In this essay, Kilpinen responds to Terry Gates, Scott Goble, and Pentti Maattanen, who have provided reviews of his dissertation book "The Enormous Fly-Wheel of Society." As the reviewers noted, the book attempts to make two points simultaneously, and it may be that this made its argument hard to follow. The first point, that thorough knowledge…
Denning, P. J.
Pentti Kanerva is working on a new class of computers, which are called pattern computers. Pattern computers may close the gap between capabilities of biological organisms to recognize and act on patterns (visual, auditory, tactile, or olfactory) and capabilities of modern computers. Combinations of numeric, symbolic, and pattern computers may one day be capable of sustaining robots. The overview of the requirements for a pattern computer, a summary of Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), and examples of tasks this computer can be expected to perform well are given.
Denning, Peter J.
Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.
Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis; Jennum, Poul; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi
Study Objectives: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. Results: While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04–1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. Commentary: A commentary on this paper appears in this issue on page 1629. Citation: Clark AJ, Salo P, Lange T, Jennum P, Virtanen M, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Rod NH, Vahtera J. Onset of impaired sleep and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1709–1718. PMID:27397560
Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hall, Martica; Sjösten, Noora; Kivimäki, Mika; Salo, Paula; Ferrie, Jane E.; Jokela, Markus; Pentti, Jaana; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie
; Pentti J; Singh-Manoux A; Goldberg M; Zins M. Effect of retirement on sleep disturbances: the GAZEL prospective cohort study. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1459-1466. PMID:19928385