Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk
Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy.
Smith, Rhiannon L
Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms.
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette
Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…
Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David
The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and cognitive interviewing), 168 items (56 for each construct) were written in a first person, past tense format with a 7-day time frame and five response options reflecting frequency. The calibration sample included nearly 15,000 respondents. Final banks of 28, 29, and 29 items were calibrated for depression, anxiety, and anger, respectively, using item response theory. Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided more information than conventional measures in a range of severity from approximately −1 to +3 standard deviations (with higher scores indicating greater distress). Short forms consisting of seven to eight items provided information comparable to legacy measures containing more items. PMID:21697139
Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Onuigbo, Liziana N.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu Onyinye; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Agu, Fedinand U.; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N.
This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT) on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-posttest randomized control group design. Participants were community-dwelling cancer patients (n = 32) and their family caregivers (n = 52). The treatment process consisted of 10 weeks of full intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated-measures analysis of variance for data analysis. The findings revealed significant effects of a REHCT intervention program on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress reduction among the cancer patients and their family caregivers at the end of the intervention. The improvements were also maintained at follow-up meetings in the treatment group compared with the control group who received the usual care and conventional counseling. The researchers have been able to show that REHCT intervention is more effective than a control therapy for cancer patients’ care, education, and counseling in the Nigerian context. PMID:27657099
Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.
The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…
Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A
The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.
van der Meer, Lucienne B; van Duijn, Erik; Giltay, Erik J; Tibben, Aad
Predictive genetic testing for a neurogenetic disorder evokes strong emotions, and may lead to distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies are associated with distress in persons who present for predictive testing for a neurogenetic disorder, and whether these psychological traits predict distress after receiving test results. Self-report scales were used to assess attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing) in adults at 50 % risk for Huntington's Disease (HD), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis - Dutch type (HCHWA-D), when they presented for predictive testing. Distress was measured before testing and twice (within 2 months and between 6 and 8 months) after receiving test results. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies indicated distress. In 98 persons at risk for HD, CADASIL, or HCHWA-D, attachment anxiety and catastrophizing were associated with distress before predictive testing. Attachment anxiety predicted distress up to 2 months after testing. Clinicians may consider looking for signs of attachment anxiety and catastrophizing in persons who present for predictive testing, to see who may be vulnerable for distress during and after testing.
Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.
This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…
McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie
Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888
In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213
Aldea, Mirela A.; Rice, Kenneth G.
Data from a sample of university students (N = 349) were used to test a model in which emotional dysregulation (a composite of emotional reactivity and splitting) was expected to account for the effect of perfectionism on general psychological distress. Significant positive effects were observed between maladaptive perfectionism and distress,…
Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.
Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943
Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice
This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…
Macatee, Richard J; Cougle, Jesse R
Emotion regulation difficulties have been implicated in the maintenance of many anxiety disorders. However, existing research has relied mostly on self-report measures of emotion regulation or one type of mood induction. The present study examined the relationships between anxiety symptoms and emotional reactivity and tolerance using multiple assessment methodologies. Participants (N=122) completed measures of generalized, social, and health anxiety symptoms and reported tolerance of and reactivity to negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, disgust) elicited by 4 film clips. Participants also completed a mirror-tracing persistence task, a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. Social anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in tolerance of film-elicited emotions, whereas generalized anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in total peak reactivity to film-elicited emotions. Health anxiety was not related to tolerance or peak reactivity, but it was predictive of greater anxiety following the mirror-tracing task. The results of this study suggest heightened emotional reactivity is a salient feature of generalized anxiety symptoms, whereas emotional tolerance is more strongly related to social anxiety symptoms. The unique association between health anxiety and anxious response to the distress tolerance task represents a novel finding that warrants further investigation.
Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C
Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.
Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry
Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change.
Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David
The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and…
Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma
From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.
Recent research has highlighted the important role of emotion dysregulation in the occurrence and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety symptoms and older adults' ability to regulate emotional experiences. A total of 167 community dwelling older adults completed self-report measures of affect and were asked to report how often they use specific emotion regulation strategies. Consistent with previous theories older adults experiencing increasing levels of anxiety reported greater difficulties in regulating emotional responses. Present results provide support for previous findings demonstrating that experiencing anxiety symptoms affects the ability to regulate emotional experiences. Current findings are likely to be informative in terms of understanding emotion dysregulation in older adults at risk of experiencing clinical symptoms of anxiety.
Lewis, Alison R.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G.; Epstein, Alyssa; Griffith, James W.
A large body of research suggests that common and specific psychopathology dimensions underlie the symptoms that occur within mood and anxiety disorders. As of yet, it is unclear precisely how the facets of Anxiety Sensitivity (AS), or fear of the symptoms of fear and anxiety, relate to these latent factors. Using data from 606 adolescents participating in the baseline phase of a longitudinal study on risk factors for emotional disorders, we modeled the facets of AS as measured by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Expanded Form (ASI-X) and related these facets to a hierarchical model of latent symptoms of psychological distress. Results suggest that one facet of AS is associated with a broad General Distress factor underlying symptoms of most emotional disorders while others relate to intermediate-level and conceptually-meaningful narrow factors representing aspects of psychological distress specific to particular emotional disorders. PMID:20510917
Clark, Michael; Isaacks-Downton, Gloria; Wells, Nancy; Redlin-Frazier, Sheryl; Eck, Carol; Hepworth, Joseph T; Chakravarthy, Bapsi
Music therapy has decreased anxiety levels in many medical settings. This randomized clinical trial examined the effectiveness of a music listening intervention, delivered by a board-certified music therapist, in patients undergoing curative radiation therapy (RT). Emotional distress (anxiety, depression, and treatment-related distress) and symptoms (fatigue and pain) were measured at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment in 63 patients undergoing RT. Although patients who listened to self-selected music reported lower anxiety and treatment-related distress, there was a decline in these outcomes for patients in both groups over the course of RT. Depression, fatigue, and pain were not appreciably affected by music therapy. Within the music group, there was a significant correlation between number of times music was used/week and the change in treatment-related distress, suggesting that higher doses of music produced greater declines in distress. While these findings provided some support for the use of music in reducing distress during RT, further research demonstrating clear differences between intervention and control conditions is needed. Physical symptoms were not affected by the use of music over the course of RT.
Successful Application of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills Predicts the Subsequent Reduction of Depressive Symptom Severity but neither the Reduction of Anxiety nor the Reduction of General Distress during the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder
Wirtz, Carolin M.; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D.; Berking, Matthias
Objective Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Methods Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Results Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Conclusions Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms. PMID:25330159
MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M
People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance.
Meyers, John E; Grills, Chad E; Zellinger, Margaret M; Miller, Ronald Mellado
The current study tests the hypothesis that the "mountains and valleys pattern" (MVP) observed within the Attention and Concentration domain of the Meyers Neuropsychological Battery reflects the interference of emotional distress/anxiety on the patient's cognitive test performance. First, the MVP was objectively quantified using a formula that took into account both increased and decreased scores, rather than canceling them out through averaging. Using a total sample of 787 subjects, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profile scores of cases with and without this pattern were then compared using an extensive database followed by a smaller, matched-groups design. The presence of the MVP was related to MMPI-2-RF test performance. In particular, this pattern was related to emotional distress/anxiety scales but was not related to scales reflecting neurological or cognitive complaints. The degree of emotional distress experienced may affect attention and concentration test performance in a way that sometimes heightens focus and at other times disrupts focus. The MVP may be used to assess the effects of emotional distress on the consistency of an individual patient's attention and concentration test performance.
Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826
Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea
Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.
Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice
This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation Interview (ERI), and mothers reported on their children's emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). Results indicated that children who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for an anxiety disorder had difficulty managing worried, sad, and anger experiences, potentially due to their report of experiencing emotions with high intensity and having little confidence in their ability to regulate this arousal. These findings indicate that emotion regulation needs to be considered centrally in research with anxious populations.
Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…
van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina
Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake.
Martínez, M Pilar; Sánchez, Ana I; Miró, Elena; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Morales, Ana
Alexithymia is a personality construct that is frequently identified in fibromyalgia (FM). Previous studies have explored the relationship between alexithymia and emotional distress in this disease. Yet, the additional link with factors of pain appraisal is unknown. This study examined the moderating effect of alexithymia in the relationship between emotional distress and pain appraisal in 97 FM women. A control group of 100 healthy women also participated in the study. All participants completed several self-reports about pain experience, sleep quality, impairment, emotional distress, pain appraisal, and alexithymia. FM women showed significantly more difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, but less externally oriented thinking than healthy women. In the clinical group, difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with lower sleep quality, higher anxiety and depression, and increased pain catastrophizing and fear of pain. Difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with higher pain experience and vigilance to pain. Externally oriented thinking was not correlated with any of the clinical variables. Difficulty in identifying feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and pain catastrophizing, and difficulty in describing feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and fear of pain. Implications of the findings for the optimization of care of FM patients are discussed.
Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan
Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p < .01) as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, p = .04). Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992
Dory, Gabriela; Qiu, Zeyuan; Qiu, Christina M.; Fu, Mei R.; Ryan, Caitlin E.
ABSTRACT Deteriorative environmental conditions in environmental justice (EJ) communities not only post direct health risks such as chronic illnesses, but also cause emotional distress such as anxiety, fear, and anger among residents, which may further exacerbate health risks. This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey. Twenty-three residents participated in the study. Four essential themes regarding the residents’ emotional experiences were elicited from 43 interviews: (1) being worried about the harmful effects of the surrounding pollution; (2) being distressed by the known historical pollution sources; (3) being frustrated by the unheard voices and/or lack of responses; and (4) being angered by the ongoing pollution sources. Participants not only expressed their emotions of worry, distress, frustration, and anger in detail but also described reasons or situations that provoked such negative emotions. Such detailed depictions provide insights into potential meaningful strategies to improve residents’ psychological wellbeing by alleviating negative emotions and meaningfully engaging residents in developing, implementing, and enforcing environmental laws, regulations, and policies to achieve EJ goals.
Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.
The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…
Domínguez-Martínez, Tecelli; Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
It has been well-demonstrated that Expressed Emotion (EE) in caregivers of schizophrenia patients is related to their illness attributions, but little is known about relatives' cognitive and emotional appraisals at early stages of psychosis. This study examined differences on the relationships of EE with distress and illness attributions in 78 relatives of At-Risk Mental States (ARMS) and First-Episode of Psychosis (FEP) patients, and which of those variables better predicted EE. Criticism and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI) were associated with distress and with several illness attributions in both groups. Anxiety was more strongly associated with criticism in ARMS than in FEP-relatives, and it was associated with EOI in the ARMS but not in the FEP-group. No differences on the relationships of EE with depression or attributions were found. Furthermore, distress and attributions of blame toward the patients predicted criticism. Attributions of control by the patient and emotional negative representation about the disorder predicted EOI. Findings highlight the need to focus on early family interventions that provide proper information and psychological support in accordance with the illness stage, to help relatives improve their understanding of the disorder, handle difficult thoughts and emotions, reduce negative appraisals, and prevent high-EE over the psychotic process.
Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria
Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.
Renna, Megan E; Quintero, Jean M; Fresco, David M; Mennin, Douglas S
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning. Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with distress disorders fail to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) is a theoretically derived, evidence based, treatment that integrates principles (e.g., skills training, exposure) from traditional and contemporary therapies with findings from basic and translational affective science to offer a framework for improving intervention by focusing on the motivational responses and corresponding regulatory characteristics of individuals with high levels of chronic distress. Open and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated preliminary support for the utility of ERT as reflected by strong effect sizes comparable to and exceeding established intervention approaches. In addition, pilot findings support the role of underlying proposed mechanisms in this efficacious response. This article presents the functional model associated with ERT and describes the proposed mechanisms of the treatment. Additionally, a clinical case is presented, allowing the reader to gain a greater applied understanding of the different components of the ERT model and treatment.
Renna, Megan E.; Quintero, Jean M.; Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.
“Distress disorders,” which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning. Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with distress disorders fail to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) is a theoretically derived, evidence based, treatment that integrates principles (e.g., skills training, exposure) from traditional and contemporary therapies with findings from basic and translational affective science to offer a framework for improving intervention by focusing on the motivational responses and corresponding regulatory characteristics of individuals with high levels of chronic distress. Open and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated preliminary support for the utility of ERT as reflected by strong effect sizes comparable to and exceeding established intervention approaches. In addition, pilot findings support the role of underlying proposed mechanisms in this efficacious response. This article presents the functional model associated with ERT and describes the proposed mechanisms of the treatment. Additionally, a clinical case is presented, allowing the reader to gain a greater applied understanding of the different components of the ERT model and treatment. PMID:28220089
Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Talamini, Lucia M.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J. W.
The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P < 0.001; eye movement density: R = 0.46, P < 0.01) in 32 polysomnographically assessed participants. The experience of distress lasting overnight increased with insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P < 10−23), whereas short-lasting distress did not (β = −0.02, P = 0.41). Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P < 10−63) and with the thought-like nocturnal mentation that is specifically associated with restless REM sleep (β = 0.31, P < 10−26). Structural equation modeling showed that 62.4% of the association between these key characteristics of insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:26858434
Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Carrion, Victor G.
The objective of this study was to investigate loss and the experience of emotional distress through a series of three studies. In Study 1, results indicated that when controlling for the total number of traumas experienced, children with loss traumas did not differ significantly from children with other types of traumas in terms of the level of…
Smith, Brent Roderick
This document asserts that civil litigation of personal injury claims involving emotional distress is commonplace in American society today. It recognizes that expert witness testimony often plays a key role in the rewarding or denial of damages in such claims and that the psychologist's role as an expert witness in such matters entails unique…
Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others
Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…
Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.
Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380
Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B
To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness.
Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed.
Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema
Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism.
Campbell-Sills, Laura; Simmons, Alan N.; Lovero, Kathryn L.; Rochlin, Alexis A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.
Previous neuroimaging studies suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) modulation of the amygdala and related limbic structures is an underlying neural substrate of effortful emotion regulation. Anxiety-prone individuals experience excessive negative emotions, signaling potential dysfunction of systems supporting down-regulation of negative emotions. We examined the hypothesis that anxious individuals require increased recruitment of lateral and medial PFC to decrease negative emotions. An emotion regulation task that involved viewing moderately negative images was presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants with elevated trait anxiety scores (n = 13) and normal trait anxiety scores (n = 13) were trained to reduce negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes were contrasted for periods when participants were reducing emotions versus when they were maintaining emotions. Compared to healthy controls, anxious participants showed greater activation of brain regions implicated in effortful (lateral PFC) and automatic (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) control of emotions during down-regulation of negative emotions. Left ventrolateral PFC activity was associated with greater self-reported reduction of distress in anxious participants, but not in healthy controls. These findings provide evidence of altered functioning of neural substrates of emotion regulation in anxiety-prone individuals. Anxious participants required greater engagement of lateral and medial PFC in order to successfully reduce negative emotions. PMID:20673804
Nelson, Christian J.; Weinberger, Mark I.; Balk, Eliana; Holland, Jimmie; Breitbart, William; Roth, Andrew J.
Objective Current research suggests that older cancer patients report less distress compared to younger cancer patients. However, this research has generally not teased apart the differences between general distress, anxiety, and depression. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of merged datasets using cross-sectional data on 736 men with prostate cancer (Mean Age 68±10 years of age, range 50 to 93). Approximately half the participants were recruited from doctors’ offices throughout the United States and the other half from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY). Participants were asked to complete the Distress Thermometer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the FACT-P Quality of Life questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results Aging was related to reduced distress (r=−0.14), less anxiety (r=−0.22), and increased emotional quality of life (r= 0.16). In contrast, aging was associated with greater depressive symptoms in these cancer patients (r= 0.18). The mean depression scores of 5-year cohorts consistently trended upward. The significant association between age and depression remained after controlling for stage of disease, hormone therapy use, time since diagnosis, and social, physical and functional well-being. Conclusions Despite theoretical and empirical evidence that older cancer patients may cope more effectively than younger cancer patients, depressive symptoms remain an important concern for aging cancer patients and greater attention to this area is warranted. The increase in depression is in contrast to some findings in the general aging literature, raising the possibility that this trend is unique to older cancer patients. PMID:19738000
Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) and emotional distress during pregnancy and early postpartum, and to examine the ability of psychopathological symptoms to predict QOL at early postpartum. A sample of 75 pregnant women (31 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative) was assessed during the second trimester of pregnancy and two to four days postpartum. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-Bref. The emotional distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory, and with the Emotional Assessment Scale. Seropositive women reported increased negative emotional reactivity and lower scores in social relationships and overall QOL during pregnancy than HIV-negative women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women reported better QOL after the birth of their child, when compared with the pregnancy period. Among HIV-positive women, lower anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were, respectively, significant predictors of better psychological QOL and overall QOL at early postpartum. Less intense somatic symptoms predicted better physical QOL. Longitudinal assessment of QOL and emotional status may provide potentially useful information for tailoring psychological interventions in the maternity care of HIV-infected women, during their transition to motherhood.
Smith, Angela H; Norton, Peter J; Wetterneck, Chad T
Current conceptualizations for anxiety disorders focus heavily on cognitive and behavioral aspects of anxiety and address other emotions to a far lesser extent. Studies have demonstrated that negative appraisals of anxiety and fear (e.g., anxiety sensitivity) are elevated in each of the anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. Much less is known about how the appraisal of other emotions is related to anxiety disorder symptom presentation. The current study examines the appraisal of specific aversive emotions in relation to anxiety symptomatology. Undergraduate university students (N = 530) completed measures of specific anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as a measure of emotional appraisal. A maximum likelihood estimated multivariate regression model was used to examine the unique relationships between emotional appraisal and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms varied in their relationships with emotional appraisal. Each symptom group was highly related to fear of appraisals of anxiety; however, some anxiety symptoms were also related to fear of other emotional states, including guilt, sadness, disgust, lust, and embarrassment. Understanding the full range of appraisals of emotional experiences in anxiety conditions may help inform conceptualizations, and potentially treatments, by guiding the focus to the feared emotional states of the individual. The present study helps to clarify some of the relationships between emotion appraisal and anxiety symptoms.
Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.
Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.
White, William; Handal, Paul J.
Examined relationship between death anxiety and mental health/distress using two measures of death anxiety. Results revealed high death-anxious females were statistically and clinically more distressed and significantly less satisfied with life than low death-anxious females. Found similar results for males on one measure and similar trend on…
Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L
Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Cheney, Ann M
This study is one of the first to examine the narrative links connecting social change, contested gender norms, body image, and eating disordered practices among southern Italian women. The research is based on 16 months of fieldwork, and I compare and contrast the stories of 23 educated women in southern Italy to highlight the contentious realities of entering adolescence in conservative social contexts where gender relations and value systems are undergoing rapid transformations. I examine how these young women dealt with conflicting cultural expectations of womanhood and whether it affected their emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Their stories shed light on how parental control, community surveillance, and conflicts in developing gender identities and maturing womanly bodies contributed to their emotional distress. Distressed young women used rebellion and manipulation and control of food and the body to negotiate unjust social relations, specifically gender relations, that delegitimized their selves and, in some cases, their bodies.
Conrad, Rupert; Weber, Nina Friederike; Lehnert, Matthias; Holz, Frank Gerhard; Liedtke, Reinhard; Eter, Nicole
The authors studied 31 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) as compared with 31 age- and gender-matched control subjects, assessing emotional distress (ED), nine psychopathological symptoms, critical life events, and alexithymia. Results showed no difference in the number of critical life events; however CSC patients showed elevated ED and elevated scores on seven psychopathological symptoms, including hostility. Controlling for ED, CSC patients showed elevated alexithymia sum scores. Alexithymia was correlated with hostility. Our findings point to personality-based difficulties in emotional regulation associated with hostility in CSC.
Nelson, Brady D.; Perlman, Greg; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman
Background The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that is sensitive to the motivational salience of stimuli. Children with a parental history of depression, an indicator of risk, have been found to exhibit an attenuated LPP to emotional stimuli. Research on depressive and anxiety disorders has organized these conditions into two empirical classes: distress and fear disorders. The present study examined whether parental history of distress and fear disorders was associated with the LPP to emotional stimuli in a large sample of adolescent girls. Methods The sample of 550 girls (ages 13.5–15.5) with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Parental lifetime history of psychopathology was determined via semi-structured diagnostic interview with a biological parent, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to model distress and fear dimensions. Results Parental distress risk was associated with an attenuated LPP to all stimuli. In contrast, parental fear risk was associated with an enhanced LPP to unpleasant pictures but was unrelated to the LPP to neutral and pleasant pictures. Furthermore, these results were independent of the adolescent girls’ current depression and anxiety symptoms and pubertal status. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that familial risk for distress and fear disorders may have unique profiles in terms of electrocortical measures of emotional information processing. This study is also one of the first to investigate emotional/motivational processes underlying the distress and fear disorder dimensions. PMID:25851615
Leventhal, Adam M; Zvolensky, Michael J
Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression's manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This article presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities-core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology-link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on 3 transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (a) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards), (b) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations), and (c) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies, (b) amplify smoking's anticipated and actual affect-enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking, (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse), and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model's key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking's anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking's anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking's distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this framework that may
Leventhal, Adam M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression’s manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This paper presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities—core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology—link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on three trandiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (1) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards); (2) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations); and (3) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively: (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies; (b) amplify smoking’s anticipated and actual affect enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking; (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse); and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model’s key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking’s anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking’s anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking’s distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this
Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Ritter, Michael
Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of “William.” In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach. PMID:27499606
Fresco, David M; Mennin, Douglas S; Heimberg, Richard G; Ritter, Michael
Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of "William." In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach.
Lue, B.-H.; Huang, T.-S.; Chen, H.-J.
Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.
Määttänen, Ilmari; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Swan, Heikki; Toivonen, Lauri; Merjonen, Päivi; Hintsa, Taina
To study emotional distress in symptomatic and asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who had experienced a recent stressful life event. The participants were 209 symptomatic and 279 asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Emotional distress was assessed with the Cope questionnaire and stressful life events with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers with burdening recent stressful life events reported a higher emotional distress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), while the asymptomatic did not show such difference (β = 0.13, p = 0.393). Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who have experienced stressful life events recently report an increased emotional distress.
Ng, Chong Guan; Mohamed, Salina; Kaur, Kiran; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Taib, Nur Aishah
Background Breast cancer patients often experience a high level of distress. Psychological distress is a broad construct encompass both depression and anxiety. Previous studies in examining which of these psychological symptoms (either anxiety or depression) were more significantly associated with the distress level in breast cancer patients is lacking. This study aims to compare the level of depression and anxiety between patients with different level of distress. The correlation between the changes in distress level with depression or anxiety over 12 months was also examined. Methods This study is from the MyBCC cohort study. Two hundred and twenty one female breast cancer patients were included into the study. They were assessed at the time of diagnosis, 6 months and 12 month using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and distress thermometer. The information on age, ethnicity, treatment types and staging of cancer were collected. Results 50.2%, 51.6% and 40.3% of patients had perceived high level of distress at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after diagnosis. Those with high perceived level of distress had significant higher anxiety scores even after adjusted for the underlying depressive scores (Adjusted OR at baseline = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13–1.44; adjusted OR at 6 months = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11–1.45; adjusted OR at 12 months = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.29–1.76). There were no significant differences in the depressive scores between the subjects with either low or high distress level. There was reduction in perceived level of distress, anxiety and depression scores at 12 months after the diagnosis. The decrease of distress was positively correlated with the reduction of anxiety scores but not the changes of depressive scores (r’ = 0.25). Conclusion Anxiety is a more significant psychological state that contributed to the feeling of distress in breast cancer as compared with depression. Levels of anxiety at diagnosis in this study would justify screening for
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…
Geangu, Elena; Benga, Oana; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia
In this study, relations between emotional resonance responses to another's distress, emotion regulation, and self-other discrimination were investigated in infants three-, six-, and nine-months-old. We measured the emotional reactions to the pain cry of a peer, along with the ability to regulate emotions and to discriminate between self and other…
Cristea, Ioana A; Legge, Emanuele; Prosperi, Marta; Guazzelli, Mario; David, Daniel; Gentili, Claudio
This study examines stress and mood outcomes in community volunteers who undertook one week's worth of post-disaster relief work in L'Aquila, Italy, which had been hit by an earthquake four months earlier. The study team obtained pre- and post-relief work data from 130 volunteers involved in activities such as preparing food for the displaced, cleaning the camps and distributing clean linen. The Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States were administered at the start and at the end of the aid activities. Psychopathological symptoms and empathy were assessed in the beginning, using the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, respectively. The results show that, following the assistance work, volunteers displayed decreases in perceived stress, general distress, anxiety and anger, as well as increases in positive emotions. The empathy facets empathic concern and personal distress showed different patterns in modulating the post-disaster relief work adaptation for some of the mood outcomes.
Maselko, J; Kubzansky, L; Lipsitt, L; Buka, S L
Background Long-standing theory suggests that quality of the mother’s (or primary caregiver’s) interaction with a child is a key determinant of the child’s subsequent resilience or vulnerability and has implications for health in adulthood. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal data with both objective assessments of nurturing behaviour during infancy and sustained follow-up ascertaining the quality of adult functioning. Methods We used data from the Providence, Rhode Island birth cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (mean age 34 at follow-up, final N=482) to conduct a prospective study of the association between objectively measured affective quality of the mother–infant interaction and adult mental health. Infant–mother interaction quality was rated by an observer when infants were 8 months old, and adult emotional functioning was assessed from the Symptom Checklist-90, capturing both specific and general types of distress. Results High levels of maternal affection at 8 months were associated with significantly lower levels of distress in adult offspring (1/2 standard deviation; b=−4.76, se=1.7, p<0.01). The strongest association was with the anxiety subscale. Mother’s affection did not seem to be on the pathway between lower parental SES and offspring distress. Conclusion These findings suggest that early nurturing and warmth have long-lasting positive effects on mental health well into adulthood. PMID:20660942
van Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J.; Blonk, Marion C.; Erdtsieck, Ronald J.; Spooren, Pieter F.; Toorians, Arno W.; Pouwer, François
OBJECTIVE Emotional distress is common in outpatients with diabetes, affecting ∼20–40% of the patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of group therapy with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), relative to usual care, for patients with diabetes with regard to reducing emotional distress and improving health-related quality of life and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the present randomized controlled trial, 139 outpatients with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) and low levels of emotional well-being were randomized to MBCT (n = 70) or a waiting list group (n = 69). Primary outcomes were perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), mood (Profiles of Mood States), and diabetes-specific distress (Problem Areas In Diabetes). Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (12-Item Short-Form Health Survey), and glycemic control (HbA1c). Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS Compared with control, MBCT was more effective in reducing stress (P < 0.001, Cohen d = 0.70), depressive symptoms (P = 0.006, d = 0.59), and anxiety (P = 0.019, d = 0.44). In addition, MBCT was more effective in improving quality of life (mental: P = 0.003, d = 0.55; physical: P = 0.032, d = 0.40). We found no significant effect on HbA1c or diabetes-specific distress, although patients with elevated diabetes distress in the MBCT group tended to show a decrease in diabetes distress (P = 0.07, d = 0.70) compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS Compared with usual care, MBCT resulted in a reduction of emotional distress and an increase in health-related quality of life in diabetic patients who had lower levels of emotional well-being. PMID:23193218
Milan, Stephanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Meade, Christina; Ethier, Kathleen
This study examines trajectories and correlates of emotional distress symptoms in pregnant adolescents (n = 203) and nulliparous adolescents (n = 188) from economically disadvantaged communities over an 18-month period. For both groups, the prevalence of significant emotional distress exceeded expectation based on adolescent norms; however, the…
Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…
Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah
The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian.…
Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette
Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed.
Lo, Christopher; Hales, Sarah; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary
The alleviation of distress associated with death and dying is a central goal of palliative care, despite the lack of routine measurement of this outcome. In this study, we introduce the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS), a new, brief measure we have developed to assess death-related anxiety in advanced cancer and other palliative populations. We describe its preliminary psychometrics based on a sample of 33 patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. The DADDS broadly captures distress about the loss of time and opportunity, the process of death and dying, and its impact on others. The initial version of the scale has a one-factor structure and good internal reliability. Dying and death-related distress was positively associated with depression and negatively associated with spiritual, emotional, physical, and functional well-being, providing early evidence of construct validity. This distress was relatively common, with 45% of the sample scoring in the upper reaches of the scale, suggesting that the DADDS may be a relevant outcome for palliative intervention. We conclude by presenting a revised 15-item version of the scale for further study in advanced cancer and other palliative populations.
Pereira, Marco; Fialho, Renata; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The mental health needs of patients who are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly addressed in medical settings. This study aimed at examining the prevalence and severity of emotional distress in a sample of HIV/HCV coinfected and HIV mono-infected patients and to examine their sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial correlates. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the quality of life instrument WHOQOL-HIV-Bref were administered to a sample of 248 HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 482 HIV mono-infected patients. Thirty-nine (15.9%) HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 55 (11.6%) HIV mono-infected patients reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Coinfected patients reported significantly higher scores on eight of nine dimensions of psychopathology. The larger differences were found on somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, anxiety, and the GSI. Among HIV/HCV patients, non-highly active antiretroviral therapy (β = -0.19, p < 0.01) and lower scores for independence (β = -0.24, p < 0.01) and spiritual (β = -0.31, p < 0.001) dimensions were significantly associated with higher emotional distress and accounted for 47.2% of the total variance. Among HIV mono-infected patients, being diagnosed for a longer time (β = 0.12, p < 0.05) and having lower scores on physical (β = -0.23, p < 0.001), social relationships (β = -0.11, p < 0.05), environmental (β = -0.17, p < 0.01), and spiritual (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) dimensions explained 39.4% of the variance of emotional distress. The findings suggest that coinfection with HCV may have an adverse effect on mental health and underscore the interplay of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables on emotional distress. Additionally, these data reinforce the need for tailored interventions to improve the overall well-being of both HIV and HIV/HCV patients.
Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios
Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies.
Szollos, Alex; Thyrum, Elizabeth; Martin, Betty
This study investigated fluctuations in anxiety and menstrual distress across the menstrual cycle. Female college students (N = 318) completed self-report measures of symptoms across the menstrual cycle and measures of general psychological adjustment. A subgroup (n = 56) of Anxious participants who reported high levels of anxiety was identified.…
Jones, Jacquelynn R; Colditz, Jason B; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Terry, Martha Ann; Primack, Brian A
Professional social networking websites are commonly used among young professionals. In light of emerging concerns regarding social networking use and emotional distress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frequency of use of LinkedIn, the most commonly used professional social networking website, and depression and anxiety among young adults. In October 2014, we assessed a nationally representative sample of 1,780 U.S. young adults between the ages of 19-32 regarding frequency of LinkedIn use, depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic covariates. We measured depression and anxiety using validated Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures. We used bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between LinkedIn use and depression and anxiety, while controlling for age, sex, race, relationship status, living situation, household income, education level, and overall social media use. In weighted analyses, 72% of participants did not report use of LinkedIn, 16% reported at least some use, but less than once each week, and 12% reported use at least once per week. In multivariable analyses controlling for all covariates, compared with those who did not use LinkedIn, participants using LinkedIn at least once per week had significantly greater odds of increased depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31-3.38) and increased anxiety (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.72-4.53). LinkedIn use was significantly related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Future research should investigate directionality of this association and possible reasons for it.
Holtmann, Jana; Herbort, Maike C; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Soch, Joram; Richter, Sylvia; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H
Previous studies of cognitive alterations in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful vs. neutral faces) were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult) incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC) where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times (RTs) in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of anxiety.
Miu, Andrei C.; Heilman, Renata M.; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea
Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R.…
Leahy, Robert L.
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…
Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.
This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874
Gison, Annalisa; Rizza, Federica; Bonassi, Stefano; Donati, Valentina; Giaquinto, Salvatore
This study was performed with the aim of assessing dispositional optimism (DO) in a sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in order to evaluate its association with clinical outcomes and its impact on rehabilitation. Before entering an outpatient rehabilitation program, 58 participants suffering from idiopathic PD completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to evaluate their level of DO, the WHO-5 scale to evaluate their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to identify emotional distress, and the Barthel Index to evaluate their level of disability. All the measures were repeated four months later, at their discharge from the program. Disease stage and severity measures (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) were also taken into consideration. Correlations and multivariate regression analyses compared DO with the health-related variables. On admission a high level of DO was found to be associated with less severe disease, a better quality of life (QoL) and lower emotional distress, but not with level of disability (Barthel Index). Consistent results were found at discharge. The level of DO di not change after rehabilitation, while anxiety was significantly reduced, especially in subjects with low LOT-R and high HADS scores. The Barthel Index values significantly improved. At discharge, participants with high DO showed the best improvements in disability and in QoL. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances.
Moura-Ramos, M; Gameiro, S; Canavarro, M C; Soares, I; Santos, T A
Few studies were dedicated to study the role of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic status and urban or rural residence in emotional distress of infertile couples. This study aimed to explore the impact of contextual factors on emotional distress, either directly or by affecting the importance of parenthood in one's life, which in turn affects emotional distress. In this cross-sectional study, 70 couples recruited during hormonal stimulation phase prior to in vitro fertilisation completed clinical and sociodemographic forms and self-report questionnaires assessing representations about the importance of parenthood and emotional distress. Path analysis using structural equation modelling was used to examine direct and indirect effects among variables. Results indicated that socioeconomic status and place of residence had an impact in emotional distress by affecting the representations about the importance of parenthood in one's life. Gender differences were found regarding model paths, suggesting that the social context may have a stronger influence on women's emotional distress than on their partners' distress. When delineating psychological interventions, health care providers should consider that cultural values about children and parenthood contribute to shape the infertility experience.
Benore, Ethan; Enlow, Thomas
Behavioral distress in EEG can be a barrier to medical care, and behavioral interventions may be a solution. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a brief intervention to decrease procedural distress during an EEG. We hypothesized that children and parents who received psychoeducation and distraction interventions would exhibit less anxiety and distress during an EEG procedure, as compared to those receiving standard care, and this would not add to EEG duration. One hundred and thirty-nine children (0-6 years) and their parents referred for routine EEGs were enrolled. Data were analyzed separately for both infants and children due to differences in the presentation of psychoeducational materials. Results demonstrated less parental anxiety and less distress vocalizations during the EEG. Interestingly, the intervention did not increase the duration of the EEG. While the data suggest positive effects, study limitations raise more questions as to the feasibility and impact of psychoeducation and distraction interventions with extended medical procedures.
The impact of multiple concussions on emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in active duty United States marines independent of combat exposure or emotional distress.
Spira, James L; Lathan, Corinna E; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W
Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat.
Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G
This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.
Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy
Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086
Barrault, Servane; Bonnaire, Céline; Herrmann, Florian
Poker is a type of gambling that has specific features, including the need to regulate one's emotion to be successful. The aim of the present study is to assess emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in a sample of regular poker players, and to compare the results of problem and non-problem gamblers. 416 regular online poker players completed online questionnaires including sociodemographic data, measures of problem gambling (CPGI), anxiety and depression (HAD scale), and emotion regulation (ERQ). The CPGI was used to divide participants into four groups according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers). Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among severe-problem gamblers than among the other groups. Both significantly predicted problem gambling. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups in emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), which was linked neither to problem gambling nor to anxiety and depression (except for cognitive reappraisal, which was significantly correlated to anxiety). Our results underline the links between anxiety, depression and problem gambling among poker players. If emotion regulation is involved in problem gambling among poker players, as strongly suggested by data from the literature, the emotion regulation strategies we assessed (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) may not be those involved. Further studies are thus needed to investigate the involvement of other emotion regulation strategies.
Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion
Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…
Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio
The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.
Solomonova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tore; Stenstrom, Philippe; Simard, Valérie; Frantova, Elena; Donderi, Don
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these associations are due to a general personality factor, affect distress, which is implicated in nightmare suffering and hypothesized to involve dysfunctional social imagery processes. A new measure, ISP distress, was examined in relation to features of ISP experiences, to self-reported psychopathological diagnosis, to scores on the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and to scores on a new questionnaire subscale assessing social imagery in a variety of waking states. Three main results were found: (1) ISP experiences are only weakly associated with a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, (2) sensed presence during ISP is associated preferentially with ISP distress, and (3) ISP distress is associated with dysfunctional social imagery. A general predisposition to affective distress may influence the distress associated with ISP experiences; overly passive social imagery may, in turn, be implicated in this affect distress influence.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Bidaki, Ehsan Zare; Hasanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Daghaghzade, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman
Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of IBS and their subtypes with some of psychological factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire and Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate IBS symptoms. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire were utilized to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of psychological states and IBS in the total subject and both genders. Results: About, 4763 participants with mean age 36/58 ± 8/09 were included the 2106 males and 2657 females. Three thousand and seven hundred and seventy-six (81.2%) and 2650 (57.2%) participants were married and graduated respectively. Subtype analysis of IBS and its relationship with anxiety, depression and distress comparing the two genders can be observed that: IBS and clinically-significant IBS have higher anxiety, depression symptoms, and distress than the subject without IBS (P < 0.001). Women with IBS, have higher scores than men (P < 0.001). Compared to other subtypes, mixed IBS subtype has a higher anxiety, depression, and distress score. Conclusion: A high prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms and distress in our subjects emphasize the importance of the psychological evaluation of the patients with IBS, in order to better management of the patients and may also help to reduce the burden of health care costs. PMID:28028523
Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer
Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple.
Warner, Carrie Masia; Ludwig, Kristy; Sweeney, Corinne; Spillane, Clare; Hogan, Laura; Ryan, Julie; Carroll, William
Persistent anxiety is common among parents of children with cancer and may affect the family's well-being and adjustment. The goals of this pilot study are to determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief cognitive-behavioral parent intervention aimed at reducing parental distress and anxiety related to their child's cancer diagnosis. Parents of children with cancer, at least 1 month postdiagnosis, were screened at an outpatient oncology clinic, and those reporting elevated levels of distress were offered a 4-session cognitive-behavioral intervention based on a modified version of the Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program-Newly Diagnosed. Five parents reporting persistent distress received the intervention. Results revealed decreases in parents' distress, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as in parents' feelings of burden associated with their children's cancer. This initial study suggests that identification of parents with prolonged heightened psychological distress is feasible and acceptable and that offering them a brief intervention within a pediatric oncology setting may be beneficial.
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors.
Henne, Elise; Morrissey, Shirley; Conlon, Elizabeth
Previous research into the social consequences of persistent pain has shown that relationship difficulties and marital distress are major factors that contribute to negative outcomes for sufferers. Furthermore, psychological distress is often co-morbid with persistent pain. This study explored the relationship between persistent pain, psychological distress and emotional connectedness. It involved a cross-sectional design utilising an online survey of 388 Australian women with persistent pain. Self-report measures of pain severity, psychological distress and emotional connectedness were administered. Results confirmed that many women in persistent pain experience relationship and emotional connectedness difficulties which they attribute to the experience of persistent pain. Additionally, psychological distress significantly mediated the relationship between pain severity and emotional connectedness. It was concluded that, in this sample of persistent pain sufferers, pain severity and psychological distress had significant impact on a women's ability to connect emotionally to those closest to them. The implications of these findings for intervening with women who suffer with persistent pain are discussed.
Brumariu, Laura E; Kerns, Kathryn A
This study examined whether several aspects of emotion communication in mother-child dyads relate to child anxiety symptoms. Mother and child behaviours related to emotion communication were coded based on videotaped mother-child interactions in a sample of 87 ten- to twelve-year olds, and children reported on their anxiety symptoms. Mothers of more anxious children were less supportive in that they engaged more in psychologically controlling behaviours designed to manipulate the child's emotional state, exhibited less warmth and interest in the child, and were less elaborative during conversations about an emotionally negative event. Further, more anxious children showed greater affect intensity and lower congruency of emotions and behaviours, and were less engaged in the conversation. Examining the role of child gender did not change the results significantly. Mother and child emotion communication behaviours each explained significant variance in child anxiety. The results showed that how mothers and children approached emotion-related conversations is important for child anxiety, and highlighted the need to consider mother and child behaviours related to emotion communication in assessment and interventions with anxious children.
Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael
Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…
Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.
Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…
Bardeen, Joseph R; Fergus, Thomas A
Given the potential transdiagnostic importance of emotion dysregulation, as well as a lack of research examining emotion dysregulation in relation to health anxiety, the present study sought to examine associations among specific emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), emotion regulation difficulties, and health anxiety in a physically healthy sample of adults (N=482). As hypothesized, results of a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that emotion regulation difficulties provided a significant incremental contribution, beyond the specific emotion regulation strategies, in predicting each of the three health anxiety variables. Among the six dimensions of emotion regulation difficulties, the dimension representing perceived access to effective emotion regulation strategies was the only emotion regulation difficulty dimension that predicted all three health anxiety variables beyond the effects of the specific emotion regulation strategies. Results indicate that emotion regulation difficulties, and particularly one's subjective appraisal of his/her ability to effectively regulate emotions, may be of importance to health anxiety. Clinical implications are discussed.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B
Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.
Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo
Objective. There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. Patients and Methods. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). Results. The patients’ median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6–61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%–93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%–96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–7) versus 8 (IQR: 3–10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1–8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = −0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). Conclusion. FD was very frequent in both
Tsypes, Aliona; Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S
Diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) include sleep problems, which often persist even after successful treatment of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential contributor to sleep problems in GAD patients. Participants comprised two groups: 59 individuals diagnosed with GAD and 66 healthy controls. They were assessed for the presence of mood and anxiety disorders and then completed self-report questionnaires assessing problems with sleep and emotion regulation. Participants in the GAD group scored significantly higher on a number of sleep outcomes than did the control group. Importantly, difficulties with emotion regulation statistically mediated the relationship between GAD and a wide range of outcomes of sleep dysfunction independently of the effects of depression and secondary anxiety diagnoses. Emotion regulation difficulties that characterize GAD mediate the relationship between symptoms of this disorder and a wide range of sleep problems. Implications for treatment and future research directions are discussed.
Quintard, Bruno; Gana, Kamel; Constant, Aymery; Quintric, Chantal; Taïeb, Alain; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine
This study investigated factors associated with social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas. Eighty-one parents completed questionnaires assessing their emotional distress, social isolation, and coping styles. To explore the relationships between these variables, a path analysis was used to test a model in which clinical characteristics of hemangiomas and parents' coping strategies do not have direct effects on their social isolation but indirect effects via their emotional distress. Bootstrapping was used to assess indirect effects. Time since onset and lesional complications had positive direct effects on parents' social isolation. Lesional visibility and emotion-focused coping had negative indirect effects on parents' social isolation via their emotional distress, while problem-focused coping showed a positive indirect effect. These findings may have implications for clinicians managing parents of children with hemangiomas.
Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred
Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p = .00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers
Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.
Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209
Seixas, Azizi A; Nunes, Joao V; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Williams, Natasha J; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu Ratnas; James, Caryl C; Jean-Louis, Girardin
Objective The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours). Methods Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years) from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed. Measures Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period. Results Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001). Conclusion Emotional distress, an important proxy for poor psychological health, was a significant predictor of unhealthy sleep, independent of the influences of several factors including demographic (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income), health risks (alcohol consumption and smoking status), and chronic diseases/conditions (diabetes, obesity, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, and arthritis). PMID:26442563
Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F
Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study "Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans". It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy-Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n=60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6-8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group time interaction). We observed no intervention⁎time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores.
Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F
Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study “Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans”. It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy - Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n = 60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies -Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6–8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group*time interaction). We observed no intervention*time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores. PMID:25107318
Mesman, Judi; Oster, Harriet; Camras, Linda
Parental sensitivity, a crucial element of attachment theory, refers to the ability to correctly interpret and respond appropriately to infants' signals. The question of whether infants' emotional expressions communicate discrete negative emotions has been widely debated in the literature on infant emotional development, but it has rarely been discussed in the parental sensitivity literature. This article explores how insights from the parental sensitivity literature and from evolutionary and dynamical systems perspectives on infant emotion expressions can be brought together to enhance our understanding of parental responsiveness to infant distress. The current research concludes that sensitivity does not rely on reading discrete negative emotions in infant signals, but rather on an integration of complex, graded distress expressions with contextual factors and iterative interaction processes.
Trujillo, Michael A; Khoddam, Rubin; Greenberg, Jodie B; Dyal, Stephanie R; Ameringer, Katherine J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M
Distress tolerance-the capacity to withstand distressing states-is implicated in the etiology of regular smoking. The present study extends past resarch by examining whether relations between perceived distress tolerance and smoking-related factors: (1) differ across subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, Absorption); (2) extend across measures of dependence, negative reinforcement smoking, and craving; and (3) are incremental to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results showed that global distress tolerance was associated with measures of dependence, negative reinforcement, and craving even after controlling for affective symptomatology. Subdimensions of distress tolerance were not uniquely related to smoking outcomes in unadjusted or adjusted models. These findings suggest that: (a) distress tolerance is uniquely implicated in smoking over and above affective symptomatology; and (b) specific subdimensions of distress tolerance do not provide more information about smoking-related characteristics than global dimensions; and
This study is one of the first to examine the links connecting water insecurity, gender, and emotional distress. The article presents quantitative and qualitative analyses of interview data collected from randomly selected pairs of male and female household heads (n=48) living under the same household-level conditions of water insecurity., The results provide partial confirmation of past findings that women are more likely than men to be burdened with everyday water responsibilities. However, there were no significant differences between men's and women's experiences in household water emergencies (i.e., water shortages and last-ditch attempts to buy water) and reports on some measures of emotional distress (i.e., worry, annoyance, and anger with family members). The results suggest that intrahousehold gender disparities may be mitigated in times of severe water scarcity. The discussion raises questions about the comparability of men's and women's expressions of emotional distress.
Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms.
Bryan, Craig J; Andreski, Sarah Rae; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine
Suicides in the U.S. military continue to rise at a rapid rate. Identification of protective factors that reduce risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among military personnel are therefore needed. Agency--the sense that one is competent, effective, and in control of one's life--has shown to reduce the effects of hopelessness and emotional distress on suicidal thoughts and attempts in non-military populations. The current study explores the association of agency with suicidal ideation in a sample (n = 273) of active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Results of generalized regression modeling suggest that agency is directly associated with decreased emotional distress and severity of suicidal ideation, but does not moderate the effect of emotional distress on suicidal ideation.
Avoidance theories propose that worrying results in a reduction of the physiological arousal symptoms of anxiety. However, relatively little is known about the emotional symptoms that remain associated with worrying. This study explored whether the emotional states of anxiety, depression, or stress are specifically associated with excessive and uncontrollable worry. A group of 126 university students were selected to represent a wide range on the dimension of worry proneness. They completed a worry questionnaire, monitored the frequency and uncontrollability of their worry episodes for 1 week, and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) to indicate their level of negative affect during the monitoring period. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that all measures of worrying had a unique positive association with stress, over and above their associations with anxiety and depression. Item-level analyses showed that stress symptoms were uniformly strongly associated with worrying, while anxiety symptoms had the weakest associations. These results increase our knowledge regarding the phenomenology of worrying and underline the potential theoretical significance of the emotional state assessed by the DASS Stress scale. This scale fills the current need for a psychometrically sound instrument to assess the emotional experience associated with worrying.
Masten, Carrie L; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears
Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age=8.74years, SD=1.76) assigned to novel color groups. After 1week in their group, children were interviewed to assess their ingroup identification and trait levels of social anxiety. Subsequently, a social threat was simulated, and children's feelings of situational distress and empathy bias for others who experienced the same threat were assessed. Findings indicated that, among children who reported more social anxiety and situational distress, those with a stronger ingroup identity displayed more empathy bias favoring their ingroup. Given that empathy is an important contributor to prosocial behavior, implications for children's intergroup relations are discussed.
Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A
Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability.
Adibi, Peyman; Keshteli, Ammar Hasanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pournaghshband, Nasim; Afshar, Hamid
Background: Current studies have indicated a high ratio of psychological problems in functional dyspepsia (FD) which causes disturbance in its management, so recognition these problems help the process of treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 4763 carried out in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire was used to evaluate FD symptoms. Hospital anxiety and depression scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to assess the psychological issue. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of psychological problems and FD. Results: We showed that overly 654 (13.7%), 1338 (28.1%), and 1067 (22.4%) of participants, respectively had anxiety, depression, and of psychological distress. Seven hundred and ten (15.5%) participants were diagnosed with FD. Of all participants Mean scores of anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and psychological distress (P < 0.001) in participants with FD were significantly more than those with no FD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that psychological problems, whether in the form of psychological distress odds ratio (OR): 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–3) and OR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.7) in males and females, respectively, anxiety OR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.5–3.9) and OR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7–3.2) in males and females, respectively) or depression OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.3) and OR: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) in males and females, respectively) were significantly linked to FD in both genders. Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients. PMID:28217633
Fisher, Joscelyn E; Sass, Sarah M; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Miller, Gregory A
An individual's self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and depression were associated with self-reported emotion abilities, consistent with prior literature. In addition, lower anxious apprehension and greater reported emotional clarity were related to slower processing of negative stimuli indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Higher anxious arousal and reported attention to emotion were associated with ERP evidence of early attention to all stimuli regardless of emotional content. Reduced later engagement with stimuli was also associated with anxious arousal and with clarity of emotions. Depression was not differentially associated with any emotion processing stage indexed by ERPs. Research in this area may lead to the development of therapies that focus on minimization of anxiety to foster successful emotion regulation.
Lu, Frank J-H; Li, Gladys Shuk-fong; Hsu, Eva Ya-wen; Williams, Lavon
This study examined the relationship between athletes' Emotional Intelligence (EI) and precompetitive anxiety. Taiwanese intercollegiate track and field athletes (N = 111; 64 men, 47 women) completed the Bar-On EQ-i 1 mo. before a1 national intercollegiate athletic meet, and the Competition State Anxiety Inventory-2R 1 hr. before the competition. Analyses indicated that participants with the lowest EI scores reported greater intensity of precompetitive cognitive anxiety than those with the highest EI scores. No other statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Further, correlational analyses and multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that EI components such as stress management, intrapersonal EI, and interpersonal EI were associated with precompetitive anxiety. Current EI measures provide limited understanding of precompetitive anxiety. A sport-specific EI measure is needed for future research.
Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos
This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902
Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto
Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.
Cramer, D; Kupshik, G
Ellis's rational-emotive theory postulates that since irrational statements augment emotional distress, replacing irrational with rational statements should lessen distress. This hypothesis was tested in the initial stages of psychotherapy by having 13 and 14 clinical out-patients respectively repeat for one minute either rational or irrational statements about their major presenting psychological problem. The distinction by Ellis & Harper (1975) that 'inappropriate' emotions differ qualitatively from 'appropriate' emotions was also examined. Although the experimental intervention had no effect on a post-test measure of irrational beliefs, patients repeating rational statements had significantly lower appropriate and inappropriate negative emotions at post-test, suggesting that inappropriate emotions do not differ qualitatively from appropriate emotions and that making rational statements may lower emotional distress in patients. Patients reiterating irrational statements showed no change in emotions, implying that these kinds of irrational cognitions may have already been present.
Wardle, Margaret C; Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M
HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) show emotional distress and executive impairment, but in isolation these poorly predict sexual risk. We hypothesized that an executive measure sensitive to emotional aspects of judgment (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) would identify HIV+ SDIs whose sexual risks were influenced by emotional distress. We assessed emotional distress and performance on several executive tasks in 190 HIV+ SDIs. IGT performance interacted significantly with emotional distress, such that only in better performers were distress and risk related. Our results are interpreted using the somatic marker hypothesis and indicate that the IGT identifies HIV+ SDIs for whom psychological distress influences HIV risk.
Liu, Jianlin; Peh, Chao Xu; Mahendran, Rathi
Body image concerns (BIC) has been reported to be associated with emotional distress for cancers across various sites. This study sought to examine two cognitive vulnerability mechanisms: dysfunctional attitudes and rumination, and their combined effects on the relationship between BIC and emotional distress in newly diagnosed Asian cancer patients. Participants were 221 newly diagnosed adult cancer patients who were assessed on BIC, rumination, dysfunctional attitudes, and emotional distress. Path analysis was used to examine the hypothesized mediation model. The hypothesized mediation model controlling for age, sex, marital status, education level, cancer type, cancer stage, and treatment modality revealed that both dysfunctional attitudes and rumination mediated the relationship between BIC and emotional distress. The present study provides evidence for a mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes and rumination between BIC and emotional distress. Psychological treatment should target dysfunctional attitudes and rumination in cancer patients experiencing BIC.
Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje
In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed.
Coombes, Stephen A; Higgins, Torrie; Gamble, Kelly M; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M
The present study investigated how trait anxiety alters the balance between attentional control systems to impact performance of a discrete preplanned goal-directed motor task. Participants executed targeted force contractions (engaging the goal-directed attentional system) at the offset of emotional and non-emotional distractors (engaging the stimulus-driven attentional system). High and low anxious participants completed the protocol at two target force levels (10% and 35% of maximum voluntary contraction). Reaction time (RT), performance accuracy, and rate of change of force were calculated. Expectations were confirmed at the 10% but not the 35% target force level: (1) high anxiety was associated with slower RTs, and (2) threat cues lead to faster RTs independently of trait anxiety. These new findings suggest that motor efficiency, but not motor effectiveness is compromised in high relative to low anxious individuals. We conclude that increased stimulus-driven attentional control interferes with movements that require greater attentional resources.
Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene
This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…
Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…
Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya
This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…
Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.
This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…
Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Derakshan, Nazanin; Usher, Marius
Using a Stroop task, we investigated the effect of task-irrelevant emotional distractors on attentional proactive control and its interaction with trait anxiety. On the basis of recent findings showing opposed neural responses in the dorsal-executive versus the ventral-emotional systems in response to emotional distractors and of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we hypothesized that negative distractors will result in a reduction of proactive task control in the executive system, especially for high-trait-anxious individuals. Using a computational model of the Stroop task, we derive 2 specific behavioral predictions of reduced proactive task control: increased Stroop interference and reversed Stroop facilitation. Twenty-five high- and 25 low-trait-anxious participants completed a Stroop task in which the target stimuli were preceded by brief (neutral vs. aversive) emotional distractors. While no effects of picture valence on proactive control was found in the low-anxious group, the predicted signatures of reduced proactive control were observed in the high-anxiety group. These results indicate that trait anxiety influences the interaction between irrelevant emotional stimuli and proactive control.
The lack of significant treatment and prevention progress highlights the need for a more expanded strategy. Given the robust association between socioeconomic factors and obesity, combined with new insights into how socioeconomic disadvantage affects both behaviour and biology, a new causal model is proposed. The model posits that psychological and emotional distress is a fundamental link between socioeconomic disadvantage and weight gain. At particular risk are children growing up in a disharmonious family environment, mainly caused by parental socioeconomic disadvantage, where they are exposed to parental frustrations, relationship discord, a lack of support and cohesion, negative belief systems, unmet emotional needs and general insecurity. Without adequate resilience, such experiences increase the risk of psychological and emotional distress, including low self-esteem and self-worth, negative emotions, negative self-belief, powerlessness, depression, anxiety, insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to stress. These inner disturbances eventually cause a psycho-emotional overload, triggering a cascade of weight gain-inducing effects including maladaptive coping strategies such as eating to suppress negative emotions, chronic stress, appetite up-regulation, low-grade inflammation and possibly reduced basal metabolism. Over time, this causes obesity, circular causality and further weight gain. Tackling these proposed root causes of weight gain could potentially improve both treatment and prevention outcomes.
Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L
This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising. All three item banks showed strong evidence of unidimensionality and parsimony, with no items showing local dependence. All items were invariant across age, gender, and education. The item banks were accurate in detecting clinical criteria for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, although legacy measures designed for this purpose sometimes performed marginally better. Responses to the 30-day time frame were highly consistent with the original 7-day time frame. The study provided support for the validity of the PROMIS emotional distress item banks as measures of depression, anxiety, and anger in the Australian population, supporting the generalizability of the measures. The time frame chosen for assessing mental health outcomes using these item banks should be based on pragmatic considerations.
Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.
Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140
Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C
Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety.
Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah
Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables. PMID:25097619
Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin
Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585
Cougle, Jesse R; Timpano, Kiara R; Sarawgi, Shivali; Smith, Christian M; Fitch, Kristin E
Emerging evidence implicates important roles of poor distress tolerance and heightened emotional reactivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. To date, investigations have relied mostly on self-report measures, and we sought to extend the literature by examining the relationship between OC symptoms and distress tolerance, as well as emotional reactivity, using three laboratory assessments. Nonclinical participants (N=167) viewed emotional films associated with four different negative emotions and also completed mirror tracing and handgrip persistence tasks. Greater obsessions scores were predictive of poorer emotional tolerance for a sad film and shorter persistence on the mirror tracing task. Among men only, obsessions were negatively correlated with persistence on the handgrip task. Associations between increased emotional reactivity and washing symptoms also emerged. These findings provide further evidence for the role of poor distress tolerance in obsessions and suggest heightened emotional reactivity may play a role in compulsive washing.
Jenkins, Emily K; Johnson, Joy L; Bungay, Vicky; Kothari, Anita; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
This paper is based on a qualitative study conducted in a rural community in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnographic methods were used to: (1) to bring youth voice to the literature on emotional distress; and (2) to capture the ways in which context shapes young peoples' experiences of emotional distress within their everyday lives. Our findings demonstrate how socio-structural contextual factors such as the local economy, geographical segregation, racism, ageism, and cutbacks in health and social service programming operate to create various forms of disconnection, and intersect in young peoples' lives to shape their experiences of emotional distress.
Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S
Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology.
Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B
Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality.
De Castella, Krista; Goldin, Philippe; Jazaieri, Hooria; Heimberg, Richard G; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J
Despite strong support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), little is known about mechanisms of change in treatment. Within the context of a randomized controlled trial of CBT, this study examined patients' beliefs about the fixed versus malleable nature of anxiety-their 'implicit theories'-as a key variable in CBT for SAD. Compared to waitlist (n = 29; 58% female), CBT (n = 24; 52% female) led to significantly lower levels of fixed beliefs about anxiety (Mbaseline = 11.70 vs. MPost = 7.08, d = 1.27). These implicit beliefs indirectly explained CBT-related changes in social anxiety symptoms (κ(2) = .28, [95% CI = 0.12, 0.46]). Implicit beliefs also uniquely predicted treatment outcomes when controlling for baseline social anxiety and other kinds of maladaptive beliefs (perceived social costs, perceived social self-efficacy, and maladaptive interpersonal beliefs). Finally, implicit beliefs continued to predict social anxiety symptoms at 12 months post-treatment. These findings suggest that changes in patients' beliefs about their emotions may play an important role in CBT for SAD.
Background Approximately 20-40% of outpatients with diabetes experience elevated levels of emotional distress, varying from disease-specific distress to general symptoms of anxiety and depression. The patient's emotional well-being is related to other unfavorable outcomes, like reduced quality of life, sub-optimal self-care, impaired glycemic control, higher risk of complications, and increased mortality rates. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a new diabetes-specific, mindfulness-based psychological intervention. First, with regard to reducing emotional distress; second, with respect to improving quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, and self-esteem of patients with diabetes; third, with regard to self-care and clinical outcomes; finally, a potential effect modification by clinical and personality characteristics will be explored. Methods/Design The Diabetes and Mindfulness study (DiaMind) is a randomized controlled trial. Patients with diabetes with low levels of emotional well-being will be recruited from outpatient diabetes clinics. Eligible patients will be randomized to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. The intervention group will receive the mindfulness program immediately, while the control group will receive the program eight months later. The primary outcome is emotional distress (anxiety, stress, depressive symptoms), for which data will be collected at baseline, four weeks, post intervention, and after six months follow-up. In addition, self-report data will be collected on quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, self-care, and personality, while complications and glycemic control will be assessed from medical files and blood pressure will be measured. Group differences will be analyzed with repeated measures analysis of covariance. The study is supported by grants from the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and Tilburg University and has been approved by a medical ethics committee
In this paper, the role of self-reported anxiety and degree of conscious awareness as determinants of the selective processing of affective facial expressions is investigated. In two experiments, an attentional bias toward fearful facial expressions was observed, although this bias was apparent only for those reporting high levels of trait anxiety and only when the emotional face was presented in the left visual field. This pattern was especially strong when the participants were unaware of the presence of the facial stimuli. In Experiment 3, a patient with right-hemisphere brain damage and visual extinction was presented with photographs of faces and fruits on unilateral and bilateral trials. On bilateral trials, it was found that faces produced less extinction than did fruits. Moreover, faces portraying a fearful or a happy expression tended to produce less extinction than did neutral expressions. This suggests that emotional facial expressions may be less dependent on attention to achieve awareness.The implications of these results for understanding the relations between attention, emotion, and anxiety are discussed. PMID:12452584
Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Gagné, Marie-Hélène
This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress. The sample was composed of 1,259 high school students aged between 14 and 19 years who answered self-report questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted according to Baron and Kenny's approach. Logistic and linear regression analyses reveal that being victim of sexual harassment by peers and of dating violence are associated to physical dating violence perpetration via a partial mediating effect of hostility in girls. Contrary to results with girls, there is a complete mediating effect of emotional distress for boys. Results suggest that dating violence prevention and intervention strategies could be adapted according to gender and that sexual harassment should be addressed.
Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline
Although the distinction between independent immigrants and refugees has an impact on policy, services, and public opinion because it implies differences in resettlement needs, few recent studies have documented the validity of this assumption. In this population-based survey of recent migrants in Quebec (N = 1871), immigration status (refugee, independent, or sponsored immigrant) is examined in relation to premigration exposure to political violence and refugees' emotional distress, assessed with the SCL-25. A higher percentage of refugees reported exposure to political violence in their homeland, but the percentages of exposed independent (48%) and sponsored (42%) immigrants were unexpectedly high. Emotional distress was significantly higher among Chinese respondents who had witnessed acts of violence and in subjects from Arab countries who reported persecution. These results suggest that service providers and policy makers should not assume that independent immigrants have not been exposed to political violence before their migration.
Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C.; Klein, Kitty
Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. The first study found that lower levels of CED in memories of the September 11 terrorist attacks predicted greater frequency of intrusive thoughts about the attacks. The second study revealed CED levels are higher in negative events, in comparison to positive events and that low CED levels in emotionally intense negative events are associated with a pattern of greater event-related distress. The third study replicated the findings from the previous study when examining CED levels in participants’ memories of the 2004 Presidential election. The fourth study revealed that low CED in emotionally intense negative events is associated with worse mental health. We argue that CED is an adaptive and healthy coping feature of stressful memories. PMID:18569690
Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C; Klein, Kitty
Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. The first study found that lower levels of CED in memories of the September 11 terrorist attacks predicted greater frequency of intrusive thoughts about the attacks. The second study revealed that CED levels are higher in negative events, in comparison to positive events and that low CED levels in emotionally intense negative events are associated with a pattern of greater event-related distress. The third study replicated the findings from the previous study when examining CED levels in participants' memories of the 2004 Presidential election. The fourth study revealed that low CED in emotionally intense negative events is associated with worse mental health. We argue that CED is an adaptive and healthy coping feature of stressful memories.
Decruyenaere, M; Evers-Kiebooms, G; Welkenhuysen, M; Denayer, L; Claes, E
Individuals at high risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer are faced with difficult decisions regarding genetic testing, cancer prevention and/or intensive surveillance. Large interindividual differences exist in the uptake of these health-related services. This paper is aimed at understanding and predicting how people emotionally and behaviourally react to information concerning genetic predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer. For this purpose, the self-regulation model of illness representations is elaborated. This model suggests that health-related behaviour is influenced by a person's cognitive and emotional representation of the health threat. These representations generate coping behaviour aimed at resolving the objective health problems (problem-focussed coping) and at reducing the emotional distress induced by the health threat (emotion-focussed coping). Based on theoretical considerations and empirical studies, four interrelated attributes of the cognitive illness representation of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer are described: causal beliefs concerning the disease, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility to the disease and perceived controllability. The paper also addresses the complex interactions between these cognitive attributes, emotional distress and preventive health behaviour.
Wiest, Katharina L.; Colditz, Jason B.; Carr, Kathryn; Asphaug, Victoria J.; McCarty, Dennis; Pilkonis, Paul A.
Objectives: A secondary analysis assessed health-related quality of life characteristics (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, and types of pain) among patients entering substance-use treatment, and identified characteristics specific to treatment modalities relative to a representative comparison group. Methods: As part of a larger alcohol bank assessment, substance-use patients (n=406) beginning methadone treatment (n=170) or other outpatient treatment (n=236) and a comparison group representative of the general population (n=1000) completed a survey measuring anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, and pain in the last 7 days. Previous studies lacked comparable and concurrent assessments across these three groups. Results: Patients entering substance-use treatment had relatively high levels of emotional distress and poorer health-related quality of life relative to the general population. Among treatment modalities, patients beginning methadone treatment reported the highest levels of pain interference and pain behavior and the poorest physical functioning. Prior to the potentially modifying effects of methadone maintenance, patients beginning agonist therapy reported the greatest levels of compromised quality of life. Conclusion: These data present the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life characteristics between treatment and comparison groups using the same assessment rubric and may help inform the design and timing of treatment modalities, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy for patients. PMID:25275876
Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect.
Anton, Raluca; David, Daniel
Response expectancies and response hopes have been shown to be two distinct constructs with important implications for nonvolitional outcomes. More specifically, studies show that response expectancies: (1) are sufficient to cause nonvolitional outcomes, (2) are not mediated by other psychological variables, and (3) are self-confirming while seemingly automatic. A new programmatic research line has differentiated between people's response expectancies and their response hopes regarding nonvolitional outcomes and showed that even if response hope and response expectancy are separate constructs, they are not unrelated. These concepts have not yet been studied in pregnant women. Moreover, determining the causal factors that best explain the variance of emotional distress and pain in pregnancy is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interrelations between response expectancy and response hope in pregnant women with respect to (1) emotional distress prior to giving birth and (2) pain during giving birth. Additionally, self-reported labor hours were analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results show that response expectancy for pain directly predicts pain, and that the discrepancy between response hopes and response expectancies is a strong predictor of investigated outcomes. Thus, our results support the idea that preventive psychological interventions for pregnant women should emphasize adjusting response expectancies and response hopes regarding the pain and emotional distress associated with giving birth. We believe that the results have both theoretical and practical implications and the topic deserves further investigation.
Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah
The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Data come from a school-based survey in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1,032); 10% were LGBT, 58% were female, and ages ranged from 13 to 19 years. About 45% were Black, 31% were Hispanic, and 14% were White. LGBT youth scored significantly higher on the scale of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely than heterosexual, non-transgendered youth to report suicidal ideation (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001) and self-harm (21% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001). Mediation analyses showed that perceived discrimination accounted for increased depressive symptomatology among LGBT males and females, and accounted for an elevated risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation among LGBT males. Perceived discrimination is a likely contributor to emotional distress among LGBT youth.
Friman, P C; Hayes, S C; Wilson, K G
Historically, anxiety has been a dominant subject in mainstream psychology but an incidental or even insignificant one in behavior analysis. We discuss several reasons for this discrepancy. We follow with a behavior-analytic conceptualization of anxiety that could just as easily be applied to emotion in general. Its primary points are (a) that languageable humans have an extraordinary capacity to derive relations between events and that it is a simple matter to show that neutral stimuli can acquire discriminative functions indirectly with no direct training; (b) that private events can readily acquire discriminative functions; (c) that anxiety disorders seem to occur with little apparent direct learning or that the amount of direct learning is extraordinarily out of proportion with the amount of responding; and (d) that the primary function of anxious behavior is experiential avoidance. We conclude that the most interesting aspects of anxiety disorders may occur as a function of derived rather than direct relations between public events and overt and private responses with avoidance functions. Implicit in this conclusion and explicit in the paper is the assertion that anxiety is a suitable subject for behavior-analytic study. PMID:9532758
Bryan, Jennifer L; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Lu, Qian
The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment.
Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J
Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.
Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Şahan, Ebru; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Çanga, Yiğit; Güngör, Barış; Onuk, Tolga; İpek, Göktürk; Çakıllı, Yasin; Arugaslan, Emre; Bolca, Osman
Background The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF). Methods In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA) were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scales were administered to each patient. Results The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 , p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 , p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively). Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01), BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Conclusion Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies. PMID:26559983
Dunn, Barnaby D.; Billotti, Danielle; Murphy, Vicky; Dalgleish, Tim
The present study investigated the consequences of different forms of emotion regulation. Eighty nine healthy participants viewed a distressing video of the aftermath of road traffic accidents under either suppression (of both felt and expressed affect), acceptance, or no-regulation control instructions and the immediate and longer-term consequences on emotion, mood, and memory were examined. Suppression (relative to control) led to reduced subjective experience of fear when viewing the video, but did not alter electrodermal (EDA) or heart rate (HR) response. Subsequently, suppression led to a less marked subjective emotional reaction to positive but not negative emotional images, reduced free recall memory of the video, and a greater likelihood of experiencing zero intrusions of the video's content. Acceptance (relative to control) had no impact when viewing the video, was associated with a less marked increase in EDA activity in the 5 min period immediately after viewing the video, a more marked HR deceleration and EDA response to both positive and negative images, and elevated negative affect at one week follow-up. These findings suggest, contrary to the current clinical zeitgeist, that emotion suppression can successfully lead to an ongoing down-regulation of emotion and memory, whereas acceptance may elevate subsequent emotionality. PMID:19559401
Wei, Dong; Tian, Yan; Gao, Hui; Peng, Jingjing; Tan, Yong; Li, Yan
The study was conducted to extend research on the reluctance for emotional disclosure to Chinese patients with a variety of types of cancer. A quantitative survey was conducted among 400 cancer patients in China. Statistical analysis revealed that among four confirmed factors on reluctance for emotional disclosure to physicians, no perceived need scored highest, followed by unwillingness to bother, no practical use, and fear of negative impact. Patient distress was negatively associated with no perceived need and no practical use. Patients with low family support scored significantly lower in all factors except fear of negative impact. Education and income affected the factor of no perceived need. Those patients having limited family support and limited education indicated a higher need for emotional support from their physicians and were more likely to open up to them. Cultural traits should be integrated into supportive cancer care research.
Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification.
Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L
Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived
Woodman, Tim; Cazenave, Nicolas; Le Scanff, Christine
We investigated alexithymia and the fluctuation of anxiety in skydiving women. Alexithymia significantly moderated the pre- to postjump fluctuation of state anxiety such that only alexithymic skydivers' anxiety diminished as a consequence of performing a skydive. This suggests that skydiving is an effective means of emotion regulation for alexithymic women. However, the significant rise in anxiety shortly after landing suggests that any emotional benefits are short-lived. No anxiety fluctuations emerged for nonalexithymic skydivers. The Alexithymia x Time interaction remained significant when controlling for age, experience, and trait anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential dependence on risk-taking activities for alexithymic women.
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.
O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D
Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety.
Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships.
Schäfer, Johanna Özlem; Naumann, Eva; Holmes, Emily Alexandra; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Samson, Andrea Christiane
The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.
Krause, Elizabeth D.; Mendelson, Tamar; Lynch, Thomas R.
Adults (n=127) completed a series of self-report questionnaires and 88 completed an additional measure of current avoidant coping in response to a laboratory stressor. Findings strongly supported a model in which a history of childhood emotional invalidation was associated with chronic emotional inhibition in adulthood. (Contains references.)…
van Servellen, G; Leake, B
This study describes distress symptomatology and levels of job-related exhaustion in a sample of 153 hospital nurses currently caring for AIDS patients. While the level of emotional exhaustion in the sample was not alarmingly high, these nurses did report symptoms of distress. Levels of emotional exhaustion were related to a variety of personal demographic, AIDS-specific, and job-related factors. These factors included: age, income, years of practice on the unit, recent change in shift, type of unit, discomfort caring for AIDS patients, willingness to continue caring for AIDS patients, number of AIDS patients cared for, job tension, job influence, and enthusiasm about returning to work. Regression analysis indicated, however, that six general job-related factors accounted for about 46% of the variation in emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that general job-related factors such as 8-hour shifts, changing shifts, level of job tension, and other factors characterizing all hospital care are particularly worthy of future study.
Pearcy, Benjamin T D; McEvoy, Peter M; Roberts, Lynne D
This study extends knowledge about the relationship of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) to other established mental disorders by exploring comorbidities with anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and assessing whether IGD accounts for unique variance in distress and disability. An online survey was completed by a convenience sample that engages in Internet gaming (N = 404). Participants meeting criteria for IGD based on the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9) reported higher comorbidity with depression, OCD, ADHD, and anxiety compared with those who did not meet the IGD criteria. IGD explained a small proportion of unique variance in distress (1%) and disability (3%). IGD accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in disability than anxiety and ADHD, and a similar proportion to depression. Replications with clinical samples using longitudinal designs and structured diagnostic interviews are required.
Studies of reactions and attitudes toward nuclear war have progressed from the use of anecdotal evidence to multi-item psychological measures. Additional psychometric data and substantive results of the Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ; Newcomb, 1986) are reported here. Data from three independent samples of students from the United States collected in 1984, 1986, and 1987 were compared and contrasted. The 1986 data were obtained immediately following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Test-retest reliability of the NAQ items and subscales was quite high and comparable among samples and established the across-time stability of the measure. There were several secular trends across years on items and subscales, indicating some increased concern about nuclear power (particularly in 1986), but also a general increase in nuclear concerns, fears, and anxiety. Anticipated sex differences were found on many of the NAQ items and subscales. Correlations between the NAQ subscales and the nine SCL-90-R scales (Derogatis, 1977) were consistent for the 1986 and 1987 samples. In latent variable analyses, a general factor of Emotional Distress was significantly correlated with a general factor of Nuclear Anxiety, as well as specifically with nuclear concern and fear for the future.
Puar, Surjit Singh
The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…
Karst, Thomas O.; Trexler, Larry D.
College students reporting high levels of public speaking anxiety received fixed role, or rational emotive group therapy, or no therapy. Support for the hypothesis that treatment would reduce anxiety more than no treatment was secured. Results lend support to the assumption that psychotherapy is effective in reducing emotional disorders, and that…
Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; Mage=23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD.
Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety…
Mennin, Douglas S.; Holaway, Robert M.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Two studies sought to elucidate the components of emotion and its dysregulation and examine their role in both the overlap and distinctness of the symptoms of 3 highly comorbid anxiety and mood disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and social anxiety disorder). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that 4…
Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko
The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state.
Nolidin, Karen; Downey, Luke A; Hansen, Karen; Schweitzer, Issac; Stough, Con
Impairments in emotional intelligence (EI) have been found in individuals with high general and social anxiety; however, no studies have examined this relationship in a clinically depressed population. Thirty-one patients (11 male, 20 female) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major affective disorder and 28 non-clinical controls (5 male, 23 female) completed self-report instruments assessing EI, depression and social anxiety. Compared to a control group, the clinical group scored lower on the EI dimensions of Emotional Recognition and Expression, Understanding Emotions, Emotional Management, and Emotional Control. Regression analyses revealed Emotional Control was a significant predictor of interaction, performance, and generalised social anxiety. Self-report measures of EI may have predictive value in terms of early identification of those at risk of developing social anxiety and depression. The current study points to the potential value of conducting further studies of a prospective nature.
Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I
Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger.
Iverson, Katherine M.; Follette, Victoria M.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.
Objective This study investigated three domains of emotional functioning—emotion dysregulation, distress tolerance and experiential avoidance—in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method Participants were 40 young adult outpatients at a university counseling center who reported current suicidal ideation and met diagnostic criteria for BPD or experienced subthreshold BPD symptoms (i.e., met diagnostic criteria for 3 or 4 symptoms). Participants completed three self-report measures of emotional functioning—experiential avoidance (AAQ-II), emotion dysregulation (DERS), and distress tolerance (DTS)—and a behavioral measure of distress tolerance (PASAT-C) in addition to self-report measures of depression and BPD symptom severity. Results Partial correlations demonstrated that both emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after accounting for depression. However, neither the self-report or behavioral measures of distress tolerance were related to BPD symptom severity. A regression analysis with emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance as independent variables revealed that only experiential avoidance was significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after controlling for depression symptoms. Conclusion The current findings suggest that experiential avoidance may be a central process in BPD symptom severity. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:22452755
Cohen, Joseph R.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.
Objective The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Method Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha, and 592 adolescents (287 females and 305 males) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular one month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Results Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Conclusion Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030
Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S
Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.
Kranzler, Amy; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L; Abela, John R Z; Elias, Maurice J; Selby, Edward A
Research increasingly suggests that low emotional awareness may be associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety among children and adolescents. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, it has remained unclear whether low emotional awareness predicts subsequent internalizing symptoms. The current study used longitudinal data to examine the role of emotional awareness as a transdiagnostic predictor of subsequent symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants were 204 youth (86 boys and 118 girls) ages 7-16 who completed self-report measures of emotional awareness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, as well as measures of depression and anxiety symptoms every 3 months for a year. Results from hierarchical mixed effects modeling indicated that low baseline emotional awareness predicted both depressive and anxiety symptoms across a 1-year period. These findings suggest that emotional awareness may constitute a transdiagnostic factor, predicting symptoms of both depression and anxiety, and that emotional awareness training may be a beneficial component of treatment and prevention programs for youth depression and anxiety.
Doane, Leah D; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle; Griffith, James W; Adam, Emma K
Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning have been associated with major depression disorder (MDD) and some anxiety disorders. Few researchers have tested the possibility that high levels of recent life stress or elevations in negative emotion may partially account for the HPA axis alterations observed in these disorders. In a sample of 300 adolescents from the Youth Emotion Project, we examined associations between MDD and anxiety disorders, dimensional measures of internalizing symptomatology, life stress, mood on the days of cortisol testing, and HPA axis functioning. Adolescents with a past MDD episode and those with a recent MDD episode comorbid with an anxiety disorder had flatter diurnal cortisol slopes than adolescents without a history of internalizing disorders. Higher reports of general distress, a dimension of internalizing symptomatology, were also associated with flatter slopes. Negative emotion, specifically sadness and loneliness, was associated with flatter slopes and partially accounted for the associations between comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders and cortisol. The associations between past MDD and cortisol slopes were not accounted for by negative emotion, dimensional variation in internalizing symptomatology, or levels of life stress, indicating that flatter cortisol slopes may also be a "scar" marker of past experiences of MDD.
Mennin, Douglas S; Heimberg, Richard G; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M
Three studies provide preliminary support for an emotion dysregulation model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In study 1, students with GAD reported heightened intensity of emotions, poorer understanding of emotions, greater negative reactivity to emotional experience, and less ability to self-soothe after negative emotions than controls. A composite emotion regulation score significantly predicted the presence of GAD, after controlling for worry, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. In study 2, these findings were largely replicated with a clinical sample. In study 3, students with GAD, but not controls, displayed greater increases in self-reported physiological symptoms after listening to emotion-inducing music than after neutral mood induction. Further, GAD participants had more difficulty managing their emotional reactions. Implications for GAD and psychopathology in general are discussed.
Gray, Katie L H; Adams, Wendy J; Garner, Matthew
Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the initial selection of emotional faces presented in binocular rivalry is highly influenced by self-reported state and trait anxiety-level. Heightened anxiety was correlated with increased perception of angry and fearful faces, and decreased perception of happy expressions. These results are consistent with recent evidence of involuntary selection of threat in anxiety.
Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko
While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination.
Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique
The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed.
Reeve, Jeanne; James, Frances; McNeill, Rob; Brown, Paul; Cameron, Linda; Mills, Stephen
The aim of this study is to determine whether functional and psychosocial outcomes after burn injury in New Zealand are consistent with the international literature. Fifty participants with burns >10% TBSA and a mean of 5.1 years since burn completed a survey that included questionnaires and open-ended questions. The rates of psychosocial distress for this sample were consistent with international reports. Psychological distress was predicted by negative change in income and by reports that the individual has hidden thoughts and emotions from others. Respondents also described positive changes in their life as a result of the burn injury that were independent of negative outcomes. Participants indicated good long-term functional improvement but ongoing psychological distress. Important indicators for poor outcome may be loss of income and reluctance to discuss emotions.
Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.
Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…
Pajak, Rosanna; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.
Bowel and bladder obsession [bowel/bladder-control anxiety (BBCA)] is a viscerally centered phobic syndrome involving a specific concern about losing control of bowel or bladder functioning in a public place. Like other anxiety disorders, BBCA is characterized by intrusive imagery. We have previously described the nature of intrusive mental imagery in BBCA and found imagery themes to be linked to actual experiences of loss of control or to “near misses.” A causal role for imagery in symptom maintenance can be inferred by examining the effects of imagery rescripting. Moreover, successful rescripting may point to a potentially efficacious avenue for treatment development. Three cases of imagery rescripting are described here with pre-, post-, and follow-up (1-week) data reported. After rescripting, two participants experienced pronounced reductions in imagery vividness, distress, shame, disgust, and belief conviction. Most importantly, all three participants experienced a reduction in fear-associated bladder and/or bowel sensations. The results support a causal role for mental imagery in bowel-bladder-control anxiety and suggest that rescripting of distressing intrusive memories linked to recurrent images may be a useful avenue for development of cognitive-behavioral treatments of bladder/bowel-control anxiety. PMID:25566101
Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.
The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…
Calderón, Jorge; Campla, Cristóbal; D’Aguzan, Nicole; Barraza, Soledad; Padilla, Oslando; Sánchez, Cesar; Palma, Silvia; González, Matías
Emotional distress (ED) is greater for oncology patients in comparison with the general population, and this has implications for the quality of life of the patient and his/her family, adherence to the treatment, and eventually, survivorship. In general, the detection of these symptoms is low, which explains the need for detection systems appropriate to the clinical reality of the oncology team. The objective of this study is to evaluate for the first time the usefulness of an ultra-brief screening instrument [distress thermometer (DT)], in a group of Chilean oncology patients. A total of 166 outpatients were evaluated at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, before starting chemotherapy. Two screening instruments were applied: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and DT. The application of HADS resulted in a prevalence of 32.7% of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A ≥ 8), 15.7% of depression symptoms (HADS-D ≥ 8), and 39.8% had a total score of HADS-T ≥ 11. The DT resulted in the prevalence of 32.5% of distress or ED (DT ≥ 5). The validity of the DT was evaluated as a screening tool in comparison with HADS, observing, in relation to the anxiety scale (HADS-A), a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.4% (DT ≥ 4); depression (HADS-D), a sensitivity of 69.2% and specificity of 74.3% (DT ≥ 5); and in relation to the total scale (HADS-T), a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 73.0% (DT ≥ 4). This study demonstrates the elevated prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients, before the start of chemotherapy, and confirms the potential of the DT as a brief screening instrument with easy application. The DT will allow the clinician to increase the detection threshold in the Chilean oncology population, intervene in a timely manner, and contribute to the comprehensive handling of the oncology patient without affecting the time needed for assistance. PMID:24966889
Ringwald, Johanna; Wochnowski, Christina; Bosse, Kristin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schäffeler, Norbert; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin
Understanding the intermediate- and long-term psychological consequences of genetic testing for cancer patients has led to encouraging research, but a clear consensus of the psychosocial impact and clinical routine for cancer-affected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is still missing. We performed a systematic review of intermediate- and long-term studies investigating the psychological impact like psychological distress, anxiety, and depression in cancer-affected BRCA mutation carriers compared to unaffected mutation carriers. This review included the screening of 1243 studies. Eight intermediate- and long-term studies focusing on distress, anxiety, and depression symptoms among cancer-affected mutation carriers at least six months after the disclosure of genetic testing results were included. Studies reported a great variety of designs, methods, and patient outcomes. We found evidence indicating that cancer-affected mutation carriers experienced a negative effect in relation to psychological well-being in terms of an increase in symptoms of distress, anxiety, and depression in the first months after test disclosure. In the intermediate- and long-term, no significant clinical relevant symptoms occurred. However, none of the included studies used specific measurements, which can clearly identify psychological burdens of cancer-affected mutation carriers. We concluded that current well-implemented distress screening instruments are not sufficient for precisely identifying the psychological burden of genetic testing. Therefore, future studies should implement coping strategies, specific personality structures, the impact of genetic testing, supportive care needs and disease management behaviour to clearly screen for the possible intermediate- and long-term psychological impact of a positive test disclosure.
Chorpita, B F; Plummer, C M; Moffitt, C E
This study examined preliminary higher-order models relating tripartite dimensions of emotion to severity of anxiety and depressive disorders in 100 clinically referred children and adolescents. In light of the accumulating support for multifactor models of vulnerability and negative emotion in children, the present investigation was designed to establish preliminary estimates of the structure and magnitude of the relations of three emotion factors with dimensions of social anxiety, depression, panic, generalized anxiety, obsessions/compulsions, and separation anxiety. Results were consistent with structures that minimally specified two higher-order emotion factors, yet only some parameter estimates were consistent with theory regarding the tripartite model. Problems with the measurement of tripartite factors and possibilities for further research are outlined.
Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo
Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.
Perkins, Adam M; Kemp, Samantha E; Corr, Philip J
The Gray and McNaughton (2000) theory draws on a wide range of animal data to hypothesize that the emotions of fear and anxiety are separable. The authors tested their hypothesis in two studies. The first study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear, anxiety, and neuroticism; correlational analysis revealed that fear and anxiety are not interchangeable constructs. The second study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear/anxiety and performance in a military training setting; regression analysis revealed that fear captured significant variance in performance that was not shared with anxiety. These results imply that hypotheses derived from nonhuman animal data may hold important implications for understanding human emotion and motivation, especially in relation to fear and anxiety.
Weems, Carl F.
This paper outlines a way for thinking about continuity and change in childhood anxiety symptoms. Considerations for a model of continuity and change in anxious emotion are discussed first. Then, a perspective which may resolve inconsistencies across studies on the stability of childhood anxiety problems overtime is presented. The perspective…
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…
Copp, Jennifer E; Kuhl, Danielle C; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D
Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent's level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most.
Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.
Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438
Huppert, Jonathan D.; Alley, Amie C.
Major psychological theories of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have begun to suggest that worry may function as avoidance of emotions. On the basis of these findings, a number of researchers have begun to develop techniques to address emotional deficits in GAD. However, most techniques suggested to date have been from outside a…
Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms.
Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean
To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one's emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice.
Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul
Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…
Bourgeois, Michelle L; Brown, Timothy A
The relationships between neuroticism, perceived emotion control, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity were examined in 293 individuals diagnosed with GAD at a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Hierarchical regression analyses performed within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that (1) neuroticism and perceived emotion control both predicted a latent variable of GAD in the expected direction, and (2) perceived emotion control moderated the relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity, such that lower levels of perceived emotion control were associated with a stronger relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity. The other dimensions of perceived control (i.e., stress and threat control) did not moderate the effect of neuroticism on GAD severity. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications to conceptual models of the psychopathology of GAD, and theory-based differential relationships between dimensions of vulnerability, perceived control, and anxiety disorders.
LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.
Fajkowska, Małgorzata; Domaradzka, Ewa; Wytykowska, Agata
The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that differences and similarities in patterns of attentional processing in recently proposed types of anxiety and depression are connected with the dominant (reactive, regulative) function they play in stimulation processing and their structural components. Participants (N = 1247) filled out the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire, which assesses types of anxiety and depression, and completed the Emotional Faces Attentional Test one week later. The obtained results confirmed our prediction and suggested that the proposed typology of anxiety and depression is valid in the adaptive meanings of both phenomena.
Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies
Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias.
Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy
Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.
Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.; Sass, Sarah M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy
Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737
Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Salgado, Sinue
We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025
Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.
Hypnosis is widely recognized as an empirically supported intervention to improve postsurgical outcomes. However, to date, no research has examined mediators of hypnotic benefit among surgery patients. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress would mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). In a sample of 200 women undergoing breast conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years), structural equation modeling revealed the following: 1) hypnotic effects on postsurgical pain were partially mediated by pain expectancy (p< .0001), but not by distress (p=.12); 2) hypnotic effects on postsurgical nausea were partially mediated by presurgical distress (p=.02), but not by nausea expectancy (p=.10); 3) hypnotic effects on postsurgical fatigue were partially mediated by both fatigue expectancy (p=.0001) and presurgical distress (p=.02). These results improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for hypnotic phenomena in the surgical setting, and suggest that future hypnotic interventions target patient expectancies and distress to improve postsurgical recovery. PMID:20099953
Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; McClain, Arianna D; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
This study examined associations between sleep onset latency and emotional eating in a minority sample of children. A cross-sectional school-based study of sleep, psychological constructs, diet and physical activity was conducted in 6 public and private schools in Los Angeles County. An ethnically diverse sample of 356 third through fifth graders completed confidential self-report surveys. Multilevel regression (MLM) analyses were conducted to study associations while controlling for gender, ethnicity, and the random effect of school. Girls made up 57% of the total sample, which was predominantly Latino (42.6%), followed by African Americans (21.6%) and Asians (19.2%). MLM revealed that there were significant associations between sleep onset latency and emotional eating (p=.030), depressive symptomology (p<.0001) and trait anxiety (p<.0001). Sobel's test for mediation showed that trait anxiety (p=.011) but not depressive symptomology (p=.141) was a mediator of the relationship between sleep onset latency and emotional eating. Thereby providing a mechanism through which sleep onset latency is related to emotional eating. These findings suggest that sleep onset latency is associated with increased anxiety, depressive symptoms, and emotional eating. Although causal inferences cannot be drawn from this cross-sectional data, future studies should examine the possibility that problems falling asleep could lead to emotional dysregulation that in turn leads to emotional eating. Emotional eating may be one avenue by which sleep disturbances lead to overweight and obesity.
Šumec, Rastislav; Rektorová, Irena; Jech, Robert; Menšíková, Kateřina; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen; Sochorová, Dana; Dušek, Ladislav; Kaňovský, Petr; Rektor, Ivan; Pavlík, Tomáš; Filip, Pavel; Bareš, Martin
Anxiety is a serious and frequent complication in Parkinson's disease (PD) that significantly affects the quality of life of patients. Multiple neuroanatomical, experimental, and clinical studies suggest its close association with axial disturbances. However, whether this relation applies for PD patients (commonly suffering from axial difficulties, such as balance and gait disturbance) has not been properly tested yet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PD patients suffering from axial symptoms have higher levels of anxiety than others and to identify other factors associated with anxiety-axial connections. In this questionnaire study, 212 patients with PD were assessed by standardized scales, such as Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, examining their mood and cognitive status. These data were correlated to dominant motor symptoms of these patients, such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. Unlike other motor symptoms, only axial symptoms showed to be significantly related to higher levels of anxiety. The patients suffering from anxiety and axial problems have also shown significantly higher depression levels. Axial disturbances are related to higher anxiety levels in PD patients. It is crucial to pay high attention to symptoms of anxiety in patients having postural instability or gait disorder. Further clinical studies are desirable to investigate new, practical implications of anxiety-axial connection to provide complex management options of these serious symptoms.
Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela
A history of victimization has been linked to the latter development of emotional distress. However, not all victims develop emotional distress in response to victimization, emphasizing the need to identify mediators that can guide intervention, as well as moderators to more targeted preventive actions. Within a developmental psychology framework, we aimed to test two models: (a) the role of adult attachment as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, and (b) the role of household dysfunctions as moderators in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, in psychiatric patients. Participants were 120 adult psychiatric patients, between ages 20 and 79 years (M = -47.22, SD = 13.102) that responded to questions assessing household dysfunction in the family of origin, victimization, and adult attachment. Results revealed that adult attachment was a significant mediator in the association between victimization and emotional distress. Parental mental disorder and total household adversity were significant moderators for that same association. These results provide important clues for intervention. The focus on promoting secure adult relationships may contribute not only to the psychosocial adjustment of psychiatric patients but also to a healthier family functioning. Reducing the household dysfunction may provide a protective environment for the development of children, promoting a positive psychosocial adjustment, also preventing the intergenerational transmission of violence, insecure attachment, and emotional distress.
Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others
For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder…
Mayer, Stefanie E; Snodgrass, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; Briggs, Hedieh; Curtis, George C; Abelson, James L
The HPA axis plays a key role in mediating the effects of "stress" on health, but clarifying mechanisms requires an understanding of psycho-biological linkages. There has long been an implicit assumption that subjective emotional distress (e.g., fear) should activate the HPA axis. Although this assumption was challenged 25 years ago (Curtis, 1976), laboratory studies in humans are limited. In this study we sought to replicate Curtis' findings and extend it by investigating if presence or absence of stressor control shapes HPA axis reactivity in a phobic fear exposure model. We recruited 19-45-year-old specific phobia participants (n=32 spider/snake phobia; n=14 claustrophobia) and gradually exposed them to their feared object or situation while measuring hormonal (ACTH and cortisol) and subjective (emotional distress, perceived control) responses. Utilizing a dyadic yoked design, we compared HPA reactivity when the pace of exposure was controlled by participants to identical exposure given to matched participants in the absence of control. Results showed that phobic fear exposure generated intense emotional distress without a corresponding increase in HPA axis activity. Although our actual manipulation of control failed to impact HPA responses, perceived control during exposure was associated with lower cortisol, an effect that was moderated by actual availability of stressor control. Our findings replicate Curtis' findings and challenge the still common but unsupported assumption that HPA axis activity reflects subjective distress. These results also highlight the importance of both perceived and actual aspects of stressor control in understanding what is truly "stressful" to the HPA axis system.
Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record
Mello, Susan; Tan, Andy S L; Armstrong, Katrina; Sanford Schwartz, J; Hornik, Robert C
This study explores cancer survivors' engagement with information about emotional support from doctors, interpersonal sources, and the media and examines to what extent such engagement affects subsequent self-reported anxiety and depression. Patients with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer (n = 1,128) were surveyed over 3 years following diagnosis. Using lagged logistic regression, we predicted the odds of experiencing anxiety or depression based on earlier engagement with sources of emotional support, adjusting for prior symptoms and confounders. Among those reporting anxiety or depression (n = 476), we also asked whether information engagement affected the severity of those symptoms. Participants obtained information about emotional support from multiple sources, but most often from physicians. Discussions with physicians about emotional support increased the odds of cancer survivors subsequently reporting anxiety or depression by 1.58 times (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.35; p = 0.025), adjusted for prior symptoms and confounders. Scanning from media sources was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting emotional symptoms (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.87; p = 0.039). However, among those who reported symptoms, doctor-patient engagement predicted slightly reduced interference of these symptoms with daily activities (B = -0.198; 95% CI: -0.393 to -0.003; p = 0.047). Important implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.
Jan, Sajjad Ullah; Anwar, Mumtaz Ali; Warraich, Nosheen Fatima
Emotional intelligence is an important area of psychology, which has gained acceptance in almost every academic discipline. It also seems to influence the various academic activities undertaken by students. This article, which is part of a larger study, reviews the literature on emotional intelligence, and its relationship with the academic and…
Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…
Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina
Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.
Sass, Sarah M.; Berenbaum, Howard; Abrams, Elizabeth M.
The goal of this study was to investigate moderators of mindfulness training. The present study employed a brief form of mindfulness training with moderately distressed participants. Psychological distress was measured before and after a five-session mindfulness intervention. Two hypothesized moderators of treatment outcome, discomfort with…
Mensorio, Marinna S; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Palomar, Gonzalo; Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa Maria
Although the relationship between cholesterol and mood states (especially anxiety) has been well studied, few researches have included the role of eating styles in this relationship. This study explored the associations among eating styles, negative emotional symptoms, and levels of cholesterol (and other medical variables) in a population with hypertension and overweight or obesity, analyzing the possible mediation mechanisms involved. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 68 adults with hypertension and overweight/obesity, and stepwise multiple regression analysis and mediation analyses were carried out to test the hypothesis that eating styles mediate the relationship between negative emotional symptoms and cholesterol. Several significant correlations among age, anthropometric, medical, and psychological variables (eating styles and negative emotional symptoms) were found. There was a significant indirect effect of anxiety on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol through emotional eating. Results suggest that emotional eating has a relevant role in the rise in total and LDL cholesterol, acting as a mediator in the relationship between anxiety and cholesterol. This finding could have important implications, since it introduces a new variable in the relationship between emotions and cholesterol and, therefore, changes the way of understanding this relationship, and of treating high cholesterol in a hypertensive sample.
South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui
Severe symptoms of anxiety add substantial additional burden to many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Improved understanding of specific factors that contribute to anxiety in ASD can aid research regarding the causes of autism and also provide targets for more effective intervention. This mini-review article focuses on emerging evidence for three concepts that appear to be related to each other and which also strongly predict anxiety in ASD samples. Atypical sensory function is included in the diagnostic criteria for ASD and is likely an important contributor to anxiety. Difficulties in understanding and labeling emotions (alexithymia), although a co-morbidity, may arise in part from atypical sensory function and can lead to confusion and uncertainty about how to respond to social and emotional situations. Intolerance of uncertainty(IU) describes people who have a particularly hard time with ambiguity and is known to be a key mechanism underlying some anxiety disorders. While evidence for linking these ideas is to date incomplete, we put forward a model including each concept as a framework for future studies. Specifically, we propose that IU is a critical mediator for anxiety in ASD, and explore the relationships between sensory function, alexithymia and IU. We further explore the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in regulating emotional response, in connection with limbic and insula-based networks, and suggest that disrupted integration in these networks underlies difficulties with habituation to strong emotional stimuli, which results in an enhanced perception of threat in many people with ASD. Behavioral and biologically-based treatments for anxiety in ASD will benefit from attending to these specific mechanisms as adjunct to traditional interventions.
South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui
Severe symptoms of anxiety add substantial additional burden to many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Improved understanding of specific factors that contribute to anxiety in ASD can aid research regarding the causes of autism and also provide targets for more effective intervention. This mini-review article focuses on emerging evidence for three concepts that appear to be related to each other and which also strongly predict anxiety in ASD samples. Atypical sensory function is included in the diagnostic criteria for ASD and is likely an important contributor to anxiety. Difficulties in understanding and labeling emotions (alexithymia), although a co-morbidity, may arise in part from atypical sensory function and can lead to confusion and uncertainty about how to respond to social and emotional situations. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) describes people who have a particularly hard time with ambiguity and is known to be a key mechanism underlying some anxiety disorders. While evidence for linking these ideas is to date incomplete, we put forward a model including each concept as a framework for future studies. Specifically, we propose that IU is a critical mediator for anxiety in ASD, and explore the relationships between sensory function, alexithymia and IU. We further explore the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in regulating emotional response, in connection with limbic and insula-based networks, and suggest that disrupted integration in these networks underlies difficulties with habituation to strong emotional stimuli, which results in an enhanced perception of threat in many people with ASD. Behavioral and biologically-based treatments for anxiety in ASD will benefit from attending to these specific mechanisms as adjunct to traditional interventions. PMID:28174531
Fwu, Bih-Jen; Chen, Shun-Wen; Wei, Chih-Fen; Wang, Hsiou-Huai
Previous studies have found that in East Asian Confucian societies, hardworking students are often trapped in a dilemma of enjoying a positive moral image while suffering from emotional distress due to academic failure. This study intends to further explore whether the cultural-specific belief in self-exertion acts as a psychological mechanism to lessen these students’ negative emotions. A group of 288 college students in Taiwan were administered a questionnaire to record their responses to past academic failures. The results from structural equation modeling showed that self-exertion functioned as a mediator between the effects of effort on learning virtues and emotional distress. Self-exertion to fulfill one’s duty to oneself positively mediated the effect of effort on learning virtues, whereas self-exertion to fulfill one’s duty to one’s parents negatively mediated the effect of effort on emotional distress. Theoretical and cultural implications are further discussed. PMID:28119648
Ripper, S; Stolle, A; Seehausen, A; Klinkenberg, M; Germann, G; Hartmann, B; Renneberg, B
Severe burn injuries are traumatic events and can have serious impact on all areas of life frequently causing high emotional distress. In a multicentre study resources and emotional distress of patients with serious burn injuries were assessed during the first hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Patients with severe burn injuries after accidents in a private environment (NBG patients) and patients after occupational accidents covered by the German Social Accident Insurance (BG patients) were compared. All patients reported marked emotional impairment, particularly during the hospitalization. At follow-up a reduction of emotional distress was detected. Nearly half of the patients received a diagnosis of one or more mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. When treating patients with burns, special attention should be given to their mental health. They should be offered psychological support to cope with the aftermath of the accident, especially after discharge from hospital when returning to their normal surroundings.
Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Parrott, M Scott
Young adults (N = 357) were surveyed following the suicide of celebrity Robin Williams to better understand how involvement with the actor and emotional responses to his death influenced searches for information concerning depression, suicide, and mental health. Emotional distress following the actor's death mediated the relationship between involvement and certain types of information searches. Most respondents sought information about the celebrity's career, suicide, and depression using portable devices such as smartphones and laptop computers to access news websites for information. Those respondents who sought information about the suicide reported changes in their thoughts about suicide, most often dealing with the difficulty in spotting warning signs and the idea that "it can happen to anyone." Findings suggest placement of health messages within existing material about celebrity announcements on online websites and social media to drive more traffic toward general informational outlets. Messages that acknowledge emotional distress might be best placed within content specific to the celebrity's tragedy, rather than specific to the celebrity's career or performances.
Erickson, Thane M.; Newman, Michelle G.
Persons with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report maladaptive social cognitions, interpersonal behaviors, and emotional regulation. Because research has neither investigated these processes in actual social situations nor explored whether they take heterogeneous forms, the present study provides the first attempt to do so in…
LaBillois, James M.; Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.
The central goal of the present study was to examine how a child's emotion regulation ability may moderate the relations between teaching styles and anxiety in childhood. Participants were 33 children (21 males, 12 females; mean age 7.5 years, standard deviation = 0.42), their mothers and teachers. Children completed the Early Adolescent…
Valizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Alavinia, Parviz
The researchers in the current study were after probing the potential relationship between emotional intelligence, foreign language listening anxiety (FLLA), and listening comprehension performance of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 233 participants, studying English language and literature at three different Universities in Urmia, were…
Battaglia, Marco; Ogliari, Anna; Zanoni, Annalisa; Villa, Federica; Citterio, Alessandra; Binaghi, Flora; Fossati, Andrea; Maffei, Cesare
Objective: To conduct an exploratory investigation of possible relationships between individual levels of social anxiety and the ability to classify emotional expressions in a group of schoolchildren observing pictures of children of similar age. Method: One hundred forty-nine second- and third-grade schoolchildren underwent a facial expression…
Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.
Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…
Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew
Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…
Hambrook, David; Brown, Gary; Tchanturia, Kate
Problematic emotional processing has been implicated in the genesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study built on existing research and explored performance-based emotional intelligence (EI) in people with AN. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 32 women diagnosed with AN and 32 female healthy controls (HC). Compared to HC women, the AN group demonstrated significantly lower total EI scores and poorer ability to understand how emotions can progress and change over time. Despite scores within the broadly average range compared to published EI norms, there was a general pattern of poorer performance in the AN sample. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictor of EI, over and above a diagnosis of AN. This study adds to the literature documenting the socioemotional phenotype of AN, suggesting this group of individuals may find it relatively difficult to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions, and to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. Anxiety was highlighted as a putative variable partially explaining why people with AN demonstrated lower EI compared to controls. Implications for further research are discussed, including the need to explore the specificity of EI difficulties in AN using larger samples and additional control groups.
Ringer, Jamie M; Lysaker, Paul H
Heightened levels of anger and dysregulated expression of anger have been associated with poorer outcomes and treatment response for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Less is known, however, about the psychological processes that determine the extent to which anger is expressed in a more versus less adaptive manner. To explore this issue, this study gathered reports of anger expression style in 88 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Second Edition. The authors additionally assessed anxiety, suspiciousness, emotion recognition, self-esteem, and cumulative trauma history. Correlations and multiple regression analyses showed that outward anger control, that is, the suppression of anger, was predicted by lower levels of suspiciousness, poorer emotion recognition, and reduced anxiety. Participants who endorsed greater anxiety and had experienced more traumatic events reported a heightened tendency to express anger both inwardly and outwardly.
Garfinkel, Sarah N; Tiley, Claire; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Harrison, Neil A; Seth, Anil K; Critchley, Hugo D
Emotions and affective feelings are influenced by one's internal state of bodily arousal via interoception. Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are associated with difficulties in recognising others' emotions, and in regulating own emotions. We tested the hypothesis that, in people with ASC, such affective differences may arise from abnormalities in interoceptive processing. We demonstrated that individuals with ASC have reduced interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tests) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires), reflecting an impaired ability to objectively detect bodily signals alongside an over-inflated subjective perception of bodily sensations. The divergence of these two interoceptive axes can be computed as a trait prediction error. This error correlated with deficits in emotion sensitivity and occurrence of anxiety symptoms. Our results indicate an origin of emotion deficits and affective symptoms in ASC at the interface between body and mind, specifically in expectancy-driven interpretation of interoceptive information.
Paulus, Martin P.; Yu, Angela J.
Emotion processing and decision-making are integral aspects of daily life. However, our understanding of the interaction between these constructs is limited. In this review, we summarize theoretical approaches to the link between emotion and decision-making, and focus on research with anxious or depressed individuals that reveals how emotions can interfere with decision-making. We integrate the emotional framework based on valence and arousal with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. We then discuss how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions provide evidence that alterations of decision-making can be viewed in terms of altered probability and value computation. We argue that the probabilistic representation of belief states in the context of partially observable Markov decision processes provides a useful approach to examine alterations in probability and value representation in individuals with anxiety and depression and outline the broader implications of this approach. PMID:22898207
Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.
Hedl, John J., Jr.
The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and worry and emotionality items from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (Form Y) were administered to college students from three metropolitan colleges as part of several psychological experiments. The TAI was administered to a total of 543 students, and the STAI A-State items were administered twice to a…
Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.
The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…
Keil, Verena; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian
Deficits in emotion regulation (ER) are an important factor in maintaining social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults. As SAD and ER problems typically develop during childhood and adolescence, and are maintained dynamically within the parent-child dyad, research on families can help to reveal the role ER plays in the early development of SAD. The current study assessed self-reported habitual ER in dyads of children with SAD (n = 31), children with mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 41) and healthy control children (HC; n = 36), and their parents. Results indicate a transdiagnostic quality of ER in that, children with SAD and children with MAD similarly reported less adaptive and more maladaptive ER strategies than HC children, whereas no group differences in parental ER strategies emerged. Furthermore, children's ER strategies aggressive action, withdrawal and self-devaluation and the parental ER strategy reappraisal were associated with social anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that there may be deficits in ER which generalize across childhood anxiety disorders. Our results are discussed in relation to current theories and their implications for treatment of childhood SAD.
Hum, Kathryn M.; Manassis, Katharina; Lewis, Marc D.
Background: The present study was designed to examine the cortical processes that mediate cognitive regulation in response to emotion-eliciting stimuli in anxious children. Methods: Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from clinically anxious children ("n" = 29) and typically developing children ("n" = 34).…
Jamilian, H. R.; Malekirad, A. A.; Farhadi, M.; Habibi, M.; Zamani, N.
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (basedon core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Materials & Methods: Research method is a semi experimental socio-statistic approach consisting of experimental group (dialectical behavior therapy) and control group. Participants were patients referred to Amir Kabir Hospital in Arak who suffered from Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Based on stratified random sampling, 16 patients (women) were placed in each group. Research tools included the structured diagnosis interview according to DSM-IV-TR (2000), Barrat impulsivity scale (1994) Distress Tolerance Scale (2005) Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (2004) and dialectical behavior therapy were done for two months,8 group-sessions). Findings: Dialectical behavior therapy was effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Discussion & Conclusion: Distress tolerance and emotion regulation components were effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. PMID:25363188
Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne
Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794
Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David; Markon, Kristian E
Previous research has shown that both depression and social anxiety--2 facets of internalizing psychopathology--are characterized by low levels of extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE). However, little is known about the relations of the facets of E/PE with the symptoms of depression and social anxiety. This study utilized multiple measures of each facet of E/PE, as well as depression and social anxiety symptoms. Self-report data were collected from large samples of college students and psychiatric outpatients. Separate factor analyses in each sample revealed a 4-factor structure of E/PE consisting of Sociability, Positive Emotionality, Ascendance, and Fun-Seeking. Structural equation modeling revealed that, after controlling for the higher order internalizing factor and the overlap among the E/PE facets, social anxiety was broadly related to all 4 facets of E/PE, whereas depression was strongly related to only low positive emotionality. Implications for hierarchical models of personality and psychopathology, assessment and treatment, and etiological models are discussed.
Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention.
Sunderland, Matthew; Wong, Nora; Hilvert-Bruce, Zita; Andrews, Gavin
Internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of internet based CBT prescribed by primary care clinicians for the treatment of depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Psychological distress data from 302 patients who completed an online CBT course for depression and 361 patients who completed an online CBT course for generalised anxiety disorder were subjected to growth mixture analysis. For both disorders psychological distress decreased across each lesson in a quadratic trend. Two classes of individuals were identified with different trajectories of change: a large group of individuals who responded well to the courses and a smaller group of individuals with a lower response. Both groups were similar with respect to socio-demographic characteristics however the Low Responders tended to have higher levels of symptom severity and psychological distress at baseline in comparison to the responders. For the majority of patients (75-80%) the internet CBT courses for depression and generalised anxiety disorder were effective. Further research is required to identify and effectively treat the smaller proportion of patients who did not improve during internet CBT.
Green, Gill; Emslie, Carol; O'Neill, Dan; Hunt, Kate; Walker, Steven
This paper examines the experiences and perspectives of ex-military servicemen in the UK. It focuses specifically on the complex links between emotional distress and various constructions of 'masculinity' in a military context. Aspects of military culture that exacerbate vulnerability and also those that are protective to mental health are identified and discussed with reference to the theoretical constructs relating to hegemonic masculinity. A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews provided in-depth accounts of the experiences of 20 ex-servicemen aged 23-44, all but one of whom were in the Army. We found that in a military setting hegemonic masculinity is embedded in the construction of a soldier identity and expression of emotion may be seen as inappropriate. As a result soldiers often lack a language with which to express distress (in a context in which they may witness extremely distressing events), which may result in delays in recognising and treating mental health problems. However, constructions of masculinity in this setting to some degree also promote a caring, sharing ethos based on strong inter-dependent bonds. A young soldier who can cope with the stresses of military life 'becomes a man', adopts a masculine/soldier identity and is well-placed to benefit from these protective factors, notably the camaraderie that is part of service life. In this manner a caring ethos in which some admissions of weakness may be permissible is situated within hegemonic masculinity. This seeming paradox between hyper masculinity and caring masculinities appears to be embedded within military culture, perhaps reflecting the flexibility and ambiguity inherent in constructions of hegemonic masculinity.
Askew, Chris; Hagel, Anna; Morgan, Julie
Models of social anxiety suggest that negative social experiences contribute to the development of social anxiety, and this is supported by self-report research. However, there is relatively little experimental evidence for the effects of learning experiences on social cognitions. The current study examined the effect of observing a social performance situation with a negative outcome on children's (8 to 11 years old) fear-related beliefs and cognitive processing. Two groups of children were each shown 1 of 2 animated films of a person trying to score in basketball while being observed by others; in 1 film, the outcome was negative, and in the other, it was neutral. Children's fear-related beliefs about performing in front of others were measured before and after the film and children were asked to complete an emotional Stroop task. Results showed that social fear beliefs increased for children who saw the negative social performance film. In addition, these children showed an emotional Stroop bias for social-anxiety-related words compared to children who saw the neutral film. The findings have implications for our understanding of social anxiety disorder and suggest that vicarious learning experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of social anxiety.
Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J.; Lekas, Helen-Marie
Although the experience of physical symptoms can adversely influence emotional well-being, the specific emotional reactions experienced in response to specific symptoms are not well understood. The current report examines the emotional impact of diarrhea among HIV-positive late middle-age and older adults (i.e., age 50 and over). In-depth interviews were conducted with 100 participants, of whom 29 had experienced diarrhea and spoke about the emotional impact it had had on them. Three principal themes emerged: (1) I don’t control the diarrhea, the diarrhea controls me; (2) I feel ashamed, dirty and tainted; (3) I fear what the diarrhea is doing to me and what it means. Their inability to control when and where their diarrhea would occur was a great source of emotional distress for participants. Almost all feared the possibility of fecal incontinence while out in public and the humiliation it would bring. To avoid this, many greatly restricted their time outside the home or where they would go to ensure access to a restroom. Others felt shame and perpetually “dirty” even when not dealing with a bout of diarrhea. Many also worried about the effect the diarrhea would have on their health and whether it signaled progression to end-stage disease. The data strongly support the need to aggressively manage diarrhea in HIV-infected adults as the social and emotional consequences can be profound. When it cannot be effectively controlled physicians and social service agencies should address the isolation by providing home-based opportunities for social support and interaction. PMID:20579836
Hymen, S P; Warren, R
This study evaluated the efficacy of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in reduction of college students' test anxiety. 11 volunteers met for 6 1-hr. group treatment sessions over a 3-wk. period. After 2 initial treatment sessions subjects were randomly assigned to groups given either rational-emotive therapy with rational-emotive imagery or rational-emotive therapy without imagery. Contrary to predictions, improvement between groups on self-report and performance measures was nonsignificant. Failure to obtain differences was attributed to similarities in content of treatment sessions and short treatment time. Combined groups reported significant improvement on all dependent measures. Although the study did not yield the predicted benefits of the imagery, results lend further support to the efficacy of rational-emotive therapy procedures in the reduction of test anxiety.
Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Crawford, Emily; Del Castillo, Darren
Objective: Theoretically, exposure to experiences of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in childhood may threaten the security of attachment relationships and result in maladaptive models of self and self-in-relation to others. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which EA and EN treatment by parents contributed…
Gold, Andrea L.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Rosen, Dana K.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique
Abstract Objective: Perturbations in emotional conflict adaptation, an implicit regulatory process, have been observed in adult anxiety disorders. However, findings remain inconsistent and restricted to adults. The current study compares conflict adaptation in youth and adults, with and without anxiety disorders. We predicted conflict adaptation would be present in the healthy but not the anxious groups. Methods: In a clinic setting, 111 participants (27 healthy youth, 22 anxious youth, 41 healthy adults, and 21 anxious adults) completed emotional and nonemotional conflict tasks. Groups did not differ (all p's >0.1) on intelligence quotient (IQ), gender, and socioeconomic status; age did not differ between healthy and anxious subjects in either age cohort. Separate four way mixed-design analyses of variance were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the influence of diagnosis, age group, and task type on accuracy (percent correct) and reaction time (RT) for conflict adaptation (incongruent trials preceded by incongruent vs. congruent trials) and conflict detection (incongruent vs. congruent trials). Results: Measures of conflict adaptation did not interact with diagnosis or age. There was a significant main effect of conflict adaptation across the overall sample in the expected direction for accuracy, but not RT. The well-replicated conflict detection effect also did emerge across tasks, with slower RT and lower accuracy for incongruent than for congruent trials. These effects were greater for the emotional than for nonemotional tasks. Finally, there were age differences in accuracy-based conflict detection specific to the emotional task, for which the size of the effect was larger for youth than for adults. Conclusions: The current study of youth and adults did not replicate prior behavioral findings of failure to engage conflict adaptation in anxiety disorders. Therefore, more work is needed before widely adopting conflict adaptation paradigms as a standard
Koutra, Katerina; Simos, Panagiotis; Triliva, Sofia; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N
The present study aimed to evaluate a path analytic model accounting for caregivers' psychological distress that takes into account perceived family cohesion and flexibility, expressed emotion and caregiver's burden associated with the presence of mental illness in the family. 50 first-episode and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) recruited from the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was assessed in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES-IV), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of family dynamics on caregivers' psychological distress. The results showed that neither family cohesion nor family flexibility exerted significant direct effects on caregivers' psychological distress. Instead, the effect of flexibility was mediated by caregivers' criticism and family burden indicating an indirect effect on caregivers' psychological distress. These results apply equally to caregivers of first episode and chronic patients. Family interventions aiming to improve dysfunctional family interactions by promoting awareness of family dynamics could reduce the burden and improve the emotional well-being of family caregivers.
Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas
Volitional attentional control has been found to rely on prefrontal neuronal circuits. According to the attentional control theory of anxiety, impairment in the volitional control of attention is a prominent feature in anxiety disorders. The present study investigated this assumption in socially anxious individuals using an emotional saccade task with facial expressions (happy, angry, fearful, sad, neutral). The gaze behavior of participants was recorded during the emotional saccade task, in which participants performed either pro- or antisaccades in response to peripherally presented facial expressions. The results show that socially anxious persons have difficulties in inhibiting themselves to reflexively attend to facial expressions: They made more erratic prosaccades to all facial expressions when an antisaccade was required. Thus, these findings indicate impaired attentional control in social anxiety. Overall, the present study shows a deficit of socially anxious individuals in attentional control-for example, in inhibiting the reflexive orienting to neutral as well as to emotional facial expressions. This result may be due to a dysfunction in the prefrontal areas being involved in attentional control.
Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc
Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits.
DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus
The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…
Sakandelidze, R; Lomsianidze, I; Shalamberidze, A
Insulin is an anabolic hormone with a broad spectrum of action. When linked with the specific receptors of the cell membrane insulin causes the changes in the whole plasmatic net of the cell and favourable conditions are created for complex biochemical processes. The goal of the research is to study the metabolic effect of insulin on the emotional state of the anxiety according to the animal model (rats). In order to reach the aim passive avoidance test ("punished water drinking") was used in an intact animal model as well as in the one with the experimental diabetes mellitus. Pharmacological substances: insulin and dithizone were applied. After insulin injection the intensification of anxiety state in central neural system is connected to the activation of the enzyme (thirozin-amino-transpherasa), which in its turn intensifies formation of amino acids (glutamine). The latter through either synaptic or outer-synaptic ways effects hippocampus and neurons of the brain tunic causing the increase of excitation and consequently intensifies the anxiety state. It was confirmed that exogenic introduction of insulin causes activation of innate behaviours, in particular the generation of anxiety emotion, that should be considered by an endocrinologist within the whole treatment period of insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Marchand, William R
Mindfulness has been described as a practice of learning to focus attention on moment-bymoment experience with an attitude of curiosity, openness, and acceptance. Mindfulness practices have become increasingly popular as complementary therapeutic strategies for a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. This paper provides an overview of three mindfulness interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness for psychiatric symptoms and/or pain. The goal of this review is to provide a synopsis that practicing clinicians can use as a clinical reference concerning Zen meditation, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). All three approaches originated from Buddhist spiritual practices, but only Zen is an actual Buddhist tradition. MBSR and MBCT are secular, clinically based methods that employ manuals and standardized techniques. Studies indicate that MBSR and MBCT have broad-spectrum antidepressant and antianxiety effects and decrease general psychological distress. MBCT is strongly recommended as an adjunctive treatment for unipolar depression. The evidence suggests that both MBSR and MBCT have efficacy as adjunctive interventions for anxiety symptoms. MBSR is beneficial for general psychological health and stress management in those with medical and psychiatric illness as well as in healthy individuals. Finally, MBSR and Zen meditation have a role in pain management.
Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura
Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.
Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne
Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…
Jeffs, Patrick Thomas
The purpose of this study was to identity how events perceived as traumatic or very difficult to handle, factors of emotional distress, and demographics may predict nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMPD) among traditional undergraduate college students. This secondary analysis utilized data from the National College Health Assessment II (NCHA…
This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…
Breggin, Peter R
Human beings are the most social and the most violent creatures on Earth. The combination of cooperation and aggression enabled us to dominate our ecosystem. However, the existence of violent impulses would have made it difficult or impossible for humans to live in close-knit families and clans without destroying each other. Nature's answer was the development of guilt, shame and anxiety-internal emotional inhibitions or restraints specifically against aggressive self-assertion within the family and other close relationships. The theory of negative legacy emotions proposes the first unitary concept for the biopsychosocial function of guilt, shame and anxiety, and seeks their origin in biological evolution and natural selection. Natural selection favored individuals with built-in emotional restraints that reduced conflicts within their family and tribal unit, optimizing their capacity to survive and reproduce within the protection of their small, intimate societies, while maintaining their capacity for violence against outsiders. Unfortunately, these negative legacy emotions are rudimentary and often ineffective in their psychosocial and developmental function. As a result, they produce many unintended untoward effects, including the frequent breakdown of restraints in the family and the uninhibited unleashing of violence against outsiders.
Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V
The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory.
Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia
Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.
Seeley, Saren H; Mennin, Douglas S; Aldao, Amelia; McLaughlin, Katie A; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Fresco, David M
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli. HRV in the GAD + UDD group changed only in response to sadness, but was otherwise unvarying between timepoints. Though preliminary, these findings suggest comorbid UDD as a potential moderator of emotional responding in GAD.
Seeley, Saren H.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Aldao, Amelia; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Fresco, David M.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli. HRV in the GAD + UDD group changed only in response to sadness, but was otherwise unvarying between timepoints. Though preliminary, these findings suggest comorbid UDD as a potential moderator of emotional responding in GAD. PMID:27660375
Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin
The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.
de Oliveira, Luciana C; Gomes, Margareth Z; Brandão, Marcus L
Studies have revealed that the extent of reactivity of high-anxiety rats to diverse challenges is different than low-anxiety rats and have provided important insights into the psychopathology of anxiety. Various factors intervene to allow defensive mechanisms to react to diverse threatening challenges, including ontogeny and the nature of the emotional challenge (e.g., conditioned vs. unconditioned). The present study investigated the extent to which a particular type of fear extrapolates to other emotional responses to diverse threatening challenges. Groups of 30- and 60-day-old rats were assigned to low freezing behavior (LFB) and high freezing behavior (HFB) groups using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm and subjected to either the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) test, novelty-induced ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) or elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests. At 30 days of age, HFB rats exhibited greater FPS than LFB rats. In contrast, prior selection of HFB and LFB did not affect the performance of 30-day-old animals in the EPM and novelty-induced USVs. Sixty-day-old animals exhibited a performance deficit in all three tests. These data suggest that the performance of young rats in animal models of anxiety parallels their selection as LFB and HFB in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. However, the increased fear-like behavior exhibited by the 60-day-old HFB rats may elicit performance deficits in conditioned and unconditioned fear tests. These results suggest that the interaction between hyperanxiety and age may cause a performance deficit despite the animals' increased fear-like behavior when facing emotional challenges, thus resembling psychiatric patients in many respects.
Bradley, Raymond Trevor; McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike; Tomasino, Dana; Daugherty, Alane; Arguelles, Lourdes
This study investigated the effects of a novel, classroom-based emotion self-regulation program (TestEdge) on measures of test anxiety, socioemotional function, test performance, and heart rate variability (HRV) in high school students. The program teaches students how to self-generate a specific psychophysiological state--psychophysiological coherence--which has been shown to improve nervous system function, emotional stability, and cognitive performance. Implemented as part of a larger study investigating the population of tenth grade students in two California high schools (N = 980), the research reported here was conducted as a controlled pre- and post-intervention laboratory experiment, using electrophysiological measures, on a random stratified sample of students from the intervention and control schools (N = 136). The Stroop color-word conflict test was used as the experiment's stimulus to simulate the stress of taking a high-stakes test, while continuous HRV recordings were gathered. The post-intervention electrophysiological results showed a pattern of improvement across all HRV measures, indicating that students who received the intervention program had learned how to better manage their emotions and to self-activate the psychophysiological coherence state under stressful conditions. Moreover, students with high test anxiety exhibited increased HRV and heart rhythm coherence even during a resting baseline condition (without conscious use of the program's techniques), suggesting that they had internalized the benefits of the intervention. Consistent with these results, students exhibited reduced test anxiety and reduced negative affect after the intervention. Finally, there is suggestive evidence from a matched-pairs analysis that reduced test anxiety and increased psychophysiological coherence appear to be directly associated with improved test performance--a finding consistent with evidence from the larger study.
Weems, Carl F; Scott, Brandon G; Graham, Rebecca A; Banks, Donice M; Russell, Justin D; Taylor, Leslie K; Cannon, Melinda F; Varela, R Enrique; Scheeringa, Michael A; Perry, Andre M; Marino, Reshelle C
Emotion-focused prevention and intervention efforts in schools have been promoted as a significant developmental and public health priority. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study testing central premises of a school-based prevention model aimed at promoting positive emotional development through targeting test anxiety. Test anxiety interventions may be a practical strategy for conducting emotion-focused prevention and intervention efforts because of a natural fit within the ecology of the school setting. At-risk youth (n = 1,048) from urban public schools were screened and 325 with elevated test anxiety were offered the intervention in one of two waves (immediate intervention vs. waitlist). The intervention was associated with decreases in test anxiety, anxiety disorder, and depression symptoms. Critically, results suggest high participant satisfaction and growth curve analysis of follow-up assessments (end of the year, the next school year, and a subsequent school year) demonstrated positive developmental trajectories consistent with predictions (e.g., initial change in test anxiety predicted change in other symptoms). Findings provide evidence for the ecological validity of targeting test anxiety in school-based, emotion-focused prevention efforts.
Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Abasi, Imaneh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Fatehi, Morteza
Background Preliminary evidence supports the role of neuroticism, experiential avoidance and emotion regulation in anxiety and depression; however, the mechanism of these relationships is not known well. Objectives The present study mainly aimed to assess the mediating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between neuroticism and experiential avoidance and anxiety and depression symptoms. Materials and Methods By convenient sampling, 316 students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences and University of Tehran were selected and measures of experiential avoidance, neuroticism, emotion regulation, worry, anxiety and depression were administered among them, 2014-2015. Path analysis via regression according to Baron and Kenny evaluative criteria was used for data analysis. Results Experiential avoidance and neuroticism predicted anxiety, and depression symptoms and the predictions were mediated by emotion regulation and worry. Conclusions Emotion regulation deficits have an outstanding role in the mechanism of anxiety and depression which are so comorbid and further studies are needed to evaluate emotion regulation with more advanced methods and along with other transdiagnostic components. PMID:27822282
Goldin, Philippe; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Hahn, Kevin; Gross, James J
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is thought to reduce emotional reactivity and enhance emotion regulation in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of deploying attention to regulate responses to negative self-beliefs using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were 56 patients with generalized SAD in a randomized controlled trial who were assigned to MBSR or a comparison aerobic exercise (AE) stress reduction program. Compared to AE, MBSR yielded greater (i) reductions in negative emotion when implementing regulation and (ii) increases in attention-related parietal cortical regions. Meditation practice was associated with decreases in negative emotion and social anxiety symptom severity, and increases in attention-related parietal cortex neural responses when implementing attention regulation of negative self-beliefs. Changes in attention regulation during MBSR may be an important psychological factor that helps to explain how mindfulness meditation training benefits patients with anxiety disorders.
Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an integrative and experiential treatment approach that views emotions as fundamentally adaptive and privileges attention to, and exploration of, emotional experiences. EFT has been demonstrated to be efficacious with depression, interpersonal trauma and marital discord, but application to anxiety disorders is in its initial stages. The purpose of this paper is to present the main principles of using EFT with socially anxious patients and to make the case that EFT is particularly well suited for working with this patient group. The primary change processes in EFT for social anxiety include improving emotion awareness, reducing experiential avoidance and the activation and transformation of shame that underlies the symptomatic anxiety. Such processes lead to less self-criticism, to more self-compassion and self-soothing and to a more favourable perception of the self. A case example is used to illustrate how these principles were applied with a socially anxious patient.
Cybulski, Mateusz; Cybulski, Lukasz; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta; Cwalina, Urszula
Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the level of emotion control, anxiety, and self-efficacy in the inhabitants of Bialystok (Poland) aged above 60. Patients and methods The study included 300 people above the age of 60, inhabitants of Bialystok and its neighborhoods: 100 residents of public nursing home, 100 participants of the University of the Third Age in Bialystok, and 100 students of the University of Healthy Senior. The three standardized psychometric scales were used in the study: Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Results The median of the overall score of CECS equaled 54 points, which is considered average in terms of negative emotions acceptance. The mean score of perceiving anxiety as the condition of STAI (X1) was 48 points, while anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was 49 points. The overall score for GSES proved that respondents had a subjective feeling of self-efficacy at the level of 29 points out of 40 points possible, which means that their self-efficacy was rather at the high level in their self-assessment. In women, a negative correlation was revealed between the sense of self-efficacy and age (r=−0.320, P<0.001). Analyzing the study group affiliation of respondents, a negative correlation was reported between the sense of self-efficacy and age among the elderly residents of public nursing home (r=−0.408, P<0.001). Taking into consideration the study group affiliation of respondents, a positive correlation between anger control (CECS) and the sense of anxiety as a trait of STAI (X2) was found among participants of the University of Healthy Senior (r=0.307, P=0.002). Conclusion The social and demographic features (gender, group affiliation, age) analyzed in the study were found to be correlated significantly with the control of negative emotions, the level of anxiety, and self-efficacy. The study group affiliation was a key variable conditioning the
Bardeen, Joseph R.; Tull, Matthew T.; Stevens, Erin N.; Gratz, Kim L.
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the tendency to avoid emotions have both been identified as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, both cross-sectional and prospective research have provided evidence that emotional avoidance and AS interact to predict anxiety symptoms, such that AS may only be associated with anxiety-related pathology among those who exhibit a tendency to avoid their emotions. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this moderator model extends to PTSD within a sample of substance dependent patients. Specifically, this study examined if AS is associated with PTSD only among individuals with high (vs. low) levels of negative emotional avoidance. As predicted, results of a logistic regression analysis revealed a significant interaction between negative emotional avoidance and AS in predicting PTSD status. Follow-up analyses revealed a significant positive association between AS and PTSD status for participants high in negative emotional avoidance; however, AS was not associated with PTSD for those low in negative emotional avoidance. This finding remained even when relevant covariates were included in the model. Results confirm hypotheses and are consistent with the extant anxiety-risk literature. PMID:27617195
Johnson, Kirsten A; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
The current study investigated whether emotion dysregulation (difficulties in the self-regulation of affective states) mediated relationships between anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and related sensations) and cognitive-based smoking processes. Participants (n = 197; 57.5% male; mean age = 38.0 years) were daily smokers recruited as part of a randomized control trial for smoking cessation. Anxiety sensitivity was uniquely associated with all smoking processes. Moreover, emotion dysregulation significantly mediated relationships between anxiety sensitivity and the smoking processes. Findings suggest that emotion dysregulation is an important construct to consider in relationships between anxiety sensitivity and cognitive-based smoking processes among adult treatment-seeking smokers.
Wenzel, Jennifer A; Griffith, Kathleen A; Shang, Jingjing; Thompson, Carol B; Hedlin, Haley; Stewart, Kerry J; DeWeese, Theodore; Mock, Victoria
Exercise use among patients with cancer has been shown to have many benefits and few notable risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a home-based walking intervention during cancer treatment on sleep quality, emotional distress, and fatigue. Methods. A total of 138 patients with prostate (55.6%), breast (32.5%), and other solid tumors (11.9%) were randomized to a home-based walking intervention or usual care. Exercise dose was assessed using a five-item subscale of the Cooper Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire. Primary outcomes of sleep quality, distress, and fatigue were compared between the two study arms. Results. The exercise group (n = 68) reported more vigor (p = .03) than control group participants (n = 58). In dose response models, greater participation in aerobic exercise was associated with 11% less fatigue (p < .001), 7.5% more vigor (p = .001), and 3% less emotional distress (p = .03), after controlling for intervention group assignment, age, and baseline exercise and fatigue levels. Conclusion. Patients who exercised during cancer treatment experienced less emotional distress than those who were less active. Increasing exercise was also associated with less fatigue and more vigor. Home-based walking is a simple, sustainable strategy that may be helpful in improving a number of symptoms encountered by patients undergoing active treatment for cancer.
Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel
This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults.
Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura
Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth. PMID:27247653
Kashdan, Todd B.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Priebe, Stefan
Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174 Albanian civilian survivors of the Kosovo war. This included testing of conceptual models suggesting that experiential avoidance might influence associations between anxiety and mood disorders with psychological functioning. Each of the three psychiatric disorders was associated with greater experiential avoidance and psychological distress, and lower quality of life. Being a refugee was associated with a higher likelihood of having SAD and MDD. We found evidence for experiential avoidance as a partial mediator of the respective effects of SAD and PTSD on quality of life; experiential avoidance did not mediate the effects of disorders on global distress. We also found support for a moderation model showing that only war survivors without SAD and low experiential avoidance reported elevated quality of life; people with either SAD or excessive reliance on experiential avoidance reported compromised, low quality of life. This is the third independent study, each using a different methodology, to find empirical support for this moderation model (Kashdan & Breen, 2008; Kashdan & Steger, 2006). Overall, we provided initial evidence for the importance of addressing PTSD, SAD, MDD, and experiential avoidance in primarily civilian war survivors. PMID:18676121
van den Bulk, Bianca G.; Meens, Paul H. F.; van Lang, Natasja D. J.; de Voogd, E. L.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Crone, Eveline A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.
Depressive and anxiety disorders are often first diagnosed during adolescence and it is known that they persist into adulthood. Previous studies often tried to dissociate depressive and anxiety disorders, but high comorbidity makes this difficult and maybe even impossible. The goal of this study was to use neuroimaging to test what the unique contribution is of depression and anxiety symptomatology on emotional processing and amygdala activation, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. We included 25 adolescents with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and 26 healthy adolescents. Participants performed an emotional face processing task while in the MRI scanner. We were particularly interested in the relation between depression/anxiety symptomatology and patterns of amygdala activation. There were no significant differences in activation patterns between the control group and the clinical group on whole brain level and ROI level. However, we found that dimensional scores on an anxiety but not a depression subscale significantly predicted brain activation in the right amygdala when processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are a better predictor for differentiating activation patterns in the amygdala than depression symptoms. Although the current study includes a relatively large sample of treatment naïve adolescents with depression/anxiety disorders, results might be influenced by differences between studies in recruitment strategies or methodology. Future research should include larger samples with a more equal distribution of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. To conclude, this study shows that abnormal amygdala responses to emotional faces in depression and anxiety seems to be more dependent on anxiety symptoms than on depression symptoms, and thereby highlights the need for more research to better characterize clinical groups in future studies. PMID:24926249
Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Yang, Jong-Chul
Few studies have assessed the neural mechanisms of the effects of emotion on cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. In this functional MRI (fMRI), we investigated the effects of emotional interference on working memory (WM) maintenance in GAD patients. Fifteen patients with GAD participated in this study. Event-related fMRI data were obtained while the participants performed a WM task (face recognition) with neutral and anxiety-provoking distracters. The GAD patients showed impaired performance in WM task during emotional distracters and showed greater activation on brain regions such as DLPFC, VLPFC, amygdala, hippocampus which are responsible for the active maintenance of goal relevant information in WM and emotional processing. Although our results are not conclusive, our finding cautiously suggests the cognitive-affective interaction in GAD patients which shown interfering effect of emotional distracters on WM maintenance.
Kim, M. Justin; Loucks, Rebecca A.; Palmer, Amy L.; Brown, Annemarie C.; Solomon, Kimberly M.; Marchante, Ashley N.; Whalen, Paul J.
The dynamic interactions between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are usefully conceptualized as a circuit that both allows us to react automatically to biologically relevant predictive stimuli as well as regulate these reactions when the situation calls for it. In this review, we will begin by discussing the role of this amygdala-mPFC circuitry in the conditioning and extinction of aversive learning in animals. We will then relate these data to emotional regulation paradigms in humans. Finally, we will consider how these processes are compromised in normal and pathological anxiety. We conclude that the capacity for efficient crosstalk between the amygdala and the mPFC, which is represented as the strength of the amygdala-mPFC circuitry, is crucial to beneficial outcomes in terms of reported anxiety. PMID:21536077
DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Zibetti, Murilo Ricardo; Trentini, Clarissa Marceli; Koller, Silvia Helena; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão
The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of creating and scoring subscales for the self-report version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) by examining whether subscale scores provide reliable information after accounting for a general anxiety factor in a bifactor model analysis. A total of 2420 children aged 9-18 answered the SCARED in their schools. Results suggested adequate fit of the bifactor model. The SCARED score variance was hardly influenced by the specific domains after controlling for the common variance in the general factor. The explained common variance (ECV) for the general factor was large (63.96%). After accounting for the general total score (ωh=.83), subscale scores provided very little reliable information (ωh ranged from .005 to .04). Practitioners that use the SCARED should be careful when scoring and interpreting the instrument subscales since there is more common variance to them than specific variance.
Kalkhoff, Will; Marcussen, Kristen; Serpe, Richard T
After many years of research across disciplines, it remains unclear whether people are more motivated to seek appraisals that accurately match self-views (self-verification) or are as favorable as possible (self-enhancement). Within sociology, mixed findings in identity theory have fueled the debate. A problem here is that a commonly employed statistical approach does not take into account the direction of a discrepancy between how we see ourselves and how we think others see us in terms of a given identity, yet doing so is critical for determining which self-motive is at play. We offer a test of three competing models of identity processes, including a new "mixed motivations" model where self-verification and self-enhancement operate simultaneously. We compare the models using the conventional statistical approach versus response surface analysis. The latter method allows us to determine whether identity discrepancies involving over-evaluation are as distressing as those involving under-evaluation. We use nationally representative data and compare results across four different identities and multiple outcomes. The two statistical approaches lead to the same conclusions more often than not and mostly support identity theory and its assumption that people seek self-verification. However, response surface tests reveal patterns that are mistaken as evidence of self-verification by conventional procedures, especially for the spouse identity. We also find that identity discrepancies have different effects on distress and self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame). Our findings have implications not only for research on self and identity across disciplines, but also for many other areas of research that incorporate these concepts and/or use difference scores as explanatory variables.
Hadwin, Julie A; Donnelly, Nick; Richards, Anne; French, Christopher C; Patel, Umang
This study used an emotional face stroop task to investigate the effects of self-report trait anxiety, social concern (SC), and chronological age (CA) on reaction time to match coloured outlines of angry, happy, and neutral faces (and control faces with scrambled features) with coloured buttons in a community sample of 74 children aged 6-12 years. The results showed an interference of colour matching for angry (relative to neutral) faces in children with elevated SC. The same effect was not found for happy or control faces. In addition, the results suggest that selective attention to angry faces in children with social concern (SC) was not significantly moderated by age.
Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Chudzinski, Veronica; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Préville, Michel
Screening tools that appropriately detect older adults' mental disorders are of great public health importance. The present study aimed to establish cutoff scores for the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress (K10) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales when screening for depression and anxiety. We used data from participants (n = 1811) in the Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés-Service study. Depression and anxiety were measured using DSM-V and DSM-IV criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis provided an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.767 and 0.833 for minor and for major depression when using K10. A cutoff of 19 was found to balance sensitivity (0.794) and specificity (0.664) for minor depression, whereas a cutoff of 23 was found to balance sensitivity (0.692) and specificity (0.811) for major depression. When screening for an anxiety with GAD-7, ROC analysis yielded an AUC of 0.695; a cutoff of 5 was found to balance sensitivity (0.709) and specificity (0.568). No significant differences were found between subgroups of age and gender. Both K10 and GAD-7 were able to discriminate between cases and non-cases when screening for depression and anxiety in an older adult population of primary care service users.
Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Romero-Maroto, Martin
BACKGROUND AND AIM. Children's dental fear and/or anxiety (DFA) has been associated with declines in oral health and quality of life. The influence of gender on the relationship between DFA and oral health-related well-being in children is analysed. DESIGN. The decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index was obtained from 161 school-aged children (7-14 years old). Data from children's self-assessed oral health, oral health-related emotional well-being and dental anxiety were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS. Low scores of emotional well-being were associated with negative self-assessment of oral health and high levels of dental anxiety. Females reported decreased oral health-related emotional well-being compared with males. The analysis of possible moderating effects confirmed that gender influenced the relationship between oral health and DFA. The DMFT index was not associated with self-assessed oral health status, emotional well-being or DFA. CONCLUSION. For girls, high levels of DFA were associated with low levels of oral health-related emotional well-being. In contrast, dental fear and/or anxiety did not influence oral health-related emotional well-being in boys.
Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Assaf, Michal; Goethe, John W; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Tolin, David F
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotion regulation difficulties, which are associated with abnormalities in neural circuits encompassing fronto-limbic regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to determine whether DLPFC neuromodulation improves emotion regulation in patients with GAD. This is a secondary analysis from a randomized-controlled trial comparing 30 sessions of low-frequency right-sided active (n=13) versus sham (n=12, sham coil) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the right DLPFC in patients with GAD. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in self-reported emotion regulation difficulties at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up in the active group only. Improvements were found primarily in the domains of goal-directed behaviors and impulse control and were significantly associated with a global clinician rating of improvement. These preliminary results support rTMS as a treatment for GAD and suggest improved emotion regulation as a possible mechanism of change.
Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang
Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms. PMID:28326056
Xing, Xiaopei; Zhang, Hongli; Shao, Shuhui; Wang, Meifang
Previous research has suggested that harsh discipline is still prevalent in modern Chinese families and it is necessary to explore the cause and the potential mechanisms of Chinese parental use of harsh discipline. This study examined the mediating effects of parental anxiety in the relations between child negative emotionality and parental harsh discipline in China. Using a sample of 328 Chinese father-mother dyads with their young children, findings revealed that maternal anxiety mediated the relations between child negative emotionality and maternal psychological aggression and corporal punishment, but the mediating effects of paternal anxiety on the relations between child negative emotionality and paternal harsh discipline was not significant. The findings provide an important supplement and extension to previous examinations of the factors associated with Chinese parental use of harsh discipline and its mechanisms.
Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Miller, Gregory E
Does narcissism provide a source of hardiness or vulnerability in the face of adversity? The present research addressed this question by testing whether narcissism is associated with increased physiological reactivity to emotional distress, among women. Drawing on the "fragile-ego" account, we predicted that narcissists would show a heightened physiological stress profile in response to everyday frustrations. Results supported this prediction; across a 3-day period, highly narcissistic individuals showed elevated output of 2 biomarkers of stress--cortisol and alpha--amylase-to the extent that they experienced negative emotions. In contrast, among those low in narcissism there was no association between these biomarkers and emotions. These findings suggest that narcissists' stress-response systems are particularly sensitive to everyday negative emotions, consistent with the notion that narcissism comes with physiological costs.
Gentili, Claudio; Cristea, Ioana Alina; Angstadt, Mike; Klumpp, Heide; Tozzi, Leonardo; Phan, K Luan
Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience anxiety and avoidance in face-to-face interactions. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in SAD to provide a comprehensive understanding of the neural underpinnings of face perception in this disorder. To this purpose, we adopted an innovative approach, asking authors for unpublished data. This is a common procedure for behavioral meta-analyses, which, however has never been used in neuroimaging studies. We searched Pubmed with the key words “Social Anxiety AND faces” and “Social Phobia AND faces.” Then, we selected those fMRI studies for which we were able to obtain data for the comparison between SAD and healthy controls (HC) in a face perception task, either from the published papers or from the authors themselves. In this way, we obtained 23 studies (totaling 449 SAD and 424 HC individuals). We identified significant clusters in which faces evoked a higher response in SAD in bilateral amygdala, globus pallidus, superior temporal sulcus, visual cortex, and prefrontal cortex. We also found a higher activity for HC in the lingual gyrus and in the posterior cingulate. Our findings show that altered neural response to face in SAD is not limited to emotional structures but involves a complex network. These results may have implications for the understanding of SAD pathophysiology, as they suggest that a dysfunctional face perception process may bias patient person-to-person interactions. PMID:26341469
Wallace, Meredith L; McMakin, Dana L; Tan, Patricia Z; Rosen, Dana; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Kendall, Philip C; Mannarino, Anthony; Silk, Jennifer S
Do day-to-day emotions, social interactions, and sleep play a role in determining which anxious youth respond to supportive child-centered therapy (CCT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)? We explored whether measures of day-to-day functioning (captured through ecological momentary assessment, sleep diary, and actigraphy), along with clinical and demographic measures, were predictors or moderators of treatment outcome in 114 anxious youth randomized to CCT or CBT. We statistically combined individual moderators into a single, optimal composite moderator to characterize subgroups for which CCT or CBT may be preferable. The strongest predictors of better outcome included: (a) experiencing higher positive affect when with one's mother and (b) fewer self-reported problems with sleep duration. The composite moderator indicated that youth for whom CBT was indicated had: (a) more day-to-day sleep problems related to sleep quality, efficiency, and waking, (b) day-to-day negative events related to interpersonal concerns, (c) more DSM-IV anxiety diagnoses, and (d) college-educated parents. These findings illustrate the value of both day-to-day functioning characteristics and more traditional sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in identifying optimal anxiety treatment assignment. Future studies will need to enhance the practicality of real-time measures for use in clinical decision making and evaluate additional anxiety treatments.
Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
Background: Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a modern youth anxiety questionnaire with scales explicitly designed to map onto specific DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, has good psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various countries. However, no study has…
Siddaway, Andy P; Taylor, Peter J; Wood, Alex M
We first replicate a study by Vautier and Pohl (2009), who used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to reexamine the structure of anxiety. Using two large samples (N = 4,138 and 1,824), we also find that state and trait anxiety measure continua that range from high calmness to high anxiety. We then significantly extend previous findings and make the clinical importance of this topic more explicit by characterizing the (linear or nonlinear) form of the relationship between the calmness-anxiety continuum and other psychiatric variables for the first time. This form is critical to understanding anxiety problems, as discontinuities in relationships with other psychological conditions could be used to define a natural boundary of problematic anxiety. Baseline levels on the calmness-anxiety continuum are found to have a near linear relationship with changes in depression, aggression, and substance misuse over time. Taken together, these results indicate the joint importance and usefulness of treating anxiety problems and promoting calmness, as doing so may promote resilience from developing other psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric and psychological interventions that are grounded in this continuum conceptualization would logically be stopped when an individual reports experiencing high levels of calmness. Our results point to the usefulness of early intervention and prevention (when people begin to move away from high calmness) and instilling resilience (by providing interventions to move people toward high calmness). (PsycINFO Database Record
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed.
Peschard, Virginie; Maurage, Pierre; Philippot, Pierre
The excessive fear of being negatively evaluated constitutes a central component of social anxiety (SA). Models posit that selective attention to threat and biased interpretations of ambiguous stimuli contribute to the maintenance of this psychopathology. There is strong support for the existence of processing biases but most of the available evidence comes from face research. Emotions are, however, not only conveyed through facial cues, but also through other channels, such as vocal and postural cues. These non-facial cues have yet received much less attention. We therefore plead for a cross-modal investigation of biases in SA. We argue that the inclusion of new modalities may be an efficient research tool to (1) address the specificity or generalizability of these biases; (2) offer an insight into the potential influence of SA on cross-modal processes; (3) operationalize emotional ambiguity by manipulating cross-modal emotional congruency; (4) inform the debate about the role of top-down and bottom-up factors in biasing attention; and (5) probe the cross-modal generalizability of cognitive training. Theoretical and clinical implications as well as potential fruitful avenues for research are discussed. PMID:24860488
Paredes, T; Pereira, M; Simões, M R; Canavarro, M C
The present study examined change on emotional distress of sarcoma patients from the diagnostic to treatment phases, the distinct trajectories of adjustment and the influence of demographic, clinical and coping variables on anxiety and depression. Thirty-six sarcoma patients completed questionnaires on emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and coping strategies (Brief Cope) at time of diagnosis, and again during treatment. No significant change in emotional distress levels was found from diagnostic to treatment phase, with mean anxiety and depression scores remaining below the clinical range. Over time, 52.8% and 66.7% of patients maintained non-clinical anxious and depressive symptoms respectively, and 25% and 11.1% remained with clinical anxiety and depression. Living with partner, less use of humour and more denial were associated with high emotional distress at time of diagnosis and during treatments, and high levels of distress at baseline were predictive of poorer emotional adjustment during treatments. Although sarcoma patients, in general, seem to exhibit good psychological adjustment, there is a significant minority that requires mental health services in order to help decrease their emotional distress following the diagnosis, and prevent psychological difficulties during treatments. Our findings are an important contribution to understanding the psychological adjustment of patients with a specific and rare type of cancer.
Prenoveau, Jason M.; Craske, Michelle G.; West, Valerie; Giannakakis, Andreas; Zioga, Maria; Lehtonen, Annukka; Davies, Beverley; Netsi, Elena; Cardy, Jessica; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Postnatal maternal depression is associated with poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning, but it is unclear whether this occurs following brief episodes or only with persistent depression. Little research has examined the relation between postnatal anxiety and child outcomes. The present study examined the role of postnatal major…
Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie
This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…
Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre
The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…
Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz
These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.
Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C
Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities.
Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474
Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S
The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.
Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.
The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246
Williams, Fiona; Hasking, Penelope
Non-suicidal self-injury is a risk factor for more severe self-injury and later suicide, yet is relatively under-researched in non-clinical populations. In order to prevent more severe self-injury and later suicide, understanding of non-suicidal self-injury is imperative. This study aimed to examine whether coping skills, emotion regulation and alcohol use moderate the relationship between psychological distress and non-suicidal self-injury. Two hundred eighty-nine young adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. Of the sample, 47.4% reported a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Adaptive coping strategies protected those who were psychologically distressed from severe self-injury. However for those who reported greater distress, this protective effect was negated by heavy alcohol use. Coping skills training may serve to protect young people from self-injury, although those who are severely distressed may also benefit from strategies to limit alcohol use.
Norr, Aaron M; Allan, Nicholas P; Macatee, Richard J; Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B
Suicide constitutes a significant public health burden as global suicide rates continue to increase. Thus, it is crucial to identify malleable suicide risk factors to develop prevention protocols. Anxiety sensitivity, or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a potential malleable risk factor for the development of suicidal ideation. The Depression-Distress Amplification Model (DDAM) posits that the anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC) subfactor interacts with depressive symptoms to amplify the effects of depression and lead to suicidal ideation. The current study tested the DDAM across the two most widely-replicated factors of depressive symptoms (cognitive and affective/somatic) in comparison to a risk factor mediation model where ASCC are related to suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms. Participants included 295 clinical outpatients from a community clinic. The interaction between ASCC and depressive symptoms in the prediction of suicidal ideation was not significant for either cognitive or affective/somatic symptoms of depression. However, results revealed a significant indirect effect of ASCC through cognitive symptoms of depression in the prediction of suicidal ideation. These cross sectional findings are not consistent with the DDAM. Rather, the relationship may be better conceptualized with a model in which ASCC is related to suicidal ideation via cognitive symptoms of depression.
Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; Ferssizidis, Patty; McKnight, Patrick E; Nezlek, John B
Despite the increased attention that researchers have paid to social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared with other anxiety and mood disorders, relatively little is known about the emotional and social factors that distinguish individuals who meet diagnostic criteria from those who do not. In this study, participants with and without a diagnosis of SAD (generalized subtype) described their daily face-to-face social interactions for 2 weeks using handheld computers. We hypothesized that, compared with healthy controls, individuals diagnosed with SAD would experience fewer positive emotions, rely more on experiential avoidance (of anxiety), and have greater self-control depletion (feeling mentally and physically exhausted after socializing), after accounting for social anxiety, negative emotions, and feelings of belonging during social interactions. We found that compared with healthy controls, individuals with SAD experienced weaker positive emotions and greater experiential avoidance, but there were no differences in self-control depletion between groups. Moreover, the differences we found could not be attributed to comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders. Our results suggest that negative emotions alone do not fully distinguish normal from pathological social anxiety, and that assessing social anxiety disorder should include impairments in positive emotional experiences and dysfunctional emotion regulation (in the form of experiential avoidance) in social situations.
MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the LPP across participants; however, this effect was attenuated for individuals with greater self-reported state anxiety, suggesting reduced top-down control. In the current study, the same paradigm was used with 106 medication-free female participants-71 with GAD and 35 without GAD. Unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPPs, and working memory load reduced the picture-elicited LPP. Compared with healthy controls, participants with GAD showed large LPPs to unpleasant pictures presented under high working memory load. Self-reported symptoms of anhedonic depression were related to a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP elicited by neutral pictures. These results indicate that individuals with GAD show less flexible modulation of attention when confronted with unpleasant stimuli. Furthermore, among those with GAD, anhedonic depression may broaden attentional deficits to neutral distracters.
White, Susan W.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Chiu, Pearl H.; Richey, John A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Anxiety is one of the most common clinical problems among children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet we know little about its etiology in the context of ASD. We posit that emotion regulation (ER) impairments are a risk factor for anxiety in ASD. Specifically, we propose that one reason why anxiety disorders are so frequently comorbid with ASD is because ER impairments are ubiquitous to ASD, stemming from socio-cognitive, physiological, and neurological processes related to impaired cognitive control, regulatory processes, and arousal. In this review, we offer a developmental model of how ER impairments may arise in ASD, and when (moderating influences) and how (meditational mechanisms) they result in anxiety. PMID:24951837
Peschard, Virginie; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Philippot, Pierre
The majority of evidence on social anxiety (SA)-linked attentional biases to threat comes from research using facial expressions. Emotions are, however, communicated through other channels, such as voice. Despite its importance in the interpretation of social cues, emotional prosody processing in SA has been barely explored. This study investigated whether SA is associated with enhanced processing of task-irrelevant angry prosody. Fifty-three participants with high and low SA performed a dichotic listening task in which pairs of male/female voices were presented, one to each ear, with either the same or different prosody (neutral or angry). Participants were instructed to focus on either the left or right ear and to identify the speaker's gender in the attended side. Our main results show that, once attended, task-irrelevant angry prosody elicits greater interference than does neutral prosody. Surprisingly, high socially anxious participants were less prone to distraction from attended-angry (compared to attended-neutral) prosody than were low socially anxious individuals. These findings emphasise the importance of examining SA-related biases across modalities.
Martin, François-Pierre J.; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil
Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness. PMID:22822453
Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil
Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.
Klumpp, Heide; Roberts, Julia; Kennedy, Amy E; Shankman, Stewart A; Langenecker, Scott A; Gross, James J; Phan, K Luan
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by aberrant prefrontal activity during reappraisal, an adaptive cognitive approach aimed at downregulating the automatic response evoked by a negative event. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is first-line psychotherapy for SAD, however, many remain symptomatic after treatment indicating baseline individual differences in neurofunctional activity may factor into CBT outcome. An emotion regulation strategy practiced in CBT is cognitive restructuring, a proxy for reappraisal. Therefore, neural response during reappraisal may serve as a brain-based predictor of CBT success. Prior to 12weeks of individual CBT, 34 patients with SAD completed a validated emotion regulation task during fMRI. Task instructions included 'Reappraise,' that is, use a cognitive approach to reduce affective state to a negative image, which was contrasted with looking at a negative image ('Look'). Regression results for Reappraise (vs. Look) revealed greater reduction in symptom severity was predicted by less pre-CBT activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Regarding predictive validity, DLPFC significantly classified responder status. Post-hoc analysis revealed DLPFC activity, but not demographic data, baseline clinical measures, or reappraisal-related affective state during fMRI, significantly accounted for the variance in symptom reduction. Findings indicate patients with SAD are more likely to benefit from CBT if there is less pre-treatment DLPFC recruitment, a region strongly implicated in emotion regulation. Patients with reduced baseline frontal activation when reappraising negative stimuli may be especially helped by explicit cognitive interventions. Further research is necessary to establish DLPFC as a stable brain-based marker of treatment outcome.
Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun
Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.
Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter
Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder.
Eden, Annuschka Salima; Schreiber, Jan; Anwander, Alfred; Keuper, Katharina; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Dobel, Christian
Diffusion tensor imaging revealed that trait anxiety predicts the microstructural properties of a prespecified fiber tract between the amygdala and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. Besides this particular pathway, it is likely that other pathways are also affected. We investigated white matter differences in persons featuring an anxious or a nonanxious personality, taking into account all potential pathway connections between amygdala and anxiety-related regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Diffusion-weighted images, measures of trait anxiety and of reappraisal use (an effective emotion-regulation style), were collected in 48 females. With probabilistic tractography, pathways between the amygdala and the dorsolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, ventromedial PFC, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were delineated. The resulting network showed a direct ventral connection between amygdala and PFC and a second limbic connection following the fornix and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Reappraisal use predicted the microstructure of pathways to all calculated PFC regions in the left hemisphere, indicating stronger pathways for persons with high reappraisal use. Trait anxiety predicted the microstructure in pathways to the ventromedial PFC and OFC, indexing weaker connections in trait-anxious persons. These effects appeared in the right hemisphere, supporting lateralization and top-down inhibition theories of emotion processing. Whereas a specific microstructure is associated with an anxious personality, a different structure subserves emotion regulation. Both are part of a broad fiber tract network between amygdala and PFC.
Otte, R A; Donkers, F C L; Braeken, M A K A; Van den Bergh, B R H
The ability to read emotional expressions from human face and voice is an important skill in our day-to-day interactions with others. How this ability develops may be influenced by atypical experiences early in life. Here, we investigated multimodal processing of fearful and happy face/voice pairs in 9-month-olds prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants were presented with emotional vocalisations (happy/fearful) preceded by emotional facial expressions (happy/fearful). The results revealed larger P350 amplitudes in response to fearful vocalisations when infants had been exposed to higher levels of anxiety, regardless of the type of visual prime, which may indicate increased attention to fearful vocalisations. A trend for a positive association between P150 amplitudes and maternal anxiety scores during pregnancy may suggest these infants are more easily aroused by and extract features more thoroughly from fearful vocalisations as well. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety is related to more extensive processing of fear-related stimuli.
Llera, Sandra J; Newman, Michelle G
The Contrast Avoidance model (Newman & Llera, 2011) proposes that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are hypersensitive to sharp upward shifts in negative emotion that typically accompany negative events, and use worry to maintain sustained intrapersonal negativity in an attempt to avoid these shifts. Although research shows that worry increases negative emotionality and mutes further emotional reactivity to a stressor when compared to the worry period (e.g., Llera & Newman, 2010), no study has tracked changes in negative emotionality from baseline to worry inductions followed by a range of emotional exposures. Further, no study has yet assessed participants' subjective appraisals of prior worry on helping to cope with such exposures. The present study tested the main tenets of the Contrast Avoidance model by randomly assigning participants with GAD (n=48) and nonanxious controls (n=47) to experience worry, relaxation, and neutral inductions prior to sequential exposure to fearful, sad, and humorous film clips. Both physiological (nonspecific skin conductance responses [NS-SCRs]) and self-reported emotional changes were observed. Results indicated that worry boosted negative emotionality from baseline, which was sustained across negative exposures, whereas low negative emotionality during relaxation and neutral inductions allowed for sharp increases in response to exposures. Furthermore, GAD participants found worry to be more helpful than other conditions in coping with exposures, whereas control participants reported the opposite pattern. Results provide preliminary support for the Contrast Avoidance model. This suggests that treatment should focus on underlying avoidance patterns before attempting to reduce worry behavior.
Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas
In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks.
Leerkes, Esther M.
SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID
Ventus, Daniel; Gunst, Annika; Kärnä, Antti; Jern, Patrick
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common male sexual complaints, but its etiology is unclear. Psychological problems, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression, have traditionally been seen as causal or maintaining etiological components of PE, and previous cross-sectional studies have found weak positive associations between them. The aim of the present study was to test possible causal pathways over time between PE and symptoms of the psychological problems anxiety, depression, and sexual distress. A sample of 985 male Finnish twins and brothers of twins completed a questionnaire in 2006 and 2012. Significant bivariate correlations were found both within and across time between PE and the psychological problems. When fitting structural equation models to test hypothesized causal pathways, symptoms of anxiety and sexual distress at the first measurement time point did not predict future PE. Likewise, PE symptoms at the first measurement did not predict increments or decrements in anxiety, sexual distress, or depression later on. These null findings regarding hypothesized associations may partly be explained by the relatively long time between measurements, or that the measures possibly did not capture the aspects of anxiety that are related to PE.
Postnatal maternal depression is associated with poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning, but it is unclear whether this occurs following brief episodes or only with persistent depression. Little research has examined the relation between postnatal anxiety and child outcomes. The present study examined the role of postnatal major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom chronicity on children’s emotional and behavioral functioning at 24 months. Following postnatal screening mothers (n = 296) were identified as having MDD, GAD, MDD and GAD, or no disorder at 3 months postnatal; the average age was 32.3 (SD = 5.0), 91.9% self-identified as Caucasian, and 62.2% were married. Maternal disorder symptom severity was assessed by questionnaires and structured interview at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 24 months postpartum. At 24 months, child emotional negativity and behavior were assessed using questionnaires and by direct observation. Latent trait–state-occasion modeling was used to represent maternal disorder symptom chronicity; both stable trait and time-specific occasion portions of maternal symptomatology were examined in relation to child outcomes. Only the stable trait portion of maternal MDD and GAD symptom severity were related to maternal report of child behavior problems and higher levels of emotional negativity. Persistent maternal MDD, but not GAD, symptom severity was related to higher levels of child emotional negativity as measured observationally. These data suggest that children’s behavior problems and emotional negativity are adversely affected by persistent maternal depression, and possibly anxiety. This has implications for interventions to prevent negative effects of postnatal psychopathology on children. PMID:28026191
Thompson, T; Keogh, E; Chen, M J-L; French, C C
While previous research has indicated that the relative efficacy of attentional strategies on pain may be influenced by anxiety sensitivity (AS) and sex, no study appears to have examined this within the context of an emotion-focus versus distraction paradigm. The present study compared the effect of attentional emotion-focus and distraction instructions on pain response with noxious heat stimulation in 114 healthy adults (62 women and 52 men) varying in levels of AS. Results indicated that men reported a significantly higher mean tolerance time than women. Moderated regression analysis also revealed a significant strategy × anxiety sensitivity × sex interaction on pain tolerance. For those low in AS, relative efficacy was dependent upon sex, with distraction superior to emotion-focusing in women, but with strategies equivalent in men. For those high in AS, however, distraction resulted in uniformly greater pain tolerance than attentional emotion-focusing. These results indicate that AS and sex may be influential in determining the relative effectiveness of distraction and emotion-based attentional strategies for pain management.
Qi, Senqing; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong
Research has indicated that highly trait-anxious (HTA) individuals exhibit a specific deficit in filtering threat-related distractors from visual-spatial working memory (WM). Prior demonstrations of impaired inhibition control in HTA individuals have mainly focused on tasks that required the inhibition of prepotent response tendencies. Studies on the suppression of emotionally neutral distractors from WM in trait anxiety have also been minimal. In this article, we present a study on the manifestation of general inefficient filtering of neutral distractors during visual-spatial WM maintenance stages in HTA individuals. Female participants performed a visual-spatial WM task while event-related potentials were recorded. They were made to remember the orientations of red rectangles within half of the screen and to ignore all salient green rectangles. As predicted, no significant main effect of group and no interaction between group and condition were found in the N2pc component, suggesting that group differences did not manifest in the initial process of object individuation. During the subsequent WM maintenance phase, HTA individuals were highly inefficient at filtering the irrelevant items from WM, as reflected not only by parallel late contralateral delay activity (CDA; 450 to 900 ms) amplitudes for the distractor condition and the four red items, but also by a smaller filtering efficiency score in the HTA group than in the low-trait-anxiety group. Extending previous studies, our findings verify a general filtering impairment in HTA individuals for task-irrelevant salient distractors during a WM maintenance phase.
Öztürk, Ahmet; Kiliç, Alperen; Deveci, Erdem; Kirpinar, İsmet
Background The concept of facial emotion recognition is well established in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Although emotional disturbances are strongly associated with somatoform disorders, there are a restricted number of studies that have investigated facial emotion recognition in somatoform disorders. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have regarded this issue using the new diagnostic criteria for somatoform disorders as somatic symptoms and related disorders (SSD). In this study, we aimed to compare the factors of facial emotion recognition between patients with SSD and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) and to retest and investigate the factors of facial emotion recognition using the new criteria for SSD. Patients and methods After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 54 patients who were diagnosed with SSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria and 46 age- and sex-matched HC were selected to participate in the present study. Facial emotion recognition, alexithymia, and the status of anxiety and depression were compared between the groups. Results Patients with SSD had significantly decreased scores of facial emotion for fear faces, disgust faces, and neutral faces compared with age- and sex-matched HC (t=−2.88, P=0.005; t=−2.86, P=0.005; and t=−2.56, P=0.009, respectively). After eliminating the effects of alexithymia and depressive and anxious states, the groups were found to be similar in terms of their responses to facial emotion and mean reaction time to facial emotions. Discussion Although there have been limited numbers of studies that have examined the recognition of facial emotion in patients with somatoform disorders, our study is the first to investigate facial recognition in patients with SSD diagnosed according to the DSM-5 criteria. Recognition of facial emotion was found to be disturbed in patients with SSD. However, our findings suggest that
Kendall, Ashley D; Zinbarg, Richard E; Bobova, Lyuba; Mineka, Susan; Revelle, William; Prenoveau, Jason M; Craske, Michelle G
Low positive emotion distinguishes depression from most types of anxiety. Formative work in this area employed the Anhedonic Depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ-AD), and the MASQ-AD has since become a popular measure of positive emotion, often used independently of the full MASQ. However, two key assumptions about the MASQ-AD-that it should be represented by a total scale score, and that it measures time-variant experiences-have not been adequately tested. The present study factor analyzed MASQ-AD data collected annually over 3 years (n = 618, mean age = 17 years at baseline), and then decomposed its stable and unstable components. The results suggested the data were best represented by a hierarchical structure, and that less than one quarter of the variance in the general factor fluctuated over time. The implications for interpreting past findings from the MASQ-AD, and for conducting future research with the scale, are discussed.
Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Edward F; Slapin, Aurelija; Cortese, Kristin M; Bevers, Therese B; Schover, Leslie R
Many breast cancer survivors report a loss of sexual desire and arousability, consonant with the new DSM-V category of female sexual interest/arousal disorder. The cause of decreased sexual desire and pleasure after treatment for cancer is unknown. One possibility is that cancer, or treatment for cancer, damages brain circuits that are involved in reward-seeking. To test the hypothesis that brain reward systems are involved in decreased sexual desire in breast cancer survivors, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses to erotica and other emotional stimuli in two groups of women previously treated for breast cancer with chemotherapy: those who were distressed about a perceived loss of sexual desire and those who may have had low desire, but were not distressed about it. Women distressed about their desire had reduced brain responses to erotica in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which are part of the brain reward system. This study is the first to demonstrate, in cancer survivors, that problems with sexual desire/arousability are associated with blunted brain responses to erotica in reward systems. Future research is necessary to determine whether brain responses differ as a result of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and menopausal status. This may contribute to the development of new, evidence-based interventions for one of the most prevalent and enduring side effects of cancer treatment.
Ong, Hui Chien; Ibrahim, Norhayati; Wahab, Suzaily
Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. PMID:27574475
Sturgeon, John A; Dixon, Eric A; Darnall, Beth D; Mackey, Sean C
Individuals with chronic pain show greater vulnerability to depression or anger than those without chronic pain, and also show greater interpersonal difficulties and physical disability. The present study examined data from 675 individuals with chronic pain during their initial visits to a tertiary care pain clinic using assessments from Stanford University's Collaborative Health Outcomes Information Registry (CHOIR). Using a path modeling analysis, the mediating roles of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) Physical Function and PROMIS Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities were tested between pain intensity and PROMIS Depression and Anger. Pain intensity significantly predicted both depression and anger, and both physical function and satisfaction with social roles mediated these relationships when modeled in separate 1-mediator models. Notably, however, when modeled together, ratings of satisfaction with social roles mediated the relationship between physical function and both anger and depression. Our results suggest that the process by which chronic pain disrupts emotional well-being involves both physical function and disrupted social functioning. However, the more salient factor in determining pain-related emotional distress seems to be disruption of social relationships, than global physical impairment. These results highlight the particular importance of social factors to pain-related distress, and highlight social functioning as an important target for clinical intervention in chronic pain.
Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, André; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cédric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre
The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation. Twelve healthy young subjects were tested at four-hourly intervals through a 36-h period of wakefulness under a constant routine protocol. Analyses of variance for repeated measurements revealed that self-assessment of sleepiness on a visual analogue scale as well as mean reaction time performance on the sustained attention task, both for the first minute and for 10 min of testing, were worsened by sleep deprivation. Analyses revealed an increase in self-reported anxiety scores on the STAI questionnaire but did not reveal any significant effect after sleep deprivation either on indexes of interference or on accuracy in Stroop tasks. However, analyses showed sensitivity to circadian effect on verbal reaction times in the threat-related (Emotional) and sleep-related (Specific) Stroop tasks. We concluded that 36 h of prolonged wakefulness affect self-reported anxiety and Emotional Stroop task resulting in a cognitive slowing. Moreover, total sleep deprivation does not affect interference control in any of the three short Stroop tasks.
Tully, Phillip J; Baker, Robert A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Winefield, Helen R; Knight, John L
The specific syndromal aspects of depression and anxiety have not been explored in relation to changes in health related quality of life (HRQOL) after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of general stress, depression and anxiety on HRQOL after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Utilizing a tripartite conceptual model of depression and anxiety, it was hypothesized that general stress symptoms, rather than unique depressive or anxiogenic symptoms, would be associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after CABG surgery. Elective CABG patients (n=226) completed baseline and postoperative self-report measures of negative emotions and HRQOL, and 193 patients completed these measures at 6-month follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses and logit link analyses were performed to test the hypothesis. Elevated depression symptoms before and after surgery showed an association with lower and worse HRQOL for vitality and social role functioning and physical and general health. This study adds to previous research by outlining discrete associations between specific HRQOL domains, and is perhaps the first to test a theoretical model of depression and anxiety in relation to cardiac CABG patients' perceptions of HRQOL. These findings encourage further research on negative emotions and HRQOL in cardiac surgery patients and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Wauthia, Erika; Rossignol, Mandy
Anxiety disorders in adults have been associated with biased processing of emotional information which may be due to a deficit in attentional control. This deficit leads to an hypervigilance and a selective attention toward threatening information. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study this topic in anxious adults. Similar biases have been reported in children with anxiety but researches investigating the ERPs components underpinning these biases are more scarce. However, the understanding of the neural correlates of attentional biases in anxious children seem quite important since they could play a role in the etiology and the maintenance of this disorder. This review summarizes the results of researches having used ERPs to index emotional processing and attention control in children suffering from anxiety. We will focus on the P1, indexing basic visual perceptual processing, the N2, thought to reflect cognitive control process, the P3 typically associated with response inhibition, and the late positive potential (LPP) that indicates sustained attention toward motivationally salient stimuli. We will also examine the error-related negativity (ERN) that indexes monitoring system for detecting errors. Electro-physiological studies generally reported increased amplitudes of these components in anxious children, even when they did not differ from typically developing children at a behavioral level. These results suggest diminished cognitive control that influences children's selective attention mechanisms toward threatening information. Theoretical perspectives and implications for future researches will be discussed in the framework of current models of childhood anxiety. PMID:27199802
Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre; Philippot, Pierre
People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit an attentional bias for threat (AB). Nevertheless, the focus on AB for emotional stimuli has led to neglect the exploration of basic attention deficits for non-emotional material among SAD patients. This study aimed to investigate the integrity of the attentional system in SAD. The Attention Network Test was used to precisely explore attentional deficits, and centrally the differential deficit across the three attentional networks, namely alerting (allowing to achieve and maintain a state of alertness), orienting (allowing to select information from sensory input by engaging or disengaging attention to one stimulus among others and/or shifting the attentional resources from one stimulation to another), and executive control (involving the top-down control of attention and allowing to resolve response conflicts). Twenty-five patients with SAD were compared to 25 matched controls. SAD patients exhibited a specific impairment for the orienting network (p < 0.001) but preserved performance for the alerting and executive networks. Complementary analyses revealed that this impairment may result from a faster attentional engagement to task-irrelevant material. The orienting impairment was highly correlated with the intensity of the social anxiety symptoms, but did not correlate either with trait-anxiety, state-anxiety, or depressive symptoms.
Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P. S.; Guo, Chunyan
The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for
McEwen, B S; Olié, J P
Recent studies have provided evidence that structural remodeling of certain brain regions is a feature of depressive illness, and the postulated underlying mechanisms contribute to the idea that there is more to antidepressant actions that can be explained exclusively by a monoaminergic hypothesis. This review summarizes recent neurobiological studies on the antidepressant, tianeptine (S-1574, [3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-(c,f)-dibenzo-(1,2-thiazepine)-11-yl) amino]-7 heptanoic acid, sodium salt), a compound with structural similarities to the tricyclic antidepressant agents, the efficacy and good tolerance of which have been clearly established. These studies have revealed that the neurobiological properties of tianeptine involve the dynamic interplay between numerous neurotransmitter systems, as well as a critical role of structural and functional plasticity in the brain regions that permit the full expression of emotional learning. Although the story is far from complete, the schema underlying the effect of tianeptine on central plasticity is the most thoroughly studied of any antidepressants. Effects of tianeptine on neuronal excitability, neuroprotection, anxiety, and memory have also been found. Together with clinical data on the efficacy of tianeptine as an antidepressant, these actions offer insights into how compounds like tianeptine may be useful in the treatment of neurobiological features of depressive disorders.
Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude
SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638
Reed, Gayle L; Enright, Robert D
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years (M = 5.00 years, SD = 2.61; n = 10 per group). Participants, who were matched, yoked, and randomized to treatment group, met individually with the intervener. Mean intervention time was 7.95 months (SD = 2.61). The relative efficacy of FT and AT was assessed at p < .05. Participants in FT experienced significantly greater improvement than AT participants in depression, trait anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-esteem, forgiveness, environmental mastery, and finding meaning in suffering, with gains maintained at follow-up (M = 8.35 months, SD = 1.53). FT has implications for the long-term recovery of postrelationship emotionally abused women.
Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.
Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…
... include Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Treatment can involve medicines, therapy or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health
Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan
Purpose Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Results Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. PMID:27042156
Amirifard, Nasrin; Payandeh, Mehrdad; Aeinfar, Mehrnoush; Sadeghi, Masoud; Sadeghi, Edris; Ghafarpor, Somaye
Background: Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is positively associated with mental health and it can have a crucial role in mental disorder therapy by suitable coping mechanisms. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of EQ with anxiety and depression among the women with breast cancer. Subjects and Methods: During 2013 and in a cross-sectional study, 98 breast cancer patients (14 to 21 years old) entered into the study. For data collection, the following instruments were the Bar-On EQ inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Cattle Anxiety Inventory. Results: There was an inverse relationship between anxiety with intrapersonal (p<0.01, r=0.39) and stress management (p<0.01, r=0.37) components and also between anxiety and total scores of EQ (p<0.05, r=0.22). There was an inverse significant association between depression and intrapersonal components (p<0.05, r=0.23), general mood (p<0.01, r=0.46) and adaptation (p<0.01, r=0.38) and also between depression and a total score of EQ (p<0.01, r=0.42). Conclusion: The results of this present study confirmed the important role of EQ. Also, the results can be an inspiration for the future studies regarding the training of EQ skills in the treatment of mental disorder (anxiety and depression) among patients with breast cancer. PMID:28286616
Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Hellier, Jennifer; Hill, Jonathan
Animal findings of long-term effects of maternal behaviors mediated via altered GR gene expression will, if translated into humans, have far reaching implications for our understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. We have previously shown that mothers' self-reported stroking of their infants modifies associations between prenatal depression and anxiety and child outcomes at 29 weeks and 2.5 years. Here, we examine whether the effect of early maternal stroking is evident at 3.5 years, and in a much larger sample than in previous publications. A general population sample of 1233 first-time mothers completed anxiety measures at 20 weeks gestation, 865 reported on infant stroking at 9 weeks, and 813 on child symptoms at 3.5 years. Maternal stroking moderated the association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and internalizing (p = 0.010) and externalizing (p = 0.004) scores, such that an effect of PSA to increase symptoms was markedly reduced for mothers who reported high levels of stroking. There was no effect of maternal stroking on general anxiety. The findings confirm the previously reported effect of maternal stroking, and in a much larger sample. They indicate that there are long-term effects of early maternal stroking, modifying associations between prenatal anxiety and child emotional and behavioral symptoms.
Amirifard, Nasrin; Payandeh, Mehrdad; Aeinfar, Mehrnoush; Sadeghi, Masoud; Sadeghi, Edris; Ghafarpor, Somaye
Background: Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is positively associated with mental health and it can have a crucial role in mental disorder therapy by suitable coping mechanisms. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of EQ with anxiety and depression among the women with breast cancer. Subjects and Methods: During 2013 and in a cross-sectional study, 98 breast cancer patients (14 to 21 years old) entered into the study. For data collection, the following instruments were the Bar-On EQ inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Cattle Anxiety Inventory. Results: There was an inverse relationship between anxiety with intrapersonal (p<0.01, r=0.39) and stress management (p<0.01, r=0.37) components and also between anxiety and total scores of EQ (p<0.05, r=0.22). There was an inverse significant association between depression and intrapersonal components (p<0.05, r=0.23), general mood (p<0.01, r=0.46) and adaptation (p<0.01, r=0.38) and also between depression and a total score of EQ (p<0.01, r=0.42). Conclusion: The results of this present study confirmed the important role of EQ. Also, the results can be an inspiration for the future studies regarding the training of EQ skills in the treatment of mental disorder (anxiety and depression) among patients with breast cancer.
Götze, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; von Klitzing, Kai; Herzog, Wolfgang; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ernst, Jochen
A cancer disease in the family is an emotional crisis with psychological distress for the partner. The study observed the psychological distress of female partners of cancer patients with underage children (HADS-D). The results were compared with the psychological distress of the cancer patient as well as a representative comparison group of women from the general population. Every second female partner showed clinically anxiety scores. On average, the female partners were significantly more anxious than male cancer patients and even more afraid than women from the general population. Regarding the degree of depression, between the partners there were no differences. With regard to mental distress, a medium correlation was found on the pair level. Based on the use of psycho-oncological support the high emotional distress on the female partners is discussed.
He, Jie; Qiu, Peihua; Park, Ka Young; Xu, Qinmei; Potegal, Michael
A hierarchical cluster analysis of the time course of the videotaped reactions of 75 Chinese 2-4-year olds to mothers' toy-removal identified Distress, Low Anger, and High Anger behavior clusters. Anger often begins at low intensity; some children then escalate. The face-validity of Low and High Anger-cluster classifications was supported in that…
Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison
The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community.
Webb, Rebecca; Ayers, Susan
Perinatal psychological problems such as post-natal depression are associated with poor mother-baby interaction, but the reason for this is not clear. One explanation is that mothers with negative mood have biased processing of infant emotion. This review aimed to synthesise research on processing of infant emotion by pregnant or post-natal women with anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Systematic searches were carried out on 11 electronic databases using terms related to negative affect, childbirth and perception of emotion. Fourteen studies were identified which looked at the effect of depression, anxiety and PTSD on interpretation of infant emotional expressions (k = 10), or reaction times when asked to ignore emotional expressions (k = 4). Results suggest mothers with depression and anxiety are more likely to identify negative emotions (i.e., sadness) and less accurate at identifying positive emotions (i.e., happiness) in infant faces. Additionally, women with depression may disengage faster from positive and negative infant emotional expressions. Very few studies examined PTSD (k = 2), but results suggest biases towards specific infant emotions may be influenced by characteristics of the traumatic event. The implications of this research for mother-infant interaction are explored.
Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.
Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S
Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review.
Ewing, Donna L; Dash, Suzanne; Thompson, Ellen J; Hazell, Cassie M; Hughes, Zoe; Lester, Kathryn J; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam
This paper explores whether the increased vulnerability of children of anxious parents to develop anxiety disorders may be partially explained by these children having increased cognitive biases towards threat compared with children of non-anxious parents. Parents completed questionnaires about their child's anxiety symptoms. Children aged 5-9 (n = 85) participated in two cognitive bias tasks: 1) an emotion recognition task, and 2) an ambiguous situations questionnaire. For the emotion recognition task, there were no significant differences between at-risk children and children of non-anxious parents in their cognitive bias scores for reaction times or for accuracy in identifying angry or happy facial expressions. In addition, there were no significant differences between at-risk children and children of non-anxious parents in the number of threat interpretations made for the ambiguous situations questionnaire. It is possible that these cognitive biases only become present subsequent to the development of an anxiety disorder, or only in older at-risk children.
Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women
Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett
The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…
Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.
David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266
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Price, John S.
Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473
Tuna, Ezgi; Bozo, Özlem
The emotional cascade model (Selby, Anestis, & Joiner, 2008) posits that the link between emotional and behavioral dysregulation may be through emotional cascades, which are repetitive cycles of rumination and negative affect that result in an intensification of emotional distress. Dysregulated behaviors, such as non-suicidal self-injury, are used to reduce aversive emotions and distract the person from ruminative processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotional cascade model in a non-Western sample of Turkish university students. Accordingly, a structural equation model was tested, and the results demonstrated that the emotional cascades were indeed associated to dysregulated behaviors, even when the effect of current symptoms of depression and anxiety on behavioral dysregulation was statistically controlled. Furthermore, thought suppression had a stronger relationship with all symptom patterns as compared to rumination, which may point to a cultural difference. Possible implications of the findings are discussed.
Hariz, Nayla; Bawab, Souha; Atwi, Mia; Tavitian, Lucy; Zeinoun, Pia; Khani, Munir; Birmaher, Boris; Nahas, Ziad; Maalouf, Fadi T
This study aimed at investigating the reliability and validity of the Arabic Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a first child and adolescent anxiety screening tool in the Arab World. The English parent (SCARED-P) and child (SCARED-C) versions were translated into Arabic and administered along with the Arabic Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to 77 parents and 67 children attending a Psychiatry clinic. DSM-IV-TR diagnoses were made by a psychiatrist without knowledge of the scale scores. Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's α=0.92 for SCARED-P and 0.91 for SCARED-C. Their subscales had internal consistencies between 0.65 and 0.89. Parent-child agreement was r=0.67, p<0.001. SCARED-P demonstrated good discriminant validity between participants with anxiety disorders and those with other psychiatric disorders (t(72)=3.13, p=0.003). For SCARED-C, this difference was significant when participants with depressive disorders were excluded (t(43)=2.58, p=0.01). Convergent validity was evident through a significant correlation between SCARED-P and the parent SDQ emotional subscale (r=0.70, p<0.001), and SCARED-C and the child SDQ emotional subscale (r=0.70, p<0.001). Divergent validity with the SDQ hyperactivity subscale was observed as no significant correlation was found. Overall, the Arabic SCARED demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties in a clinical sample in Lebanon.
Kim, Joohan; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Kang; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyun Ju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjeong
Early life stress (ELS) may induce long-lasting psychological complications in adulthood. The protective role of resilience against the development of psychopathology is also important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among ELS, resilience, depression, anxiety, and aggression in young adults. Four hundred sixty-one army inductees gave written informed consent and participated in this study. We assessed psychopathology using the Korea Military Personality Test, ELS using the Childhood Abuse Experience Scale, and resilience with the resilience scale. Analyses of variance, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for statistical analyses. The regression model explained 35.8%, 41.0%, and 23.3% of the total variance in the depression, anxiety, and aggression indices, respectively. We can find that even though ELS experience is positively associated with depression, anxiety, and aggression, resilience may have significant attenuating effect against the ELS effect on severity of these psychopathologies. Emotion regulation showed the most beneficial effect among resilience factors on reducing severity of psychopathologies. To improve mental health for young adults, ELS assessment and resilience enhancement program should be considered.
Kim, Joohan; Choi, Kang; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyun Ju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjeong
Early life stress (ELS) may induce long-lasting psychological complications in adulthood. The protective role of resilience against the development of psychopathology is also important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among ELS, resilience, depression, anxiety, and aggression in young adults. Four hundred sixty-one army inductees gave written informed consent and participated in this study. We assessed psychopathology using the Korea Military Personality Test, ELS using the Childhood Abuse Experience Scale, and resilience with the resilience scale. Analyses of variance, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for statistical analyses. The regression model explained 35.8%, 41.0%, and 23.3% of the total variance in the depression, anxiety, and aggression indices, respectively. We can find that even though ELS experience is positively associated with depression, anxiety, and aggression, resilience may have significant attenuating effect against the ELS effect on severity of these psychopathologies. Emotion regulation showed the most beneficial effect among resilience factors on reducing severity of psychopathologies. To improve mental health for young adults, ELS assessment and resilience enhancement program should be considered. PMID:26539013
Morris, Larry W.; And Others
This study examined the nature of the anxiety reduction resulting from the administration of a film designed to reduce anxiety about snakes. One-hundred-sixty high school seniors viewed either a modeling film or a control film. As expected, the modeling group, compared to control subjects, experienced significantly greater decrements on…
Mohler, Marie Elaine
There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…
McGrath, Lauren M.; Oates, Joyce M.; Dai, Yael G.; Dodd, Helen F.; Waxler, Jessica; Clements, Caitlin C.; Weill, Sydney; Hoffnagle, Alison; Anderson, Erin; MacRae, Rebecca; Mullett, Jennifer; McDougle, Christopher J.; Pober, Barbara R.; Smoller, Jordan W.
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) often experience significant anxiety. A promising approach to anxiety intervention has emerged from cognitive studies of attention bias to threat. To investigate the utility of this intervention in WS, this study examined attention bias to happy and angry faces in individuals with WS (N = 46). Results showed…
Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H
Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use.
Soares, Sandra C; Rocha, Marta; Neiva, Tiago; Rodrigues, Paulo; Silva, Carlos F
Previous studies in the social anxiety arena have shown an impaired attentional control system, similar to that found in trait anxiety. However, the effect of task demands on social anxiety in socially threatening stimuli, such as angry faces, remains unseen. In the present study, 54 university students scoring high and low in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale (SIPAAS) questionnaire, participated in a target letter discrimination task while task-irrelevant face stimuli (angry, disgust, happy, and neutral) were simultaneously presented. The results showed that high (compared to low) socially anxious individuals were more prone to distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli, particularly under high perceptual load conditions. More importantly, for such individuals, the accuracy proportions for angry faces significantly differed between the low and high perceptual load conditions, which is discussed in light of current evolutionary models of social anxiety.
McGrath, Lauren M; Oates, Joyce M; Dai, Yael G; Dodd, Helen F; Waxler, Jessica; Clements, Caitlin C; Weill, Sydney; Hoffnagle, Alison; Anderson, Erin; MacRae, Rebecca; Mullett, Jennifer; McDougle, Christopher J; Pober, Barbara R; Smoller, Jordan W
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) often experience significant anxiety. A promising approach to anxiety intervention has emerged from cognitive studies of attention bias to threat. To investigate the utility of this intervention in WS, this study examined attention bias to happy and angry faces in individuals with WS (N = 46). Results showed a significant difference in attention bias patterns as a function of IQ and anxiety. Individuals with higher IQ or higher anxiety showed a significant bias toward angry, but not happy faces, whereas individuals with lower IQ or lower anxiety showed the opposite pattern. These results suggest that attention bias interventions to modify a threat bias may be most effectively targeted to anxious individuals with WS with relatively high IQ.
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Danzig, Allison P; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Olino, Thomas M; Bhatia, Vickie; Black, Sarah R; Klein, Daniel N
According to diathesis-stress models, temperament traits such as negative emotionality (NE) may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of symptoms of psychopathology, although little research has tested such models in children. Moreover, there are few data on whether specific facets of NE (sadness, fear, or anger) may specifically moderate the effects of stress on depression versus anxiety. Finally, there is a paucity of research examining whether childhood temperament moderates the effect of disaster exposure on depressive or anxiety symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, which affected many thousands of people in New York State and the surrounding regions in October 2012, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Seven to eight years prior to Hurricane Sandy, 332 children 3 years old completed lab-based measures of NE and its facets. Six years later, when they were 9 years old, each mother rated her child's depressive and anxiety symptoms. Approximately 8 weeks post-Sandy (an average of 1 year after the age 9 assessment), mothers again rated their child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as a measure of exposure to stress from Hurricane Sandy. Adjusting for symptom levels at age 9, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms only in participants with high levels of temperamental sadness and predicted elevated levels of anxiety symptoms only in participants high in temperamental fearfulness. These findings support the role of early childhood temperament as a diathesis for psychopathology and highlight the importance of considering facets of temperament when examining their relationship to psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record
Killeen, Lauren A; Teti, Douglas M
This study examined the links between mothers' frontal EEG asymmetry at rest and during videos of their 5- to 8-month-old infants expressing three emotion states (joy, anger/distress, and neutral interest), mother-infant emotional availability (EA) in the home, mothers' depressive and anxious symptoms, and mothers' emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. Greater relative right frontal activity at rest was associated with greater maternal anxiety, but was unrelated to EA or mother-reported emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. A shift toward greater relative right frontal activation in response to infant emotional stimuli was associated with lower maternal anxiety, greater mother-infant EA, and mothers' experience of sadness, concern, irritability, and the absence of joy in response to seeing their own infant in distress. These findings suggest that mothers' in the moment empathetic responding to their infant's emotions, indexed by a shift in frontal EEG asymmetry in response to infant emotional displays, is related to mother-infant EA in the home. Implications for conceptualizing parenting risk are discussed.
Buck, Benjamin; Lysaker, Paul H
Recent work has suggested that anhedonia in schizophrenia can be understood as involving two separate constructs: deficits in anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Little is known about the relative stability of these different constructs and their links with clinical features and social function over time. To examine these questions, 51 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a non-acute phase of illness were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Quality of Life Scale at two time points six months apart. Results revealed that baseline scores of both anticipatory and consummatory pleasure were significantly correlated with follow-up scores six months later, suggesting each construct is stable in the short term. The association of anticipatory pleasure at baseline and six months was significantly higher than the relationship between consummatory pleasure at baseline and at six months. Anticipatory pleasure predicted concurrent and prospective levels of positive symptoms, emotional discomfort, and interpersonal function, but not emotion recognition. Consummatory pleasure predicted only concurrent positive symptoms. The link of baseline anticipatory pleasure with emotional discomfort at six months persisted even after controlling for baseline emotional discomfort. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of anhedonia in schizophrenia are discussed.
Hofmann, Stefan G; Hinton, Devon E
A person's cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture's conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person's ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss "khyâl cap" ("wind attacks"), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress.
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.
A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049
Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D
Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.
Isolan, Luciano; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Osowski, Andrea Tochetto; Amaro, Estácio; Manfro, Gisele Gus
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a large community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. A total of 2410 students completed the 41-item Brazilian-Portuguese version of the SCARED. The one-factor and the five-factor structure of the SCARED fit this sample well. However, the five-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model and an adequate fit for age and gender subgroups. Anxiety symptoms in Brazilian youth were reported at a moderate-high level as compared to other studies. Females were found to score significantly higher on the total score and on all of the subscales as compared to the males. The total score and each of the five factors for both children and adolescents showed good internal consistency, test-retest and construct validity. According to our findings the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the SCARED is a reliable and valid instrument to assess anxiety in Brazilian children and adolescents.
Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth
Difficulty interpreting facial expressions has been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and is thought to be associated with amygdala abnormalities. To further explore the neural basis of abnormal emotional face processing in ASD, we conducted an fMRI study of emotional face matching in high-functioning adults with ASD and age, IQ, and…
Slyepchenko, Anastasiya; Carvalho, Andre F; Cha, Danielle S; Kasper, Siegfried; McIntyre, Roger S
A priority clinical and research agenda in mood and anxiety disorders is to identify determinants that influence illness trajectory and outcome. Over the past decade, studies have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiome and brain function (i.e., the microbiota-gut-brain axis). Probiotic treatments and developmental analysis of the microbiome may provide potential treatments and preventative measures for depressive and anxiety disorders. This systematic literature review aims to identify original studies linking the gut microbiota to major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, this review searched for original reports focusing on possible therapeutic and preventative effects of probiotics for these debilitating conditions. Accumulating data indicate that the gut microbiota communicates with the CNS through neural, endocrine and immune pathways. Studies in germ-free animals indicate that the microbiota is involved in the regulation of the stress response (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and in CNS development at critical stages. Probiotics attenuate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in experimental animal models. Notwithstanding some inconsistencies and methodological limitations across trials, clinical studies suggest that probiotics may mitigate anxiety symptoms. However, future studies should investigate the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of probiotics in more phenotypically homogeneous populations. In conclusion, the emerging concept of a gut microbiota-brain axis suggests that the modulation of the gut microbiota may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of mood and anxiety disorders.
Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Uhl, Aubree; Schmidt, Norman B
The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety. The indirect relations between neuroticism and social anxiety through these and other risk factors were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 462 individuals (M age = 36.56, SD = 12.93; 64.3% female). Results indicated that the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety could be explained through inhibitory IU, FNE, and AS social concerns. No gender differences were found. These findings provide support for the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress disorders, although the cognitive risk factors accounted for variance beyond their contribution to the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety, suggesting a more complex model than that expressed in the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities.
Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E
Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.
Marshall, Tara C.; Bejanyan, Kathrine; Ferenczi, Nelli
The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of attachment anxiety and avoidance with personal growth following relationship dissolution, and to test breakup distress, rumination, and tendency to rebound with new partners as mediators of these associations. Study 1 (N = 411) and Study 2 (N = 465) measured attachment style, breakup distress, and personal growth; Study 2 additionally measured ruminative reflection, brooding, and proclivity to rebound with new partners. Structural equation modelling revealed in both studies that anxiety was indirectly associated with greater personal growth through heightened breakup distress, whereas avoidance was indirectly associated with lower personal growth through inhibited breakup distress. Study 2 further showed that the positive association of breakup distress with personal growth was accounted for by enhanced reflection and brooding, and that anxious individuals’ greater personal growth was also explained by their proclivity to rebound. These findings suggest that anxious individuals’ hyperactivated breakup distress may act as a catalyst for personal growth by promoting the cognitive processing of breakup-related thoughts and emotions, whereas avoidant individuals’ deactivated distress may inhibit personal growth by suppressing this cognitive work. PMID:24066169
Anker, J.J.; Kushner, M.G.; Thuras, P.; Menk, J.; Unruh, A.S.
Background Epidemiological studies and theory implicate drinking to cope (DTC) with anxiety as a potent moderator of the association between anxiety disorder (AnxD) and problematic alcohol use. However, the relevance of DTC to the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in those with a co-occurring AnxD has not been well studied. To address this, we examined whether DTC moderates the impact of two therapies: (1) a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to reduce DTC and anxiety symptoms; (2) a progressive muscle relaxation training (PMRT) program designed to reduce anxiety symptoms only. Methods Patients undergoing a standard AUD residential treatment with a co-occurring AnxD (N = 218) were randomly assigned to also receive either the CBT or PMRT. DTC in the 30 days prior to treatment was measured using the Unpleasant Emotions subscale of the Inventory of Drinking Situations. Results Confirming the predicted moderator model, the results indicated a significant interaction between treatment group and level of pre-treatment DTC behavior. Probing this interaction revealed that for those reporting more pre-treatment DTC behavior, 4-month alcohol outcomes were superior in the CBT group relative to the PMRT group. For those reporting less pre-treatment DTC behavior, however, 4-month alcohol outcomes were similar and relatively good in both treatment groups. Conclusions These findings establish a meaningful clinical distinction among those with co-occurring AUD-AnxD based on the degree to which the symptoms of the two disorders are functionally linked through DTC. Those whose co-occurring AUD-AnxD is more versus less strongly linked via DTC are especially likely to benefit from standard AUD treatment that is augmented by a brief CBT designed to disrupt this functional link. PMID:26718394
Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge
Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634
Guimaro, Melissa Simon; Steinman, Milton; Kernkraut, Ana Merzel; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Lacerda, Shirley Silva
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of depression and anxiety symptoms in survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by a healthcare team from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, and to evaluate the impact that losing a family member during this catastrophe could have on the development of these symptoms. Methods: Forty survivors of the Haiti earthquake who were assisted by the healthcare team between February and March of 2010 were included in this study. All subjects underwent a semi-structured interview. The group was divided into Group A (individuals who had some death in the family due to the disaster) and Group B (those who did not lose any family member). Results: A total of 55% of the subjects had depression symptoms whereas 40% had anxiety symptoms. The individuals who lost a family member were five times more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms than those who did not. Conclusion: Catastrophe victims who lost at least one family member due to the disaster were more likely to develop anxiety and depression symptoms. To these individuals, as well as others showing psychological distress, should be offered early mental health care to help them cope with the great emotional distress inherent in these situations. PMID:23579738
Rutherford, Helena J V; Byrne, Simon P; Austin, Grace M; Lee, Jonathan D; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C
Women are vulnerable to anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum. However, little is known about antenatal anxiety and neural processing of infant-relevant information. In this experiment, the N170, P300, and LPP (late positive potential) event-related potentials were measured from 43 pregnant women as they viewed infant and adult faces, which were either neutral or distressed in expression. Mother's self-reported anxiety levels were also assessed. The N170 was comparable across face conditions and was not associated with anxiety. However, our central finding was that greater levels of antenatal anxiety were associated with a larger LPP, but only for neutral infant faces. Results suggest that antenatal anxiety may result in deeper processing of neutral, emotionally ambiguous, infant faces during pregnancy. These findings are discussed in light of other work indicating an interpretive bias toward threat in response to neutral stimuli in anxiety.
Thome, Marga; Orlygsdottir, Brynja; Elvarsson, Bjarki Thor
About 14% of Icelandic women suffer post-partum from frequent depressive symptoms, and of those, 12% also report a high degree of parenting stress. Education of nurses and midwives on post-partum distress is crucial in reducing its degree. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical effect of an on-line course for community nurses on post-partum emotional distress. A community-based, longitudinal, time-series quasi-experiment was conducted in four stages from 2001 to 2005. Mothers attending 16 health centres throughout Iceland and scoring ≥ 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the 9th week post-partum were eligible to participate. Health centres were divided into experimental (EHC) and control centres (CHC), and control centres were crossed over to experimental centres the following year and new control centres recruited. Nurses at EHC attended an on-line course on post-partum emotional distress. Participating mothers answered the EPDS; the Parenting Stress Index/Short form and the Fatigue Scale. Nursing diagnoses and interventions were recorded at all study centres. Of the women who were eligible (n = 163), 57% (n = 93) participated. At baseline, 9 weeks post-partum, there were no significant differences between groups of women in the rate of depressive symptoms, fatigue or parenting stress. Women in all groups improved on all distress indicators over time; however, those from the EHC improved statistically and clinically significantly more on depressive symptoms than those from the CHC. Documentation of particular nursing diagnoses and interventions was significantly more frequent at the EHC, but referrals to specialists were significantly less frequent. On-line education for nurses on post-partum emotional distress is feasible and is related to improvement in post-partum depressive symptoms.
Riley, Elizabeth N.; Davis, Heather A.; Combs, Jessica L.; Jordan, Carol E.; Smith, Gregory T.
Both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and purging behavior are thought to involve harm to the self. The acquired capability for self-harm model holds that engaging in one self-harming behavior increases the capability to tolerate harm to the self, thus increasing risk for engaging on other such behaviors. In addition, both behaviors are thought to serve the similar function of relief from distress. We thus tested whether engagement in one of these behaviors predicts the subsequent onset of the other. In a longitudinal design, 1158 first year college women were assessed for purging and NSSI at two time points. Engagement in NSSI at Time 1 predicted the college onset of purging behavior 9 months later (OR = 2.20, p<.04, CI=1.07-4.19) beyond prediction from Time 1 binge behavior, and purging behavior at Time 1 predicted the subsequent onset of NSSI (OR = 6.54,p<.01, CI=1.71-25.04). These findings are consistent with the acquired capability for harm model and with the possibility that the two behaviors serve a similar function. PMID:26373703
Riley, Elizabeth N; Davis, Heather A; Combs, Jessica L; Jordan, Carol E; Smith, Gregory T
Both nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and purging behaviour are thought to involve harm to the self. The acquired capability for self-harm model holds that engaging in one self-harming behaviour increases the capability to tolerate harm to the self, thus increasing risk for engaging on other such behaviours. In addition, both behaviours are thought to serve the similar function of relief from distress. We thus tested whether engagement in one of these behaviours predicts the subsequent onset of the other. In a longitudinal design, 1158 first-year college women were assessed for purging and NSSI at two time points. Engagement in NSSI at time 1 predicted the college onset of purging behaviour 9 months later (OR = 2.20, p < .04, CI = 1.07-4.19) beyond prediction from time 1 binge behaviour, and purging behaviour at time 1 predicted the subsequent onset of NSSI (OR = 6.54, p < .01, CI = 1.71-25.04). These findings are consistent with the acquired capability for harm model and with the possibility that the two behaviours serve a similar function.
Fullagar, Simone; O'Brien, Wendy
In this article we situate empirical research into women's problematic experiences of anti-depressant medication within broader debates about pharmaceuticalization and the rise of the neurochemical self. We explore how women interpreted and problematized anti-depressant medication as it impeded their recovery in a number of ways. Drawing upon Foucauldian and feminist work we conceptualize anti-depressants as biotechnologies of the self that shaped how women thought about and acted upon their embodied (and hence gendered) subjectivities. Through the interplay of biochemical, emotional and socio-cultural effects medication worked to shape women's self-in-recovery in ways that both reinscribed and undermined a neurochemical construction of depression. Our analysis outlines two key discursive constructions that focused on women's problematization of the neurochemical self in response to the side-effects of anti-depressant use. We identified how the failure of medication to alleviate depression contributed to women's reinterpretation of recovery as a process of 'working' on the emotional self. We argue that women's stories act as a form of subjugated knowledge about the material and discursive forces shaping depression and recovery. These findings offer a gendered critique of scientific and market orientated rationalities underpinning neurochemical recovery that obscure the embodied relations of affect and the social conditions that enable the self to change.
Hiller, Rachel M; Apetroaia, Adela; Clarke, Kiri; Hughes, Zoe; Orchard, Faith; Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy
Following cognitive behavioural therapy for child anxiety a significant minority of children fail to lose their diagnosis status. One potential barrier is high parental anxiety. We designed a pilot RCT to test claims that parental intolerance of the child's negative emotions may impact treatment outcomes. Parents of 60 children with an anxiety disorder, who were themselves highly anxious, received either brief parent-delivered treatment for child anxiety or the same treatment with strategies specifically targeting parental tolerance of their child's negative emotions. Consistent with predictions, parental tolerance of the child's negative emotions significantly improved from pre- to post-treatment. However, there was no evidence to inform the direction of this association as improvements were substantial in both groups. Moreover, while there were significant improvements in child anxiety in both conditions, there was little evidence that this was associated with the improvement in parental tolerance. Nevertheless, findings provide important clinical insight, including that parent-led treatments are appropriate even when the parent is highly anxious and that it may not be necessary to adjust interventions for many families.
Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.
Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…
Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E
This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.
The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs.
Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Díaz-Castela, Maria del Mar; Muela-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes
The role that parents' involvement may play in improving their child's social anxiety is still under debate. This paper aimed to investigate whether training parents with high expressed emotion (EE) could improve outcomes for adolescent social anxiety intervention. Fifty-two socially anxious adolescents (aged 13-18 years), whose parents exhibited high levels of expressed emotion, were assigned to either (a) a school-based intervention with an added parent training component, or (b) a school-based program focused solely on intervening with the adolescent (no parental involvement). Post-treatment and 12-month follow-up findings showed that school-based intervention with parent training was superior to the adolescent-specific program, yielding significant reductions in diagnosis remission, social and depressive symptomatology, particularly when the EE status of parents changed. Overall, the findings suggest that high-EE parents of children with social anxiety need to be involved in their child's therapy.
Shiba, Yoshiro; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Braesicke, Katrin; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Cockcroft, Gemma; Haggard, Mark; Roberts, Angela C.
High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e., test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and neural circuitry
Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of "Engaging with Complaints," "Suppressing Emotion," experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for age, income, education level, job satisfaction, and working hours per week. The results showed that people who were 'Always Engaging with Complaints' (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.83-7.96 for male, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.07-7.66 for female) and 'Always Suppressing Emotion' (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.33-4.08 for male, OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.67-4.77 for female) were more likely to experience depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those 'Rarely Engaging with Complaints' and 'Rarely Suppressing Emotion,' respectively. Additionally, there was an interactive relationship between those job characteristics. Our nationwide study demonstrates that mental health problems are incrementally related to how much service workers must engage with complaining customers and suppressing emotion at work.
Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique
Background: Though associations between parenting styles marked by control (e.g., prevention of autonomous experiences) or rejection (e.g., criticism, arbitrary blame, and withholding of warmth) and youth anxiety have been established in the literature, few studies have examined cognitive mediators purported to explain these associations.…
Hoeller, Alexandre Ademar; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Duarte, Filipe Silveira; Leme, Leandro Rinaldi; Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; de Pieri, Claudini Honório; dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; Naime, Aline Aita; Farina, Marcelo; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro
The cholinergic system is implicated in emotional regulation. The injection of non-convulsant doses of the muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine (PILO) induces long-lasting anxiogenic responses in rats evaluated at different time-points (24h to 3 months). To investigate the underlying mechanisms, rats treated with PILO (150mg/kg) were injected 24h or 1 month later with an anxiolytic (diazepam, 1mg/kg, DZP) or anxiogenic (pentylenetetrazole, 15mg/kg, PTZ) drug and evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal (HIP) electroencephalographic recordings and acetylcolinesterase (AChE) activity were also analyzed after PILO treatment. Anxiogenic responses observed in the EPM 24h or 1 month after PILO treatment (e.g., decreased time spent and number of entries into the open arms of the maze) were blocked by DZP but not affected by PTZ. No epileptiform events were registered in the HIP or PFC at 24h or 1 month after PILO injection, but enhanced theta activity was observed in the HIP. DZP decreased hippocampal theta of PILO-treated rats in contrast with PTZ, which increased this parameter in saline- and PILO-treated rats. The HIP and PFC AChE activity did not change after PILO treatment. Our findings demonstrate that the long-term effects on the emotionality of rats induced by PILO are associated with electrophysiological changes in the HIP and sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of the GABAergic system. The present work may support this new research model of long-lasting anxiety, while also highlighting the muscarinic system as a potential target involved in anxiety disorders.
Chatwin, Hannah; Stapleton, Peta; Porter, Brett; Devine, Sharon; Sheldon, Terri
Context The World Health Organization (WHO) places major depressive disorder (MDD), or depression, as the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Some studies have found that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the most superior approach in treating mild to severe symptoms. Recent literature has indicated a number of limitations to this therapeutic approach. An approach that has received increasing attention within the literature is the emotional freedom technique (EFT). Objective The current pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT and EFT in the treatment of depression and comorbid anxiety. Design The research team designed a pilot study structured as a randomized, controlled trial with 2 intervention arms. Setting The study took place at Bond University in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants Participants (n = 10) were local community members who had screened positive for a primary diagnosis of MDD. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to an 8-wk CBT or EFT treatment program, the intervention groups. A sample of individuals from the community was assessed for comparative purposes (control group) (n = 57). Outcome Measures Pre- and postintervention, all participants were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 6.0, and they completed the following validated questionnaires: (1) the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition (BDI-2) and (2) the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21). Results Findings revealed that both treatment approaches produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms, with the CBT group reporting a significant reduction postintervention, which was not maintained with time. The EFT group reported a delayed effect involving a significant reduction in symptoms at the 3- and 6-mo follow-ups only. Examination of the individual cases revealed clinically significant improvements in anxiety across both interventions. Conclusions Overall, the findings
Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai
Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ(2)(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed.
Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai
Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ2(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed. PMID:28275363
Gully, Kevin J.; Britton, Helen; Hansen, Karen; Goodwill, Kristopher; Nope, Joni L.
A study (n=242) investigated the effectiveness of a simple seven-item scale designed to quantify indices of emotional distress during the rectal-genital phase of a child sexual-abuse examination. The Genital Examination Distress Scale found increased distress was associated with positive physical findings. (CR)
Muñoz, Ricardo F; Yardley, Lucy; Mc Sharry, Jennifer; Little, Paul; Moore, Michael
Background Developing effective, unguided Internet interventions for mental health represents a challenge. Without structured human guidance, engagement with these interventions is often limited and the effectiveness reduced. If their effectiveness can be increased, they have great potential for broad, low-cost dissemination. Improving unguided Internet interventions for mental health requires a renewed focus on the proposed underlying mechanisms of symptom improvement and the involvement of target users from the outset. Objective The aim of our study was to develop an unguided e-mental health intervention for distress in primary care patients, drawing on meta-theory of psychotherapeutic change and utilizing the person-based approach (PBA) to guide iterative qualitative piloting with patients. Methods Common factors meta-theory informed the selection and structure of therapeutic content, enabling flexibility whilst retaining the proposed necessary ingredients for effectiveness. A logic model was designed outlining intervention components and proposed mechanisms underlying improvement. The PBA provided a framework for systematically incorporating target-user perspective into the intervention development. Primary care patients (N=20) who had consulted with emotional distress in the last 12 months took part in exploratory qualitative interviews, and a subsample (n=13) undertook think-aloud interviews with a prototype of the intervention. Results A flexible intervention was developed, to be used as and when patients need, diverting from a more traditional, linear approach. Based on the in-depth qualitative findings, disorder terms such as “depression” were avoided, and discussions of psychological symptoms were placed in the context of stressful life events. Think-aloud interviews showed that patients were positive about the design and structure of the intervention. On the basis of patient feedback, modifications were made to increase immediate access to all
Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut
Two specific sources of stress at work have recently received increasing attention in organizational stress research: emotional dissonance (ED) and self-control demands (SCDs). Both theoretical arguments and experimental findings in basic research strongly suggest that ED and different SCDs draw on a common limited regulatory resource.…
Although instruction in writing for Library and Information Science (LIS) publication is becoming more prevalent, emotions inherent in the publishing cycle are seldom discussed. Through a review of the literature this article investigates how LIS writers can develop their technical skills in publishing scholarly articles, and then looks at…
Alm, Per A.
Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation…
de los Arcos, Beatriz; Coleman, James A.; Hampel, Regine
Success and failure in language learning are partly determined by the learners' ability to regulate their emotions. Negative feelings are more likely to frustrate progress, while positive ones make the task of learning a second language (L2) a more effective experience. To date no significant body of research has been carried out into the role of…
Fox, Elaine; Yates, Alan; Ashwin, Chris
The impact of trait anxiety and perceptual load on selective attention was examined in a fear conditioning paradigm. A fear-conditioned angry face (CS+), an unconditioned angry face (CS-), or an unconditioned face with a neutral or happy expression were used in distractor interference and attentional probe tasks. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants classified centrally presented letters under two conditions of perceptual load. When perceptual load was high, distractors had no effect on selective attention, even with aversive conditioning. However, when perceptual load was low, strong response interference effects for CS+ face distractors were found for low trait-anxious participants. Across both experiments, this enhanced distractor interference reversed to strong facilitation effects for those reporting high trait anxiety. Thus, high trait-anxious participants were faster, rather than slower, when ignoring CS+ distractors. Using an attentional probe task in Experiment 3, it was found that fear conditioning resulted in strong attentional avoidance in a high trait-anxious group, which contrasted with enhanced vigilance in a low trait-anxious group. These results demonstrate that the impact of fear conditioning on attention is modulated by individual variation in trait anxiety when perceptual load is low. Fear conditioning elicits an avoidance of threat-relevant stimuli in high trait-anxious participants.
O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Connor, Anne-Marie; O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Lai, Donna; Harvey, Richard; Croke, David T; Waddington, John L
Clinical genetic studies have implicated neuregulin-1 [NRG1] as a leading susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. NRG1 is known to play a significant role in the developing brain, which is consistent with the prevailing neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Thus, the emotional and social phenotype of adult mice with heterozygous 'knockout' of transmembrane [TM]-domain NRG1 was examined further in both sexes. Emotional/anxiety-related behaviour was assessed using the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark test. Social behaviour was examined in terms of dyadic interactions between NRG1 mutants and an unfamiliar C57BL6 conspecific in a novel environment. There was no effect of NRG1 genotype on performance in either test of emotionality/anxiety. However, previous reports of hyperactivity in NRG1 mutants were confirmed in both paradigms. In the test of social interaction, aggressive following was increased in NRG1 mutants of both sexes, together with an increase in walkovers in female mutants. These findings elaborate the specificity of the NRG1 phenotype for the social rather than the emotional/anxiety-related domain. They indicate that NRG1 is involved in the regulation of reciprocal social interaction behaviour and thus suggest a putative role for NRG1 in a schizophrenia-related endophenotype.
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.
The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…
Diaz-Frutos, D; Baca-Garcia, E; García-Foncillas, J; López-Castroman, J
This work aims to investigate the factors associated with psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. We comprehensively assessed the demographic, psychosocial and health factors of 158 advanced cancer patients. Patients with high and low distress, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, were compared. A regression analysis was built to identify the best predictors of distress. Patients with high psychological distress (81%) were more likely to have lung cancer, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, low quality of life and poor body image than those without. In the multivariate model, only poor emotional functioning (OR = .89; 95% CI = .83-.95; p ≤ .001), hopelessness (OR = .86; 95% CI = .78-.94; p ≤ .001) and body image distortions (OR = .77; 95% CI = .68-.85; p = .005) were retained. High levels of hopelessness, impaired emotional functioning and body image distortions are the main factors associated with psychological distress in patients with advanced cancer. Potential interventions to modify these factors in palliative units are discussed.
De Feudis, Rossana; Lanciano, Tiziana; Rinaldi, Stefano
The present study was aimed at investigating the role of coping strategies in predicting emotional distress following breast cancer, over and above the illness severity, operationalized in terms of the type of surgery performed. In order to achieve this goal, two groups of newly diagnosed breast cancer women were selected and compared on the basis of the type of surgical treatment received. A subsample of 30 women with quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) and a subsample of 31 patients with mastectomy and axillary dissection (MAD) filled in the Brief Cope scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Summarizing, results showed that emotional support, venting, and humor explained a statistically significant increment of variance in psychological distress indices. Implication for clinical practice and future research were discussed. PMID:27247657
Czibere, Ludwig; Baur, Laura A.; Wittmann, Anke; Gemmeke, Katja; Steiner, Andrea; Weber, Peter; Pütz, Benno; Ahmad, Nafees; Bunck, Mirjam; Graf, Cornelia; Widner, Regina; Kühne, Claudia; Panhuysen, Markus; Hambsch, Boris; Rieder, Gabriele; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Holsboer, Florian; Landgraf, Rainer; Deussing, Jan M.
Behavioral endophenotypes are determined by a multitude of counteracting but precisely balanced molecular and physiological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to identify potential novel molecular targets that contribute to the multigenic trait “anxiety”. We used microarrays to investigate the gene expression profiles of different brain regions within the limbic system of mice which were selectively bred for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior, and also show signs of comorbid depression-like behavior. We identified and confirmed sex-independent differences in the basal expression of 13 candidate genes, using tissue from the entire brain, including coronin 7 (Coro7), cathepsin B (Ctsb), muscleblind-like 1 (Mbnl1), metallothionein 1 (Mt1), solute carrier family 25 member 17 (Slc25a17), tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), zinc finger protein 672 (Zfp672), syntaxin 3 (Stx3), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A member 2 (Abca2), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 5 (Enpp5), high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 3 (Hmgn3) and pyruvate dehydrogenase beta (Pdhb). Additionally, we confirmed brain region-specific differences in the expression of synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4). Our identification of about 90 polymorphisms in Ctsb suggested that this gene might play a critical role in shaping our mouse model's behavioral endophenotypes. Indeed, the assessment of anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors of Ctsb knock-out mice revealed an increase in depression-like behavior in females. Altogether, our results suggest that Ctsb has significant effects on emotionality, irrespective of the tested mouse strain, making it a promising target for future pharmacotherapy. PMID:21897848
Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Barmish, Andrea; Tiwari, Shilpee; Hudson, Jennifer; Kendall, Philip C.
This study examined emotion socialization practices in families of children with an anxiety disorder (AD; n = 28) and families of children who had no diagnoses (ND; n = 28), and considered gender differences. Youth (aged 8-13) and both parents discussed times when the child felt anxious, angry, and happy, for five minutes each. Fathers of AD children engaged in less explanatory discussion of emotion overall and exhibited less positive affect and more negative affect when interacting with sons than did fathers of ND children. Similar patterns emerged for mothers, although specific results varied by emotion type and child gender. Children with an AD demonstrated less positive affect overall and engaged in fewer problem-solving emotion regulation strategies when discussing anxious and angry situations than children in the ND group. In both AD and ND groups, fathers appeared to have greater involvement in emotion-related discussions with sons versus daughters. The results highlight parents' contributions to the emotional development of their children, the ways in which socialization may go awry in families of AD children, and the implications for children's emotional functioning. PMID:19102608
Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi
Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.
Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi
Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation. PMID:27362655
Esposito, G.; Venuti, P.; Bornstein, M. H.
Distress emotions in very young children are manifest in vocal, facial, and bodily cues. Moreover, children with different developmental conditions (i.e. autistic disorder, AD; developmental delay, DD; typically developing, TD) appear to manifest their distress emotions via different channels. To decompose channel of emotional distress display by…
Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C
The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking.
Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with
Tran, Allen L
This article examines two forms of the medicalization of worry in an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Biomedical psychiatrists understand patients' symptoms as manifestations of the excessive worry associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Drawing on an ethnopsychology of emotion that reflects increasingly popular models of neoliberal selfhood, these psychiatrists encourage patients to frame psychic distress in terms of private feelings to address the conditions in their lives that lead to chronic anxiety. However, most patients attribute their symptoms to neurasthenia instead of GAD. Differences between doctors' and patients' explanatory models are not just rooted in their understandings of illness but also in their respective conceptualizations of worry in terms of emotion and sentiment. Patients with neurasthenia reject doctors' attempts to psychologize distress and maintain a model of worry that supports a sense of moral selfhood based on notions of obligation and sacrifice.
Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Ashley; Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Nakamura, Brad
The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) is a 27-item youth-report measure of positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Using 2 large school-age youth samples (clinic-referred sample: N = 662; school-based sample: N = 911), in the present study, we thoroughly examined the structure of the PANAS-C NA and PA scales and fit a bifactor model to the PANAS-C NA items. Our exploratory factor analytic results demonstrated that negative affectivity is comprised of 2 main components-NA: Fear and NA: Distress-specifically among older youth. A bifactor model also evidenced the best model fit relative to a unidimensional and second-order factor structure of the PANAS-C NA items. The NA: Fear group factor evidenced significant correspondence with external criterion measures of anxiety. However, the original PANAS-C NA scale evidenced equal (and in some cases greater) correspondence with criterion measures of anxiety. We thus recommend continued usage and interpretation of the full PANAS-C NA scale despite the identification of the fear and distress group factors underlying general negative affectivity. The identification of these fear and distress group factors nonetheless suggest that negative affectivity may be comprised largely of a fear and distress component among older youth. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to better understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood development and informing the development of future treatments of negative emotions.
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
Prathima, Gajula Shivashankarappa; Sajeev, Renganathan; Kayalvizhi, Gurusamy; Ramesh, Venkatesan; Ezhumalai, Govindasamy
Introduction Dental setting plays an important role in child’s behavior and cooperation to the planned dental treatment. Adding attractive colours to the dental environment and by incorporating colourful equipments can make the child feel good and be at ease. This study tries to convey the relationship between colours and dental anxiety among children. Aim To evaluate the colour preference to emotions in relation to children’s age, gender and anxiety level. Materials and Methods A total of 382 children aged 6-12 years were randomly selected from schools in and around Puducherry. Modified dental anxiety scale was recorded by a calibrated examiner. Each question was scored from one (not anxious) to five (extremely anxious); such that the total score ranges from 5 to 25, wherein a score of 15 or more was considered to be anxious. Based on this, children were divided into anxious and non-anxious groups. All the children were provided with eight different coloured crayon pencils and were asked to shade two cartoon emoticons indicating happiness and sadness with their preferred colour. Values were tabulated and statistically analyzed to evaluate the association between the variables using Z test, Chi-square, Chi-square goodness of fit and odds ratio. (p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant). Results Among 382 children, 77% (294) were graded as anxious and 23% (88) as non- anxious. For positive emotion (happiness), 31.2% (119) children preferred blue followed by pink 29.3% (112). For negative emotion (sadness), 52.1% (199) of children preferred black and 46.9% (179) preferred red. Association between colour and emotion was highly significant (p= 0.005). Conclusion From the colours preferred by the children in our study, it can be concluded that colours like blue and pink in the dental set-up could enhance a positive attitude while black and red could develop a negative outlook in their mind. PMID:27630948
Laurent, J; Ettelson, R
The ability to differentiate anxiety and depression has been a topic of discussion in the adult and youth literatures for several decades. The tripartite model of anxiety and depression proposed by L. A. Clark and D. Watson (1991) has helped focus the discussion. In the tripartite model, anxiety is characterized by elevated levels of physiological hyperarousal (PH), depression is characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) or generalized emotional distress is common to both. The advent of the model led to the development of measures of tripartite constructs and subsequent validity studies. The tripartite model and resultant activity concerning the model was largely devoted to adult samples. However. those interested in anxiety and depression among youth are now incorporating the tripartite model in their work. This paper examines the current influence of the tripartite model in the youth literature, especially with regard to measuring anxiety and depression.
Brodie, Carolyn S.
Suggests activities for elementary school students that focus on their emotions. Provides a list of picture books that deal with the following: general feelings, anger, embarrassment, fear/anxiety, happiness, hate, jealousy, loneliness, love, pride, and sadness. (AEF)
Hesse, Michaela; Heydweiller, Katrin; Mücke, Martin; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas
Anxiety in terminally ill patients has a high impact on symptoms, trajectory and quality of life. There are different screening instruments for diagnosis. The holistic approach of palliative care considers the physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs and can improve the distress caused by anxiety. Early integration in palliative care decreases burden of symptoms and increases quality of life.
Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro
The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488
Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa
Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed <12 months. The total sample was 174 of the planned 200 (response rate=87%). The subjects were divided into three groups. A key factor in the creation of the group was the time elapsed from the moment of acknowledgment and confirmation of the diagnosis: T1 <14 days, n=56 patients; T2>14 days-<6 months, n=79 patients; T3>6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742
Bragard, Isabelle; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Coucke, Philippe; Lifrange, Eric; Schroeder, Hélène; Wagener, Aurélie; Dupuis, Gilles; Jerusalem, Guy
The authors asked breast cancer (BC) patients to participate in 1 of 3 mind-body interventions (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), yoga, or self-hypnosis) to explore their feasibility, ease of compliance, and impact on the participants' distress, quality of life (QoL), sleep, and mental adjustment. Ninety-nine patients completed an intervention (CBT: n = 10; yoga: n = 21; and self-hypnosis: n = 68). Results showed high feasibility and high compliance. After the interventions, there was no significant effect in the CBT group but significant positive effects on distress in the yoga and self-hypnosis groups, and, also, on QoL, sleep, and mental adjustment in the self-hypnosis group. In conclusion, mind-body interventions can decrease distress in BC patients, but RCTs are needed to confirm these findings.
Hirsch, Colette R; Meeten, Frances; Krahé, Charlotte; Reeder, Clare
People with emotional disorders, such as social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depression, demonstrate a consistent tendency, or bias, to generate negative interpretations of ambiguous material. This is different from people without emotional disorders who tend, in general, to make positive interpretations of ambiguity. If central components of an emotional disorder have high levels of inherent ambiguity (e.g., concern about the negative perceptions of others in SAD, or worry in GAD), then interpretive bias may have a causal maintaining role, and this has been demonstrated in studies using cognitive bias modification techniques. This research has also shown that interpretation biases combine with other cognitive processes, such as imagery and memory, which could exacerbate distress. Psychological interventions will benefit from effectively targeting negative interpretations, and future experimental research can inform ways to improve facilitation of more benign inferential processing to maximize amelioration of key components of emotional disorders.
Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola
The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…
Bennett, Paul; Patterson, Katie; Noble, Simon
This research identified psychosocial factors associated with post-traumatic stress and health anxiety following a venous thrombotic embolism. In all, 158 participants, largely registered with a venous thrombotic embolism information website (Lifeblood: The Thrombosis Charity), completed an online survey. Post-traumatic symptom scores were linked to health threat, and not moderated by perceived control over risk for further venous thrombotic embolism. Health anxiety was associated with continuing symptoms and a negative emotional response to the venous thrombotic embolism. There is a need to intervene to reduce both short- and long-term distress in this population, ideally using a stepped-care model.
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Thomas, Rae; Hendrickson, Kym; Avdagic, Elbina; Webb, Haley; McGregor, Leanne
Mothers' distress is a correlate of their children's elevated behaviour problems and symptoms. Parenting practices have been shown to mediate these associations, but few studies have observed parenting or focused on parents at risk of child abuse. In this study of 269 high-risk mothers and their young children (M?=?4.2?years), structural…
Huberty, Thomas J.
Anxiety is one of the most basic human emotions and occurs in every person at some time, most often when someone is apprehensive about uncertain outcomes of an event or set of circumstances. Anxiety can serve an adaptive function, however, and is also a marker for typical development. In the school setting, anxiety is experienced often by students…
Dryden, W; Dancey, C; Goldsmith, P
96 university students were asked to imagine that they were suffering from study anxiety to the point of wishing to receive help with the problem. They were then asked to read a booklet detailing either (a) the rationale for systematic desensitization or Rational-Emotive Therapy and (b) told that counselling lasted for 5 or 15 weeks. They then assessed the credibility of the therapy using Borkovec's credibility rating method. Meta-analysis has shown that systematic desensitization has superior outcomes when compared to other treatments, but this could be attributed to the different expectations of benefit that the therapies arouse. This notion has been called the expectancy-arousal hypothesis. Results from the present experiment did not support Shapiro's 1981 findings that systematic desensitization was more credible than Rational-Emotive Therapy, which disconfirms the expectancy-arousal hypothesis, but the basis for this remains unclear.
Turner, Samuel M; Beidel, Deborah C; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Tervo, Kari
Anxiety disorders are familial, and although considerable evidence supports the role of genetic/biological parameters in their development, these alone do not entirely explain their etiology. In this study, the role of parenting behavior as a possible factor in the transmission of anxiety from parent to child was examined. Using interview, self-report, and direct behavioral observation, behaviors of parents with an anxiety disorder were compared to those of parents without an anxiety disorder on a number of dimensions, but particularly with respect to whether anxious parents actively inhibited their children from engaging in normal age appropriate activities. These behaviors were assessed during routine activities and in a structured non-conflictual play task. Although anxious parents did not overtly restrict their child's behavior in either type of activity, they reported higher levels of distress when their children were engaged in these activities. Similarly, the "emotional climate" in families with an anxious parent differed significantly from families without an anxious parent. The results are discussed in terms of how parenting behaviors might influence the development of maladaptive anxiety via social learning and information transfer, and their heuristic implications.
Goodwin, Guy M.
The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments. PMID:26487806
Goodwin, Guy M
The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiology Evidence of shared genes is still based mainly on twin studies, but the shared neurobiology can be investigated directly by the investigation of emotional or cognitive bias either behaviorally or using functional brain imaging. This intermediate phenotype can then provide a substrate for understanding and developing medicines and psychological treatments.
Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Stilo, Simona; Scaffidi, Mariagrazia; Consolo, Pierluigi; Tortora, Andrea; Pallio, Socrate; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Familiari, Luigi; Zoccali, Rocco
The present study aimed to elucidate the differences in depression, anxiety, anger, and quality of life in a sample of non-psychiatric IBS patients, starting from the hypothesis that IBS subtypes may have different symptomatic expressions of negative emotions with different outcomes on quality of life measures. Forty-two constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS) subjects and 44 diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) subjects, after an examination by a gastroenterologist and a total colonoscopy, underwent a clinical interview and psychometric examination for the assessment of depression, anxiety, anger and quality of life. IBS subtypes showed different symptomatic profiles in depression, anxiety and anger, with C-IBS patients more psychologically distressed than D-IBS subjects. Affective and emotional symptoms should be considered as specific and integral to the syndrome, and recognizing the differences between IBS subtypes may have relevant implications for treatment options and clinical outcome.
Torpey, Dana C.; Hajcak, Greg; Kim, Jiyon; Kujawa, Autumn J.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.
Background: There is increasing interest in error-related brain activity in anxiety disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential approximately 50 [milliseconds] after errors compared to correct responses. Recent studies suggest that the ERN may be a biomarker for anxiety, as it is positively…
Buffone, Anneke E K; Poulin, Michael J
Can empathy for others motivate aggression on their behalf? This research examined potential predictors of empathy-linked aggression including the emotional state of empathy, an empathy target's distress state, and the function of the social anxiety-modulating neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin. In Study 1 (N = 69), self-reported empathy combined with threat to a close other and individual differences in genes for the vasopressin receptor (AVPR1a rs3) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR rs53576) to predict self-reported aggression against a person who threatened a close other. In Study 2 (N = 162), induced empathy for a person combined with OXTR variation or with that person's distress and AVPR1a variation led to increased amount of hot sauce assigned to that person's competitor. Empathy uniquely predicts aggression and may do so by way of aspects of the human caregiving system in the form of oxytocin and vasopressin.
Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard
Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant’s life. Mothers of preterm infants (N = 232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment in the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive subgroups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909
Richmond, Sally; Hasking, Penelope; Meaney, Rebecca
This study sought to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, stress, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and the mediating roles of rumination and emotion regulation in this relationship. The sample comprised 1,586 Australian university students who completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the relevant variables. Of the sample, 8.9% engaged in NSSI in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Depression, anxiety, and stress each exerted a direct effect on NSSI, and each relationship was mediated by cognitive reappraisal. The relationship between stress and NSSI was also mediated by expressive suppression. The results imply intervention efforts aimed at teaching adaptive emotion regulation strategies for students experiencing high levels of psychological distress may reduce the frequency of NSSI.
The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.
Nahaloni, Elad; Iancu, Iulian
Hyperhidrosis is a reason for treatment by many specialists in medicine, such as dermatologists, family medicine doctors, surgeons and also psychiatrists. Hyperhidrosis causes considerable distress and disability. Despite the fact that the condition has been known for thousands of years, it is yet unclear whether excessive sweating derives from emotional" activation of the central nervous system, whether the emotional symptoms evolve due to local dysfunction of the sweat glands, or a combination of the two problems. In this article, we will present two conditions: hyperhidrosis and Social Anxiety Disorder, a mental condition with anxiety and avoidanrce in social settings that is frequently accompanied by sweating. We will discuss the similarities and differences between these disorders and the various treatments available for these conditions. Research shows that social anxiety does not explain hyperhidrosis, but that excessive sweating reduces the threshold for social anxiety. Among people with hyperhidrosis, the functional disability and the emotional problems are mediated by the social anxiety. We propose treating the symptoms of hyperhidrosis and social anxiety disorder in combination in order to achieve maximal improvement in these patients.
Hunfeld, J A; Agterberg, G; Wladimiroff, J W; Passchier, J
Pregnant women with (n = 24) and without (n = 26) a previous pregnancy loss (> 16 weeks) due to congenital anomalies were compared on quality of life and anxiety. Pregnant women with a previous loss were divided into those with and those without a normal livebirth since the loss [cases+ (n = 6) and cases- (n = 18), respectively]. Psychological measurements were carried out before and after an ultrasound scan in the second trimester of the pregnancy. Women with a previous loss who had not delivered a healthy infant between the loss and the present pregnancy showed a lower quality of life as revealed by feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, and pain than the other groups. In addition, they showed more pregnancy-related anxiety. The negative emotions were particularly present just before the anomaly scan. Feelings of social isolation, negative emotional reactions, pain, and pregnancy-related anxiety were significantly positively related to trait anxiety, irrespective of having experienced late pregnancy loss. The implications of this study are that the referring gynaecologist, physician, or midwife should be aware of the strong emotions and major concerns of women in a pregnancy subsequent to a late pregnancy loss. In addition, they should offer these women the opportunity to express their emotional distress.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Petrides, K. V.; Furnham, Adrian
This study considered the effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI; Petrides & Mavroveli, 2007) and sociobiographical variables (age, gender, education level, number of languages known, age of onset of acquisition, context of acquisition, frequency of use, socialization, network of interlocutors, self-perceived proficiency) on…
Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Lewis, S.; Sharpe, M.; Warlow, C.
OBJECTIVES—The impact of stroke on the emotional outcome of patients is large. The aim was to describe the emotional outcomes among a cohort of patients which was of sufficient size to provide a precise estimate of their frequency and help identify those factors which are associated with poor outcomes after an acute stroke. METHODS—372 surviving patients, who had been referred to a hospital and entered into a randomised trial to evaluate a stroke family care worker, were asked to complete questionnaires at a 6 month follow up. These included measures of emotional distress (general health questionnaire 30 item, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and physical functioning (modified Rankin, Barthel index). A regression analysis was used to identify factors which were independently associated with poor outcomes. RESULTS—184 (60%) surviving patients scored more than 4 on the GHQ-30, 55 (22%) more than 8 on the HAD anxiety subscale, and 49 (20%) more than 8 on the HAD depression subscale. Patients with severe strokes resulting in physical disability were more likely to be depressed whereas there was a less strong relation between disability and anxiety. Patients with posterior circulation strokes had consistently better emotional outcomes than those with anterior circulation strokes. CONCLUSIONS—These data may help identify those patients at greatest risk of poor emotional outcomes and thus help in planning trials and delivering appropriate interventions. PMID:10601401
Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…
Blackhart, Ginette C; Nelson, Brian C; Knowles, Megan L; Baumeister, Roy F
Competing predictions about the effect of social exclusion were tested by meta-analyzing findings from studies of interpersonal rejection, ostracism, and similar procedures. Rejection appears to cause a significant shift toward a more negative emotional state. Typically, however, the result was an emotionally neutral state marked by low levels of both positive and negative affect. Acceptance caused a slight increase in positive mood and a moderate increase in self-esteem. Self-esteem among rejected persons was no different from neutral controls. These findings are discussed in terms of belongingness motivation, sociometer theory, affective numbing, and self-esteem defenses.
Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel
The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.
Weinberg, Anna; Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg
Abnormal patterns of attention to threat and reward have been proposed as potential mechanisms of dysfunction in anxiety and unipolar depressive disorders. However, few studies have simultaneously examined whether these patterns of attention are shared among disorders or distinguish between them. In the present study, we recorded the Late Positive Potential (LPP), an event-related potential and putative index of motivated attention, from 145 patients with anxiety and unipolar depressive disorders and 32 controls, as they viewed blocks of rewarding and threatening images, respectively. We found that a current diagnosis of depression was associated with a reduced LPP to rewarding visual stimuli. This appeared to be specific to a subgroup of individuals with early onset depression; this subgroup was also characterized by a reduced LPP to threatening images. Anxiety diagnosis and age of onset of anxiety, whether comorbid with depression or not, was unrelated to the magnitude of the LPP. Finally, a transdiagnostic symptom dimension measuring current severity of suicidal ideation was related to a reduced LPP to both rewarding and threatening images. These data suggest that dysfunction in neural markers of attention to threat and reward can effectively distinguish features of depression from anxiety, particularly early onset depression, and may track suicidal ideation across disorders.
Robbins, J M; Kirmayer, L J; Cathébras, P; Yaffe, M J; Dworkind, M
We examined physician characteristics associated with the recognition of depression and anxiety in primary care. Fifty-five physicians treating a total of 600 patients completed measures of psychosocial orientation, psychological mindedness, self-rating of sensitivity to hidden emotions, and a video test of sensitivity to nonverbal communication. Patients were classified as cases of psychiatric distress based on the CES-D scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Physician recognition was determined by notation of any psychosocial diagnosis in the medical charts over the ensuing 12 months. Of 192 patients scoring 16 or above on the CES-D, 44% (83) were recognized as psychiatrically distressed. Three findings were central to this study: 1) Physicians who are more sensitive to nonverbal expressions of emotion made more psychiatric or psychosocial assessment of their patients and appeared to be over-inclusive in their judgments of psychosocial problems; 2) Physicians who tended to blame depressed patients for causing, exaggerating, or prolonging their depression made fewer psychosocial assessments and were less accurate in detecting psychiatric distress; 3) False positive labeling of patients who had no evidence of psychiatric distress was rare. Surprisingly, more severe medical illness increased the likelihood of labeling and accurate recognition. Physician factors that increased recognition may indicate a greater willingness to formulate a psychiatric diagnosis and an ability notice nonverbal signs of distress.
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…
Freed, Steven; D’Andrea, Wendy
The redefinition of PTSD in the DSM-5 has highlighted a range of post-traumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. While biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma-reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system, which have previously been assumed to be fear-related. PMID:25894989
Britton, Bruce K.; And Others
Distressed research participants were identified and contacted to investigate their experiences. Anxiety due to physical discomfort was the primary complaint. However, the experiments had very mild distress effects on the subjects. Anonymity did not influence responses. (CS)
Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes
We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed.
Lach, Gilliard; de Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most abundant peptide in the central nervous system (CNS) and is densely localized in the brain regions involved in stress, memory, fear and anxiety. Although previous research supports a role for NPY in the mediation of rodent and human emotional behavior, there is currently a lack of information on the effects of low doses of NPY that could have a potential therapeutic advantage, minimizing side-effects such as cognition impairment or sedation. Herein, we assessed the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of low doses of NPY, and of the Y1-agonist Leu31Pro34-NPY (LP-NPY) on contextual fear conditioning (CFC), as they have no effect on unconditioned anxiety-like, locomotor activity and non-emotional memory. NPY (3 pmol) and LP-NPY (1 pmol) inhibited freezing behavior when administered in the acquisition or consolidation stages, indicating a reduction of fear. When injected in the extinction phase, only NPY inhibited freezing behavior on CFC. Pre-treatment with the Y1-antagonist BIBO3304 before NPY and LP-NPY was able to prevent the inhibition of fear responses induced by both NPY agonists. Taken together, our results demonstrate robust fear-inhibiting effects of i.c.v. injection of NPY on contextual fear conditioning in rats, a response that is mediated, at least in part, by the Y1 receptor. Moreover, these treatments were unable to change locomotor activity or to show an anxiolytic-like effect, as evaluated in an open-field and an elevated plus-maze. This specific fear reduction effect may underlie resilience systems in the CNS and has potential therapeutic relevance in PTSD.
Grosu, Emilia Florina; Grosu, Vlad Teodor; Monea, Dan
Problem Statement: tests were applied on athletes aged between 11 ± 5 and 15 ± 3. The group of athletes is part of the Romanian Olympic Judo team and ski groups of sports clubs in Gheorgheni (HR), Baia-Sprie (MM), Toplita (HR), Sibiu (SB) and Petrosani (HD). Purpose of Study: through this study, we analyse the correlations between the three…
Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.
Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…
Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid
High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety and also on a possible causal relationship between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines the recent discoveries made on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety levels and the putative role of oxidative stress in genesis of anxiety. We discuss the different opinions and questions that exist in the field and review the methodological approaches that are being used to determine a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress. PMID:20357926
Huberty, Thomas J.
Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…
Al-Sabwah, Mohammed N.; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between religiosity and death distress (death anxiety, death depression, and death obsession) among a sample (N = 570) of Egyptian women nursing undergraduates, mainly Muslims. Their ages ranged from 17 to 25. The correlations between religiosity and both death anxiety and death…
Aminisani, Nayyereh; Nikbakht, Hosseinali; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad
Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life (QOL) dimensions in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the North of Iran. A total of 157 CRC survivors were selected from the registry database and included in this study. Psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and QOL was estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ C-30). The association between the patients’ emotional functioning (EF) score on EORTC QLQ-C30 and their HADS scores was analysed through multiple linear regression. Results In statistical terms, there were significantly negative relationships between EF and HADS-A (anxiety), and between HADS-D (depression) and HADS-T (total score). However, compared with HADS-A, the correlation between HADS-D and other QOL dimensions was significantly higher. By the same token, depression rather than anxiety was more strongly associated with reduced QOL. Conclusions The EF dimension of the EORTC QLQ-C30 predominantly assesses anxiety; however, depression has a stronger impact on the global QOL of patients than anxiety. Therefore, the use of an additional instrument is recommended for the assessment of depression in outpatients with CRC. PMID:28280612
Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Doubova, Svetlana V; Aguirre-Hernandez, Rebeca; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia
Objectives The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Distress Scale for Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension (DSDH17M). Setting Two family medicine clinics affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Participants 722 patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension (235 patients with diabetes, 233 patients with hypertension and 254 patients with both diseases). Design A cross-sectional survey. Methods The validation procedures included: (1) content validity using a group of experts, (2) construct validity from exploratory factor analysis, (3) internal consistency using Cronbach's α, (4) convergent validity between DSDH17M and anxiety and depression using the Spearman correlation coefficient, (5) discriminative validity through the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and (6) test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results The DSDH17M has 17 items and three factors explaining 67% of the total variance. Cronbach α ranged from 0.83 to 0.91 among factors. The first factor of ‘Regime-related Distress and Emotional Burden’ moderately correlated with anxiety and depression scores. Discriminative validity revealed that patients with obesity, those with stressful events and those who did not adhere to pharmacological treatment had significantly higher distress scores in all DSDH17M domains. Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient for DSDH17M ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 among factors. Conclusions DSDH17M is a valid and reliable tool to identify distress of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26936903
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.
Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676
Vitek, Leesa; Rosenzweig, Margaret Quinn; Stollings, Susan
Distress in patients with cancer impacts their quality of life. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) created a distress thermometer and a problem checklist to aid in recognizing distress. The thermometer measures distress on a 0-10 scale, and the problem checklist identifies more specific etiologies of distress, such as practical, spiritual, physical, emotional, and family problems. Oncology nurses play a key role in the success of the distress-screening tool because they have the most patient contact. The NCCN guidelines suggest that patients complete the screening tools at each visit and clinicians review the outcome. NCCN has provided clinical pathways for treating the etiologies of distress using a multidisciplinary approach, including members from social work, pastoral services, mental health, and oncology.
Chung, Joohyun; Choi, Seong-In; Kim, Jun
Although the cause and the cure for dementia remain unknown, it is clear that environmental factors can offer relief of cognitive impairment and encourage emotional stability. The purpose was to explore dementia patients' experiences of a media presentation including images of nature. Combining a qualitative approach with quantitative data analysis, the project exposed 23 participants to slide show presentations of fascinating natural scenes over 4 weeks. The patients' feelings and experiences of the media presentations were investigated using semistructured interviews and daily chart reviews in which weekly behavioral changes. The experience of natural scenes in dementia patients' everyday atmosphere became a new and positive aspect of life at the long-term nursing facility, although the quantitative data did not significantly change during the project. This treatment could provide dementia patients with a nurturing relationship, making nature a supportive part of their everyday experience.
Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions Dealing with a flood of emotions can be hard for stroke ... not be considered a normal part of stroke recovery. If you suffer from depression, anxiety or emotions ...
Noguera, Antonio; Centeno, Carlos; Carvajal, Ana; Tejedor, María Angustias Portela; Urdiroz, Juliana; Martínez, Marina
On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spanish-speaking patients was performed. Spanish patients with cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and six Verbal Numerical Scales (VNS) exploring the level of anxiety using the terms ansioso (anxious), nervioso (nervous), or intranquilo (uneasy/disquiet), and the level of depression using the terms deprimido (depressed), desanimado (discouraged), or triste (sad). The correlation, sensitivity, and specificity for all the VNS and HADS (8 and 11 cutoff points) were analyzed. The correlation (Spearman rho) between HADS and the anxiety VNS was r = 0.557 using "anxious"; r = 0.603 using "nervous"; and r = 0.594 using "uneasy." The correlation for the depression VNS was r = 0.662 using "depression"; r = 0.759 using "discouraged" and r = 0.596 using "sad"; alpha < 0.001 was used in all VNS. A cutoff point of 4 of 10 for any term used to explore anxiety achieved the best levels for sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70). The term "discouraged" with a cutoff point of 4 of 10 shows a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.84, as well as a predictive positive value of 0.77 and a negative value of 0.93. In Spanish, the term desanimado seems to be more suitable in screening for depression. Alternate terms could be used to explore anxiety in Spanish. Exploring depression with simple questions in Spanish achieves greater accuracy than the same approach to exploring anxiety.
Zhang, H T
The spontaneous withdrawal from morphine in morphine-dependent rats significantly decreased the duration of active interaction in social interaction test and the number of licks during the shock-punished period in Vogel's conflict procedure, which were attenuated by buspirone, a 5-HT1A agonist, as well as para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase. Naltrexone (NTX), a potent opioid receptor antagonist, also dose- and time-dependently reduced both indices mentioned above, which was blocked by morphine or PCPA and was enhanced by 5-hydroxytryptophan, a precursor of 5-HT. In the test of neurotransmitter releases in rat brain slices, both morphine-withdrawal and NTX enhanced high potassium(30mM)-induced 5-HT release in slices of the area of the raphe nucleus. These results suggested that both morphine-withdrawal and NTX produced anxieties in morphine-dependent and normal rats, respectively, which were mediated by the central 5-HTergic neurotransmission. Central opioidergic neurons inhibited 5-HTergic neurons tonically and presynaptically. Such an effect was reduced or blocked by NTX, or during morphine-withdrawal, and 5-HTergic neurons were disinhibited, leading to a state of anxiety.
Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay
Neurocardiology is the exploration of neurophysiological, neurological and neuroanatomical facets of neuroscience's influence in cardiology. The paraphernalia of emotions on the heart and brain are premeditated because of the interaction between the central and peripheral nervous system. This is an investigative attempt to study emotion based neurocardiology and the factors that influence this phenomena. The factors include: interaction between sleep EEG (electroencephalogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram), relationship between emotion and music, psychophysiological coherence between the heart and brain, emotion recognition techniques, and biofeedback mechanisms. Emotions contribute vitally to the mundane life and are quintessential to a numerous biological and everyday-functional modalities of a human being. Emotions are best represented through EEG signals, and to a certain extent, can be observed through ECG and body temperature. Confluence of medical and engineering science has enabled the monitoring and discrimination of emotions influenced by happiness, anxiety, distress, excitement and several other factors that influence the thinking patterns and the electrical activity of the brain. Similarly, HRV (Heart Rate Variability) widely investigated for its provision and discerning characteristics towards EEG and the perception in neurocardiology.
Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R
The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to
Bolano, Marielle; Ahalt, Cyrus; Ritchie, Christine; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Williams, Brie
Distressing symptoms are associated with poor function, acute care use, and mortality in older adults. The number of older jail inmates is increasing rapidly, prompting calls to develop systems of care to meet their healthcare needs, yet little is known about multidimensional symptom burden in this population. This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and factors associated with distressing symptoms and the overlap between different forms of symptom distress in 125 older jail inmates in an urban county jail. Physical distress was assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Several other forms of symptom distress were also examined, including psychological (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire), existential (Patient Dignity Inventory), and social (Three Item Loneliness Scale). Information was collected on participant sociodemographic characteristics, multimorbidity, serious mental illness (SMI), functional impairment, and behavioral health risk factors through self-report and chart review. Chi-square tests were used to identify factors associated with physical distress. Overlap between forms of distress was evaluated using set theory analysis. Overall, many participants (74%) reported distressing symptoms, including having one or more physical (44%), psychological (37%), existential (54%), or social (45%) symptoms. Physical distress was associated with poor health (multimorbidity, functional impairment, SMI) and low income. Of the 93 participants with any symptom, 49% reported three or more forms of distress. These findings suggest that an optimal model of care for this population would include a geriatrics-palliative care approach that integrates the management of all forms of symptom distress into a comprehensive treatment paradigm stretching from jail to the community.
Steptoe, A; Kearsley, N
Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety.
Mathew, Roy J.
Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Possible associations between stress I anxiety I panic and cerebral ischemia I stroke give additional significance to the effects of anxiety on CBF. With the advent of non-invasive techniques, study of CBF/CMR in anxiety disorders became easier. A large numbers of research reports are available on the effects of stress, anxiety and panic on CBF/CMR in normals and anxiety disorder patients. This article reviews the available human research on this topic. PMID:21743685
Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F
Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.
In this article, I examine Galen's credentials as an ethical philosopher on the basis of his recently discovered essay Avoiding Distress (Peri alypias). As compensation for the scholarly neglect from which Galen's ethics suffers, I argue that his moral agenda is an essential part of his philosophical discourse, one that situates him firmly within the tradition of practical ethics of the Roman period. Galen's engagement with Stoic psychotherapy and the Platonic-Aristotelian educational model affirms his ethical authority; on the other hand, his distinctive moralising features such as the autobiographical perspective of his narrative and the intimacy between author and addressee render his Avoiding Distress exceptional among other essays, Greek or Latin, treating anxiety. Additionally, I show that Galen's self-projection as a therapist of the emotions corresponds to his role as a practising physician, especially