shigeru; Watarumi, Kazutoshi; Furuya, Takemi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    Lithium oxide (Li 2O) is one of the best tritium breeding materials. A small sphere of Li 2O is proposed in some designs of fusion blankets. Recently, reprocessing technology on irradiated ceramic tritium breeders was developed from the viewpoint of effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. The wet process is advantageous for fabricating small Li 2O pebbles from the reprocessed lithium-bearing solutions. Preliminary fabrication tests of Li 2O pebbles by the wet process were carried out. However, the density of the pebbles obtained was only 55%. Therefore, process improvement tests were performed in order to increase the density of Li 2O pebbles fabricated by this method. The improved process yielded Li 2O pebbles in the target range of 80-85% T.D.

  16. Diffusion of 6Li in Ta and W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Köster, U.; Cervena, J.; Havranek, V.; Pasold, G.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this work was the study of 6Li diffusion in the Ta and W refractory metals. The samples were prepared by ion implantation of 380 keV 6Li+ ions into W and Ta thin foils (up to the fluence of 1016 ions/cm2) and annealed up to the temperature 1940 °C. The depth profiles of 6Li were determined using the Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling (TNDP) technique. The results showed that diffusion of 6Li in both W and Ta foils is very complex and cannot be described by simple Fick's laws. Trapping centers (in the subsurface layers of both W and Ta metals) were supposed in a trial to explain the 6Li diffusion behaviour. However, the 6Li depth profiles were only partly explained. Other aspects are necessary to take into account for more proper quantification; such as spatially dependent diffusion coefficients, etc.

  17. Growth and crystal structure of LiCuO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Katsuhiro; Koike, Masayoshi; Sawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Humihiko

    1993-03-01

    A new crystal LiCuO2 is synthesized from Li2CuO2 using a topotactic reaction by Li extraction. X-ray measurements reveal that the crystal system of the LiCuO2 is orthorhombic, the space group is Cmmm, and the lattice parameters are a = 5.7078(6) Å, b = 9.639(2) Å, and c = 2.7172(3) Å. The crystal structure determined by Rietveld analysis is closely related to that of Li2CuO2 and of NaCuO2. Magnetic measurement of LiCuO2 shows temperature-independent paramagnetism similar to that of NaCuO2.

  18. Reoxidation of uranium metal immersed in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt after electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Jeong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Sung-Jai; Heo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-03-01

    We present our findings that uranium (U) metal prepared by using the electrolytic reduction process for U oxide (UO2) in a Li2O-LiCl salt can be reoxidized into UO2 through the reaction between the U metal and Li2O in LiCl. Two salt types were used for immersion of the U metal: one was the salt used for electrolytic reduction, and the other was applied to the unused LiCl salts with various concentrations of Li2O and Li metal. Our results revealed that the degree of reoxidation increases with the increasing Li2O concentration in LiCl and that the presence of the Li metal in LiCl suppresses the reoxidation of the U metal.

  19. Gamow shell model description of radiative capture reactions 6Li(p, γ)7Be and 6Li(n, γ)7Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, G. X.; Michel, N.; Fossez, K.; Płoszajczak, M.; Jaganathen, Y.; Betan, R. M. Id

    2017-04-01

    Background. According to standard stellar evolution, lithium abundance is believed to be a useful indicator of the stellar age. However, many evolved stars like red giants show huge fluctuations around expected theoretical abundances that are not yet fully understood. The better knowledge of nuclear reactions that contribute to the creation and destruction of lithium can help to solve this puzzle. Purpose. In this work we apply the Gamow shell model formulated in the coupled-channel representation to investigate the mirror radiative capture reactions 6Li(p, γ)7Be and 6Li(n, γ)7Li. Method. The cross-sections are calculated using a translationally invariant Hamiltonian with the finite-range interaction which is adjusted to reproduce spectra, binding energies and one-nucleon separation energies in 6–7Li, 7Be. The reaction channels are built by coupling the wave functions of ground state {1}1+ and excited states {3}1+, {0}1+, {2}1+ of 6Li with the projectile wave function in different partial waves. Results. We include all relevant E1, M1, and E2 transitions from the initial continuum states to the final bound states J=3/{2}1- and J=1/{2}- of 7Li and 7Be. Our microscopic astrophysical factor for the 6Li(p, γ)7Be reaction follows the average trend of the experimental value as a function of the center of mass energy. For {}6{Li}(n,γ ){}7{Li}, the calculated cross section agrees well with the data from the direct measurement of this reaction at stellar energies. Conclusion. We demonstrate that the s-wave radiative capture of proton (neutron) to the first excited state {J}π =1/{2}1+ of 7Be (7Li) is crucial and increases the total astrophysical S-factor by about 40%.

  20. LiH as Fuel for High Speed Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0058 LiH as Fuel for High Speed Propulsion Claudio Bruno Domenico Simone University of Rome...COVERED (From – To) 9 August 2010 – 09 August 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LiH as Fuel for High Speed Propulsion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-10-1...1-3091 ________________________________________________________________________________ 1 LiH as Fuel for High Speed Propulsion

  1. Probing anode degradation in automotive Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ou Jung

    The lithium-ion battery is drawing attention as a power source for future clean and fuel-efficient vehicles. Although the Li-ion battery presently shows best performance for energy density and power density compared to other rechargeable batteries, some degradation problems still remain as key challenges for long-term durability in automotive applications. Among those problems, Li deposition is well known for causing permanent capacity loss. Fundamental mechanisms of Li deposition in the carbon anode are, however, not fully understood, especially at subzero temperature and/or under high rate charge. This dissertation introduces comprehensive study of Li deposition using automotive 18650 Li-ion cells. The mechanism and relevant diagnostic methods as well as preventive charging protocol are discussed. In part one, a new diagnostic tool is introduced utilizing 3-electrode cell system, which measures thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of cathode and anode, respectively, as a function of temperature and SOC (state of charge): open circuit potential (OCP); Li diffusion coefficient in active particles; and internal resistance. These data are employed to understand electrochemical reaction and its thermal interaction under charging conditions that result in Li deposition. Part two provides a threshold parameter for the onset of Li deposition, which is not commonly used anode potential but charge capacity, or more specifically the amount of Li+ ions participating in intercalation reaction without Li deposition at given charging circumstances. This is called the critical charge capacity in this thesis, beyond which capacity loss at normal operating condition is observed, which becomes more serious as temperature is lowered and/or charge C-rate increases. Based on these experimental results, the mechanism of Li deposition is proposed as the concept of anode particle surface saturation, meaning that once the anode particle surface is saturated with Li in any charging

  2. Photodisintegration of 7Li with progeny nuclei in excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtz, W. A.; Pywell, R. E.; Norum, B. E.; Kucuker, S.; Sawatzky, B. D.; Weller, H. R.; Stave, S.; Ahmed, M. W.

    2015-10-01

    We study the reaction channels 7Li+γ →n +6Li (2.19 ) , 7Li+γ →n +6Li(3.56 ) , and 7Li+γ →d +5He(1.27 )→n +d +4He by detecting neutrons produced by photodisintegration events. We find absolute cross sections and angular dependence for 7Li+γ →n +6Li(2.19 ) at photon energies 13 and 15 MeV and for 7Li+γ →n +6Li+γ →d +5He(1.27 )→n +d +4He we obtain an upper bound on its cross section at photon energies 12, 13, and 15 MeV.

  3. Rechargeable LiNiO2/carbon cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahn, J. R.; von Sacken, U.; Juzkow, M. W.; Al-Janaby, H.

    1991-08-01

    Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is fully intercalated, like LiNiO2. For the anode, the chemical potential of the intercalated Li should be close to that of Li metal, like it is in Li(x)C6. The intercalation of Li in LiNiO2 is discussed, and then in petroleum coke. Then, it is shown that LiNiO2/coke cells have high energy density, long cycle life, excellent high-temperature performance, low self-discharge rates, can be repeatedly discharged to zero volts without damage, and are easily fabricated. It is considered that this type of cell shows far more promise for widespread applications than traditional secondary Li cells using metallic Li anodes.

  4. Properties of (Ga,Mn)As codoped with Li

    SciTech Connect

    Miyakozawa, Shohei; Chen, Lin; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2014-06-02

    We grow Li codoped (Ga,Mn)As layers with nominal Mn composition up to 0.15 by molecular beam epitaxy. The layers before and after annealing are characterized by x-ray diffraction, transport, magnetization, and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. The codoping with Li reduces the lattice constant and electrical resistivity of (Ga,Mn)As after annealing. We find that (Ga,Mn)As:Li takes similar Curie temperature to that of (Ga,Mn)As, but with pronounced magnetic moments and in-plane magnetic anisotropy, indicating that the Li codoping has nontrivial effects on the magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As.

  5. Investigations of the Safety of Li/SOCl2 Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SAFETY OF LI/SOCL2 BATTERIES . CU) _ SS FEB 80 K M ABRAHAM, R M MANK, 6 L HOLLECK DAABO?-78-C-0564 UNCLASSIFIED C-536 DELETTR-78...Research and Development Technical Report DELET-TR-78-054-F 0 INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SAFETY OF Li/SOC12 BATTERIES 0 Kuzhikalail M. Abraham Richard M...formed from the reaction of Li2S, produced in the cell under these operational modes, with LiAlCl4. It has been found that the lithium thioalminum

  6. Increasing Discharge Capacities of Li-(CF)(sub n) Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    An electrolyte additive has shown promise as a means of increasing the sustainable rates of discharge and, hence, the discharge capacities, of lithiumpoly(carbon monofluoride) electrochemical power cells. Lithium-poly(carbon monofluoride) [Li-(CF)n] cells and batteries offer very high specific energies practical values of about 600 W.h/g and a theoretical maximum value of 2,180 W.h/kg. However, because Li-(CF)n cells and batteries cannot withstand discharge at high rates, they have been relegated to niche applications that involve very low discharge currents over times of the order of hundreds to thousands of hours. Increasing the discharge capacities of Li- (CF)n batteries while maintaining high practical levels of specific energy would open new applications for these batteries. During the discharge of a Li-(CF)n cell, one of the electrochemical reactions causes LiF to precipitate at the cathode. LiF is almost completely insoluble in most non-aqueous solvents, including those used in the electrolyte solutions of Li-(CF)n cells. LiF is electrochemically inactive and can block the desired transport of ions at the cathode, and, hence, the precipitation of LiF can form an ever-thickening film on the cathode that limits the rate of discharge.

  7. Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium (SFLiLi) systems for tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Gentile, Charles; Roquemore, Lane

    2013-10-01

    The present approach to magnetic fusion which relies on high recycling plasma-wall interaction has exhausted itself at the level of TFTR, JET, JT-60 devices with no realistic path to the burning plasma. Instead, magnetic fusion needs a return to its original idea of insulation of the plasma from the wall, which was the dominant approach in the 1970s and upon implementations has a clear path to the DEMO device with PDT ~= 100 MW and Qelectric > 1 . The SFLiLi systems of this talk is the technology tool for implementation of the guiding idea of magnetic fusion. It utilizes the unique properties of flowing LiLi to pump plasma particles and, thus, insulate plasma from the walls. The necessary flow rate, ~= 1 g3/s, is very small, thus, making the use of lithium practical and consistent with safety requirements. The talk describes how chemical activity of LiLi, which is the major technology challenge of using LiLi in tokamaks, is addressed by SFLiLi systems at the level of already performed (HT-7) experiment, and in ongoing implementations for a prototype of SFLiLi for tokamak divertors and the mid-plane limiter for EAST tokamak (to be tested in the next experimental campaign). This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  8. Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982. LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl anolyte in porous Li-Al electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-05-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. LiCl precipitation during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  9. Polymorphs of Li 3PO 4 and Li 2MSiO 4 (M = Mn, Co) . The role of pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo y de Dompablo, M. E.; Amador, U.; Gallardo-Amores, J. M.; Morán, E.; Ehrenberg, H.; Dupont, L.; Dominko, R.

    The behavior of Li 3PO 4 and Li 2MSiO 4 (M = Mn, Co) compounds under high pressure/high temperature is investigated. Pmn2 1-Li 3PO 4 remains stable up to the higher experimental limit of 80 kbar (900 °C). A sample of Li 2MnSiO 4 consisting of a mixture of Pn2 1 and Pmnb polymorphs converts upon high pressure/high temperature treatment into the Pmn2 1 polymorph; the latter being stable at 80 kbar and 900 °C. A sample of Li 2CoSiO 4- P2 1 /n transforms to the denser Pmn2 1 polymorph at 40 kbar/900 °C, but decomposes at higher pressure (60 kbar/900 °C). No evidence on any novel Li 2MSiO 4 polymorph is detected in any of the high-pressure products.

  10. Retraction Statement: 'MicroRNA-218 increases cellular sensitivity to Rapamycin via targeting Rictor in cervical cancer' by Li J, Wang J, Wang Y, Qiu H.

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    The above article from APMIS, published online on 24 April 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 123, pp. 562-570, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editors in Chief, Professors Bodil Norrild, Ben Vainer and Elisabeth Ralfkiaer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted due to errors in the reported results. In this study, the authors used HeLa and SiHa cell lines to investigate the biological roles of miR-218. However, subsequently it emerged that the two cell lines were contaminated in the laboratory by other unknown cell lines. When repeating the experiments, it was found that the functions of miR-218 were not as significant as had been previously reported, especially its effects on rapamycin sensitivity. Reference Li J, Li X, Wang J, Wang Y, Qiu H. MicroRNA-218 increases cellular sensitivity to Rapamycin via targeting Rictor in cervical cancer. APMIS 2015; 123:562-570. doi: 10.1111/apm.12387.

  11. The Electrical Conductivity of Li2SO4: LiBr: 0.07 K2SO4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    compressed powder cells • Lithi um silicates and alumino silicates provide ussb1a~ con-ductivity at high temperatures (T > 400°C), but at 25°C , a c i0...of LiBr and small quantities of K2SOk . This new phase extends to the melting point of Li2 SOk :LiBr:O.07 K2 SOi , (559°C) and is thus 235° long . At

  12. First principle study of LiXS2 (X = Ga, In) as cathode materials for Li ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng-Ya, Rao; Fang-Hua, Ning; Li-Wei, Jiang; Xiang-Ming, Zeng; Mu-Sheng, Wu; Bo, Xu; Chu-Ying, Ouyang

    2016-02-01

    From first principle calculations, we demonstrate that LiXS2 (X = Ga, In) compounds have potential applications as cathode materials for Li ion batteries. It is shown that Li can be extracted from the LiXS2 lattice with relatively small volume change and the XS4 tetrahedron structure framework remains stable upon delithiation. The theoretical capacity and average intercalation potential of the LiGaS2 (LiInS2) cathode are 190.4 (144.2) mAh/g and 3.50 V (3.53 V). The electronic structures of the LiXS2 are insulating with band gaps of 2.88 eV and 1.99 eV for X = Ga and In, respectively. However, Li vacancies, which are formed through delithiation, change the electronic structure substantially from insulating to metallic structure, indicating that the electrical conductivities of the LiXS2 compounds should be good during cycling. Li ion migration energy barriers are also calculated, and the results show that Li ion diffusions in the LiXS2 compounds can be as good as those in the currently widely used electrode materials. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Key Program, China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 11264014), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant Nos. 20133ACB21010, 20142BAB212002, and 20132BAB212005), and the Foundation of Jiangxi Provincial Education Committee, China (Grant Nos. GJJ14254 and KJLD14024).

  13. Thermodynamic studies and the phase diagram of the Li-Mg system

    SciTech Connect

    Gasior, W.; Moser, Z.; Zakulski, W.; Schwitzgebel, G.

    1996-09-01

    By means of the electromotive force (emf) method of concentration cells of the following scheme: Li (1)/LiCl-LiF (eut) or LiCi-KCl (eut)/Li-Mg (1) or Li (1)/LiCl-LiF (eut)/Li-Mg (s). Li activities for liquid and solid alloys at the (Mg), (Li), and (Mg) + (Li) two-phase region of the Li-Mg system were determined. Liquid alloys were examined at temperatures from 638 to 889 K at various Li concentrations. The (Mg) solid solutions were investigated in two series: at constant temperatures between 773 and 876 K, with varying Li content, and at fixed Li concentrations, equal to 0.125 and 0.160 molar fractions, at different temperatures between 772 and 849 K. At the two-phase region, (Mg) + (Li), emf measurements were performed in the temperature range 773 to 838 K, with fixed Li concentrations equal to 0.20, 0.25, and 0.275 molar fractions. For (Li) solid alloys, experiments were done at temperatures 773 to 849 K for several constant Li concentrations, between 0.30 and 0.45 molar fractions, respectively. Studies on solid alloys enabled the authors also to determine the boundaries (Li)/[(Mg) + (Li)] and (Mg)/[(Mg) + (Li)] at temperatures 773 to 831 K. The resulting thermodynamic and phase boundary data of this study were used with other selected references for a critical assessment of the Li-Mg system. The Lukas BINGSS optimization program and BINFKT for the calculation of the thermodynamic functions and of the phase diagram were used. The calculated equilibrium phase diagram at temperatures below 750 K indicates a slightly lower solid solubility of Mg in (Li) in comparison with results from thermal analysis and the recently published Saunders evaluation.

  14. Thermodynamic studies and the phase diagram of the Li-Mg system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasior, W.; Moser, Z.; Zakulski, W.; Schwitzgebel, G.

    1996-09-01

    By means of the electromotive force (emf) method of concentration cells of the following scheme: Li (1) / LiCl-LiF (eut) or LiCi-KCl (eut) / Li-Mg (1) or Li (1) / LiCl-LiF (eut) / Li-Mg (s) Li activities for liquid and solid alloys at the (Mg), (Li), and (Mg) + (Li) two-phase region of the Li-Mg system were determined. Liquid alloys were examined at temperatures from 638 to 889 K at various Li concentrations. The (Mg) solid solutions were investigated in two series: at constant temperatures between 773 and 876 K, with varying Li content, and at fixed Li concentrations, equal to 0.125 and 0.160 molar fractions, at different temperatures between 772 and 849 K. At the two-phase region, (Mg) + (Li), emf measurements were performed in the temperature range 773 to 838 K, with fixed Li concentrations equal to 0.20, 0.25, and 0.275 molar fractions. For (Li) solid alloys, experiments were done at temperatures 773 to 849 K for several constant Li concentrations, between 0.30 to 0.45 molar fractions, respectively. Studies on solid alloys enabled us also to determine the boundaries (Li)/[(Mg) + (Li)] and (Mg)/[(Mg) + (Li)] at temperatures 773 to 831 K. The resulting thermodynamic and phase boundary data of this study were used with other selected references for a critical assessment of the Li-Mg system. The Lukas BINGSS optimization program and BINFKT for the calculation of the thermodynamic functions and of the phase diagram were used. The calculated equilibrium phase diagram at temperatures below 750 K indicates a slightly lower solid solubility of Mg in (Li) in comparison with results from thermal analysis and the recently published Saunders evaluation.

  15. Thermal and tritium transport in Li 2O and Li 2ZrO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billone, M. C.

    1996-10-01

    Lithium oxide (Li 2O) and lithium zirconate (Li 2ZrO 3) are promising tritium breeder ceramics for fusion reactors. The thermal and tritium transport databases for these materials are reviewed. Algorithms are presented for predicting the temperature and retained-tritium profiles across sintered-product and pebble-bed regions. The thermal conductivity of sintered-product material has been measured and correlated over a wide range of temperatures and densities. A modified Hall and Martin model gives good agreement with data for the effective conductivity of pebble beds of these ceramics. Laboratory data for tritium behavior in Li 2O have been used to determine model parameters in the TIARA code, which has been validated to 20 post-irradiation inventory data points. As the fundamental database for Li 2ZrO 3 is less complete, a residency-time correlation, based on 31 inventory data points, is proposed. The two ceramics are compared in the context of an ITER breeding-blanket design.

  16. Thin-film Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.; Dudney, N.J.

    1994-11-01

    Thin-film rechargeable Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} batteries have been fabricated and characterized. Following deposition by electron beam evaporation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the amorphous as-deposited cathode films 1 cm{sup 2} in area by 0.3 to 4 {mu}m thick were annealed at 700{degree}C to 800{degree}C in oxygen in order to form the crystalline spinel phase. The capacity of the cells between 4.5 V to 3.8 V depended on the annealing conditions and ranged from 50 {mu}Ah/mg to 120 {mu}Ah/mg. When cycled over this range, the batteries exhibited excellent secondary performance with capacity losses as low as 0.001% per cycle. On charging to 5.3 V, a plateau with a median voltage of 5.1 V was observed. The total charge extracted between 3.8 V to 5.3 V corresponded to about 1Li/Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  17. Li/SO2 cells and Li/SOCl2 cells: Safe use and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C. G.

    1992-05-01

    Most lithium/sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) cells and lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2)) cells have pressure relief safety devices called vents built into them. These vents are designed to open under conditions of increasing internal cell pressure. The likelihood of cell venting has been reduced to very low levels by optimizing cell designs. If fully developed Li/SO2 cells or Li/SOCl2 cells (or batteries) are discharged within the intended design limits, they are essentially nonhazardous. In addition, the consequences of cell ventings are being minimized by use of appropriate absorbant materials and protective coatings. During battery assembly and test, detection and monitoring equipment is used to sense the presence of vented gases. Tester data analysis techniques have been developed to foresee either an increasing likelihood of a vent or the presence of a vented cell. Standard cleanup procedures have been developed to safely decontaminate the assembly or test area following a cell vent.

  18. Radiative 8Li( n, γ)9Li Capture at Low Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of the modified cluster model with forbidden states and classification of states according to the Young tableaux, the possibility is considered of describing the available experimental data for the total cross sections of n8Li capture at thermal and astrophysical energies.

  19. Measuring Li+ inventory losses in LiCoO2/graphite cells using Raman microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Snyder, Chelsea Marie; Apblett, Christopher A.; Grillet, Anne; ...

    2016-03-25

    Here, the contribution from loss of Li+ inventory to capacity fade is described for slow rates (C/10) and long-term cycling (up to 80 cycles). It was found through electrochemical testing and ex-situ Raman analysis that at these slow rates, the entirety of capacity loss up to 80 cycles can be explained by loss of Li+ inventory in the cell. The Raman spectrum of LiCoO2 is sensitive to the state of lithiation and can therefore be leveraged to quantify the state of lithiation for individual particles. With these Raman derived estimates, the lithiation state of the cathode in the discharged statemore » is compared to electrochemical data as a function of cycle number. High correlation is found between Raman quantifications of cycleable lithium and the capacity fade. Additionally, the linear relationship between discharge capacity and cell overpotential suggests that the loss of capacity stems from an impedance rise of the electrodes, which based on Li inventory losses, is caused by SEI formation and repair.« less

  20. Magnetization studies and spin Hamiltonian modelling of Li2 (Li1 - xFex) N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, James H.; Jesche, Anton; Del Barco, Enrique; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    The study of ferromagnetic materials has yielded many examples of compounds which exhibit large energy barriers to a reversal of magnetization and correspondingly wide magnetization versus field hysteresis loops. Some materials, such as members of the class called ``single-molecule magnets'' (SMMs), even display vivid signatures of quantum tunneling effects, manifested as step-like features in hysteresis loop measurements of crystalline ensembles. The compound Li2(Li1-xFex)N has been previously shown to display an extremely high blocking temperature (~ 20 K) and large coercive fields (>11 T), as well as step-like features like those seen in SMMs. Here we report the results of low-temperature Hall sensor magnetization studies on a crystalline sample of Li2(Li1-0.006Fe0.006)N in which we detail evidence of a preferential orientation for the observed features, as well as their dependence upon transverse component fields in their magnitude, behavior which we attempt to model with a giant spin Hamiltonian. This work is supported by the US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.