In this essay, Kilpinen responds to Terry Gates, Scott Goble, and Pentti Maattanen, who have provided reviews of his dissertation book "The Enormous Fly-Wheel of Society." As the reviewers noted, the book attempts to make two points simultaneously, and it may be that this made its argument hard to follow. The first point, that thorough knowledge…
Denning, P. J.
Pentti Kanerva is working on a new class of computers, which are called pattern computers. Pattern computers may close the gap between capabilities of biological organisms to recognize and act on patterns (visual, auditory, tactile, or olfactory) and capabilities of modern computers. Combinations of numeric, symbolic, and pattern computers may one day be capable of sustaining robots. The overview of the requirements for a pattern computer, a summary of Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), and examples of tasks this computer can be expected to perform well are given.
Denning, Peter J.
Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.
Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E.; Akbaraly, Tasnime; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kivimaki, Mika
Study Objectives: To estimate trajectories of sleep lost over worry as a function of age, using longitudinal modeling, and compare these trajectories with those for insomnia symptoms. Design and Setting: Data from two prospective, occupational cohorts (the Whitehall II and Finnish Public Sector studies) comprising 84,384 observations from four to eight repeat measurements in 1985-2010. Participants: There were 16,408 men and women age 34-79 yr. Measurements and Results: Age-related trajectories of sleep lost over worry and insomnia symptoms (sleep initiation or maintenance problems, nonrefreshing sleep) were estimated using repeated-measures log-binomial regression analysis and generalized estimating equations. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and time of measurement to minimize confounding by cohort or period effects. The prevalence ratio for insomnia symptoms was higher in older age groups compared with participants age 34-45 yr. In contrast, the age-related trajectory of sleep lost over worry included two phases: a period of high prevalence of sleep complaints at age 34-60 yr followed by a declining trajectory at older ages. Compared with participants age 34-45 yr, prevalence ratios for sleep lost over worry were 0.63 (0.49-0.80) and 0.59 (0.41-0.84) in the Whitehall II study participants ages 61-65 and 71-79 years. Corresponding figures were 0.62 (0.52-0.75) and 0.46 (0.32-0.66) in the Finnish Public Sector study. Conclusion: This study shows a general age-related decrease in sleep lost over worry between late midlife and old age, a pattern strikingly different from the age-related increase in insomnia symptoms. Citation: Salo P; Vahtera J; Ferrie JE; Akbaraly T; Goldberg M; Zins M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Shipley MJ; Singh-Manoux A; Dauvilliers Y; Kivimaki M. Trajectories of sleep complaints from early midlife to old age: longitudinal modeling study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1559-1568. PMID:23115405
Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Sivertsen, Børge; Hall, Martica; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Mika, Kivimäki
Study Objective: To examine sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work. Design: Prospective observational cohort study linking survey data on sleep disturbances with records of work disability (≥ 90 days sickness absence, disability pension, or death) obtained from national registers. Setting: Public sector employees in Finland. Participants: 56,732 participants (mean age 44.4 years, 80% female), who were at work and free of work disability at the study inception. Measurements and Results: During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, incident diagnosis-specific work disability was observed in 4,028 (7%) employees. Of those, 2,347 (60%) returned to work. Sleep disturbances 5-7 nights per week predicted work disability due to mental disorders (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.9) and diseases of the circulatory system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1), musculoskeletal system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and nervous system (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), and injuries and poisonings (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) after controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, night/shift work, health behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise), diagnosed somatic diseases, use of pain killers, depression, and anxiety. In addition, sleep disturbances prior to disability were associated with higher likelihood of not returning to work after work disability from musculoskeletal diseases (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and, in men, after work disability due to mental disorders (HR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.1). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk for subsequent disabling mental disorders and various physical illnesses. They also predict the outcome of work disability due to musculoskeletal disorders. Citation: Salo P; Oksanen T; Sivertsen B; Hall M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Vahtera J; Kivimäki M. Sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work. SLEEP 2010
Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hall, Martica; Sjösten, Noora; Kivimäki, Mika; Salo, Paula; Ferrie, Jane E.; Jokela, Markus; Pentti, Jaana; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie
; Pentti J; Singh-Manoux A; Goldberg M; Zins M. Effect of retirement on sleep disturbances: the GAZEL prospective cohort study. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1459-1466. PMID:19928385