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  1. Specific Associations between Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions and Fear and Distress Dimensions of Emotional Distress Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Norr, Aaron M.; Capron, Daniel W.; Raines, Amanda M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) comprises three lower-order dimensions, physical concerns, cognitive concerns, and social concerns, all of which are related to unipolar mood and anxiety disorders (emotional distress disorders). The pattern of these relations suggests that AS cognitive concerns might be best classified as associated with emotional distress disorders clustered together as distress disorders whereas AS physical concerns might be best classified as associated with emotional distress disorders clustered together as fear disorders. In contrast, AS social concerns appears to be generally associated with both fear and distress disorders. To test the specificity of lower-order AS dimensions, structural equation modeling was employed in a sample of 579 individuals (M age = 36.87 years, SD = 13.47; 51.6% male) constituting a sample at risk for psychopathology as these individuals were seeking smoking cessation treatment. AS physical concerns was associated with the fear disorders dimension, even when controlling for negative affect (NA). AS cognitive concerns was associated with the distress disorder dimension, only when the effects of NA were not included. Finally, AS social concerns demonstrated non-specific relations with both the distress and fear disorders dimensions. Given that measures of AS and psychopathology were collected concurrently, these findings cannot address the role of lower-order AS dimensions as risk factors for specific psychopathology clusters. These results provide further support for the hierarchical model of emotional distress disorders as well as implicate AS cognitive and physical concerns as important variables at the intermediate level of this model. PMID:25937702

  2. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Michael; Bolten, Margarete; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress and maternal salivary cortisol during pregnancy. Maternal reports of personality (16 PF) and stress-related psychological measures (depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived stress, negative life events) as well as salivary cortisol samples of 66 healthy pregnant women were collected in early and late pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety proved related to all stress-related psychological measures and high anxiety predicted low baseline cortisol awakening levels in early pregnancy. Maternal trait anxiety is related to both psychological and biological stress measures during pregnancy.

  3. Relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with HbA1c in adult persons with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ragnhild Bjarkøy; Graue, Marit; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Peyrot, Mark; Rokne, Berit

    2014-09-01

    Emotional problems are common in adults with diabetes, and knowledge about how different indicators of emotional problems are related with glycemic control is required. The aim was to examine the relationships of diabetes-specific emotional distress, depression, anxiety, and overall well-being with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Of the 319 adults with type 1 diabetes attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic at a university hospital in Norway, 235 (74%) completed the Diabetes Distress Scale, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Blood samples were taken at the time of data collection to determine HbA1c. Regression analyses examined associations of diabetes-specific emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and overall well-being with HbA1c. The relationship between diabetes-specific emotional distress and HbA1c was tested for nonlinearity. Diabetes-specific emotional distress was related to glycemic control (DDS total: unstandardized coefficient=0.038, P<.001; PAID total: coefficient=0.021, P=.007), but depression, anxiety, and overall well-being were not. On the DDS, only regimen-related distress was independently related to HbA1c (coefficient=0.056, P<.001). A difference of 0.5 standard deviation of baseline regimen distress is associated with a difference of 0.6 in HbA1c. No significant nonlinearity was detected in the relationship between diabetes-specific distress and HbA1c. To stimulate adequate care strategies, health personnel should acknowledge depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress as different conditions in clinical consultations. Addressing diabetes-specific emotional distress, in particular regimen distress, in clinical consultation might improve glycemic control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Adolescents' emotional engagement in friends' problems and joys: Associations of empathetic distress and empathetic joy with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rhiannon L

    2015-12-01

    Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships Among Financial Distress, Emotional Distress, and Overall Distress in Insured Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, Caitlin R.; Geynisman, Daniel M.; Egleston, Brian L.; Hall, Michael J.; Mechanic, Karen Y.; Bilusic, Marijo; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Martin, Lainie P.; von Mehren, Margaret; Lewis, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated increasing rates of financial toxicities and emotional distress related to cancer treatment. This study assessed and characterized the relationships among financial distress, emotional symptoms, and overall distress in patients with cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of patients with cancer who visited our outpatient medical oncology and psychiatry clinics completed a pen-and-paper survey. The survey assessed demographics; cost concerns; and financial, emotional, and overall distress. Results: One hundred twenty insured patients completed the survey. Sixty-five percent reported clinically significant overall distress scores, with the same percentage reporting at least one emotional problem (worry, anxiety, depression, etc). Twenty-nine percent scored in the range of high to overwhelming financial distress. By using structural equation modeling, we found that financial distress was associated with overall distress. This association was both direct (accounting for 76% of the effect) and indirect (accounting for 24% of the effect) via mediation by emotional distress. Conclusion: This cohort of patients with cancer reported significant levels of emotional distress, financial distress, and overall distress. These factors were interrelated, with both financial and emotional distress contributing to overall distress. Interventions targeted at alleviating financial distress may help to decrease levels of overall distress. PMID:27328795

  6. Relationships Among Financial Distress, Emotional Distress, and Overall Distress in Insured Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Meeker, Caitlin R; Geynisman, Daniel M; Egleston, Brian L; Hall, Michael J; Mechanic, Karen Y; Bilusic, Marijo; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Martin, Lainie P; von Mehren, Margaret; Lewis, Bianca; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increasing rates of financial toxicities and emotional distress related to cancer treatment. This study assessed and characterized the relationships among financial distress, emotional symptoms, and overall distress in patients with cancer. A cross-sectional sample of patients with cancer who visited our outpatient medical oncology and psychiatry clinics completed a pen-and-paper survey. The survey assessed demographics; cost concerns; and financial, emotional, and overall distress. One hundred twenty insured patients completed the survey. Sixty-five percent reported clinically significant overall distress scores, with the same percentage reporting at least one emotional problem (worry, anxiety, depression, etc). Twenty-nine percent scored in the range of high to overwhelming financial distress. By using structural equation modeling, we found that financial distress was associated with overall distress. This association was both direct (accounting for 76% of the effect) and indirect (accounting for 24% of the effect) via mediation by emotional distress. This cohort of patients with cancer reported significant levels of emotional distress, financial distress, and overall distress. These factors were interrelated, with both financial and emotional distress contributing to overall distress. Interventions targeted at alleviating financial distress may help to decrease levels of overall distress. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. The association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trick, Leanne; Watkins, Edward; Windeatt, Stacey; Dickens, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Depression is common in people with long term conditions, and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Previous research shows perseverative negative thinking (e.g. worry, rumination) predicts subsequent depression and worse medical outcomes, suggesting interventions targeting perseverative negative thinking could improve depression and medical outcomes. Previous studies recruited healthy individuals, however. This review aimed to determine the temporal relationship and strength of prospective association of perseverative negative thinking with depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies including standardised measures of perseverative negative thinking and depression, anxiety or emotional distress, and which presented prospective associations. Findings were narratively synthesized. Thirty studies were identified in a range of long term conditions. Perseverative negative thinking and subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress were significantly correlated in the majority of studies (bivariate r=0.23 to r=0.73). 25 studies controlled for confounders, and in 15 perseverative negative thinking predicted subsequent depression, anxiety or emotional distress. Results varied according to condition and study quality. Six of 7 studies found bivariate associations between depression, anxiety or emotional distress and subsequent perseverative negative thinking, though 2 studies controlling for key covariates found no association. Few studies assessed the impact of perseverative negative thinking on medical outcomes. Strongest evidence supported perseverative negative thinking predicting subsequent depression, anxiety and emotional distress in people with long term conditions. Further prospective research is warranted to clarify the association of perseverative negative thinking with subsequent poor medical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional distress in 652 Dutch very long-term survivors of childhood cancer, using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Ivana M M; van Dorp, Wendy; Hop, Wim C J; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; de Vries, Andrica C H; Pieters, Rob; Aarsen, Femke K; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2013-10-01

    After a more successful treatment of pediatric cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors is progressively increasing. Consequently, awareness of psychological late sequelae is important. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used as a screening tool for emotional distress in a single center cohort of 652 childhood cancer survivors (median age 23 y [range, 15 to 46 y], median follow-up time 15 y [range, 5 to 42 y]). Results were compared with a control group of 440 Dutch subjects. A higher HADS score linearly reflect a higher level of emotional distress, and a score ≥15 is indicative of clinically significant emotional distress. Mean HADS score of the childhood cancer survivors was not different from the control group (P=0.38). Survivors exposed to global central nervous system (CNS) irradiation had a significantly higher HADS score than the control group (8.3±6.6; P=0.05) as well as other survivors (P=0.01). Forty-three survivors (7%) had a HADS score ≥15. Survivors with a HADS score ≥15 were variously spread over the diagnostic-related and treatment-related subgroups. Linear regression analysis showed that high educational achievement (β=-1.28; P<0.01) and age at the time of the study (β=0.08; P=0.03) were both significantly associated with the HADS score. Emotional distress does not occur more often in childhood cancer survivors than in the normal population. No disease-related or treatment-related variable was independently associated with emotional distress.

  9. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  10. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  11. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress From the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and cognitive interviewing), 168 items (56 for each construct) were written in a first person, past tense format with a 7-day time frame and five response options reflecting frequency. The calibration sample included nearly 15,000 respondents. Final banks of 28, 29, and 29 items were calibrated for depression, anxiety, and anger, respectively, using item response theory. Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided more information than conventional measures in a range of severity from approximately −1 to +3 standard deviations (with higher scores indicating greater distress). Short forms consisting of seven to eight items provided information comparable to legacy measures containing more items. PMID:21697139

  12. Emotional Distress in Ghetto Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granick, Samuel

    The research data in this report were assembled as a basis for exploring the relationship between emotional distress or disturbance in both black and white adjudicated delinquents. The focus of inquiry was, for example, the relationship between emotional disturbance and being delinquent, the difference between black and white delinquents, and the…

  13. Effects of Rational-Emotive Hospice Care Therapy on Problematic Assumptions, Death Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in a Sample of Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Onuigbo, Liziana N.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu Onyinye; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Agu, Fedinand U.; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N.

    2016-01-01

    This study was a preliminary investigation that aimed to examine the effects of rational emotive hospice care therapy (REHCT) on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-posttest randomized control group design. Participants were community-dwelling cancer patients (n = 32) and their family caregivers (n = 52). The treatment process consisted of 10 weeks of full intervention and 4 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated-measures analysis of variance for data analysis. The findings revealed significant effects of a REHCT intervention program on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress reduction among the cancer patients and their family caregivers at the end of the intervention. The improvements were also maintained at follow-up meetings in the treatment group compared with the control group who received the usual care and conventional counseling. The researchers have been able to show that REHCT intervention is more effective than a control therapy for cancer patients’ care, education, and counseling in the Nigerian context. PMID:27657099

  14. A longitudinal study on anxiety, depressive and adjustment disorder, suicide ideation and symptoms of emotional distress in patients with cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hernández Blázquez, Manuel; Cruzado, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of anxiety, depressive and adjustment disorders, suicide ideation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with cancer before (T1), and after radiotherapy (T2) and at the 1-month follow-up (T3). A longitudinal study on 103 patients with cancer treated as outpatients undergoing radiotherapy was carried out, evaluating them three times (T1-T2-T3) according to DSM-IV criteria with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of the depressive disorders was: T1=6.8%, T2=3.9% and T3=3.9%; for anxiety disorders: T1=16.5%, T2=18.4% and T3=16.5%; for adjustment disorder: 10.7%, 5.8% and 7.8%; and for suicide ideation: T1=11.7%, T2=7.8% and T3=7.8%. In all, the presence of disorders was: T1=35%, T2=26.2%0.4% and T3=29.1%. At least one mental disorder was diagnosed in 46.6% of patients in one of the three times of the study. In relation to the symptoms, the prevalence of the possible cases of clinical anxiety was: T1=35.9%, T2=18.4% and T3=22.3%; the prevalence of possible cases of clinical depression was 19.4%, 16.5% and 10.7%, respectively; and the prevalence of emotional distress was 27.2%, 17.5% and 18.4%, respectively. All symptoms decreased significantly from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3, with moderate effect sizes. No changes were observed between the end of the radiotherapy and the follow-up period. High prevalence of mental disorders and symptoms of anxiety, depression and distress were observed in the patients with cancer before finishing radiotherapy treatment and during the follow-up. Basurto University Hospital and Basque Foundation for Innovation and Research in Health-BIOEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The emotional distress of children with cancer in China: an item response analysis of C-Ped-PROMIS Anxiety and Depression short forms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanyan; Wang, Jingting; Hinds, Pamela S; Wang, Jichuan; Shen, Nanping; Zhao, Xiufang; Ding, Jian; Yuan, Changrong

    2015-06-01

    The pediatric patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) was developed to provide self-reported item banks and short forms for children and adolescents (aged 8-17 years) experiencing a chronic illness to assess their quality of life and symptoms. The pediatric PROMIS short forms have been translated into Chinese and applied in children with cancer in China. This study aimed to describe psychometric properties of the Anxiety and Depression measures. A total of 232 children and adolescents with cancer were recruited in hospital-based inpatient and outpatient clinics. Eight Chinese versions of pediatric PROMIS (C-Ped-PROMIS) measures were administered. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) were conducted to evaluate scale dimensionality and item local dependence of the C-Ped-PROMIS Anxiety and Depression items. Multiple indicator multiple cause models were used to analyze differential item functioning (DIF), item response theory parameters were calculated, and test information against T scores was reported for each measure. The results of the CCFA confirmed that both C-Ped-PROMIS Anxiety and Depression scales appropriately measure the theoretical constructs as designed. No significant DIF was found for the items of the two scales according to age and gender. Both scales have high test reliability as long as their T scores are not on the low or high extremes. The pediatric PROMIS Anxiety and Depression measures were developed to provide efficient and flexible assessment of emotional distress domains. Our results provide evidence that the two C-Ped-PROMIS measures can be readily applied to measure anxious and depressive symptoms in Chinese children with cancer.

  16. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  17. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  18. Distress tolerance in OCD and anxiety disorders, and its relationship with anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Collimore, Kelsey C; Hawley, Lance L; Rector, Neil A

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of distress tolerance (i.e., the capacity to withstand negative emotions) in the onset and maintenance of anxiety. However, both empirical and theoretical knowledge regarding the role of distress tolerance in the anxiety disorders is relatively under examined. Accumulating evidence supports the relationship between difficulties tolerating distress and anxiety in nonclinical populations; however, very few studies have investigated distress tolerance in participants with diagnosed anxiety disorders. Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (PD/A) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) completed measures of distress tolerance (DT), conceptually related measures (i.e., anxiety sensitivity (AS), intolerance of uncertainty (IU)), and anxiety symptom severity. Results showed that DT was negatively associated with AS and IU. DT was correlated with GAD, SAD and OCD symptoms, but not PD/A symptoms, in individuals with those respective anxiety disorders. DT was no longer a significant predictor of OCD or anxiety disorder symptom severity when AS and IU were also taken into account. There were no between group differences on DT across OCD and the anxiety disorder groups. Implications for the role of distress tolerance in anxiety pathology are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral Assessment of the Negative Emotion Aspect of Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A

    2017-01-01

    The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.

  20. Do Attachment Style and Emotion Regulation Strategies Indicate Distress in Predictive Testing?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Lucienne B; van Duijn, Erik; Giltay, Erik J; Tibben, Aad

    2015-10-01

    Predictive genetic testing for a neurogenetic disorder evokes strong emotions, and may lead to distress. The aim of this study is to investigate whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies are associated with distress in persons who present for predictive testing for a neurogenetic disorder, and whether these psychological traits predict distress after receiving test results. Self-report scales were used to assess attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing) in adults at 50 % risk for Huntington's Disease (HD), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage With Amyloidosis - Dutch type (HCHWA-D), when they presented for predictive testing. Distress was measured before testing and twice (within 2 months and between 6 and 8 months) after receiving test results. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used to analyze whether attachment style and emotion regulation strategies indicated distress. In 98 persons at risk for HD, CADASIL, or HCHWA-D, attachment anxiety and catastrophizing were associated with distress before predictive testing. Attachment anxiety predicted distress up to 2 months after testing. Clinicians may consider looking for signs of attachment anxiety and catastrophizing in persons who present for predictive testing, to see who may be vulnerable for distress during and after testing.

  1. Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity…

  2. Interpersonal Relationships and Emotional Distress in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…

  3. [Emotional distress in elderly people with heart disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez Santamaría, Emilia; Lameiras Fernández, María; González Lorenzo, Manuel; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda

    2006-06-30

    To analyse the emotional distress associated with ageing, and its prevalence among elderly people who suffer from heart disease. Personal interviews with elderly people with and without heart problems. Interviews were conducted in public hospitals and old people's homes in the south of Galicia, Spain. The sample was made up of 130 elderly people (65 with heart problems and 65 without). The Inventory of Coping Strategies, of Halroyd and Reynolk (1984); Scheir, Caver, and Bridges Test (1984); the Life Satisfaction Scale of Diener, Emmuns, Larsen, and Griffen (1985); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965); and an instrument to measure Associated Symptoms (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1975). Elderly people with heart problems experienced greater anxiety and had lower self-esteem than those without such problems. Heart patients also tended to suffer more phobic anxiety and to retreat from social interaction more. With the passing of time, heart patients over 60 showed more anxiety, irritability and psychosomatic disorders. This study clearly shows the existence of emotional distress in elderly heart patients. This makes it particularly important to conduct risk-prevention programmes, since a lot of heart disease is brought on by unhealthy conduct.

  4. Beliefs about Emotions, Depression, Anxiety and Fatigue: A Mediational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Mia; Beardwood, Jennifer; Rimes, Katharine A

    2017-01-01

    Beliefs that it is unacceptable to experience or express negative emotions have been found to be associated with various clinical problems. It is unclear how such beliefs, which could be viewed as a form of unhelpful perfectionism about emotions, may contribute to symptomatology. This study investigated two hypotheses: a) greater endorsement of beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions will be associated with greater emotional avoidance and lower levels of support-seeking and self-compassion; b) these beliefs about emotions will be associated with higher levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue and that this relationship will be mediated by social support-seeking, emotional avoidance and self-compassion. Online questionnaires were completed by 451 community participants. Mediational analyses were undertaken to investigate emotional avoidance, social support-seeking and self-compassion as mediators of the relationship between beliefs about emotions and symptoms of depression, anxiety and fatigue. Beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions were significantly associated with more emotional avoidance and less self-compassion and support-seeking. The relationships between beliefs about emotions and depression, anxiety and fatigue were significantly mediated by self-compassion and emotional avoidance but not social support-seeking. Future research should investigate whether interventions that pay particular attention to emotional avoidance and self-compassion, such as mindfulness-based therapy or modified forms of CBT, may be beneficial in reducing distress and fatigue associated with beliefs about the unacceptability of negative emotions.

  5. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p <0.001), anxiety (p = 0.001), and distress (p = 0.006), meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p = 0.024), anxiety (p = 0.048), and depression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only depression (p = 0.04) and emotional issues (i.e., component of Distress Thermometer and Problem List) (p = 0.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β = 0.442, p < 0.001), anxiety (β = 0.342, p = 0.002), and self-identified problems with family (β = 0.288, p = 0.022), emotion (β = 0.345, p = 0.004), and physical issues (β = 0.408, p < 0.001). ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright

  6. Perceived distress tolerance accounts for the covariance between discrimination experiences and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority adults.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Nathan Grant; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Forney, Margot; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences have been implicated in elevated rates of anxiety symptoms within sexual minority groups. Theory suggests that chronic discrimination experiences may dampen the ability to tolerate distress, increasing vulnerability for anxiety. This study examined the role of distress tolerance, or the capacity to withstand negative emotions, as a construct underlying associations between discriminatory experiences and anxiety among sexual minority adults. Participants (N=119;Mage=36.4±14.8; 50% cisgender male, 31% cisgender female, 19% transgender; 37% non-Latino white) were recruited from Houston, Texas. Measures administered included the Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection, and Discrimination Scale (discrimination experiences), Distress Tolerance Scale (distress tolerance), and the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (anxiety). The association of discrimination experiences and anxiety through distress tolerance was assessed using covariate-adjusted mediation modeling. Results indicated that sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and that this association was mediated through lower distress tolerance. Significant indirect effects were specific to cognitive (versus somatic) anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that distress tolerance may be an explanatory mechanism in the association between discriminatory experiences and cognitive symptoms of anxiety and a potentially relevant target within clinical interventions to address anxiety-related health disparities among sexual minority adults. However, more sophisticated designs are needed to delineate causal associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional distress in junior house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Firth-Cozens, J

    1987-01-01

    In a study of 170 junior house officers who were followed up from their fourth year in medical school mean levels of stress were higher than in other reported occupational groups, and the estimated prevalence of emotional disturbance was 50%, with 28% of the subjects showing evidence of depression. Nearly a fifth of the subjects reported occasional or frequent bouts of heavy drinking, a quarter took drugs for physical illness, and a few took drugs for recreation. Those who were emotionally distressed at the initial study and the follow up were more empathetic and more self critical than those who had low levels of stress on both occasions. Overwork was the most stressful aspect of their jobs, though the number of hours worked was not related to stress levels, unlike diet and sleep. The more stressed they were the more unfavourably they viewed aspects of their jobs. The incidence of distress is unacceptably high in junior house officers, and both they and the hospitals need to deal with the causes of the distress. PMID:3117213

  8. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  9. Antenatal Maternal Emotional Distress and Duration of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Helbig, Anne; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) We sought to prospectively study the association between antenatal emotional distress and gestational length at birth as well as preterm birth. Study Design We followed up 40,077 primiparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Emotional distress was reported in a short form of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (SCL-5) at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation. Gestational length at birth, obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, was used as continuous (gestational length in days) and categorized (early preterm (22–31 weeks) and late preterm (32–36 weeks) versus term birth (≥37 weeks)) outcome, using linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Births were divided into spontaneous and provider-initiated. Results Of all women, 7.4% reported emotional distress at 17 weeks, 6.0% at 30 weeks and 5.1% had a preterm birth. All measurements of emotional distress at 30 weeks were significantly associated with a reduction of gestational length, in days, for provider-initiated births at term. Emotional distress at 30 weeks showed a reduced duration of pregnancy at birth of 2.40 days for provider-initiated births at term. An increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.13 days for provider-initiated births at term. Sustained high emotional distress was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.82 days for provider-initiated births. Emotional distress did not increase the risk of either early or late preterm birth. Conclusion Emotional distress at 30 weeks, an increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks and sustained high levels of emotional distress were associated with a reduction in gestational length in days for provider-initiated term birth. We found no significant association between emotional distress and the risk of preterm birth. PMID:25000409

  10. Emotional Distress and Compassionate Responses in Palliative Care Decision-Making Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, David; Davis, J. Kelly; Metzger, Maureen; DeLuca, Jane; Gramling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Seriously ill hospitalized patients and their loved ones are frequently faced with complex treatment decisions laden with expressions of emotional distress during palliative care (PC) consultations. Little is known about these emotional expressions or the compassionate responses providers make and how common these are in PC decision-making conversations. Objectives: To describe the types and frequency of emotional distress that patients and loved ones express and how providers respond to these emotions during PC decision-making consultations with seriously ill hospitalized patients. Methods: We used a quantitative descriptive approach to analyze 71 audio-recorded inpatient PC decision-making consultations for emotional distress and clinicians' responses to those emotions using reliable and established methods. Results: A total of 69% of conversations contained at least one expression of emotional distress. The per-conversation frequency of expressions of emotional distress ranged from 1 to 10. Anxiety/fear were the most frequently encountered emotions (48.4%) followed by sadness (35.5%) and anger/frustration (16.1%). More than half of the emotions related to the patient's feelings (53.6%) and 41.9% were related to the loved ones' own emotions. The majority of emotions were moderate in intensity (65.8%) followed by strong (20.7%) and mild (13.5%). Clinicians responded to a majority of emotions with a compassionate response (75.7%) followed by those with medical content (21.9%) and very few were ignored (1.3%). Conclusions: Expressions of emotional distress are common during PC consultations and are usually met with compassionate responses by the clinician. PMID:24588656

  11. The mediating effects of social support and self-efficacy on the relationship between social distress and emotional distress in head and neck cancer outpatients with facial disfigurement.

    PubMed

    Deno, Minako; Tashiro, Mie; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Asakage, Takahiro; Takahashi, Koji; Saito, Kenich; Busujima, Yasunobu; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Hiroto; Ichikawa, Yuji

    2012-02-01

    Although social support has been recognized as an important factor in the quality of life of head and neck cancer patients, there has been little investigation of the buffering effect of social support on these patients' social distress or of the coping skill of self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine how social support and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between social distress and emotional distress in head and neck cancer patients. Two hundred twenty-five head and neck cancer patients completed our questionnaire (effective response rate, 92.2%). Of these, 129 (57.3%) had facial disfigurement. These participants responded to questions about perception of social distress, social support, self-efficacy, and emotional distress (depression and anxiety). We used structural equation modeling for statistical analysis. The fit indices of this model were excellent (χ2 (7) = 9.147, p = 0.242, goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.981, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.922, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049). Self-efficacy strongly buffered the negative influence of social distress on emotional distress. Social support from family members did not have a direct or indirect influence on emotional distress. Social support from friends was related to lower social distress and higher emotional distress. Our findings suggest that self-efficacy might confound the relationship between social support and emotional distress, and that different sources of social support might play different roles in the mediation of social distress on emotional distress. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Anxiety Sensitivity and Distress Intolerance as Predictors of Cannabis Dependence Symptoms, Problems, and Craving: The Mediating Role of Coping Motives.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Kahler, Christopher W; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    The tendency to react with fear to anxiety-related sensations (anxiety sensitivity) and the inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states (distress intolerance) are implicated in the comorbidity between affective psychopathology and cannabis use disorders. Emotionally vulnerable cannabis users may be particularly apt to use cannabis to cope with distress, which may both lead to and maintain its problematic use (e.g., dependence, craving). The current study tested a comprehensive model of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance as predictors of the number of cannabis dependence symptoms and problems, and severity of cannabis craving following deprivation from cannabis, and the mediating role of cannabis coping motives. Participants (n = 103; mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 4.3; 35.9% female) were non-treatment-seeking frequent cannabis users. Data were cross-sectional in nature. Anxiety sensitivity was assessed via self-report, and distress intolerance was assessed via both self-report and breath-holding duration. Greater perceived distress intolerance, but not breath-holding duration or anxiety sensitivity, was associated with a greater number of cannabis dependence symptoms and problems and elevated cannabis craving. These relations were mediated by cannabis coping motives. Findings provide specificity for the etiologic mechanisms related to emotional vulnerability and maintenance of cannabis problems. Perceived distress intolerance appears to be uniquely related to maladaptive coping motives for cannabis use, which could be meaningfully targeted in interventions for emotionally vulnerable cannabis users.

  13. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  14. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  15. [Multiple-Victimisation due to Armed Conflict and Emotional Distress in the State of Magdalena, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Sanabria, Adriana R; Ospino, Anyelly; Guerra, Valeria M; Caamaño, Beatriz H

    Emotional distress is common in Colombian armed conflict victims. Multiple-victimisation is associated with an increase in emotional distress than victimisation due a single event. However, the association between poly-victimisation and emotional distress among victims of the armed conflict in Colombia has not been documented. To study the association between multiple-victimisation and emotional distress in victims of armed conflict in the State of Magdalena, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was designed, with a secondary analysis of registration of the Psychosocial Care Program and Victim Integral Health (PAPSIVI) in the State of Magdalena, from 2013 to 2014. The profile formula grouped demographic variables, victimising events, and a set of symptoms of emotional distress (perceived discrimination, depressive and anxiety-stress). Odds ratio (OR, 95%CI) were established as measures of association. A total of 943 people were included, with 67.4% women, and ages between18 and 94 years (mean 47.9±14.2). A total of 109 (11.7%) suffered from multiple victimisation. Multiple victimisation events were associated with more emotional distress, depressive symptoms (OR=1.5; 95%CI, 1.3-1.8), perceived stigma (OR=1.3; 95%CI, 1.1-1.5), and anxiety-stress (OR=1.2; 95%CI 1.0-1.4) than a single event. There is more emotional distress in multiple victimisations than in a single victimisation event during armed conflict in this region of Colombia. Further studies are required on this topic. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Emotional Dysregulation in Perfectionism and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldea, Mirela A.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    Data from a sample of university students (N = 349) were used to test a model in which emotional dysregulation (a composite of emotional reactivity and splitting) was expected to account for the effect of perfectionism on general psychological distress. Significant positive effects were observed between maladaptive perfectionism and distress,…

  17. Biased attention to threat in paediatric anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder) as a function of 'distress' versus 'fear' diagnostic categorization.

    PubMed

    Waters, A M; Bradley, B P; Mogg, K

    2014-02-01

    Structural models of emotional disorders propose that anxiety disorders can be classified into fear and distress disorders. Sources of evidence for this distinction come from genetic, self-report and neurophysiological data from adults. The present study examined whether this distinction relates to cognitive processes, indexed by attention bias towards threat, which is thought to cause and maintain anxiety disorders. Diagnostic and attention bias data were analysed from 435 children between 5 and 13 years of age; 158 had principal fear disorder (specific phobia, social phobia or separation anxiety disorder), 75 had principal distress disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, GAD) and 202 had no psychiatric disorder. Anxious children were a clinic-based treatment-seeking sample. Attention bias was assessed on a visual-probe task with angry, neutral and happy faces. Compared to healthy controls, children with principal distress disorder (GAD) showed a significant bias towards threat relative to neutral faces whereas children with principal fear disorder showed an attention bias away from threat relative to neutral faces. Overall, children displayed an attention bias towards happy faces, irrespective of diagnostic group. Our findings support the distinction between fear and distress disorders, and extend empirically derived structural models of emotional disorders to threat processing in childhood, when many anxiety disorders begin and predict lifetime impairment.

  18. The roles of emotional reactivity and tolerance in generalized, social, and health anxiety: a multimethod exploration.

    PubMed

    Macatee, Richard J; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-03-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties have been implicated in the maintenance of many anxiety disorders. However, existing research has relied mostly on self-report measures of emotion regulation or one type of mood induction. The present study examined the relationships between anxiety symptoms and emotional reactivity and tolerance using multiple assessment methodologies. Participants (N=122) completed measures of generalized, social, and health anxiety symptoms and reported tolerance of and reactivity to negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, disgust) elicited by 4 film clips. Participants also completed a mirror-tracing persistence task, a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. Social anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in tolerance of film-elicited emotions, whereas generalized anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in total peak reactivity to film-elicited emotions. Health anxiety was not related to tolerance or peak reactivity, but it was predictive of greater anxiety following the mirror-tracing task. The results of this study suggest heightened emotional reactivity is a salient feature of generalized anxiety symptoms, whereas emotional tolerance is more strongly related to social anxiety symptoms. The unique association between health anxiety and anxious response to the distress tolerance task represents a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

  19. Fatigue in patients with chronic heart failure - a burden associated with emotional and symptom distress.

    PubMed

    Falk, Kristin; Patel, Harshida; Swedberg, Karl; Ekman, Inger

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between experience of fatigue and emotional and symptom distress in chronic heart failure (CHF) needs to be thoroughly explored, because fatigue has major impact on daily activities in life. The purpose was to examine the association between fatigue, as a multidimensional experience and anxiety, depression and symptom distress, and to explore the relationships between individual symptoms and the dimensions of fatigue in patients with CHF. A consecutive sample of 112 patients with exacerbation of symptoms of CHF answered the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), the Hospital Depression and Anxiety (HAD) Scale and the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS). Anxiety was associated with mental fatigue, whereas depression was associated with reduction of activity, low motivation and decreased functioning. Physical fatigue was affected by symptom distress, with women reporting more distress than men. With exception of breathlessness, poor agreement was found between fatigue and the most intensive reported symptoms. The relationship between emotional distress and the experience of fatigue in patients with CHF may have a devastating affect on the patient's ability to cope and manage daily activities, including self-care and adherence to recommended treatment.

  20. Prediction of symptoms of emotional distress by mood regulation expectancies and affective traits.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry

    2014-12-01

    Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change.

  1. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and…

  2. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and…

  3. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  4. Emotion dysregulation and anxiety in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Orgeta, Vasiliki

    2011-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the important role of emotion dysregulation in the occurrence and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety symptoms and older adults' ability to regulate emotional experiences. A total of 167 community dwelling older adults completed self-report measures of affect and were asked to report how often they use specific emotion regulation strategies. Consistent with previous theories older adults experiencing increasing levels of anxiety reported greater difficulties in regulating emotional responses. Present results provide support for previous findings demonstrating that experiencing anxiety symptoms affects the ability to regulate emotional experiences. Current findings are likely to be informative in terms of understanding emotion dysregulation in older adults at risk of experiencing clinical symptoms of anxiety.

  5. The Impact of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Emotional Distress in Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Marzieh; Shairi, Mohammad Reza; Roshan, Rasoul; Rahimi, Changiz Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the effect of emotionally focused therapy (EFT) on factors contributing to emotional distress among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, the subjects consisted of 12 Iranian couples: six infertile men and six infertile women. They were assessed as depressed, anxious and stressful individuals using depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS). The subjects were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group with six couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) received EFT, while the control group with similar number of couples (i.e. three infertile men and three infertile women) was deprived of the treatment. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding job, educational level, income, age, marriage and infertility duration. The pre- and post-test comparisons of DASS subscales showed that level of depression, anxiety and stress among couples with EFT instruction was significantly less than those without such in- structions (p<0.0001). Conclusion Emotionally focused therapy could reduce the rate of depression, anxiety and stress in infertile couples, regardless of the man or woman as the cause of infertility. PMID:24520504

  6. Relationships between Adolescents' Preferred Sources of Help and Emotional Distress, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Causal Attribution of Symptoms: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that many adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders do not consult mental health professionals. This study examines how emotional distress, ambivalence over emotional expression, and causal attribution of depressive and anxious symptoms are related to adolescents' preferred sources of help for these symptoms. 300…

  7. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease: The Type D personality construct.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Ivy; Versteeg, Henneke; Duijndam, Stefanie; Graafmans, Corine; Polak, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2017-05-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged as distinct traits. Analysis of continuous negative affectivity and social inhibition measures showed main effects for several emotional and inhibition markers and an interaction effect for social anxiety. Categorical analysis indicated that Type D patients reported more depression, negative mood, social anxiety, and less positive mood. Social inhibition is not a redundant trait, but has additional conceptual value.

  8. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comorbid symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Edelstein, Kim; Zhang, Nan; Recklitis, Christopher J; Brinkman, Tara M; Srivastava, Deokumar; Leisenring, Wendy M; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-10-15

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for emotional distress symptoms, but symptom comorbidity has not been previously examined. This study examined distress profiles for adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1999. Self-reported depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms from Brief Symptom Inventory 18 were examined in survivors (n = 16,079) and siblings (n = 3085) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. A latent profile analysis identified clusters of survivors with individual and comorbid symptoms. Disease, treatment, and demographic predictors of distress comorbidity patterns were examined with multinomial logistic regressions. Four clinically relevant profiles were identified: low distress on all subscales (asymptomatic, 62%), high distress on all subscales (comorbid distress, 11%), elevated somatization (somatic symptoms, 13%), and elevated depression and anxiety (affective distress, 14%). Compared with siblings, fewer survivors were asymptomatic (62% vs 74%, P < .0001), and more had comorbid distress (11% vs 5%, P < .0001). Survivors of leukemia (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.61), central nervous system tumors (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61), and sarcoma (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01-1.57) had a greater risk of comorbid distress than survivors of solid tumors. Psychoactive medications were associated with comorbid distress (P < .0001), and this suggested that this group was refractory to traditional medical management. Comorbid distress was associated with poor perceived health (OR, 31.7; 95% CI, 23.1-43.3), headaches (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8-3.7), and bodily pain (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 3.2-5.0). A significant proportion of survivors are at risk for comorbid distress, which may require extensive treatment approaches beyond those used for individual symptoms. Cancer 2016;122:3215-24. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. The Relationship Between Anxiety Sensitivity and Latent Symptoms of Emotional Problems: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Alison R.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G.; Epstein, Alyssa; Griffith, James W.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that common and specific psychopathology dimensions underlie the symptoms that occur within mood and anxiety disorders. As of yet, it is unclear precisely how the facets of Anxiety Sensitivity (AS), or fear of the symptoms of fear and anxiety, relate to these latent factors. Using data from 606 adolescents participating in the baseline phase of a longitudinal study on risk factors for emotional disorders, we modeled the facets of AS as measured by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Expanded Form (ASI-X) and related these facets to a hierarchical model of latent symptoms of psychological distress. Results suggest that one facet of AS is associated with a broad General Distress factor underlying symptoms of most emotional disorders while others relate to intermediate-level and conceptually-meaningful narrow factors representing aspects of psychological distress specific to particular emotional disorders. PMID:20510917

  11. Successful application of adaptive emotion regulation skills predicts the subsequent reduction of depressive symptom severity but neither the reduction of anxiety nor the reduction of general distress during the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Carolin M; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms.

  12. Successful Application of Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills Predicts the Subsequent Reduction of Depressive Symptom Severity but neither the Reduction of Anxiety nor the Reduction of General Distress during the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Carolin M.; Radkovsky, Anna; Ebert, David D.; Berking, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Deficits in general emotion regulation (ER) skills have been linked to symptoms of depression and are thus considered a promising target in the treatment of Major depressive disorder (MDD). However, at this point, the extent to which such skills are relevant for coping with depression and whether they should instead be considered a transdiagnostic factor remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether successful ER skills application is associated with changes in depressive symptom severity (DSS), anxiety symptom severity (ASS), and general distress severity (GDS) over the course of treatment for MDD. Methods Successful ER skills application, DSS, ASS, and GDS were assessed four times during the first three weeks of treatment in 175 inpatients who met the criteria for MDD. We computed Pearson correlations to test whether successful ER skills application and the three indicators of psychopathology are cross-sectionally associated. We then performed latent growth curve modelling to test whether changes in successful ER skills application are negatively associated with a reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Finally, we utilized latent change score models to examine whether successful ER skills application predicts subsequent reduction of DSS, ASS, or GDS. Results Successful ER skills application was cross-sectionally associated with lower levels of DSS, ASS, and GDS at all points of assessment. An increase in successful skills application during treatment was associated with a decrease in DSS and GDS but not ASS. Finally, successful ER skills application predicted changes in subsequent DSS but neither changes in ASS nor changes in GDS. Conclusions Although general ER skills might be relevant for a broad range of psychopathological symptoms, they might be particularly important for the maintenance and treatment of depressive symptoms. PMID:25330159

  13. Self-conscious emotions, general emotional distress, and expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de Mamani, Amy G Weisman

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the association of self-conscious emotions (shame and guilt) with general emotional distress (GED) and expressed emotion (EE) in family members of patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-seven relatives were given the test of self-conscious affect Tangney et al., 1989, The Test of Self-Conscious Affect. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University) to evaluate their proneness to shame and guilt and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995. Behav Res Ther. 33:335-343) to assess GED. Participants were also interviewed using the Camberwell Family Interview to measure EE. Consistent with Tangney's theory of self-conscious emotions and with study hypotheses, simultaneous regression analyses indicated that increasing shame proneness was strongly and positively associated with caregivers' reported GED whereas increasing guilt proneness was negatively associated with GED. Expressed emotion was not found to relate to self-conscious emotions nor to GED when rated as a dichotomous variable (high vs. low). However, greater shame proneness was associated with lower ratings of emotional overinvolvement, one component of EE. Study implications are discussed.

  14. Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael; Isaacks-Downton, Gloria; Wells, Nancy; Redlin-Frazier, Sheryl; Eck, Carol; Hepworth, Joseph T; Chakravarthy, Bapsi

    2006-01-01

    Music therapy has decreased anxiety levels in many medical settings. This randomized clinical trial examined the effectiveness of a music listening intervention, delivered by a board-certified music therapist, in patients undergoing curative radiation therapy (RT). Emotional distress (anxiety, depression, and treatment-related distress) and symptoms (fatigue and pain) were measured at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment in 63 patients undergoing RT. Although patients who listened to self-selected music reported lower anxiety and treatment-related distress, there was a decline in these outcomes for patients in both groups over the course of RT. Depression, fatigue, and pain were not appreciably affected by music therapy. Within the music group, there was a significant correlation between number of times music was used/week and the change in treatment-related distress, suggesting that higher doses of music produced greater declines in distress. While these findings provided some support for the use of music in reducing distress during RT, further research demonstrating clear differences between intervention and control conditions is needed. Physical symptoms were not affected by the use of music over the course of RT.

  15. Emotional distress affects attention and concentration: the difference between mountains and valleys.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; Grills, Chad E; Zellinger, Margaret M; Miller, Ronald Mellado

    2014-01-01

    The current study tests the hypothesis that the "mountains and valleys pattern" (MVP) observed within the Attention and Concentration domain of the Meyers Neuropsychological Battery reflects the interference of emotional distress/anxiety on the patient's cognitive test performance. First, the MVP was objectively quantified using a formula that took into account both increased and decreased scores, rather than canceling them out through averaging. Using a total sample of 787 subjects, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) profile scores of cases with and without this pattern were then compared using an extensive database followed by a smaller, matched-groups design. The presence of the MVP was related to MMPI-2-RF test performance. In particular, this pattern was related to emotional distress/anxiety scales but was not related to scales reflecting neurological or cognitive complaints. The degree of emotional distress experienced may affect attention and concentration test performance in a way that sometimes heightens focus and at other times disrupts focus. The MVP may be used to assess the effects of emotional distress on the consistency of an individual patient's attention and concentration test performance.

  16. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  17. The association of metacognitive beliefs with emotional distress after diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sharon A; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Holcombe, Chris; Cornford, Philip; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Alleviating Emotional Distress in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: An Open Trial of Metacognitive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Peter L; McNicol, Kirsten; Young, Bridget; Smith, Ed; Salmon, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Metacognitive therapy (MCT) is an effective psychological treatment for a range of emotional disorders. However, the applicability of MCT to treating emotional distress in physical health populations has yet to be tested. The present study examined the potential of MCT for alleviating emotional distress in adolescent and young adult cancer (AYAC) survivors. Twelve AYAC survivors, aged 18-23, who had completed acute medical treatment participated in this pilot open trial with 6 months follow-up. Each participant completed a baseline period followed by 8-14 sessions of MCT that targeted perseverative thinking (worry and rumination), attentional control, and metacognitive beliefs. The primary outcome variable was severity of depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). MCT was associated with large and statistically significant reductions in anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms, and metacognitive beliefs and processes. In the intention-to-treat sample, 50% of participants met standardized criteria for recovery on the HADS at posttreatment and these gains were maintained through to 6-month follow-up. MCT is a promising transdiagnostic approach to treating different forms of emotional distress in AYAC survivors. Further investigation in controlled trials is now warranted.

  19. Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-12-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation Interview (ERI), and mothers reported on their children's emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). Results indicated that children who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for an anxiety disorder had difficulty managing worried, sad, and anger experiences, potentially due to their report of experiencing emotions with high intensity and having little confidence in their ability to regulate this arousal. These findings indicate that emotion regulation needs to be considered centrally in research with anxious populations.

  20. An examination of distress intolerance in undergraduate students high in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emma M; Pawluk, Elizabeth J; Koerner, Naomi; Goodwill, Alasdair M

    2015-01-01

    People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) engage in maladaptive coping strategies to reduce or avoid distress. Evidence suggests that uncertainty and negative emotions are triggers for distress in people with GAD; however, there may also be other triggers. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted six types of experiences that people report having difficulty withstanding: uncertainty, negative emotions, ambiguity, frustration, physical discomfort, and the perceived consequences of anxious arousal. The present study examined the extent to which individuals high in symptoms of GAD are intolerant of these distress triggers, compared to individuals high in depressive symptoms, and individuals who are low in GAD and depressive symptoms. Undergraduate students (N = 217) completed self-report measures of GAD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and distress intolerance. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of all of the distress triggers compared to people low in symptoms of GAD and depression. Individuals high in GAD symptoms reported greater intolerance of physical discomfort compared to those high in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, intolerance of physical discomfort was the best unique correlate of GAD status, suggesting that it may be specific to GAD (versus depression). These findings support continued investigation of the transdiagnosticity and specificity of distress intolerance.

  1. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  2. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  3. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake.

  4. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  5. Superstitiousness and perceived anxiety control as predictors of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Zebb, Barbara J; Moore, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that superstitiousness may be a subclinical manifestation of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. The present study examined whether the relationship between superstitiousness and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was exclusive or whether superstitiousness was a less specific construct. A sample of undergraduates (n=191) completed measures associated with superstitiousness, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, symptoms of anxiety disorders other than obsessive-compulsive disorder (panic symptoms, agoraphobic cognitions, worry, and social fears), general psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and stress), and perception of anxiety control. Results indicated a gender difference in superstitiousness exists, with females being significantly more superstitious than males. Little relationship was found between superstitiousness and the other constructs in males, whereas moderate relationships were found between superstitiousness and the other constructs in females. The suggestion that superstitiousness is nonspecific and related more to perception of control than any specific form of psychological distress is discussed.

  6. Relationships between physical symptoms, emotional distress, and pain appraisal in fibromyalgia: the moderator effect of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Pilar; Sánchez, Ana I; Miró, Elena; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Morales, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality construct that is frequently identified in fibromyalgia (FM). Previous studies have explored the relationship between alexithymia and emotional distress in this disease. Yet, the additional link with factors of pain appraisal is unknown. This study examined the moderating effect of alexithymia in the relationship between emotional distress and pain appraisal in 97 FM women. A control group of 100 healthy women also participated in the study. All participants completed several self-reports about pain experience, sleep quality, impairment, emotional distress, pain appraisal, and alexithymia. FM women showed significantly more difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, but less externally oriented thinking than healthy women. In the clinical group, difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with lower sleep quality, higher anxiety and depression, and increased pain catastrophizing and fear of pain. Difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with higher pain experience and vigilance to pain. Externally oriented thinking was not correlated with any of the clinical variables. Difficulty in identifying feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and pain catastrophizing, and difficulty in describing feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and fear of pain. Implications of the findings for the optimization of care of FM patients are discussed.

  7. Emotional distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Oancea, S Cristina; Brinkman, Tara M; Ness, Kirsten K; Krull, Kevin R; Smith, Webb A; Srivastava, D Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Gurney, James G

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence of emotional distress in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer and to evaluate the interrelationship of risk factors including cancer-related late effects. Adult survivors of childhood cancer (N = 1,863), median age of 32 years at follow-up, completed comprehensive medical evaluations. Clinically relevant emotional distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 and was defined as T-scores ≥63. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models to identify risk factors for distress. Path analysis was used to examine associations among identified risk factors. Elevated global distress was reported by 15.1% of survivors. Cancer-related pain was associated with elevated distress (OR 8.72; 95% CI, 5.32-14.31). Survivors who reported moderate learning or memory problems were more likely to have elevated distress than survivors who reported no learning or memory problems (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 2.17-4.93). Path analysis implied that cancer-related pain has a direct effect on distress symptoms and an indirect effect through socioeconomic status and learning or memory problems. Similar results were observed for learning or memory problems. Childhood cancer-related morbidities including pain and learning or memory problems appear to be directly and indirectly associated with elevated distress symptoms decades after treatment. Understanding these associations may help inform intervention targets for survivors of childhood cancer experiencing symptoms of distress. A subset of long-term childhood cancer survivors experience significant emotional distress. Physical and cognitive late effects may contribute to these symptoms.

  8. Emotional distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oancea, S. Cristina; Brinkman, Tara M.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Krull, Kevin R.; Smith, Webb A.; Srivastava, D. Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Gurney, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of emotional distress in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer and evaluate the interrelationship of risk factors including cancer-related late effects. Methods 1,863 adult survivors of childhood cancer, median age of 32 years at follow-up, completed comprehensive medical evaluations. Clinically relevant emotional distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and was defined as T-scores ≥63. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models to identify risk factors for distress. Path analysis was used to examine associations among identified risk factors. Results Elevated global distress was reported by 15.1% of survivors. Cancer-related pain was associated with elevated distress (OR 8.72; 95% CI, 5.32 – 14.31). Survivors who reported moderate learning or memory problems were more likely to have elevated distress than survivors who reported no learning or memory problems (OR 3.27; 95% CI, 2.17 – 4.93). Path analysis implied that cancer-related pain has a direct effect on distress symptoms and an indirect effect through socioeconomic status and learning or memory problems. Similar results were observed for learning or memory problems. Conclusions Childhood cancer-related morbidities including pain and learning or memory problems appear to be directly and indirectly associated with elevated distress symptoms decades after treatment. Understanding these associations may help inform intervention targets for survivors of childhood cancer experiencing symptoms of distress. Implications for cancer survivors A subset of long-term childhood cancer survivors experience significant emotional distress. Physical and cognitive late effects may contribute to these symptoms. PMID:24459073

  9. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions. PMID:24427152

  10. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  11. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    PubMed Central

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p < .01) as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, p = .04). Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  12. A phenomenological understanding of residents’ emotional distress of living in an environmental justice community

    PubMed Central

    Dory, Gabriela; Qiu, Zeyuan; Qiu, Christina M.; Fu, Mei R.; Ryan, Caitlin E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deteriorative environmental conditions in environmental justice (EJ) communities not only post direct health risks such as chronic illnesses, but also cause emotional distress such as anxiety, fear, and anger among residents, which may further exacerbate health risks. This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey. Twenty-three residents participated in the study. Four essential themes regarding the residents’ emotional experiences were elicited from 43 interviews: (1) being worried about the harmful effects of the surrounding pollution; (2) being distressed by the known historical pollution sources; (3) being frustrated by the unheard voices and/or lack of responses; and (4) being angered by the ongoing pollution sources. Participants not only expressed their emotions of worry, distress, frustration, and anger in detail but also described reasons or situations that provoked such negative emotions. Such detailed depictions provide insights into potential meaningful strategies to improve residents’ psychological wellbeing by alleviating negative emotions and meaningfully engaging residents in developing, implementing, and enforcing environmental laws, regulations, and policies to achieve EJ goals.

  13. A phenomenological understanding of residents' emotional distress of living in an environmental justice community.

    PubMed

    Dory, Gabriela; Qiu, Zeyuan; Qiu, Christina M; Fu, Mei R; Ryan, Caitlin E

    2017-12-01

    Deteriorative environmental conditions in environmental justice (EJ) communities not only post direct health risks such as chronic illnesses, but also cause emotional distress such as anxiety, fear, and anger among residents, which may further exacerbate health risks. This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey. Twenty-three residents participated in the study. Four essential themes regarding the residents' emotional experiences were elicited from 43 interviews: (1) being worried about the harmful effects of the surrounding pollution; (2) being distressed by the known historical pollution sources; (3) being frustrated by the unheard voices and/or lack of responses; and (4) being angered by the ongoing pollution sources. Participants not only expressed their emotions of worry, distress, frustration, and anger in detail but also described reasons or situations that provoked such negative emotions. Such detailed depictions provide insights into potential meaningful strategies to improve residents' psychological wellbeing by alleviating negative emotions and meaningfully engaging residents in developing, implementing, and enforcing environmental laws, regulations, and policies to achieve EJ goals.

  14. Is my patient suffering clinically significant emotional distress? Demonstration of a probabilities approach to evaluating algorithms for screening for distress.

    PubMed

    Clover, Kerrie; Carter, Gregory Leigh; Mackinnon, Andrew; Adams, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Screening oncology patients for clinically significant emotional distress is a recommended standard of care in psycho-oncology. However, principles regarding the interpretation of screening and diagnostic tests developed in other areas of medicine have not been widely applied in psycho-oncology. This paper explores the application of the concepts of likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities to the interpretation of psychological screening instruments and demonstrates the development of an algorithm for screening for emotional distress and common psychopathology. Three hundred forty oncology/haematology outpatients at the Calvary Mater Newcastle, Australia completed the Distress Thermometer (DT), the PSYCH-6 subscale of the Somatic and Psychological Health Report and the Kessler-10 scale. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (cutoff 15+) was used as the gold standard. Likelihood ratios showed that a score over threshold on the DT was 2.77 times more likely in patients who were cases on the HADS. These patients had a 53% post-test probability of being cases on the HADS compared with the pretest probability of 29%. Adding either the PSYCH-6 (3+) or the Kessler-10 (22+) to the DT (4+) significantly increased this post-test probability to 94% and 92%, respectively. The significance of these improvements was confirmed by logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated the application of probability statistics to develop an algorithm for screening for distress in oncology patients. In our sample, a two-stage screening algorithm improved appreciably on the performance of the DT alone to identify distressed patients. Sequential administration of a very brief instrument followed by selective use of a longer inventory may save time and increase acceptability.

  15. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  16. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  17. Vicarious pain responders and emotion: Evidence for distress rather than mimicry.

    PubMed

    Young, Kurtis A; Gandevia, Simon C; Giummarra, Melita J

    2017-07-01

    Up to a third of the population experiences pain when seeing another in pain. The mechanisms underlying such vicarious sensory experiences are thought to reflect hyperactive mirror systems (threshold theory) or dysfunctional processing and representation of oneself versus others (self/other theory). This study investigated whether the tendency to experience vicarious pain corresponds to disinhibited physiological reactivity toward other's emotions, and/or greater empathic mimicry of other's physiological state (respiratory behavior) during fear, pain, and positive emotion. Fifty healthy individuals aged 18-55 years (23 vicarious pain responders) completed empathy- and anxiety-related questionnaires, and a film task. Respiration was measured noninvasively with piezoelectric respiration belts while participants viewed emotional film clips depicting three emotions (fear/pain/positive) interspersed with neutral clips. The emotional stimuli depicted scenes in which the characters showed increases or decreases in respiration. The results suggest that vicarious pain responders do not mimic emotional respiratory behavior. Rather, vicarious pain responders had a significantly slower respiration rate for all emotional stimuli (MDiff  = 1.40 respiratory cycles, SE = .68), compared to nonresponders. However, this was associated with heightened trait anxiety. The findings suggest vicarious pain is associated with acute distress, rather than empathic mimicry of the emotional states of another. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Relatives' expressed emotion, distress and attributions in clinical high-risk and recent onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Tecelli; Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2017-01-01

    It has been well-demonstrated that Expressed Emotion (EE) in caregivers of schizophrenia patients is related to their illness attributions, but little is known about relatives' cognitive and emotional appraisals at early stages of psychosis. This study examined differences on the relationships of EE with distress and illness attributions in 78 relatives of At-Risk Mental States (ARMS) and First-Episode of Psychosis (FEP) patients, and which of those variables better predicted EE. Criticism and Emotional Over-Involvement (EOI) were associated with distress and with several illness attributions in both groups. Anxiety was more strongly associated with criticism in ARMS than in FEP-relatives, and it was associated with EOI in the ARMS but not in the FEP-group. No differences on the relationships of EE with depression or attributions were found. Furthermore, distress and attributions of blame toward the patients predicted criticism. Attributions of control by the patient and emotional negative representation about the disorder predicted EOI. Findings highlight the need to focus on early family interventions that provide proper information and psychological support in accordance with the illness stage, to help relatives improve their understanding of the disorder, handle difficult thoughts and emotions, reduce negative appraisals, and prevent high-EE over the psychotic process.

  19. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences…

  20. Ironic effects of emotion suppression when recounting distressing memories.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Yiend, Jenny; Schweizer, Susanne; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2009-10-01

    Theories of ironic mental control posit that under conditions in which effortful control is compromised, for example, in laboratory manipulations of mental load or in those suffering from clinical levels of negative affect, attempts to suppress negative emotions can lead to a paradoxical increase in such feelings, relative to conditions in which no suppression is attempted. In line with this, we showed that high negative affect participants, when asked to suppress (downregulate) their negative feelings while writing about a distressing personal memory, exhibited an ironically greater increase in negative emotions compared with a no-instruction condition, in contrast to low negative affect controls who were able to suppress their emotions. Comparable ironic effects were not associated with instructions to experience emotions. This first demonstration of ironic effects of emotion suppression in response to personal material in those with emotional problems sheds light into how certain emotion regulation strategies may maintain and exacerbate such conditions.

  1. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  2. Slow dissolving of emotional distress contributes to hyperarousal

    PubMed Central

    Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Dekker, Kim; Moens, Sarah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; van der Sluis, Sophie; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Talamini, Lucia M.; Walker, Matthew P.; Schalkwijk, Frans; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0.57, P < 0.001; eye movement density: R = 0.46, P < 0.01) in 32 polysomnographically assessed participants. The experience of distress lasting overnight increased with insomnia severity (β = 0.29, P < 10−23), whereas short-lasting distress did not (β = −0.02, P = 0.41). Insomnia severity was associated with hyperarousal (β = 0.47, P < 10−63) and with the thought-like nocturnal mentation that is specifically associated with restless REM sleep (β = 0.31, P < 10−26). Structural equation modeling showed that 62.4% of the association between these key characteristics of insomnia was mediated specifically by reduced overnight resolution of emotional distress. The model outperformed all alternative mediation pathways. The findings suggest that restless REM sleep reflects a process that interferes with the overnight resolution of distress. Its accumulation may promote the development of chronic hyperarousal, giving clinical relevance to the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation in insomnia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:26858434

  3. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  4. Emotion Regulation Therapy: A Mechanism-Targeted Treatment for Disorders of Distress.

    PubMed

    Renna, Megan E; Quintero, Jean M; Fresco, David M; Mennin, Douglas S

    2017-01-01

    "Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning. Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with distress disorders fail to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) is a theoretically derived, evidence based, treatment that integrates principles (e.g., skills training, exposure) from traditional and contemporary therapies with findings from basic and translational affective science to offer a framework for improving intervention by focusing on the motivational responses and corresponding regulatory characteristics of individuals with high levels of chronic distress. Open and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated preliminary support for the utility of ERT as reflected by strong effect sizes comparable to and exceeding established intervention approaches. In addition, pilot findings support the role of underlying proposed mechanisms in this efficacious response. This article presents the functional model associated with ERT and describes the proposed mechanisms of the treatment. Additionally, a clinical case is presented, allowing the reader to gain a greater applied understanding of the different components of the ERT model and treatment.

  5. Emotion Regulation Therapy: A Mechanism-Targeted Treatment for Disorders of Distress

    PubMed Central

    Renna, Megan E.; Quintero, Jean M.; Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    Distress disorders,” which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning. Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with distress disorders fail to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) is a theoretically derived, evidence based, treatment that integrates principles (e.g., skills training, exposure) from traditional and contemporary therapies with findings from basic and translational affective science to offer a framework for improving intervention by focusing on the motivational responses and corresponding regulatory characteristics of individuals with high levels of chronic distress. Open and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated preliminary support for the utility of ERT as reflected by strong effect sizes comparable to and exceeding established intervention approaches. In addition, pilot findings support the role of underlying proposed mechanisms in this efficacious response. This article presents the functional model associated with ERT and describes the proposed mechanisms of the treatment. Additionally, a clinical case is presented, allowing the reader to gain a greater applied understanding of the different components of the ERT model and treatment. PMID:28220089

  6. Neural correlates of emotion acceptance vs worry or suppression in generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, David H.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent emotion dysregulation models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) propose chronic worry in GAD functions as a maladaptive attempt to regulate anxiety related to uncertain or unpredictable outcomes. Emotion acceptance is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy increasingly incorporated into newer cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches to GAD to counter chronic worry. The current study explores the mechanisms of emotion acceptance as an alternate emotion regulation strategy to worry or emotion suppression using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one female participants diagnosed with GAD followed counterbalanced instructions to regulate responses to personally relevant worry statements by engaging in either emotion acceptance, worry or emotion suppression. Emotion acceptance resulted in lower ratings of distress than worry and was associated with increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation and increased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)-amygdala functional connectivity. In contrast, worry showed significantly greater distress ratings than acceptance or suppression and was associated with increased precuneus, VLPFC, amygdala and hippocampal activation. Suppression did not significantly differ from acceptance in distress ratings or amygdala recruitment, but resulted in significantly greater insula and VLPFC activation and decreased VLPFC-amygdala functional connectivity. Emotion acceptance closely aligned with activation and connectivity patterns reported in studies of contextual extinction learning and mindful awareness. PMID:28402571

  7. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness.

  8. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: Spillover effects on positive and negative social events

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributes to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  9. Preventing Adolescent Drug Involvement, School Dropout and Emotional Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Leona L.; And Others

    Investigating the possibility of designing effective intervention programs for at-risk students, this study used simultaneous methods in a classroom setting for working with drug use problems, poor attendance, and emotional distress. The study was a two-group, repeated measures, clinical trial which was presented to high risk students as a…

  10. Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Patients' responses to a distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not associated with chemotherapy administration. Results supported hypothesis that pairing a distinctive stimulus with chemotherapy would…

  11. The Assessment of Emotional Distress in Personal Injury Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent Roderick

    This document asserts that civil litigation of personal injury claims involving emotional distress is commonplace in American society today. It recognizes that expert witness testimony often plays a key role in the rewarding or denial of damages in such claims and that the psychologist's role as an expert witness in such matters entails unique…

  12. Emotional Distress among Vietnamese Adolescents: A Statewide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charron, Donold W.; Ness, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study designed to provide baseline data for longitudinal research of emotional distress, social adjustment, and academic progress among Vietnamese adolescents in Connecticut. Examined sex differences, relationships with American classmates and with parents, English proficiency, acquisition of American cultural traits, and educational…

  13. Loss and the Experience of Emotional Distress in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate loss and the experience of emotional distress through a series of three studies. In Study 1, results indicated that when controlling for the total number of traumas experienced, children with loss traumas did not differ significantly from children with other types of traumas in terms of the level of…

  14. Functioning of Neural Systems Supporting Emotion Regulation in Anxiety-Prone Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Simmons, Alan N.; Lovero, Kathryn L.; Rochlin, Alexis A.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) modulation of the amygdala and related limbic structures is an underlying neural substrate of effortful emotion regulation. Anxiety-prone individuals experience excessive negative emotions, signaling potential dysfunction of systems supporting down-regulation of negative emotions. We examined the hypothesis that anxious individuals require increased recruitment of lateral and medial PFC to decrease negative emotions. An emotion regulation task that involved viewing moderately negative images was presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants with elevated trait anxiety scores (n = 13) and normal trait anxiety scores (n = 13) were trained to reduce negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes were contrasted for periods when participants were reducing emotions versus when they were maintaining emotions. Compared to healthy controls, anxious participants showed greater activation of brain regions implicated in effortful (lateral PFC) and automatic (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex) control of emotions during down-regulation of negative emotions. Left ventrolateral PFC activity was associated with greater self-reported reduction of distress in anxious participants, but not in healthy controls. These findings provide evidence of altered functioning of neural substrates of emotion regulation in anxiety-prone individuals. Anxious participants required greater engagement of lateral and medial PFC in order to successfully reduce negative emotions. PMID:20673804

  15. Perceived stress in first year medical students - associations with personal resources and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Ines; Bullinger, Monika; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela

    2017-01-06

    Medical students have been found to report high levels of perceived stress, yet there is a lack of theoretical frameworks examining possible reasons. This cross-sectional study examines correlates of perceived stress in medical students on the basis of a conceptual stress model originally developed for and applied to the general population. The aim was to identify via structural equation modeling the associations between perceived stress and emotional distress (anxiety and depression), taking into account the activation of personal resources (optimism, self-efficacy and resilient coping). Within this cross-sectional study, 321 first year medical students (age 22 ± 4 years, 39.3% men) completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20), the Self-Efficacy Optimism Scale (SWOP) and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). The statistical analyses used t-tests, ANOVA, Spearman Rho correlation and multiple regression analysis as well as structural equation modeling. Medical students reported higher levels of perceived stress and higher levels of anxiety and depression than reference samples. No statistically significant differences in stress levels were found within the sample according to gender, migration background or employment status. Students reported more self-efficacy, optimism, and resilient coping and higher emotional distress compared to validation samples and results in other studies. Structural equation analysis revealed a satisfactory fit between empirical data and the proposed stress model indicating that personal resources modulated perceived stress, which in turn had an impact on emotional distress. Medical students' perceived stress and emotional distress levels are generally high, with personal resources acting as a buffer, thus supporting the population-based general stress model. Results suggest providing individual interventions for those students, who need support in dealing with the

  16. Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or mistakes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema

    2017-03-01

    Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion appraisal and anxiety symptomatology in a university sample.

    PubMed

    Smith, Angela H; Norton, Peter J; Wetterneck, Chad T

    2014-01-01

    Current conceptualizations for anxiety disorders focus heavily on cognitive and behavioral aspects of anxiety and address other emotions to a far lesser extent. Studies have demonstrated that negative appraisals of anxiety and fear (e.g., anxiety sensitivity) are elevated in each of the anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. Much less is known about how the appraisal of other emotions is related to anxiety disorder symptom presentation. The current study examines the appraisal of specific aversive emotions in relation to anxiety symptomatology. Undergraduate university students (N = 530) completed measures of specific anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as a measure of emotional appraisal. A maximum likelihood estimated multivariate regression model was used to examine the unique relationships between emotional appraisal and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms varied in their relationships with emotional appraisal. Each symptom group was highly related to fear of appraisals of anxiety; however, some anxiety symptoms were also related to fear of other emotional states, including guilt, sadness, disgust, lust, and embarrassment. Understanding the full range of appraisals of emotional experiences in anxiety conditions may help inform conceptualizations, and potentially treatments, by guiding the focus to the feared emotional states of the individual. The present study helps to clarify some of the relationships between emotion appraisal and anxiety symptoms.

  18. The chronology of distress, anxiety, and depression in older prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian J.; Weinberger, Mark I.; Balk, Eliana; Holland, Jimmie; Breitbart, William; Roth, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current research suggests that older cancer patients report less distress compared to younger cancer patients. However, this research has generally not teased apart the differences between general distress, anxiety, and depression. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of merged datasets using cross-sectional data on 736 men with prostate cancer (Mean Age 68±10 years of age, range 50 to 93). Approximately half the participants were recruited from doctors’ offices throughout the United States and the other half from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY). Participants were asked to complete the Distress Thermometer, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the FACT-P Quality of Life questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results Aging was related to reduced distress (r=−0.14), less anxiety (r=−0.22), and increased emotional quality of life (r= 0.16). In contrast, aging was associated with greater depressive symptoms in these cancer patients (r= 0.18). The mean depression scores of 5-year cohorts consistently trended upward. The significant association between age and depression remained after controlling for stage of disease, hormone therapy use, time since diagnosis, and social, physical and functional well-being. Conclusions Despite theoretical and empirical evidence that older cancer patients may cope more effectively than younger cancer patients, depressive symptoms remain an important concern for aging cancer patients and greater attention to this area is warranted. The increase in depression is in contrast to some findings in the general aging literature, raising the possibility that this trend is unique to older cancer patients. PMID:19738000

  19. Quality of life and emotional distress among HIV-positive women during transition to motherhood.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) and emotional distress during pregnancy and early postpartum, and to examine the ability of psychopathological symptoms to predict QOL at early postpartum. A sample of 75 pregnant women (31 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative) was assessed during the second trimester of pregnancy and two to four days postpartum. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-Bref. The emotional distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory, and with the Emotional Assessment Scale. Seropositive women reported increased negative emotional reactivity and lower scores in social relationships and overall QOL during pregnancy than HIV-negative women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women reported better QOL after the birth of their child, when compared with the pregnancy period. Among HIV-positive women, lower anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were, respectively, significant predictors of better psychological QOL and overall QOL at early postpartum. Less intense somatic symptoms predicted better physical QOL. Longitudinal assessment of QOL and emotional status may provide potentially useful information for tailoring psychological interventions in the maternity care of HIV-infected women, during their transition to motherhood.

  20. The Role of Distress Tolerance in the Use of Specific Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Emily R; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Avallone, Kimberly M; Fleming, John B

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the role of distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to tolerate negative emotional states, in the use of four specific emotion regulation strategies (suppression, avoidance, rumination, and reappraisal). Undergraduate psychology students (N = 431, 71.7% female; Mage = 19.80 years, SD= 3.71) completed self-report measures online for course credit. It was hypothesized that, after controlling for the effects of anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity, DT would be negatively associated with suppression, avoidance, and rumination, and positively associated with reappraisal. Consistent with prediction, low DT significantly predicted greater use of suppression, avoidance, and rumination. However, contrary to prediction, DT did not significantly predict reappraisal. These results suggest that individuals who are unable to withstand negative emotions are more likely to use maladaptive regulation strategies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Mazefsky, Carla A

    2015-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences in ASD. Important concepts for future research are discussed, including how to conceptualize emotion dysregulation in ASD, the importance of capturing variability in emotion dysregulation in ASD studies, and the promise of intervention approaches that target ER impairments. This special issue highlights the growing emphasis on ER and emotional distress in ASD, and aims to encourage continued research in this area given the potential for this line of inquiry to lead to improved outcomes.

  2. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: moderating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L

    2014-07-01

    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Emotional distress and disordered eating practices among southern Italian women.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M

    2012-09-01

    This study is one of the first to examine the narrative links connecting social change, contested gender norms, body image, and eating disordered practices among southern Italian women. The research is based on 16 months of fieldwork, and I compare and contrast the stories of 23 educated women in southern Italy to highlight the contentious realities of entering adolescence in conservative social contexts where gender relations and value systems are undergoing rapid transformations. I examine how these young women dealt with conflicting cultural expectations of womanhood and whether it affected their emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Their stories shed light on how parental control, community surveillance, and conflicts in developing gender identities and maturing womanly bodies contributed to their emotional distress. Distressed young women used rebellion and manipulation and control of food and the body to negotiate unjust social relations, specifically gender relations, that delegitimized their selves and, in some cases, their bodies.

  4. Anxiety, depression and emotional profile in renal transplant recipients and healthy subjects: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pascazio, L; Nardone, I B; Clarici, A; Enzmann, G; Grignetti, M; Panzetta, G O; Vecchiet, C

    2010-11-01

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease. However, recipients have been shown to develop emotional distress and affective disorders, such as anxiety and depression, associated with a compromised quality of life. Some accounts report an improvement of affective disorders after transplantation, others draw opposite conclusion. The present cross-sectional study selected 42 transplant recipients and 42 control subjects matched for gender, age, educational background, and marital status. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and general emotional profiles were compared using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS), a self-report inventory that evaluates 6 neurally based affective tendencies: seeking, caring, and playfulness (positive affects) and fear, anger, and sadness (negative affects). No significant differences were observed between transplanted patients and controls in scores for anxiety and depression, as evaluated with Zung and BDI scales. However, transplanted patients scored significantly lower than control subjects in fear and anger scales and in general negative emotions. Transplant recipients did not display any symptom of anxiety or depression, however, a significant reduction in negative affect, evaluated through the ANPS scale revealed psychological distress. These findings suggest that affective profile in transplanted patients should be more extensively examined to review all facets in their mental and emotional assessment, especially regarding the role played by this emotional pattern in complying with medical treatment, which is well known to be a clinically critical feature of these patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alexithymia and emotional distress in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Rupert; Weber, Nina Friederike; Lehnert, Matthias; Holz, Frank Gerhard; Liedtke, Reinhard; Eter, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied 31 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) as compared with 31 age- and gender-matched control subjects, assessing emotional distress (ED), nine psychopathological symptoms, critical life events, and alexithymia. Results showed no difference in the number of critical life events; however CSC patients showed elevated ED and elevated scores on seven psychopathological symptoms, including hostility. Controlling for ED, CSC patients showed elevated alexithymia sum scores. Alexithymia was correlated with hostility. Our findings point to personality-based difficulties in emotional regulation associated with hostility in CSC.

  6. Anxiety, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking: A Transdiagnostic Vulnerability Framework to Understanding Emotion-Smoking Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression’s manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This paper presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities—core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology—link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on three trandiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (1) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards); (2) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations); and (3) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively: (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies; (b) amplify smoking’s anticipated and actual affect enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking; (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse); and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model’s key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking’s anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking’s anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking’s distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this

  7. Anxiety, depression, and cigarette smoking: a transdiagnostic vulnerability framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression's manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This article presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities-core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology-link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on 3 transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (a) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards), (b) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations), and (c) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies, (b) amplify smoking's anticipated and actual affect-enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking, (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse), and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model's key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking's anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking's anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking's distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this framework that may

  8. Emotional distress and pain tolerance in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Dianne M; Riemann, Bradley C; McNally, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Physical pain can reduce emotional distress, perhaps especially the psychic pain of guilt. This implies that people who continually experience guilt may exhibit greater tolerance for pain relative to people who do not. To test this hypothesis, we administered a pressure algometer procedure to assess pain tolerance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) plagued by moral obsessions (e.g., concerns about harming others, violating religious values), in patients with OCD with non-moral obsessions (e.g., regarding contamination and symmetry), and in healthy comparison subjects. The results indicated that the OCD groups did not differ in levels of guilt, emotional distress tolerance, or in pain endurance. However, when we collapsed across subtypes, OCD subjects endured pain significantly longer than did healthy subjects. Limitations included small sample size and use of a sample with complex OCD symptoms that were, in some instances, difficult to categorize. The results suggest that individuals with severe OCD might be willing to endure physical pain as a distraction from emotional distress, an expression of negative self-worth, or as a means to gain control over some aspect of suffering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  10. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  11. 'You feel like your whole world is caving in': A qualitative study of primary care patients' conceptualisations of emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Adam Wa; Santer, Miriam; Williams, Samantha; Mc Sharry, Jennifer; Little, Paul; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Kendrick, Tony; Moore, Michael

    2017-05-01

    General practitioners are tasked with determining the nature of patients' emotional distress and providing appropriate care. For patients whose symptoms appear to fall near the 'boundaries' of psychiatric disorder, this can be difficult with important implications for treatment. There is a lack of qualitative research among patients with symptoms severe enough to warrant consultation, but where general practitioners have refrained from diagnosis. We aimed to explore how patients in this potentially large group conceptualise their symptoms and consequently investigate lay understandings of complex distinctions between emotional distress and psychiatric disorder. Interviews were conducted with 20 primary care patients whom general practitioners had identified as experiencing emotional distress, but had not diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants described severe emotional experiences with substantial impact on their lives. The term 'depression' was used in many different ways; however, despite severity, they often considered their emotional experience to be different to their perceived notions of 'actual' depression or mental illness. Where anxiety was mentioned, use appeared to refer to an underlying generalised state. Participants drew on complex, sometimes fluid and often theoretically coherent conceptualisations of their emotional distress, as related to, but distinct from, mental disorder. These conceptualisations differ from those frequently drawn on in research and treatment guidelines, compounding the difficulty for general practitioners. Developing models of psychological symptoms that draw on patient experience and integrate psychological/psychiatric theory may help patients understand the nature of their experience and, critically, provide the basis for a broader range of primary care interventions.

  12. Familial Risk for Distress and Fear Disorders and Emotional Reactivity in Adolescence: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brady D.; Perlman, Greg; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.; Kotov, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential component that is sensitive to the motivational salience of stimuli. Children with a parental history of depression, an indicator of risk, have been found to exhibit an attenuated LPP to emotional stimuli. Research on depressive and anxiety disorders has organized these conditions into two empirical classes: distress and fear disorders. The present study examined whether parental history of distress and fear disorders was associated with the LPP to emotional stimuli in a large sample of adolescent girls. Methods The sample of 550 girls (ages 13.5–15.5) with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Parental lifetime history of psychopathology was determined via semi-structured diagnostic interview with a biological parent, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to model distress and fear dimensions. Results Parental distress risk was associated with an attenuated LPP to all stimuli. In contrast, parental fear risk was associated with an enhanced LPP to unpleasant pictures but was unrelated to the LPP to neutral and pleasant pictures. Furthermore, these results were independent of the adolescent girls’ current depression and anxiety symptoms and pubertal status. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that familial risk for distress and fear disorders may have unique profiles in terms of electrocortical measures of emotional information processing. This study is also one of the first to investigate emotional/motivational processes underlying the distress and fear disorder dimensions. PMID:25851615

  13. Emotion Regulation Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Mennin, Douglas S; Heimberg, Richard G; Ritter, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of "William." In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach.

  14. Emotion Regulation Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Ritter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of “William.” In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach. PMID:27499606

  15. The Relationship between Death-Anxiety and Mental Health/Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William; Handal, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between death anxiety and mental health/distress using two measures of death anxiety. Results revealed high death-anxious females were statistically and clinically more distressed and significantly less satisfied with life than low death-anxious females. Found similar results for males on one measure and similar trend on…

  16. The Relationship between Death-Anxiety and Mental Health/Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William; Handal, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between death anxiety and mental health/distress using two measures of death anxiety. Results revealed high death-anxious females were statistically and clinically more distressed and significantly less satisfied with life than low death-anxious females. Found similar results for males on one measure and similar trend on…

  17. Care givers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization as predictors of identical symptoms in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, Gadiraju; Vanlalhruaii, Chhakchhuak; Rana, Suvashisa; Nandinee, Durgesh; Hariharan, Meena

    2016-01-01

    The critical condition of the cancer patient and the stringent medical procedures do not often warrant the accessibility of the patient for psychological evaluation. Therefore, the study is conceptualized to assess the psychological problems of caregivers, which in turn have their impact upon cancer patients. The objective of the study was to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization in cancer patients and their caregivers along with age, gender, and relationship; and to measure whether these psychological problems of caregivers were predictors of the identical symptoms of the cancer patients. Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire was used to measure depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization of cancer patients and their caregivers. The sample had 200 participants, with 100 patients (male = 47 and female = 53) and 100 caregivers. (male = 36 and female = 64) selected by purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, product.moment correlations, simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Significant correlations were found between cancer patients' depression and anxiety, and caregivers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization; patients' distress and somatization, and caregivers' anxiety and age, respectively. It was also found that anxiety was a significant predictor of distress in patients, and that caregivers' depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization significantly predicted depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The association between depression, anxiety, distress, and somatization of caregivers and patients indicates the need for psychological interventions to manage these problems of caregivers, which would in turn help managing the identical symptoms in patients.

  18. Urban teens: Trauma, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ickovics, Jeannette R; Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2006-10-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of posttraumatic growth, and (c) prospectively examine effects of event type and posttraumatic growth on short- and long-term emotional distress with controls for pre-event distress. Results indicate that type of event was related to profiles of posttraumatic growth, but not with subsequent emotional distress. When baseline emotional distress was controlled, posttraumatic growth was associated with subsequent reductions in short- and long-term emotional distress. Implications for future research and clinical practice with adolescents are addressed. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can the Distress Thermometer be improved by additional mood domains? Part I. Initial validation of the Emotion Thermometers tool.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alex J; Baker-Glenn, Elena A; Granger, Lorraine; Symonds, Paul

    2010-02-01

    To examine the value of a new screening instrument in a visual-analogue format. We report the design and validation of a new five-dimensional tool called the Emotion Thermometers (ET). This is a combination of five visual-analogue scales in the form of four predictor domains (distress, anxiety, depression, anger) and one outcome domain (need for help). Between March and August 2007, 130 patients attending the chemotherapy suite for their first chemotherapy treatment were asked to complete several questionnaires with validation for distress, anxiety and depression. Of 81 with low distress on the Distress Thermometer (DT), 51% recorded emotional difficulties on the new ET tool, suggesting added value beyond the DT alone. Of those with a broadly defined emotional complication, 93.3% could be identified using the Anxiety Thermometer (AnxT) alone, compared with 54.4% who would be recognized using the DT alone. Using a cut-off of 3v4 on all thermometers against the total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score (cut-off 14v15), the optimal thermometer was the Anger Thermometer (sensitivity 61%, specificity 92%). Against HADS anxiety scale, the optimal thermometer was AnxT (sensitivity 92%, specificity 61%) and against the HADS depression scale, the optimal thermometer was the Depression Thermometer (DepT; sensitivity 60%, specificity 78%). Finally, against DSM-IV major depression, the optimal thermometer was the DepT (sensitivity 80%, specificity 79%). Further improvements may be possible by using a combination of thermometers or by repeating the screen. The diagnostic accuracy of the DT can be improved by the inclusion of simple addition linear domains without substantially increasing the time needed to apply the test.

  1. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  2. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  3. Physical Distress, Emotional Status, and Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Cancer Complicated by Post-Radiotherapy Endocrinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, B.-H.; Huang, T.-S.; Chen, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To explore factors affecting quality of life (QOL) among patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) complicated by post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical center and involved a total of 43 post-radiotherapy, recurrence-free NPC patients with endocrinopathy. They performed self-assessment of their emotional status using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II, and their QoL with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire and the H and N35 cancer module. Results: Emotional and cognitive functioning of EORTC QLQ-C30 were the most affected. Fatigue, insomnia, and pain were the main concerns. Of the patients, 22 (51.2%) had anxiety and 19 (44.2%) had depression. Both depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with functional scales and global QoL but positively correlated with symptom scales. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that physical distress symptoms of QLQ-C30 and physical functioning were the significant predictors of global QoL. Emotional and social functioning could predict depression, whereas emotional and physical functioning were significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusions: NPC patients with post-radiotherapy endocrinopathy exhibit impaired cognitive function and negative emotions. Symptoms of physical distress play an important role in QoL perception. Measurement of EORTC QLQ-C30 can be a useful instrument for the early detection of patients' impaired cognitive function and psychological morbidity. The high psychological distress related to the endocrine disturbances or the impact of NPC itself needs further study.

  4. Can the Distress Thermometer be improved by additional mood domains? Part II. What is the optimal combination of Emotion Thermometers?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alex J; Baker-Glenn, Elena A; Park, Bert; Granger, Lorraine; Symonds, Paul

    2010-02-01

    To examine the added value of an algorithmic combination of visual-analogue thermometers compared with the Distress Thermometer (DT) when attempting to detect depression, anxiety or distress in early cancer. We report Classification and Regression Tree and logistic regression analyses of the new five-domain Emotion Thermometers tool. This is a combination of five visual-analogue scales in the form of four mood domains (distress, anxiety, depression, anger) as well as need for help. 130 patients attending for their first chemotherapy treatment were assessed. We calculated optimal accuracy for each domain alone and in combination against several criterion standards. When attempting to diagnose depression the Depression Thermometer (DepT) used alone was the optimal approach, but when attempting to detect broadly defined distress or anxiety then a combination of thermometers was most accurate. The DepT was significantly more accurate in detecting depression than the DT. For broadly defined distress a combination of depression, anger and help thermometers was more accurate than the DT alone. For anxiety, while the anxiety thermometer (AnxT) improves upon the DT alone, a combination of the DepT and AnxT are optimal. In each case the optimal strategy allowed the detection of at least an additional 9% of individuals. However, combinations are more laborious to score. In settings where the simplest possible option is preferred the most accurate single thermometer might be preferable as a first stage assessment. The DT can be improved by specific combinations of simple thermometers that incorporate depression, anxiety, anger and help.

  5. Brief report: Emotional distress and recent stressful life events in long QT syndrome mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Määttänen, Ilmari; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Swan, Heikki; Toivonen, Lauri; Merjonen, Päivi; Hintsa, Taina

    2015-11-01

    To study emotional distress in symptomatic and asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who had experienced a recent stressful life event. The participants were 209 symptomatic and 279 asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Emotional distress was assessed with the Cope questionnaire and stressful life events with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers with burdening recent stressful life events reported a higher emotional distress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001), while the asymptomatic did not show such difference (β = 0.13, p = 0.393). Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who have experienced stressful life events recently report an increased emotional distress.

  6. Dimensions of emotionality in a rat model of innate anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ohl, F; Toschi, N; Wigger, A; Henniger, M S; Landgraf, R

    2001-04-01

    Emotionality is thought to be multidimensional, with "anxiety" representing one dimension. Dissecting emotional dimensions in animal models is an essential prerequisite for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie anxiety. The authors used factor analysis to investigate emotional dimensions in normal rats and rats bred for either high or low anxiety-related behavior. Hyperanxious rats were reduced in emotional dimensions in the elevated plus-maze by selection pressure, and a modified hole board test revealed a dissection of their emotionality with precisely defined dimensions. This enabled clear differentiation of "anxiety" from other emotional dimensions including risk assessment behavior and exploration. Factors extracted by analyzing data from a multiple-test battery corresponded to particular test characteristics rather than to emotional dimensions. The approach used might help to develop specific treatment strategies for anxiety disorders.

  7. Cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Euler, Felix; Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior has been linked to deficient processing of emotional stimulation and recent studies indicate that in aggressive juveniles executive functions are impaired when distressing emotional stimulation is being processed. This study examines the interrelation of distressing emotional stimulation and cognitive control in aggressive adolescents and healthy controls. We combined a color-word Stroop test with pictures from the International Affective Picture System with either neutral or distressing emotional content to assess Stroop interference under neutral and distressing emotional stimulation in 20 male reactive aggressive patients with conduct disorder (CD) and 20 age-matched male control participants. We found impaired Stroop performance under distressing emotional stimulation in patients compared to healthy controls. No difference was present under neutral emotional stimulation. Our results indicate that cognitive control under distressing emotional stimulation was affected in adolescents with CD but not in healthy controls. We conclude that executive functions in reactive aggressive CD patients are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of distressing emotional stimulation. The results provide a possible explanation for pathologic impulsive-aggressive behavior under emotional distress in CD patients.

  8. Individual Differences in Infants' Emotional Resonance to a Peer in Distress: Self-Other Awareness and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geangu, Elena; Benga, Oana; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, relations between emotional resonance responses to another's distress, emotion regulation, and self-other discrimination were investigated in infants three-, six-, and nine-months-old. We measured the emotional reactions to the pain cry of a peer, along with the ability to regulate emotions and to discriminate between self and other…

  9. Perceived distress and its association with depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chong Guan; Mohamed, Salina; Kaur, Kiran; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients often experience a high level of distress. Psychological distress is a broad construct encompass both depression and anxiety. Previous studies in examining which of these psychological symptoms (either anxiety or depression) were more significantly associated with the distress level in breast cancer patients is lacking. This study aims to compare the level of depression and anxiety between patients with different level of distress. The correlation between the changes in distress level with depression or anxiety over 12 months was also examined. Methods This study is from the MyBCC cohort study. Two hundred and twenty one female breast cancer patients were included into the study. They were assessed at the time of diagnosis, 6 months and 12 month using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and distress thermometer. The information on age, ethnicity, treatment types and staging of cancer were collected. Results 50.2%, 51.6% and 40.3% of patients had perceived high level of distress at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after diagnosis. Those with high perceived level of distress had significant higher anxiety scores even after adjusted for the underlying depressive scores (Adjusted OR at baseline = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13–1.44; adjusted OR at 6 months = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11–1.45; adjusted OR at 12 months = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.29–1.76). There were no significant differences in the depressive scores between the subjects with either low or high distress level. There was reduction in perceived level of distress, anxiety and depression scores at 12 months after the diagnosis. The decrease of distress was positively correlated with the reduction of anxiety scores but not the changes of depressive scores (r’ = 0.25). Conclusion Anxiety is a more significant psychological state that contributed to the feeling of distress in breast cancer as compared with depression. Levels of anxiety at diagnosis in this study would justify screening for

  10. Preliminary research on plasma oxytocin in normal cycling women: investigating emotion and interpersonal distress.

    PubMed

    Turner, R A; Altemus, M; Enos, T; Cooper, B; McGuinness, T

    1999-01-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin is responsible for initiating childbirth and the let-down reflex in lactating women and is released during sexual orgasm. Oxytocin has been thought of as an affiliation hormone because research on nonhuman mammals has demonstrated that it plays a key role in the initiation of maternal behavior and the formation of adult pair bonds. It has been speculated that social stimuli may induce oxytocin release and that oxytocin may make positive social contact more rewarding. Data are presented from an initial study to examine change in plasma oxytocin in response to a standard imagery task that elicits emotion related to attachment. Twenty-five normal cycling, healthy women underwent imagery tasks and completed questionnaires on attachment and interpersonal problems. Blood draws (5 ml) were bone via an indwelling catheter before, during, and after three interventions (massage, positive emotion, and negative emotion) and to establish baselines. Overall, the data showed a tendency for oxytocin levels to be elevated in response to relaxation massage and decreased in response to sad emotion. There were individual differences in response to the interventions. Those who showed evidence of increased oxytocin levels for positive emotion and massage and who maintained oxytocin levels during negative emotion were less likely to report interpersonal problems associated with intrusiveness. Maintaining oxytocin levels during sadness was also correlated with lower anxiety in close relationships. Women who were in a couple relationship had greater increases in oxytocin in response to positive emotion. In contrast, higher basal levels of oxytocin were associated with greater interpersonal distress. These data suggest that peripheral secretion of oxytocin in response to emotional stimuli is associated with the individual's interpersonal characteristics.

  11. Adolescents', Mothers', and Fathers' Perspectives of Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Distress, Control, and Motivation to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhig, Amy M.; Phares, Vicky

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing a clinical sample, this study examined relations between adolescents' subjective distress over their emotional/behavioral problems, their perceptions of parental distress over these problems, and parents' reports of their own distress over their adolescents' behaviors. Additionally, adolescents' perceived control over these behaviors was…

  12. Moderating effects of empathic concern and personal distress on the emotional reactions of disaster volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Legge, Emanuele; Prosperi, Marta; Guazzelli, Mario; David, Daniel; Gentili, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    This study examines stress and mood outcomes in community volunteers who undertook one week's worth of post-disaster relief work in L'Aquila, Italy, which had been hit by an earthquake four months earlier. The study team obtained pre- and post-relief work data from 130 volunteers involved in activities such as preparing food for the displaced, cleaning the camps and distributing clean linen. The Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States were administered at the start and at the end of the aid activities. Psychopathological symptoms and empathy were assessed in the beginning, using the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, respectively. The results show that, following the assistance work, volunteers displayed decreases in perceived stress, general distress, anxiety and anger, as well as increases in positive emotions. The empathy facets empathic concern and personal distress showed different patterns in modulating the post-disaster relief work adaptation for some of the mood outcomes.

  13. Mother’s affection at 8 months predicts emotional distress in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maselko, J; Kubzansky, L; Lipsitt, L; Buka, S L

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-standing theory suggests that quality of the mother’s (or primary caregiver’s) interaction with a child is a key determinant of the child’s subsequent resilience or vulnerability and has implications for health in adulthood. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal data with both objective assessments of nurturing behaviour during infancy and sustained follow-up ascertaining the quality of adult functioning. Methods We used data from the Providence, Rhode Island birth cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (mean age 34 at follow-up, final N=482) to conduct a prospective study of the association between objectively measured affective quality of the mother–infant interaction and adult mental health. Infant–mother interaction quality was rated by an observer when infants were 8 months old, and adult emotional functioning was assessed from the Symptom Checklist-90, capturing both specific and general types of distress. Results High levels of maternal affection at 8 months were associated with significantly lower levels of distress in adult offspring (1/2 standard deviation; b=−4.76, se=1.7, p<0.01). The strongest association was with the anxiety subscale. Mother’s affection did not seem to be on the pathway between lower parental SES and offspring distress. Conclusion These findings suggest that early nurturing and warmth have long-lasting positive effects on mental health well into adulthood. PMID:20660942

  14. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L; Starcevic, Vladan; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony; Dale, Erin; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2016-01-01

    Emotional reasoning refers to the use of subjective emotions, rather than objective evidence, to form conclusions about oneself and the world. It is a key interpretative bias in cognitive models of anxiety disorders and appears to be especially evident in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, the amenability of emotional reasoning to change during treatment has not yet been investigated. We sought to determine whether emotional reasoning tendencies change during a course of routine cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Emotional reasoning tendencies were assessed in 36 individuals with a primary anxiety disorder who were seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic. Changes in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as emotional reasoning tendencies after 12 sessions of CBT were examined in 25 individuals for whom there was complete data. Emotional reasoning tendencies were evident at pretreatment assessment. Although anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased during CBT, only one of six emotional reasoning interpretative styles (pertaining to conclusions that one is incompetent) changed significantly during the course of therapy. Attrition rates were high and there was not enough information regarding the extent to which therapy specifically focused on addressing emotional reasoning tendencies. Individuals seeking treatment for anxiety disorders appear to engage in emotional reasoning, however routine individual CBT does not appear to result in changes in emotional reasoning tendencies.

  15. Anxiety, emotional processing and depression in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gay, Marie-Claire; Bungener, Catherine; Thomas, Sarah; Vrignaud, Pierre; Thomas, Peter W; Baker, Roger; Montel, Sébastien; Heinzlef, Olivier; Papeix, Caroline; Assouad, Rana; Montreuil, Michèle

    2017-02-23

    Despite the high comorbidity of anxiety and depression in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about their inter-relationships. Both involve emotional perturbations and the way in which emotions are processed is likely central to both. The aim of the current study was to explore relationships between the domains of mood, emotional processing and coping and to analyse how anxiety affects coping, emotional processing, emotional balance and depression in people with MS. A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 189 people with MS with a confirmed diagnosis of MS recruited from three French hospitals. Study participants completed a battery of questionnaires encompassing the following domains: i. anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)); ii. emotional processing (Emotional Processing Scale (EPS-25)); iii. positive and negative emotions (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale (EPN-31)); iv. alexithymia (Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire) and v. coping (Coping with Health Injuries and Problems-Neuro (CHIP-Neuro) questionnaire. Relationships between these domains were explored using path analysis. Anxiety was a strong predictor of depression, in both a direct and indirect way, and our model explained 48% of the variance of depression. Gender and functional status (measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale) played a modest role. Non-depressed people with MS reported high levels of negative emotions and low levels of positive emotions. Anxiety also had an indirect impact on depression via one of the subscales of the Emotional Processing Scale ("Unregulated Emotion") and via negative emotions (EPN-31). This research confirms that anxiety is a vulnerability factor for depression via both direct and indirect pathways. Anxiety symptoms should therefore be assessed systematically and treated in order to lessen the likelihood of depression symptoms.

  16. Emotional Distress among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian.…

  17. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Emotional Distress among Pregnant Women in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…

  18. Emotional Distress among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian.…

  19. The Association of Age, Sense of Control, Optimism, and Self-Esteem with Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, M. Guadalupe; Montorio, Ignacio; Izal, María

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a model of emotional distress, which incorporates the potential mediator role of positive resources (sense of control, self-esteem, and optimism) in the association of age with emotional distress. The study used a cross-sectional design with intentional sampling and the voluntary participation of 325 adults…

  20. Adolescent Emotional Distress: The Role of Family Obligations and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Zhang, Qionghui; Nuno, Velia Leybas; Wilhelm, Mari S.

    2011-01-01

    The current study draws upon ecodevelopmental theory to identify protective and risk factors that may influence emotional distress during adolescence. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the relationship among family obligations, school connectedness and emotional distress of 4,198 (51% female) middle and high school students who…

  1. Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and Emotional Distress among Pregnant Women in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…

  2. Prevalence, Course, and Predictors of Emotional Distress in Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Meade, Christina; Ethier, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines trajectories and correlates of emotional distress symptoms in pregnant adolescents (n = 203) and nulliparous adolescents (n = 188) from economically disadvantaged communities over an 18-month period. For both groups, the prevalence of significant emotional distress exceeded expectation based on adolescent norms; however, the…

  3. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Screening for Emotional Distress in Refugees: The Refugee Health Screener.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, Michael; Toolson, Eric C; Verbillis-Kolp, Sasha; Farmer, Beth; Yamazaki, Junko; Woldehaimanot, Tsegaba; Holland, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Screening for emotional distress is important, but not widely available. This study assesses the utility of the Refugee Health Screener 15 (RHS-15) in a public health setting. Refugee Health Screener 15 and diagnostic proxy (DP) instruments assessing anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were administered to refugees from 3 countries at their public health examination. Properties of the RHS-15 and its components were evaluated utilizing appropriate methods. Scale Cronbach α was 0.95, and a factor analysis identified 1 factor accounting for 66% of scale variance. Refugee Health Screener 15 scores and cases discriminated between refugee groups similar to DPs. Refugee Health Screener 15 case sensitivity and specificity to DPs were acceptable (≥0.87/0.77). A shorter, 13-item component had acceptable metric properties. The RHS-15 appears to be a valid screener for emotional distress of refugees. The 13-item scale may be more efficient and as efficacious for case identification. The critical public health need and recommendations for implementation are discussed.

  5. Parental response to children's pain: the moderating impact of children's emotional distress on symptoms and disability.

    PubMed

    Claar, Robyn Lewis; Simons, Laura E; Logan, Deirdre E

    2008-08-15

    Parental responses play a central role in the development and maintenance of children's pain behavior. Previous studies examining the impact of parental responses on children's pain have focused mainly on protective or solicitous responses. This study examined the impact of parental responses, including protectiveness, minimization of pain, and encouraging and monitoring responses, on children's functional disability and somatic symptoms. Participants included 327 patients with chronic pain, ages 8-17, who completed measures of pain, disability, somatic symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Patients' parents completed a measure assessing parental responses to their children's pain. Results show that for children with higher levels of emotional distress, maladaptive parental responses to pain (e.g., criticism, discounting of pain, increased attention to pain, and granting of special privileges) were associated with increased disability and somatic symptoms. Results of this study demonstrate the important ways in which parents can influence how their children cope with and manage chronic pain. Children whose parents are overly protective or critical of their pain may experience more impairment or somatic symptoms, particularly those children who are already at risk for difficulties due to higher levels of emotional distress.

  6. The Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention on Emotional Distress, Quality of Life, and HbA1c in Outpatients With Diabetes (DiaMind)

    PubMed Central

    van Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J.; Blonk, Marion C.; Erdtsieck, Ronald J.; Spooren, Pieter F.; Toorians, Arno W.; Pouwer, François

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Emotional distress is common in outpatients with diabetes, affecting ∼20–40% of the patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of group therapy with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), relative to usual care, for patients with diabetes with regard to reducing emotional distress and improving health-related quality of life and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the present randomized controlled trial, 139 outpatients with diabetes (type 1 or type 2) and low levels of emotional well-being were randomized to MBCT (n = 70) or a waiting list group (n = 69). Primary outcomes were perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), mood (Profiles of Mood States), and diabetes-specific distress (Problem Areas In Diabetes). Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (12-Item Short-Form Health Survey), and glycemic control (HbA1c). Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS Compared with control, MBCT was more effective in reducing stress (P < 0.001, Cohen d = 0.70), depressive symptoms (P = 0.006, d = 0.59), and anxiety (P = 0.019, d = 0.44). In addition, MBCT was more effective in improving quality of life (mental: P = 0.003, d = 0.55; physical: P = 0.032, d = 0.40). We found no significant effect on HbA1c or diabetes-specific distress, although patients with elevated diabetes distress in the MBCT group tended to show a decrease in diabetes distress (P = 0.07, d = 0.70) compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS Compared with usual care, MBCT resulted in a reduction of emotional distress and an increase in health-related quality of life in diabetic patients who had lower levels of emotional well-being. PMID:23193218

  7. The influence of problems with concentration and memory on emotional distress and daily activities in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Jamison, R N; Sbrocco, T; Parris, W C

    1988-01-01

    This study examined concentration and memory problems in chronic pain patients as they related to emotional distress and interference with daily activity. Three hundred and sixty-three chronic pain patients were divided into two groups based on how much they expressed difficulty in concentrating and remembering things. Each patient was given a physical examination and completed a pain evaluation questionnaire and an SCL-90. Physician ratings of the patients' depression and anxiety were also obtained. The results showed that problems in concentration and memory were related to emotional distress, poor family support, and interference with daily activities. It is suggested that techniques to improve concentration and memory should be incorporated as part of a multidisciplinary pain program.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of emotional distress in HIV/HCV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Fialho, Renata; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The mental health needs of patients who are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly addressed in medical settings. This study aimed at examining the prevalence and severity of emotional distress in a sample of HIV/HCV coinfected and HIV mono-infected patients and to examine their sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial correlates. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the quality of life instrument WHOQOL-HIV-Bref were administered to a sample of 248 HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 482 HIV mono-infected patients. Thirty-nine (15.9%) HIV/HCV coinfected patients and 55 (11.6%) HIV mono-infected patients reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Coinfected patients reported significantly higher scores on eight of nine dimensions of psychopathology. The larger differences were found on somatization, hostility, paranoid ideation, anxiety, and the GSI. Among HIV/HCV patients, non-highly active antiretroviral therapy (β = -0.19, p < 0.01) and lower scores for independence (β = -0.24, p < 0.01) and spiritual (β = -0.31, p < 0.001) dimensions were significantly associated with higher emotional distress and accounted for 47.2% of the total variance. Among HIV mono-infected patients, being diagnosed for a longer time (β = 0.12, p < 0.05) and having lower scores on physical (β = -0.23, p < 0.001), social relationships (β = -0.11, p < 0.05), environmental (β = -0.17, p < 0.01), and spiritual (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) dimensions explained 39.4% of the variance of emotional distress. The findings suggest that coinfection with HCV may have an adverse effect on mental health and underscore the interplay of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables on emotional distress. Additionally, these data reinforce the need for tailored interventions to improve the overall well-being of both HIV and HIV/HCV patients.

  9. Measuring death-related anxiety in advanced cancer: preliminary psychometrics of the Death and Dying Distress Scale.

    PubMed

    Lo, Christopher; Hales, Sarah; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The alleviation of distress associated with death and dying is a central goal of palliative care, despite the lack of routine measurement of this outcome. In this study, we introduce the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS), a new, brief measure we have developed to assess death-related anxiety in advanced cancer and other palliative populations. We describe its preliminary psychometrics based on a sample of 33 patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. The DADDS broadly captures distress about the loss of time and opportunity, the process of death and dying, and its impact on others. The initial version of the scale has a one-factor structure and good internal reliability. Dying and death-related distress was positively associated with depression and negatively associated with spiritual, emotional, physical, and functional well-being, providing early evidence of construct validity. This distress was relatively common, with 45% of the sample scoring in the upper reaches of the scale, suggesting that the DADDS may be a relevant outcome for palliative intervention. We conclude by presenting a revised 15-item version of the scale for further study in advanced cancer and other palliative populations.

  10. College Women's Perceptions of Anxiety and Menstrual Distress across the Menstrual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szollos, Alex; Thyrum, Elizabeth; Martin, Betty

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated fluctuations in anxiety and menstrual distress across the menstrual cycle. Female college students (N = 318) completed self-report measures of symptoms across the menstrual cycle and measures of general psychological adjustment. A subgroup (n = 56) of Anxious participants who reported high levels of anxiety was identified.…

  11. College Women's Perceptions of Anxiety and Menstrual Distress across the Menstrual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szollos, Alex; Thyrum, Elizabeth; Martin, Betty

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated fluctuations in anxiety and menstrual distress across the menstrual cycle. Female college students (N = 318) completed self-report measures of symptoms across the menstrual cycle and measures of general psychological adjustment. A subgroup (n = 56) of Anxious participants who reported high levels of anxiety was identified.…

  12. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Jana; Herbort, Maike C; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Soch, Joram; Richter, Sylvia; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of cognitive alterations in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful vs. neutral faces) were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult) incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC) where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times (RTs) in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of anxiety.

  13. Emotion-Induced Retrograde Amnesia and Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miu, Andrei C.; Heilman, Renata M.; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R.…

  14. Emotional Schemas and Resistance to Change in Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…

  15. Emotional Schemas and Resistance to Change in Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…

  16. Emotion-Induced Retrograde Amnesia and Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miu, Andrei C.; Heilman, Renata M.; Opre, Adrian; Miclea, Mircea

    2005-01-01

    Emotional arousal can both enhance and impair memory. Considering that both emotional memory and trait anxiety (TA) have been associated with adrenergic activity, the authors investigated whether there is an association between 2 opposite emotional memory biases and the TA. The authors used a procedure recently put forward by B. A. Strange, R.…

  17. Change in self-reported emotional distress and parenting among parents referred to inpatient child psychiatric family treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wallander, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Rimehaug T, Berg-Nielsen TS, Wallander J. Change in self-reported emotional distress and parenting among parents referred to inpatient child psychiatric family treatment. Nord J Psychiatry 2011;64:1–8. Aims: Our aim was to examine changes in distress symptoms and parenting dimensions among parents in child psychiatry services (clinic parents) (n= 102). Parents were followed from referral and admission to 3-month and 12-month follow-ups of “treatment-as-usual” at inpatient family clinics. These measurements were compared with a sample of community parent (n = 439) standards. Methods: Standardized questionnaires measuring the child's problems, parental anxiety and depression symptoms (distress), and warmth protectiveness and authoritarianism (parenting dimensions), were distributed to parents four times (T0–T1–T2–T3). The family clinics received families whose children had long-term problems and unsatisfactory previous treatment outcomes. Results: Clinic mothers, but not fathers, showed an improvement in distress symptoms at the 3-month (T2) and 12-month (T3) follow-ups relative to at admission (T1). Nevertheless, clinic mothers displayed distress symptoms at all measurement points compared with community parents. Parents of children with learning/developmental problems and attention disorders showed significantly higher warmth scores at the 3-month and 12-month follow-up compared with at admission, although the levels remained lower than those of community parents. In contrast, parents of children with emotional problems showed the same level of warmth as community parents and lower levels of protectiveness, but no change in these parenting dimensions T1–T2. Implications: Parental emotional distress symptoms and parenting characteristics should be addressed systematically in child psychiatry to inform evaluations of the context of the child's problems and the family's treatment needs. Systematic and effective treatment components related to parenting

  18. Associations Between Internet-Based Professional Social Networking and Emotional Distress.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacquelynn R; Colditz, Jason B; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Terry, Martha Ann; Primack, Brian A

    2016-10-01

    Professional social networking websites are commonly used among young professionals. In light of emerging concerns regarding social networking use and emotional distress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frequency of use of LinkedIn, the most commonly used professional social networking website, and depression and anxiety among young adults. In October 2014, we assessed a nationally representative sample of 1,780 U.S. young adults between the ages of 19-32 regarding frequency of LinkedIn use, depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic covariates. We measured depression and anxiety using validated Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures. We used bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between LinkedIn use and depression and anxiety, while controlling for age, sex, race, relationship status, living situation, household income, education level, and overall social media use. In weighted analyses, 72% of participants did not report use of LinkedIn, 16% reported at least some use, but less than once each week, and 12% reported use at least once per week. In multivariable analyses controlling for all covariates, compared with those who did not use LinkedIn, participants using LinkedIn at least once per week had significantly greater odds of increased depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31-3.38) and increased anxiety (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.72-4.53). LinkedIn use was significantly related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Future research should investigate directionality of this association and possible reasons for it.

  19. Relationship of Genetic Variants With Procedural Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Children.

    PubMed

    Ersig, Anne L; Schutte, Debra L; Standley, Jennifer; Leslie, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure. Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Samples were collected from children and biological parents for analysis of genomic variation. Genotyped variants had known or suspected association with phenotypes of interest. Analyses included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests. Genotype and phenotype data were available from 828 children and 376 family trios. Children were 50% male, had a mean age of 7.2 years, and were 84% White/non-Hispanic. In family-based analysis, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1143629, interleukin ( IL1B) 1β) was associated with observed child distress at Bonferroni-corrected levels of significance ( p = .00013), while two approached significance for association with high state anxiety (rs6330 Nerve Growth Factor, Beta Subunit, [ NGFB]) and high trait anxiety (rs6265 brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ BDNF]). In the child-only analysis, multiple SNPs showed nominal evidence of relationships with phenotypes of interest. rs6265 BDNF and rs2941026 cholecystokinin B receptor had possible relationships with trait anxiety in child-only and family-based analyses. Exploring genomic variation furthers our understanding of pain, anxiety, and distress and facilitates genomic screening to identify children at high risk of procedural pain, anxiety, and distress. Combined with clinical observations and knowledge, such explorations could help guide tailoring of interventions to limit procedure-related distress and identify genes and pathways of interest for future genotype-phenotype studies.

  20. Quality of life and emotional distress between patients on peritoneal dialysis versus community-based hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Griva, K; Kang, A W; Yu, Z L; Mooppil, N K; Foo, M; Chan, Choong Meng; Newman, S P

    2014-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are important endpoints to evaluate new models of renal delivery. This is the first study to compare Quality of Life (QOL) and emotional adjustment outcomes between patients on community-based hemodialysis (HD) and those on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Data were collected between 2009 and 2011 from a cross-sectional sample of 232 HD patients and 201 PD patients recruited through community dialysis centers and outpatient PD clinics in Singapore. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief and the Short form for the Kidney Disease Quality of Life. Measures of ESRD severity, comorbidity and biochemistry were also collected. Physical and emotional QOL impairments were noted for both dialysis groups. Case-mix-adjusted comparisons indicated higher symptoms of depression (p = 0.027), and poorer physical health yet higher satisfaction with care (p = 0.001) in PD relative to community-based HD. Peritoneal dialysis regimes offer flexibility and autonomy under the support of PD teams. Although outcomes for most QOL domains measured were equivalent, PD patients are more satisfied with care but are at risk for emotional distress and provide poor ratings of physical health. Further research is needed to explore the expansion of standards of care to address psychosocial needs in PD populations.

  1. Emotional Distress, Alcohol Use, and Bidirectional Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Robin J.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Milletich, Robert J.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional distress (defined as depression, brooding, and negative affect), alcohol outcomes, and bidirectional intimate partner violence among lesbian women. Results lend support to the self-medication hypothesis which predicts that lesbian women who experience more emotional distress are more likely to drink to cope, and in turn report more alcohol use, problem drinking, and alcohol-related problems. These alcohol outcomes were in turn, associated with bidirectional partner violence. These results offer preliminary evidence that, similar to findings for heterosexual women, emotional distress, alcohol use, and particularly alcohol-related problems, are risk factors for bidirectional partner violence among lesbian women. PMID:26062874

  2. Mediation by anxiety of the relationship between amygdala activity during emotion processing and poor quality of life in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, T; Bertocci, M A; Chase, H W; Stiffler, R; Aslam, H A; Graur, S; Bebko, G; Lockovich, J C; Phillips, M L

    2017-01-01

    Young adults often experience psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Yet, there are no objective neural markers to accurately guide interventions to help improve these measures. We thus aimed to identify directional relationships between frontoamygdala emotional regulation circuitry activity during emotion processing, personality traits, and symptoms associated with psychological distress, and QoL. One hundred twenty 18–25-year olds, n=51 psychologically distressed and n=69 healthy individuals, completed a face emotion-processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, clinical and behavioral measures, and QoL assessment. Penalized regression, accounting for large numbers of independent variables, showed that increased state and trait anxiety, cohort and measures of general and anhedonic depression severity predicted poorer QoL (all exponents>0.87). Only state and trait anxiety predicted emotion processing-related frontoamygdala activity (all exponents=1.00). State and trait anxiety fully mediated the relationship between amygdala activity and QoL (P-value increased from 0.001 to 0.29: left amygdala, and from 0.003 to 0.94: right amygdala). State anxiety fully mediated the relationship between left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical (vlPFC) activity and QoL (P-value increased from 0.01 to 0.18). Testing an alternative mediational pathway showed that the relationship between state and trait anxiety and QoL was not mediated by amygdala or left vlPFC activity. We thereby identify specific, directional relationships linking amygdala and left vlPFC activity, state and trait anxiety, and poor QoL across different diagnoses. Our findings highlight roles of amygdala and left vlPFC activity as neural predictors of anxiety and poor QoL, and as potentially important targets for novel interventions to reduce anxiety and, in turn, improve QoL in young adults. PMID:28742077

  3. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gison, Annalisa; Rizza, Federica; Bonassi, Stefano; Donati, Valentina; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed with the aim of assessing dispositional optimism (DO) in a sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in order to evaluate its association with clinical outcomes and its impact on rehabilitation. Before entering an outpatient rehabilitation program, 58 participants suffering from idiopathic PD completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to evaluate their level of DO, the WHO-5 scale to evaluate their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to identify emotional distress, and the Barthel Index to evaluate their level of disability. All the measures were repeated four months later, at their discharge from the program. Disease stage and severity measures (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) were also taken into consideration. Correlations and multivariate regression analyses compared DO with the health-related variables. On admission a high level of DO was found to be associated with less severe disease, a better quality of life (QoL) and lower emotional distress, but not with level of disability (Barthel Index). Consistent results were found at discharge. The level of DO di not change after rehabilitation, while anxiety was significantly reduced, especially in subjects with low LOT-R and high HADS scores. The Barthel Index values significantly improved. At discharge, participants with high DO showed the best improvements in disability and in QoL. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances.

  4. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    PubMed

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  5. The indirect effect of contextual factors on the emotional distress of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Moura-Ramos, M; Gameiro, S; Canavarro, M C; Soares, I; Santos, T A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies were dedicated to study the role of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic status and urban or rural residence in emotional distress of infertile couples. This study aimed to explore the impact of contextual factors on emotional distress, either directly or by affecting the importance of parenthood in one's life, which in turn affects emotional distress. In this cross-sectional study, 70 couples recruited during hormonal stimulation phase prior to in vitro fertilisation completed clinical and sociodemographic forms and self-report questionnaires assessing representations about the importance of parenthood and emotional distress. Path analysis using structural equation modelling was used to examine direct and indirect effects among variables. Results indicated that socioeconomic status and place of residence had an impact in emotional distress by affecting the representations about the importance of parenthood in one's life. Gender differences were found regarding model paths, suggesting that the social context may have a stronger influence on women's emotional distress than on their partners' distress. When delineating psychological interventions, health care providers should consider that cultural values about children and parenthood contribute to shape the infertility experience.

  6. Anxiety, Depression and Emotion Regulation Among Regular Online Poker Players.

    PubMed

    Barrault, Servane; Bonnaire, Céline; Herrmann, Florian

    2017-01-19

    Poker is a type of gambling that has specific features, including the need to regulate one's emotion to be successful. The aim of the present study is to assess emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in a sample of regular poker players, and to compare the results of problem and non-problem gamblers. 416 regular online poker players completed online questionnaires including sociodemographic data, measures of problem gambling (CPGI), anxiety and depression (HAD scale), and emotion regulation (ERQ). The CPGI was used to divide participants into four groups according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers). Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among severe-problem gamblers than among the other groups. Both significantly predicted problem gambling. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups in emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), which was linked neither to problem gambling nor to anxiety and depression (except for cognitive reappraisal, which was significantly correlated to anxiety). Our results underline the links between anxiety, depression and problem gambling among poker players. If emotion regulation is involved in problem gambling among poker players, as strongly suggested by data from the literature, the emotion regulation strategies we assessed (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) may not be those involved. Further studies are thus needed to investigate the involvement of other emotion regulation strategies.

  7. Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Model of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Although social factors are of critical importance in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders, the contemporary view of emotion regulation has been primarily limited to intrapersonal processes. Based on diverse perspectives pointing to the communicative function of emotions, the social processes in self-regulation, and the role of social support, this article presents an interpersonal model of emotion regulation of mood and anxiety disorders. This model provides a theoretical framework to understand and explain how mood and anxiety disorders are regulated and maintained through others. The literature, which provides support for the model, is reviewed and the clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25267867

  8. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood☆

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086

  9. The impact of multiple concussions on emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in active duty United States marines independent of combat exposure or emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Spira, James L; Lathan, Corinna E; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W

    2014-11-15

    Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat.

  10. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  11. Functional neuroanatomy on the working memory under emotional distraction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suffer the symptoms of psychological distress, including excessive and uncontrollable anxiety. Until now, the functional neuroanatomy for working memory (WM) in conjunction with the major anxiety symptoms in GAD patients has not yet been clearly identified. This study investigated the neural activation patterns associated with the effect of neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors during the delayed-response WM task in GAD patients. Eighteen patients with GAD and 18 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. The functional magnetic resonance images were obtained while the subjects performed a delayed-response WM task with neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors. During the neutral distractor, GAD patients compared to controls showed significantly lower activities in the fusiform gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, superior occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, cuneus, calcarine gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and cerebellar cortex. During the anxiety-inducing distractor, GAD patients showed significantly higher activity in the hippocampus, whereas they showed lower activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, fusiform gyrus, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, superior occipital gyrus and cerebellar cortex. The blood-oxygen-level dependent signal changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in GAD patients during the anxiety-inducing distractor were negatively correlated with Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised scores. This study identified the specific brain areas associated with the interaction between emotional regulation and cognitive function associated with neutral and anxiety-inducing distractors during WM maintenance in GAD patients. These findings will be helpful for understanding the neural mechanism on the WM-related cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction with typical anxiety symptoms in GAD. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of

  12. Key constructs in "classical" and "new wave" cognitive behavioral psychotherapies: relationships among each other and with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Ioana A; Montgomery, Guy H; Szamoskozi, Stefan; David, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to relate key constructs from three forms of cognitive behavioral therapy that are often placed in competition: rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The key constructs of the underlying theories (i.e., irrational beliefs/unconditional self-acceptance, dysfunctional cognitions, experiential avoidance/psychological inflexibility) of these therapies have not been explicitly studied in their relationships to each other and with emotional distress. We used a cross-sectional design. The variables were selected to indicate key constructs of the three major forms of therapy considered. Study 1 used a sample of 152 students, who were assessed during a stressful period of their semester (mean age = 21.71; 118 females), while Study 2 used a clinical sample of 28 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (mean age = 26.67; 26 females). Results showed that these constructs, central in the therapies considered, had medium to high associations to each other and to distress. Experiential avoidance was found to mediate the relationship between the other, schema-type cognitive constructs and emotional distress. Moreover, multiple mediation analysis in Study 2 seemed to indicate that the influence of the more general constructs on distress was mediated by experiential avoidance, whose effect seemed to be carried on further by automatic thoughts that were the most proximal to distress. Although each of the cognitive constructs considered comes with its underlying theory, the relationships between them can no longer be ignored and cognitive behavioral therapy theoretical models reliably accounting for these relationships should be proposed and tested. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adolescents' Subjective Distress over Their Emotional/Behavioral Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Compas, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Among 151 seventh and eighth graders, self-reports of occurrence of behaviors were significantly but moderately correlated with subjects' distress about behaviors. Adolescents rated externalizing behaviors as more distressing to parents than to adolescents; internalizing behaviors as more distressing to self than to parents. Ratings of subjective…

  14. Differential Effects of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress and Nondistress on Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…

  15. Urban Teens: Trauma, Posttraumatic Growth, and Emotional Distress among Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…

  16. Predictors of children's emotional distress in a mother-absent situation: implications for caregiving research.

    PubMed

    O'Laughlin, E M; Meeker, E C; Bischoff, L G

    2000-06-01

    Although many factors have been found to be associated with caregiving behavior among preschool-age siblings, few studies have considered the older child's emotional responses to the distress of a younger sibling in the mother's absence. In this study, the authors considered both individual and family factors that predict older and younger sibling distress in a mother-absent situation designed to elicit caregiving behavior. For both older and younger siblings, the strongest predictor of distress following the mother's departure was distress in the other sibling, suggesting the importance of situational factors. Individual and family factors, however, were also found to predict child distress. Among older siblings, shy and sociable temperaments were associated with greater distress during the mother's absence. Higher levels of parenting stress were found to be associated with less distress among both older and younger siblings in the mother-absent situation. Results are discussed in terms of individual and family environment influences on the sibling relationship.

  17. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): a short version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.

  18. Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery.

    PubMed

    Solomonova, Elizaveta; Nielsen, Tore; Stenstrom, Philippe; Simard, Valérie; Frantova, Elena; Donderi, Don

    2008-03-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these associations are due to a general personality factor, affect distress, which is implicated in nightmare suffering and hypothesized to involve dysfunctional social imagery processes. A new measure, ISP distress, was examined in relation to features of ISP experiences, to self-reported psychopathological diagnosis, to scores on the Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale and to scores on a new questionnaire subscale assessing social imagery in a variety of waking states. Three main results were found: (1) ISP experiences are only weakly associated with a prior diagnosis of mental disorder, (2) sensed presence during ISP is associated preferentially with ISP distress, and (3) ISP distress is associated with dysfunctional social imagery. A general predisposition to affective distress may influence the distress associated with ISP experiences; overly passive social imagery may, in turn, be implicated in this affect distress influence.

  19. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    PubMed

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. Mother-child emotion communication and childhood anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brumariu, Laura E; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether several aspects of emotion communication in mother-child dyads relate to child anxiety symptoms. Mother and child behaviours related to emotion communication were coded based on videotaped mother-child interactions in a sample of 87 ten- to twelve-year olds, and children reported on their anxiety symptoms. Mothers of more anxious children were less supportive in that they engaged more in psychologically controlling behaviours designed to manipulate the child's emotional state, exhibited less warmth and interest in the child, and were less elaborative during conversations about an emotionally negative event. Further, more anxious children showed greater affect intensity and lower congruency of emotions and behaviours, and were less engaged in the conversation. Examining the role of child gender did not change the results significantly. Mother and child emotion communication behaviours each explained significant variance in child anxiety. The results showed that how mothers and children approached emotion-related conversations is important for child anxiety, and highlighted the need to consider mother and child behaviours related to emotion communication in assessment and interventions with anxious children.

  1. Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

  2. Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

  3. Emotional Self-Disclosure and Emotional Avoidance: Relations with Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…

  4. Quality of life and emotional distress early after left ventricular assist device implant: a mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Modica, Maddalena; Ferratini, Maurizio; Torri, Anna; Oliva, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Luigi; De Maria, Renata; Frigerio, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Patients who temporarily or permanently rely on left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) for end-stage heart failure face complex psychological, emotional, and relational problems. We conducted a mixed-method study to investigate quality of life, psychological symptoms, and emotional and cognitive reactions after LVAD implant. Twenty-six patients admitted to cardiac rehabilitation were administered quality of life questionnaires (Short Form 36 of the Medical Outcomes Study and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences inventory, and underwent three in-depth unstructured interviews within 2 months after LVAD implant. Quality of life assessment (Short Form 36) documented persistently low physical scores whereas mental component scores almost achieved normative values. Clinically relevant depression and anxiety were observed in 18 and 18% of patients, respectively; avoidant coping scores correlated significantly with both depression and anxiety (Pearson correlation coefficients 0.732, P < 0.001 and 0.764, P < 0.001, respectively). From qualitative interviews, factors that impacted on LVAD acceptance included: device type, disease experience during transplant waiting, nature of the assisted organ, quality of patient-doctor communication, the opportunity of sharing the experience, and recipient's psychological characteristics. Quality of life improves early after LVAD implant, but emotional distress may remain high. A multidimensional approach that takes into account patients' psychological characteristics should be pursued to enhance LVAD acceptance. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.

  6. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  7. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  8. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anxiety, depression and distress among irritable bowel syndrome and their subtypes: An epidemiological population based study

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Bidaki, Ehsan Zare; Hasanzadeh-Keshteli, Ammar; Daghaghzade, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of IBS and their subtypes with some of psychological factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 4763 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire and Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate IBS symptoms. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire were utilized to assess anxiety, depression and psychological distress. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of psychological states and IBS in the total subject and both genders. Results: About, 4763 participants with mean age 36/58 ± 8/09 were included the 2106 males and 2657 females. Three thousand and seven hundred and seventy-six (81.2%) and 2650 (57.2%) participants were married and graduated respectively. Subtype analysis of IBS and its relationship with anxiety, depression and distress comparing the two genders can be observed that: IBS and clinically-significant IBS have higher anxiety, depression symptoms, and distress than the subject without IBS (P < 0.001). Women with IBS, have higher scores than men (P < 0.001). Compared to other subtypes, mixed IBS subtype has a higher anxiety, depression, and distress score. Conclusion: A high prevalence of anxiety, depression symptoms and distress in our subjects emphasize the importance of the psychological evaluation of the patients with IBS, in order to better management of the patients and may also help to reduce the burden of health care costs. PMID:28028523

  10. Emotion dysregulation and sleep difficulties in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsypes, Aliona; Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2013-03-01

    Diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) include sleep problems, which often persist even after successful treatment of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential contributor to sleep problems in GAD patients. Participants comprised two groups: 59 individuals diagnosed with GAD and 66 healthy controls. They were assessed for the presence of mood and anxiety disorders and then completed self-report questionnaires assessing problems with sleep and emotion regulation. Participants in the GAD group scored significantly higher on a number of sleep outcomes than did the control group. Importantly, difficulties with emotion regulation statistically mediated the relationship between GAD and a wide range of outcomes of sleep dysfunction independently of the effects of depression and secondary anxiety diagnoses. Emotion regulation difficulties that characterize GAD mediate the relationship between symptoms of this disorder and a wide range of sleep problems. Implications for treatment and future research directions are discussed.

  11. An investigation into the relationship between persistent pain, psychological distress and emotional connectedness.

    PubMed

    Henne, Elise; Morrissey, Shirley; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous research into the social consequences of persistent pain has shown that relationship difficulties and marital distress are major factors that contribute to negative outcomes for sufferers. Furthermore, psychological distress is often co-morbid with persistent pain. This study explored the relationship between persistent pain, psychological distress and emotional connectedness. It involved a cross-sectional design utilising an online survey of 388 Australian women with persistent pain. Self-report measures of pain severity, psychological distress and emotional connectedness were administered. Results confirmed that many women in persistent pain experience relationship and emotional connectedness difficulties which they attribute to the experience of persistent pain. Additionally, psychological distress significantly mediated the relationship between pain severity and emotional connectedness. It was concluded that, in this sample of persistent pain sufferers, pain severity and psychological distress had significant impact on a women's ability to connect emotionally to those closest to them. The implications of these findings for intervening with women who suffer with persistent pain are discussed.

  12. Group interventions to reduce emotional distress and fatigue in breast cancer patients: a 9-month follow-up pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Charlotte; Bragard, Isabelle; Jerusalem, Guy; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Coucke, Philippe; Dupuis, Gilles; Lanctôt, Dominique; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth

    2017-09-19

    Long-term effects of psychosocial interventions to reduce emotional distress, sleep difficulties, and fatigue of breast cancer patients are rarely examined. We aim to assess the effectiveness of three group interventions, based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), yoga, and self-hypnosis, in comparison to a control group at a 9-month follow-up. A total of 123 patients chose to participate in one of the interventions. A control group was set up for those who agreed not to participate. Emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep quality were assessed before (T0) and after interventions (T1), and at 3-month (T2) and 9-month follow-ups (T3). Nine months after interventions, there was a decrease of anxiety (P=0.000), depression (P=0.000), and fatigue (P=0.002) in the hypnosis group, and a decrease of anxiety (P=0.024) in the yoga group. There were no significant improvements for all the investigated variables in the CBT and control groups. Our results showed that mind-body interventions seem to be an interesting psychological approach to improve the well-being of breast cancer patients. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of action of such interventions and their long-term effects on quality of life.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.326 www.bjcancer.com.

  13. Change in self-reported emotional distress and parenting among parents referred to inpatient child psychiatric family treatment.

    PubMed

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Wallander, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to examine changes in distress symptoms and parenting dimensions among parents in child psychiatry services (clinic parents) (n = 102). Parents were followed from referral and admission to 3-month and 12-month follow-ups of "treatment-as-usual" at inpatient family clinics. These measurements were compared with a sample of community parent (n = 439) standards. Standardized questionnaires measuring the child's problems, parental anxiety and depression symptoms (distress), and warmth protectiveness and authoritarianism (parenting dimensions), were distributed to parents four times (T0-T1-T2-T3). The family clinics received families whose children had long-term problems and unsatisfactory previous treatment outcomes. Clinic mothers, but not fathers, showed an improvement in distress symptoms at the 3-month (T2) and 12-month (T3) follow-ups relative to at admission (T1). Nevertheless, clinic mothers displayed distress symptoms at all measurement points compared with community parents. Parents of children with learning/developmental problems and attention disorders showed significantly higher warmth scores at the 3-month and 12-month follow-up compared with at admission, although the levels remained lower than those of community parents. In contrast, parents of children with emotional problems showed the same level of warmth as community parents and lower levels of protectiveness, but no change in these parenting dimensions T1-T2. Parental emotional distress symptoms and parenting characteristics should be addressed systematically in child psychiatry to inform evaluations of the context of the child's problems and the family's treatment needs. Systematic and effective treatment components related to parenting should be implemented.

  14. Treating persistent distress and anxiety in parents of children with cancer: an initial feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Ludwig, Kristy; Sweeney, Corinne; Spillane, Clare; Hogan, Laura; Ryan, Julie; Carroll, William

    2011-01-01

    Persistent anxiety is common among parents of children with cancer and may affect the family's well-being and adjustment. The goals of this pilot study are to determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a brief cognitive-behavioral parent intervention aimed at reducing parental distress and anxiety related to their child's cancer diagnosis. Parents of children with cancer, at least 1 month postdiagnosis, were screened at an outpatient oncology clinic, and those reporting elevated levels of distress were offered a 4-session cognitive-behavioral intervention based on a modified version of the Surviving Cancer Competently Intervention Program-Newly Diagnosed. Five parents reporting persistent distress received the intervention. Results revealed decreases in parents' distress, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as in parents' feelings of burden associated with their children's cancer. This initial study suggests that identification of parents with prolonged heightened psychological distress is feasible and acceptable and that offering them a brief intervention within a pediatric oncology setting may be beneficial.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kashdan, Todd B; Morina, Nexhmedin; Priebe, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174 Albanian civilian survivors of the Kosovo War. This included testing of conceptual models suggesting that experiential avoidance might influence associations between anxiety and mood disorders with psychological functioning. Each of the three psychiatric disorders was associated with greater experiential avoidance and psychological distress, and lower quality of life. Being a refugee was associated with a higher likelihood of having SAD and MDD. We found evidence for experiential avoidance as a partial mediator of the respective effects of SAD and PTSD on quality of life; experiential avoidance did not mediate the effects of disorders on global distress. We also found support for a moderation model showing that only war survivors without SAD and low experiential avoidance reported elevated quality of life; people with either SAD or excessive reliance on experiential avoidance reported compromised, low quality of life. This is the third independent study, each using a different methodology, to find empirical support for this moderation model [Kashdan, T. B., & Breen, W. E. (2008). Social anxiety and positive emotions: a prospective examination of a self-regulatory model with tendencies to suppress or express emotions as a moderating variable. Behavior Therapy, 39, 1-12; Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety: an experience sampling assessment of positive emotions and events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science, 17, 120-128]. Overall, we provided initial evidence for the importance of addressing PTSD, SAD, MDD, and experiential avoidance in primarily civilian war survivors.

  16. Social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas: effects of coping styles and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Bruno; Gana, Kamel; Constant, Aymery; Quintric, Chantal; Taïeb, Alain; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas. Eighty-one parents completed questionnaires assessing their emotional distress, social isolation, and coping styles. To explore the relationships between these variables, a path analysis was used to test a model in which clinical characteristics of hemangiomas and parents' coping strategies do not have direct effects on their social isolation but indirect effects via their emotional distress. Bootstrapping was used to assess indirect effects. Time since onset and lesional complications had positive direct effects on parents' social isolation. Lesional visibility and emotion-focused coping had negative indirect effects on parents' social isolation via their emotional distress, while problem-focused coping showed a positive indirect effect. These findings may have implications for clinicians managing parents of children with hemangiomas.

  17. Financial Distress and Its Associations With Physical and Emotional Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. Patients and Methods. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). Results. The patients’ median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6–61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%–93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%–96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–7) versus 8 (IQR: 3–10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1–8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = −0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). Conclusion. FD was very frequent in both

  18. Financial Distress and Its Associations With Physical and Emotional Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Advanced Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Guay, Marvin; Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). The patients' median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6-61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%-93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%-96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-7) versus 8 (IQR: 3-10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1-8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = -0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). FD was very frequent in both groups, but median intensity was double among GPH patients. More than 30

  19. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  20. Intensive rehabilitation of emotionally distressed patients after coronary by-pass grafting.

    PubMed

    Perski, A; Osuchowski, K; Andersson, L; Sanden, A; Feleke, E; Anderson, G

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate whether the status of emotionally distressed post coronary by-pass surgery patients can be improved by a comprehensive, in-patient rehabilitation programme. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation hospital. One hundred and fifty-two post coronary by-pass surgery patients referred to an intensive rehabilitation programme. The study group was divided into two subgroups, according to the level of emotional distress. Forty-three (30%) out of 142 patients who completed the Nottingham Health Profile were considered to be distressed. The comprehensive 4-week inpatient rehabilitation programme consisted of daily physical exercise, lectures about coronary disease and risk factors, psychological support and nutrition counselling. Physical fitness, blood lipids and quality of life questionnaires. The two-way analysis of variance showed that emotionally distressed patients achieved equally good results as those obtained by nondistressed patients in performance regarding the maximal exercise stress test, maximum rate pressure product achieved, or the level of resting heart rate. Significant improvement in psychological well-being as assessed by a seven-point rating scale was observed in both groups. Both groups of patients were also equally successful in weight reduction and lowering of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Of all the patients who were employed at admission, twice the number of patients in the distressed group were in receipt of a permanent disability pension and half the number of patients was employed, compared to the initially nondistressed group, at 1-year follow-up. Distressed patients were very successful in improving their functional status and reducing risk factors when offered an intensive rehabilitation programme but they were much less successful in returning to work. Secondly, patients who were emotionally distressed after surgery did not differ in regard to disease status or physical capacity from nondistressed patients. They did, however

  1. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood.

    PubMed

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7-12 years). Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

    2012-01-01

    Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p = .00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers

  3. Linking emotional distress to unhealthy sleep duration: analysis of the 2009 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Azizi A; Nunes, Joao V; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Williams, Natasha J; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu Ratnas; James, Caryl C; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours). Methods Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years) from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed. Measures Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period. Results Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001). Conclusion Emotional distress, an important proxy for poor psychological health, was a significant predictor of unhealthy sleep, independent of the influences of several factors including demographic (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income), health risks (alcohol consumption and smoking status), and chronic diseases/conditions (diabetes, obesity, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, and arthritis). PMID:26442563

  4. Relations between anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations to coping and conformity marijuana use motives among young adult marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Marshall, Erin C; Johnson, Kirsten; Hogan, Julianna; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2009-02-01

    The present investigation examines anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations in relation to Coping and Conformity marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 135; 46.7% women; Mage = 20.45, SD = 5.0). After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, average volume of alcohol used over the past year, negative affectivity, and other marijuana use motives, anxiety sensitivity was significantly and uniquely associated with Coping and Conformity motives for marijuana use. Distress tolerance evidenced significant and unique incremental relations to Coping motives, whereas fear reactivity to bodily sensations was unrelated to any marijuana use motive. These results provide novel information related to the role of emotional sensitivity and tolerance factors as they pertain to specific types of motives for marijuana use among young adults.

  5. Relations Between Anxiety Sensitivity, Distress Tolerance, and Fear Reactivity to Bodily Sensations to Coping and Conformity Marijuana Use Motives Among Young Adult Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Marshall, Erin C.; Johnson, Kirsten; Hogan, Julianna; Bernstein, Amit; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examines anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and fear reactivity to bodily sensations in relation to Coping and Conformity marijuana use motives among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 135; 46.7% women; Mage = 20.45, SD = 5.0). After controlling for current marijuana use frequency (past 30 days), daily cigarette smoking rate, average volume of alcohol used over the past year, negative affectivity, and other marijuana use motives, anxiety sensitivity was significantly and uniquely associated with Coping and Conformity motives for marijuana use. Distress tolerance evidenced significant and unique incremental relations to Coping motives, whereas fear reactivity to bodily sensations was unrelated to any marijuana use motive. These results provide novel information related to the role of emotional sensitivity and tolerance factors as they pertain to specific types of motives for marijuana use among young adults. PMID:19186932

  6. The emotional experience associated with worrying: anxiety, depression, or stress?

    PubMed

    Szabó, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance theories propose that worrying results in a reduction of the physiological arousal symptoms of anxiety. However, relatively little is known about the emotional symptoms that remain associated with worrying. This study explored whether the emotional states of anxiety, depression, or stress are specifically associated with excessive and uncontrollable worry. A group of 126 university students were selected to represent a wide range on the dimension of worry proneness. They completed a worry questionnaire, monitored the frequency and uncontrollability of their worry episodes for 1 week, and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) to indicate their level of negative affect during the monitoring period. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that all measures of worrying had a unique positive association with stress, over and above their associations with anxiety and depression. Item-level analyses showed that stress symptoms were uniformly strongly associated with worrying, while anxiety symptoms had the weakest associations. These results increase our knowledge regarding the phenomenology of worrying and underline the potential theoretical significance of the emotional state assessed by the DASS Stress scale. This scale fills the current need for a psychometrically sound instrument to assess the emotional experience associated with worrying.

  7. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Emotionally Distressed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study “Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans”. It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy - Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n = 60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies -Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6–8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group*time interaction). We observed no intervention*time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores. PMID:25107318

  9. Treatment of post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in emotionally distressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F

    2014-12-15

    Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study "Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans". It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy-Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n=60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6-8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group time interaction). We observed no intervention⁎time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores.

  10. Long-term adolescent multi-site musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological distress and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Juha; Eskola, Pasi J; Ohtonen, Hanni-Rosa; Paananen, Markus; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro

    2017-02-01

    Although several studies have shown that adolescent musculoskeletal pain is associated with psychological problems in a cross-sectional setting, the associations of long-term musculoskeletal pain with psychological distress and anxiety are not known. The study included 1773 adolescents belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. They received a postal questionnaire at the age of 16years and a follow-up questionnaire two years later. The first inquiry contained questions about the sites of musculoskeletal pain; the second had the same pain questions, along with measures of distress and anxiety. Risk ratios (RR) were assessed by log-linear regression analysis. Multi-site musculoskeletal pain (in ≥2 body locations) at both 16 and 18years was common, reported by 53% of girls and 30% of boys. Multi-site pain at both ages, compared to those with multi-site pain neither at 16 nor 18years, was associated with psychological distress at the age of 18 among both girls (RR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.7) and boys (RR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.9). For anxiety, the corresponding relative risks were 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.2) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.3), respectively. For short-term multi-site pain (prevalent only at the age of 16 or 18), these relative risks were between 0.8 and 2.3. Adolescents with long-term multi-site pain have higher levels of distress and anxiety than those without or with only short-term multi-site pain. Associations were found in both genders, but the relationship between pain and distress was more pronounced among boys. The associations had modest effect strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental sensitivity to infant distress: what do discrete negative emotions have to do with it?

    PubMed

    Mesman, Judi; Oster, Harriet; Camras, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Parental sensitivity, a crucial element of attachment theory, refers to the ability to correctly interpret and respond appropriately to infants' signals. The question of whether infants' emotional expressions communicate discrete negative emotions has been widely debated in the literature on infant emotional development, but it has rarely been discussed in the parental sensitivity literature. This article explores how insights from the parental sensitivity literature and from evolutionary and dynamical systems perspectives on infant emotion expressions can be brought together to enhance our understanding of parental responsiveness to infant distress. The current research concludes that sensitivity does not rely on reading discrete negative emotions in infant signals, but rather on an integration of complex, graded distress expressions with contextual factors and iterative interaction processes.

  12. Time course of processing emotional stimuli as a function of perceived emotional intelligence, anxiety, and depression.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Sass, Sarah M; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Miller, Gregory A

    2010-08-01

    An individual's self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and depression were associated with self-reported emotion abilities, consistent with prior literature. In addition, lower anxious apprehension and greater reported emotional clarity were related to slower processing of negative stimuli indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Higher anxious arousal and reported attention to emotion were associated with ERP evidence of early attention to all stimuli regardless of emotional content. Reduced later engagement with stimuli was also associated with anxious arousal and with clarity of emotions. Depression was not differentially associated with any emotion processing stage indexed by ERPs. Research in this area may lead to the development of therapies that focus on minimization of anxiety to foster successful emotion regulation.

  13. Self-care strategies for emotional distress among young adults in Catalonia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Poveda, Maria-Antonia; Martinez-Hernáez, Angel; Carceller-Maicas, Natalia; Correa-Urquiza, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Emotional distress is common in adolescence, and self-care strategies are frequently preferred to address it. The aim of this article is to analyze the self-care strategies among adolescents and young people diagnosed with depression or with self-perceived depressive distress in Catalonia using a qualitative design. We analyzed the self-care strategies of 105 young people (17-21 years of age) in Catalonia who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants' narratives on self-care strategies for emotional distress were elicited through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data were managed using ATLAS-Ti 6.5 software18. We applied hermeneutic theory and the ethnographic method to analyze the interviews. The ten self-care strategies identified in the analysis were grouped into four areas covering the various pathways the young people followed according to whether they had a diagnosis of depression or their depressive distress was self-perceived. The young people feel responsible for their emotional distress and consider that they are capable of resolving it through their own resources. Their strategies ranged from their individuality to sociability expressed through their relationships with others, membership of groups or other self-care strategies (relaxation, meditation, naturopathy, etc.). The study results highlight the importance of sensitivity in considering young people's self-care strategies as another option in the care of emotional distress.

  14. Intrahousehold disparities in women and men's experiences of water insecurity and emotional distress in urban Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Wutich, Amber

    2009-12-01

    This study is one of the first to examine the links connecting water insecurity, gender, and emotional distress. The article presents quantitative and qualitative analyses of interview data collected from randomly selected pairs of male and female household heads (n=48) living under the same household-level conditions of water insecurity., The results provide partial confirmation of past findings that women are more likely than men to be burdened with everyday water responsibilities. However, there were no significant differences between men's and women's experiences in household water emergencies (i.e., water shortages and last-ditch attempts to buy water) and reports on some measures of emotional distress (i.e., worry, annoyance, and anger with family members). The results suggest that intrahousehold gender disparities may be mitigated in times of severe water scarcity. The discussion raises questions about the comparability of men's and women's expressions of emotional distress.

  15. Agency is associated with decreased emotional distress and suicidal ideation in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Andreski, Sarah Rae; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Suicides in the U.S. military continue to rise at a rapid rate. Identification of protective factors that reduce risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among military personnel are therefore needed. Agency--the sense that one is competent, effective, and in control of one's life--has shown to reduce the effects of hopelessness and emotional distress on suicidal thoughts and attempts in non-military populations. The current study explores the association of agency with suicidal ideation in a sample (n = 273) of active duty Air Force Security Forces personnel. Results of generalized regression modeling suggest that agency is directly associated with decreased emotional distress and severity of suicidal ideation, but does not moderate the effect of emotional distress on suicidal ideation.

  16. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson’s disease outpatients under rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gison, Annalisa; Rizza, Federica; Bonassi, Stefano; Donati, Valentina; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study was performed with the aim of assessing dispositional optimism (DO) in a sample of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, in order to evaluate its association with clinical outcomes and its impact on rehabilitation. Before entering an outpatient rehabilitation program, 58 participants suffering from idiopathic PD completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to evaluate their level of DO, the WHO-5 scale to evaluate their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to identify emotional distress, and the Barthel Index to evaluate their level of disability. All the measures were repeated four months later, at their discharge from the program. Disease stage and severity measures (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale) were also taken into consideration. Correlations and multivariate regression analyses compared DO with the health-related variables. On admission a high level of DO was found to be associated with less severe disease, a better quality of life (QoL) and lower emotional distress, but not with level of disability (Barthel Index). Consistent results were found at discharge. The level of DO did not change after rehabilitation, while anxiety was significantly reduced, especially in subjects with low LOT-R and high HADS scores. The Barthel Index values significantly improved. At discharge, participants with high DO showed the best improvements in disability and in QoL. In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances. PMID:26415782

  17. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    PubMed

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  18. Relationship between athletes' emotional intelligence and precompetitive anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lu, Frank J-H; Li, Gladys Shuk-fong; Hsu, Eva Ya-wen; Williams, Lavon

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between athletes' Emotional Intelligence (EI) and precompetitive anxiety. Taiwanese intercollegiate track and field athletes (N = 111; 64 men, 47 women) completed the Bar-On EQ-i 1 mo. before a1 national intercollegiate athletic meet, and the Competition State Anxiety Inventory-2R 1 hr. before the competition. Analyses indicated that participants with the lowest EI scores reported greater intensity of precompetitive cognitive anxiety than those with the highest EI scores. No other statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Further, correlational analyses and multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that EI components such as stress management, intrapersonal EI, and interpersonal EI were associated with precompetitive anxiety. Current EI measures provide limited understanding of precompetitive anxiety. A sport-specific EI measure is needed for future research.

  19. The buffering effect of relationship satisfaction on emotional distress in couples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Marital distress and depression frequently co-occur, and partnership quality is associated with depressive symptoms and mental disorders in both men and women. One aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of a set of risk factors for emotional distress among men and women in couples, with a special focus on satisfaction with partner relationship. The most important aim was to investigate the extent to which high relationship satisfaction in couples acts as a buffer against stressful events. Methods Pregnant women and their husbands (n = 62,956 couples) enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study completed a questionnaire with questions about emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Twelve potential risk factors were included in the analyses, including relationship satisfaction, demographic characteristics, and somatic diseases in men and women. Associations between the predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Cross-spousal effects, in which data reported by one of the spouses predicted emotional distress in the other, were also investigated. Possible interaction effects between certain risk factors and self-reported and partner's relationship satisfaction were tested and further explored with regression analyses in subsamples stratified by relationship satisfaction scores. Results The unique effects of relationship satisfaction were of similar sizes for both men and women: substantial for self-reported (β = -0.23 and β = -0.28, respectively) and weak for partner-reported satisfaction (β = -0.04 and β = -0.02, respectively). Other relatively strong risk factors were somatic disease, first-time motherhood, and unemployment. Self-reported as well as partner-reported relationship satisfaction appeared to strongly buffer the effects of a number of stressors. Conclusions Partner relationship dissatisfaction is strongly associated with emotional

  20. Gender differences in the effect of grief reactions and burnout on emotional distress among clinical oncologists.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Nakash, Ora; Cohen, Michal; Ariad, Samuel; Barbera, Lisa; Levy, Rotem; Ben-David, Merav

    2016-12-01

    The current study was conducted to examine gender differences in the effect of grief reactions and burnout on emotional distress among clinical oncologists. The participants included a convenience sample of 178 oncologists from Israel (52 of whom were women) and Canada (48 of whom were women). Oncologists completed a questionnaire package that included a sociodemographic survey, the General Health Questionnaire, a burnout measure, and the Adult Oncologists Grief Questionnaire. To examine the effect of grief reactions and burnout on emotional distress while controlling for country and past depression within each gender, 2 hierarchical linear regression analyses were computed. Female oncologists reported significantly more grief responses to patient death (mean, 47.72 [standard deviation (SD), 8.71] and mean, 44.53 [SD, 9.19], respectively), more emotional distress (mean, 12.41 [SD, 4.36] and mean, 10.64 [SD, 3.99], respectively), and more burnout (mean, 2.59 [SD, 1.69] and mean, 1.84 [SD, 1.5], respectively). For both genders, higher levels of grief reactions were associated with greater emotional distress among those who reported high levels of burnout (P<.001). However, for men, the association between grief reactions and emotional distress also was documented at moderate levels of burnout (P<.001). Patient death is a regular part of clinical oncology. It is essential that oncologists be able to cope effectively with this aspect of their work. The findings of the current study highlight the need to take into account the cumulative stressors that oncologists contend with when designing supportive interventions. Gender differences in burnout, reactions to patient death, and emotional distress need to be addressed to ensure the best quality of life for oncologists and the best quality of care for their patients. Cancer 2016;122:3705-14. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Rumination partially mediates the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination, emotional distress, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Borders, Ashley; Liang, Christopher T H

    2011-04-01

    Research suggests that perceived ethnic discrimination is associated with poor psychological and physiological health. Rumination, or perseverative thoughts about negative experiences, may constitute a maladaptive coping strategy that mediates the associations between perceived discrimination, emotional distress, and aggression. Our sample consisted of 170 ethnic minority and 134 White American participants. For ethnic minority participants, we found a pattern of correlations consistent with rumination partially mediating a causal link between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, hostility, anger, and aggression. In White participants, by contrast, the significant associations between perceived discrimination and these indices of emotional and behavioral distress were not statistically mediated by rumination. We discuss possible theoretical and clinical implications of these results.

  2. Distress Tolerance as a Correlate of Tobacco Dependence and Motivation: Incremental Relations over and above Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Michael A; Khoddam, Rubin; Greenberg, Jodie B; Dyal, Stephanie R; Ameringer, Katherine J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-12-11

    Distress tolerance-the capacity to withstand distressing states-is implicated in the etiology of regular smoking. The present study extends past resarch by examining whether relations between perceived distress tolerance and smoking-related factors: (1) differ across subdimensions of distress tolerance (Tolerance, Appraisal, Regulation, Absorption); (2) extend across measures of dependence, negative reinforcement smoking, and craving; and (3) are incremental to depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results showed that global distress tolerance was associated with measures of dependence, negative reinforcement, and craving even after controlling for affective symptomatology. Subdimensions of distress tolerance were not uniquely related to smoking outcomes in unadjusted or adjusted models. These findings suggest that: (a) distress tolerance is uniquely implicated in smoking over and above affective symptomatology; and (b) specific subdimensions of distress tolerance do not provide more information about smoking-related characteristics than global dimensions; and

  3. fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902

  4. fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others.

  5. Association of different forms of bullying victimisation with adolescents' psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Neural basis of emotional decision making in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin; Luo, Yue-jia

    2013-11-20

    Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based "emotional" system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based "analytic" system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain.

  7. Children's intergroup empathic processing: the roles of novel ingroup identification, situational distress, and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Masten, Carrie L; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Brown, Christia Spears

    2010-01-01

    Individuals often feel more empathy toward members of their own social groups than toward members of other social groups. However, individual factors contributing to this empathy bias remain largely unexplored among children. This study examined intergroup empathic processing among 94 children (mean age=8.74years, SD=1.76) assigned to novel color groups. After 1week in their group, children were interviewed to assess their ingroup identification and trait levels of social anxiety. Subsequently, a social threat was simulated, and children's feelings of situational distress and empathy bias for others who experienced the same threat were assessed. Findings indicated that, among children who reported more social anxiety and situational distress, those with a stronger ingroup identity displayed more empathy bias favoring their ingroup. Given that empathy is an important contributor to prosocial behavior, implications for children's intergroup relations are discussed.

  8. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  9. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  10. Group therapy for anxiety disorders using rational emotive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D; Brunero, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper reports a pilot study designed to investigate Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in the group treatment of selected clients suffering from anxiety disorders. A convenience sample of 17 clients who completed the treatment programme was selected for the study. Biographical information was sought and data were collected on subject anxiety and depression. Intervention was targeted at identifying and correcting irrational beliefs via the application of a range of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy techniques. Pre- and postintervention data were analysed by two-tailed t-tests for paired samples and found to be significant at P < 0.001. The results suggest that the treatment approach was successful in modifying irrational beliefs and anxiety.

  11. Attentional control theory: anxiety, emotion, and motor planning.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Higgins, Torrie; Gamble, Kelly M; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated how trait anxiety alters the balance between attentional control systems to impact performance of a discrete preplanned goal-directed motor task. Participants executed targeted force contractions (engaging the goal-directed attentional system) at the offset of emotional and non-emotional distractors (engaging the stimulus-driven attentional system). High and low anxious participants completed the protocol at two target force levels (10% and 35% of maximum voluntary contraction). Reaction time (RT), performance accuracy, and rate of change of force were calculated. Expectations were confirmed at the 10% but not the 35% target force level: (1) high anxiety was associated with slower RTs, and (2) threat cues lead to faster RTs independently of trait anxiety. These new findings suggest that motor efficiency, but not motor effectiveness is compromised in high relative to low anxious individuals. We conclude that increased stimulus-driven attentional control interferes with movements that require greater attentional resources.

  12. Attentional Control Theory: Anxiety, Emotion, and Motor Planning

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Stephen A.; Higgins, Torrie; Gamble, Kelly M.; Cauraugh, James H.; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated how trait anxiety alters the balance between attentional control systems to impact performance of a discrete preplanned goal-directed motor task. Participants executed targeted force contractions (engaging the goal-directed attentional system) at the offset of emotional and non-emotional distractors (engaging the stimulus-driven attentional system). High and low anxious participants completed the protocol at two target force levels (10% and 35% of maximum voluntary contraction). Reaction time (RT), performance accuracy, and rate of change of force were calculated. Expectations were confirmed at the 10% but not the 35% target force level: 1) high anxiety was associated with slower RTs, and 2) threat cues lead to faster RTs independently of trait anxiety. These new findings suggest that motor efficiency, but not motor effectiveness is compromised in high relative to low anxious individuals. We conclude that increased stimulus-driven attentional control interferes with movements that require greater attentional resources. PMID:19674869

  13. The relationship between self-efficacy and anxiety and general distress in caregivers of people with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Anna; Krishnasamy, Meinir; Schofield, Penelope

    2014-08-01

    Informal caregivers take on an important role in supporting people with advanced cancer but experience significant psychological distress. This study aims to describe the prevalence of anxiety and distress in a sample of caregivers of people with advanced cancer and explore the relationship with self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey was used. Subjects were 94 caregivers of people with advanced cancer recruited from a specialist oncology setting. Questionnaires included the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale (CaSES), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Distress Thermometer. Demographic data were recorded. The sample consisted of 94 caregivers of people with advanced cancer. The majority were female (66; 70.2%) with a mean age of 55 years. The mean distress score for the sample was 4.87 (standard deviation [SD] 2.49). Fifty-five caregivers (59.1%) had a score of ≥5 on the Distress Thermometer indicating distress. The state anxiety mean was 45.21 (SD 12.32) and trait anxiety mean was 41.21 (SD 10.143). Females had more distress and state anxiety than males. Only one self-efficacy scale, self-maintenance, correlated with distress. All STAI scores correlated with self-efficacy and self-maintenance had the strongest relationship. Caregivers had high anxiety and distress. Caregivers with higher anxiety reported lower self-efficacy. The strongest correlation was with the self-maintenance subscale, indicating an association with psychological functioning and caregivers who are able to access respite and take care of themselves during care provision.

  14. Association of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress in people with and without functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Adibi, Peyman; Keshteli, Ammar Hasanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pournaghshband, Nasim; Afshar, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current studies have indicated a high ratio of psychological problems in functional dyspepsia (FD) which causes disturbance in its management, so recognition these problems help the process of treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 4763 carried out in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Modified ROME III questionnaire was used to evaluate FD symptoms. Hospital anxiety and depression scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire-12 was used to assess the psychological issue. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of psychological problems and FD. Results: We showed that overly 654 (13.7%), 1338 (28.1%), and 1067 (22.4%) of participants, respectively had anxiety, depression, and of psychological distress. Seven hundred and ten (15.5%) participants were diagnosed with FD. Of all participants Mean scores of anxiety (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), and psychological distress (P < 0.001) in participants with FD were significantly more than those with no FD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that psychological problems, whether in the form of psychological distress odds ratio (OR): 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–3) and OR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.7) in males and females, respectively, anxiety OR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.5–3.9) and OR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7–3.2) in males and females, respectively) or depression OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5–3.3) and OR: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) in males and females, respectively) were significantly linked to FD in both genders. Conclusions: The prevalence of FD is less in males than females, but psychological links were stronger in males. Thus, it is essential to consider and detect the psychological distress in these patients. PMID:28217633

  15. Effect of rational and irrational statements on intensity and 'inappropriateness' of emotional distress and irrational beliefs in psychotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D; Kupshik, G

    1993-09-01

    Ellis's rational-emotive theory postulates that since irrational statements augment emotional distress, replacing irrational with rational statements should lessen distress. This hypothesis was tested in the initial stages of psychotherapy by having 13 and 14 clinical out-patients respectively repeat for one minute either rational or irrational statements about their major presenting psychological problem. The distinction by Ellis & Harper (1975) that 'inappropriate' emotions differ qualitatively from 'appropriate' emotions was also examined. Although the experimental intervention had no effect on a post-test measure of irrational beliefs, patients repeating rational statements had significantly lower appropriate and inappropriate negative emotions at post-test, suggesting that inappropriate emotions do not differ qualitatively from appropriate emotions and that making rational statements may lower emotional distress in patients. Patients reiterating irrational statements showed no change in emotions, implying that these kinds of irrational cognitions may have already been present.

  16. Anxiety, emotional distraction, and attentional control in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Derakshan, Nazanin; Usher, Marius

    2016-04-01

    Using a Stroop task, we investigated the effect of task-irrelevant emotional distractors on attentional proactive control and its interaction with trait anxiety. On the basis of recent findings showing opposed neural responses in the dorsal-executive versus the ventral-emotional systems in response to emotional distractors and of the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), we hypothesized that negative distractors will result in a reduction of proactive task control in the executive system, especially for high-trait-anxious individuals. Using a computational model of the Stroop task, we derive 2 specific behavioral predictions of reduced proactive task control: increased Stroop interference and reversed Stroop facilitation. Twenty-five high- and 25 low-trait-anxious participants completed a Stroop task in which the target stimuli were preceded by brief (neutral vs. aversive) emotional distractors. While no effects of picture valence on proactive control was found in the low-anxious group, the predicted signatures of reduced proactive control were observed in the high-anxiety group. These results indicate that trait anxiety influences the interaction between irrelevant emotional stimuli and proactive control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Improving pediatric compliance with EEG: decreasing procedural anxiety and behavioral distress.

    PubMed

    Benore, Ethan; Enlow, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Behavioral distress in EEG can be a barrier to medical care, and behavioral interventions may be a solution. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a brief intervention to decrease procedural distress during an EEG. We hypothesized that children and parents who received psychoeducation and distraction interventions would exhibit less anxiety and distress during an EEG procedure, as compared to those receiving standard care, and this would not add to EEG duration. One hundred and thirty-nine children (0-6 years) and their parents referred for routine EEGs were enrolled. Data were analyzed separately for both infants and children due to differences in the presentation of psychoeducational materials. Results demonstrated less parental anxiety and less distress vocalizations during the EEG. Interestingly, the intervention did not increase the duration of the EEG. While the data suggest positive effects, study limitations raise more questions as to the feasibility and impact of psychoeducation and distraction interventions with extended medical procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent-child interactions and children with cerebral palsy: An exploratory study investigating emotional availability, functional ability, and parent distress.

    PubMed

    Barfoot, J; Meredith, P; Ziviani, J; Whittingham, K

    2017-07-23

    Emotionally available parent-child relationships are supportive of child health and development. When a child has cerebral palsy, a range of child and parent factors can potentially impact the parent-child relationship; however, little research has specifically addressed this question. The aim of this study is to investigate links between parent-child emotional availability and both child functional abilities and parent distress in a sample of parents and children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-three mothers (mean age 37.3+/-5.7 years) and their children (mean age 4.9+/-3.3 years) with cerebral palsy completed a 20 min videoed parent-child interaction, scored using the Emotional Availability Scales. Parents also completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were conducted, and qualitative observations were made. Parent-child dyads in which the parent reported depressive symptoms scored poorer on all aspects of parent-child emotional availability. Where parents reported experiencing anxiety or stress, increased parent hostility and decreased child responsiveness was found. There was no relationship between child functional abilities and either parent distress or parent-child emotional availability. Parent sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were negatively associated with child peer problems. Both child responsiveness and child involvement were negatively associated with hyperactivity/inattention. Observations of video footage suggested that parent implementation of therapy strategies impacted negatively on parent-child emotional availability for some dyads. Findings from this study are consistent with the wider literature showing a link between parental depression and the parent-child relationship and extend this link to the cerebral palsy population. The importance of routine screening for parental mental health problems in early

  19. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed.

  20. Body image and emotional distress in newly diagnosed cancer patients: The mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes and rumination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianlin; Peh, Chao Xu; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-03-01

    Body image concerns (BIC) has been reported to be associated with emotional distress for cancers across various sites. This study sought to examine two cognitive vulnerability mechanisms: dysfunctional attitudes and rumination, and their combined effects on the relationship between BIC and emotional distress in newly diagnosed Asian cancer patients. Participants were 221 newly diagnosed adult cancer patients who were assessed on BIC, rumination, dysfunctional attitudes, and emotional distress. Path analysis was used to examine the hypothesized mediation model. The hypothesized mediation model controlling for age, sex, marital status, education level, cancer type, cancer stage, and treatment modality revealed that both dysfunctional attitudes and rumination mediated the relationship between BIC and emotional distress. The present study provides evidence for a mediating role of dysfunctional attitudes and rumination between BIC and emotional distress. Psychological treatment should target dysfunctional attitudes and rumination in cancer patients experiencing BIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Iowa Gambling Task performance and emotional distress interact to predict risky sexual behavior in individuals with dual substance and HIV diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) show emotional distress and executive impairment, but in isolation these poorly predict sexual risk. We hypothesized that an executive measure sensitive to emotional aspects of judgment (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) would identify HIV+ SDIs whose sexual risks were influenced by emotional distress. We assessed emotional distress and performance on several executive tasks in 190 HIV+ SDIs. IGT performance interacted significantly with emotional distress, such that only in better performers were distress and risk related. Our results are interpreted using the somatic marker hypothesis and indicate that the IGT identifies HIV+ SDIs for whom psychological distress influences HIV risk. PMID:20480423

  2. Iowa Gambling Task performance and emotional distress interact to predict risky sexual behavior in individuals with dual substance and HIV diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M

    2010-12-01

    HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) show emotional distress and executive impairment, but in isolation these poorly predict sexual risk. We hypothesized that an executive measure sensitive to emotional aspects of judgment (Iowa Gambling Task; IGT) would identify HIV+ SDIs whose sexual risks were influenced by emotional distress. We assessed emotional distress and performance on several executive tasks in 190 HIV+ SDIs. IGT performance interacted significantly with emotional distress, such that only in better performers were distress and risk related. Our results are interpreted using the somatic marker hypothesis and indicate that the IGT identifies HIV+ SDIs for whom psychological distress influences HIV risk.

  3. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  4. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  5. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  6. Classifying Prosocial Behavior: Children's Responses to Instrumental Need, Emotional Distress, and Material Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…

  7. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  8. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  9. Classifying Prosocial Behavior: Children's Responses to Instrumental Need, Emotional Distress, and Material Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunfield, Kristen A.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the diversity of early prosocial behavior by examining the ability of ninety-five 2- to 4-year-olds to provide aid to an adult experimenter displaying instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Children provided appropriate aid in response to each of these cues with high consistency over multiple trials. In…

  10. Relations between life satisfaction, adjustment to illness, and emotional distress in a sample of men with ischemic cardiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Angeles; Sanjuan, Pilar; Pérez-García, Ana M; Rueda, Beatriz

    2011-05-01

    Fifty-two men who had suffered a first episode ischemic heart disease reported their degree of life satisfaction, the strategies they used to adjust to the illness, and the symptoms of anxiety and depression they felt. The multiple regression analyses carried out indicated that emotional distress was associated with a lower level of life satisfaction. In the analyses of anxiety symptoms, the use of negative adjustment strategies was also a significant predictor. Lastly, a significant Life Satisfaction x Type of Adjustment interaction was obtained. According to this, the patients who felt more satisfaction with their lives used more positive strategies to adjust to the illness and fewer negative ones, than the group of patients who were less satisfied. In conclusion, life satisfaction predicts emotional wellbeing of patients with ischemic heart disease and it enhances the implementation of appropriate strategies to cope with the disease. Moreover, although life satisfaction has been considered a stable measure, we suggest it may change as the experience of illness limits individuals' important goals.

  11. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  13. Perceived cognitive deficits, emotional distress and disability following whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Hall, Erin; Bartolacci, Rosita; Sullivan, Maureen E; Adams, Heather

    2002-01-01

    To describe the pattern of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury, to examine the relation between perceived cognitive deficits and disability, and to examine the determinants of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury. A total of 81 individuals participated in the study. There were 29 patients (13 men, 16 women) with a diagnosis of whiplash, grade I or II. Patients with work-related soft-tissue injuries (n=24) and nonclinical controls (n=28) were included as comparison groups. Participants completed measures of perceived cognitive deficits, pain severity, depression, anxiety and pain-related disability. Both patient groups scored significantly higher than the nonpatient control group on the measure of perceived cognitive deficits, but did not differ significantly from each other. Perceptions of cognitive deficits were significantly correlated with pain-related disability. A hierarchical regression examining the relative contribution of anxiety, depression and pain showed that only anxiety and depression contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of perceived cognitive deficits. The potential benefits of focusing interventions on the management of anxiety and depression in the rehabilitation of patients with whiplash injuries are discussed.

  14. A new model of the role of psychological and emotional distress in promoting obesity: conceptual review with implications for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, E

    2014-09-01

    The lack of significant treatment and prevention progress highlights the need for a more expanded strategy. Given the robust association between socioeconomic factors and obesity, combined with new insights into how socioeconomic disadvantage affects both behaviour and biology, a new causal model is proposed. The model posits that psychological and emotional distress is a fundamental link between socioeconomic disadvantage and weight gain. At particular risk are children growing up in a disharmonious family environment, mainly caused by parental socioeconomic disadvantage, where they are exposed to parental frustrations, relationship discord, a lack of support and cohesion, negative belief systems, unmet emotional needs and general insecurity. Without adequate resilience, such experiences increase the risk of psychological and emotional distress, including low self-esteem and self-worth, negative emotions, negative self-belief, powerlessness, depression, anxiety, insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to stress. These inner disturbances eventually cause a psycho-emotional overload, triggering a cascade of weight gain-inducing effects including maladaptive coping strategies such as eating to suppress negative emotions, chronic stress, appetite up-regulation, low-grade inflammation and possibly reduced basal metabolism. Over time, this causes obesity, circular causality and further weight gain. Tackling these proposed root causes of weight gain could potentially improve both treatment and prevention outcomes. © 2014 The Author. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. Neural Basis of Emotional Decision Making in Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengfei; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Wu, Runguo; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although trait anxiety has been associated with risk decision making, whether it is related to risk per se or to the feeling of the risk, as well as the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, remains unclear. Using a decision-making task with a manipulation of frame (i.e., written description of options as a potential gain or loss) and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive relationship between trait anxiety and decision making. The classic framing effect was observed: participants chose the safe option when it was described as a potential gain, but they avoided the same option when it was described as a potential loss. Most importantly, trait anxiety was positively correlated with this behavioral bias. Trait anxiety was also positively correlated with amygdala-based “emotional” system activation and its coupling with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when decisions were consistent with the framing effect, but negatively correlated with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)-based “analytic” system activation and its connectivity to the vmPFC when decisions ran counter to the framing effect. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety is not associated with subjective risk preference but an evaluative bias of emotional information in decision making, underpinned by a hyperactive emotional system and a hypoactive analytic system in the brain. PMID:24259585

  16. Psychometric Properties of 7- and 30-Day Versions of the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Banks in an Australian Adult Sample.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising. All three item banks showed strong evidence of unidimensionality and parsimony, with no items showing local dependence. All items were invariant across age, gender, and education. The item banks were accurate in detecting clinical criteria for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, although legacy measures designed for this purpose sometimes performed marginally better. Responses to the 30-day time frame were highly consistent with the original 7-day time frame. The study provided support for the validity of the PROMIS emotional distress item banks as measures of depression, anxiety, and anger in the Australian population, supporting the generalizability of the measures. The time frame chosen for assessing mental health outcomes using these item banks should be based on pragmatic considerations.

  17. Relations of Inhibition and Emotion-Related Parenting to Young Children's Prosocial and Vicariously Induced Distress Behavior.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Taylor, Zoe E; Liew, Jeffrey

    2017-08-31

    Children's prosocial behavior and personal distress are likely affected by children's temperament as well as parenting quality. In this study, we examined bidirectional relations from age 30 to 42 months between children's (N = 218) prosocial or self-focused (presumably distressed) reactions to a relative stranger's distress and both supportive emotion-related maternal reactions to children's emotions and children's shyness/inhibition. When controlling for 30-month prosocial behavior and personal distress behavior, maternal supportive (emotion-focused and problem-focused) reactions were positively related to prosocial behavior and marginally negatively related to children's personal distress behaviors and shyness/inhibition at 42 months. Thirty-month personal distress behavior predicted greater shyness/inhibition at 42 months, and 30-month shyness/inhibition was negatively related to prosocial behavior at 30 months. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Does exercise habit strength moderate the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in Malaysian primary school children?

    PubMed

    Zainol, Nurul Ain; Hashim, Hairul Anuar

    2015-01-01

    We examined the moderating effects of exercise habit strength on the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in primary school children. The sample consisted of 165 primary school students (10-12 years old). Participants completed measures of emotional distress, exercise habit strength, and the Digit Span Test. Mid-year exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results of SEM revealed an acceptable fit for the hypothesised model. Exercise habit was positively associated with short-term memory, and better short-term memory was associated with better academic performance. However, although an inverse relationship was found between emotional distress and short-term memory, a positive association was found between exercise habit strength and emotional distress. The findings indicate that exercise habit is positively associated with cognitive ability and mediates the negative effect of distress.

  19. Impact of chronic disease on emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Vuotto, Stefanie C; Krull, Kevin R; Li, Chenghong; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Green, Daniel M; Patel, Sunita K; Srivastava, Deokumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Ness, Kirsten K; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Brinkman, Tara M

    2017-02-01

    The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Cardiac, pulmonary, and endocrine conditions were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03; grades 1-4). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized pathways between cancer treatment exposures, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress. Multivariable models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for associations between chronic health conditions and distress. Survivors with cardiovascular, endocrine, or pulmonary conditions were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of emotional distress symptoms. In path analyses and multivariable models, significant effects were observed between endocrine (β = .12 [P = .002] and RR, 1.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-1.6]) and pulmonary (β = .13 [P<.001] and RR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-1.7]) conditions and depression, and between cardiac (β = .13 [P = .001] and RR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.8]) and pulmonary (β = .15 [P<.001] and RR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.3-2.0]) conditions and anxiety. All treatment-related chronic health conditions were found to be associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (cardiac: β = .09 [P = .004] and RR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2-1.5]; endocrine: β = .12 [P<.001] and RR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2-1.5]; and pulmonary: β = .13 [P<.001] and RR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.6]). Chronic health conditions resulting from childhood cancer therapies contribute to emotional distress in adult survivors. Targeted mental

  20. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotion beliefs and cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    De Castella, Krista; Goldin, Philippe; Jazaieri, Hooria; Heimberg, Richard G; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), little is known about mechanisms of change in treatment. Within the context of a randomized controlled trial of CBT, this study examined patients' beliefs about the fixed versus malleable nature of anxiety-their 'implicit theories'-as a key variable in CBT for SAD. Compared to waitlist (n = 29; 58% female), CBT (n = 24; 52% female) led to significantly lower levels of fixed beliefs about anxiety (Mbaseline = 11.70 vs. MPost = 7.08, d = 1.27). These implicit beliefs indirectly explained CBT-related changes in social anxiety symptoms (κ(2) = .28, [95% CI = 0.12, 0.46]). Implicit beliefs also uniquely predicted treatment outcomes when controlling for baseline social anxiety and other kinds of maladaptive beliefs (perceived social costs, perceived social self-efficacy, and maladaptive interpersonal beliefs). Finally, implicit beliefs continued to predict social anxiety symptoms at 12 months post-treatment. These findings suggest that changes in patients' beliefs about their emotions may play an important role in CBT for SAD.

  2. A multi-modal investigation of the roles of distress tolerance and emotional reactivity in obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cougle, Jesse R; Timpano, Kiara R; Sarawgi, Shivali; Smith, Christian M; Fitch, Kristin E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging evidence implicates important roles of poor distress tolerance and heightened emotional reactivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. To date, investigations have relied mostly on self-report measures, and we sought to extend the literature by examining the relationship between OC symptoms and distress tolerance, as well as emotional reactivity, using three laboratory assessments. Nonclinical participants (N=167) viewed emotional films associated with four different negative emotions and also completed mirror tracing and handgrip persistence tasks. Greater obsessions scores were predictive of poorer emotional tolerance for a sad film and shorter persistence on the mirror tracing task. Among men only, obsessions were negatively correlated with persistence on the handgrip task. Associations between increased emotional reactivity and washing symptoms also emerged. These findings provide further evidence for the role of poor distress tolerance in obsessions and suggest heightened emotional reactivity may play a role in compulsive washing.

  3. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  4. Emotional distress regulation takes precedence over impulse control: if you feel bad, do it!

    PubMed

    Tice, D M; Bratslavsky, E; Baumeister, R F

    2001-01-01

    Why do people's impulse controls break down during emotional distress? Some theories propose that distress impairs one's motivation or one's ability to exert self-control, and some postulate self-destructive intentions arising from the moods. Contrary to those theories, Three experiments found that believing that one's bad mood was frozen (unchangeable) eliminated the tendency to eat fattening snacks (Experiment 1), seek immediate gratification (Experiment 2), and engage in frivolous procrastination (Experiment 3). The implication is that when people are upset, they indulge immediate impulses to make themselves feel better, which amounts to giving short-term affect regulation priority over other self-regulatory goals.

  5. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables. PMID:25097619

  6. Processing emotional facial expressions: The role of anxiety and awareness

    PubMed Central

    FOX, ELAINE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the role of self-reported anxiety and degree of conscious awareness as determinants of the selective processing of affective facial expressions is investigated. In two experiments, an attentional bias toward fearful facial expressions was observed, although this bias was apparent only for those reporting high levels of trait anxiety and only when the emotional face was presented in the left visual field. This pattern was especially strong when the participants were unaware of the presence of the facial stimuli. In Experiment 3, a patient with right-hemisphere brain damage and visual extinction was presented with photographs of faces and fruits on unilateral and bilateral trials. On bilateral trials, it was found that faces produced less extinction than did fruits. Moreover, faces portraying a fearful or a happy expression tended to produce less extinction than did neutral expressions. This suggests that emotional facial expressions may be less dependent on attention to achieve awareness.The implications of these results for understanding the relations between attention, emotion, and anxiety are discussed. PMID:12452584

  7. The Effects of Water Insecurity and Emotional Distress on Civic Action for Improved Water Infrastructure in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    The South African constitution ratifies water as a human right. Yet millions of citizens remain disconnected from the national water infrastructure. Drawing on data collected in 2013-2014 from women in northern South Africa, this study explores "water citizenship"-individual civic engagement related to improving water service provision. Literature indicates that water insecurity is associated with emotional distress and that water-related emotional distress influences citizen engagement. I extend these lines of research by assessing the connection that water insecurity and emotional distress may collectively have with civic engagement to improve access to water infrastructure. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  8. Divided and disconnected--an examination of youths' experiences with emotional distress within the context of their everyday lives.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily K; Johnson, Joy L; Bungay, Vicky; Kothari, Anita; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative study conducted in a rural community in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnographic methods were used to: (1) to bring youth voice to the literature on emotional distress; and (2) to capture the ways in which context shapes young peoples' experiences of emotional distress within their everyday lives. Our findings demonstrate how socio-structural contextual factors such as the local economy, geographical segregation, racism, ageism, and cutbacks in health and social service programming operate to create various forms of disconnection, and intersect in young peoples' lives to shape their experiences of emotional distress.

  9. Empathy for positive and negative emotions in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect.

  10. Testing the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in outpatients with diabetes (DiaMind): design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately 20-40% of outpatients with diabetes experience elevated levels of emotional distress, varying from disease-specific distress to general symptoms of anxiety and depression. The patient's emotional well-being is related to other unfavorable outcomes, like reduced quality of life, sub-optimal self-care, impaired glycemic control, higher risk of complications, and increased mortality rates. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a new diabetes-specific, mindfulness-based psychological intervention. First, with regard to reducing emotional distress; second, with respect to improving quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, and self-esteem of patients with diabetes; third, with regard to self-care and clinical outcomes; finally, a potential effect modification by clinical and personality characteristics will be explored. Methods/Design The Diabetes and Mindfulness study (DiaMind) is a randomized controlled trial. Patients with diabetes with low levels of emotional well-being will be recruited from outpatient diabetes clinics. Eligible patients will be randomized to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. The intervention group will receive the mindfulness program immediately, while the control group will receive the program eight months later. The primary outcome is emotional distress (anxiety, stress, depressive symptoms), for which data will be collected at baseline, four weeks, post intervention, and after six months follow-up. In addition, self-report data will be collected on quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, self-care, and personality, while complications and glycemic control will be assessed from medical files and blood pressure will be measured. Group differences will be analyzed with repeated measures analysis of covariance. The study is supported by grants from the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and Tilburg University and has been approved by a medical ethics committee

  11. Testing the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in outpatients with diabetes (DiaMind): design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J M; Pouwer, François

    2011-02-24

    Approximately 20-40% of outpatients with diabetes experience elevated levels of emotional distress, varying from disease-specific distress to general symptoms of anxiety and depression. The patient's emotional well-being is related to other unfavorable outcomes, like reduced quality of life, sub-optimal self-care, impaired glycemic control, higher risk of complications, and increased mortality rates. The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a new diabetes-specific, mindfulness-based psychological intervention. First, with regard to reducing emotional distress; second, with respect to improving quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, and self-esteem of patients with diabetes; third, with regard to self-care and clinical outcomes; finally, a potential effect modification by clinical and personality characteristics will be explored. The Diabetes and Mindfulness study (DiaMind) is a randomized controlled trial. Patients with diabetes with low levels of emotional well-being will be recruited from outpatient diabetes clinics. Eligible patients will be randomized to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. The intervention group will receive the mindfulness program immediately, while the control group will receive the program eight months later. The primary outcome is emotional distress (anxiety, stress, depressive symptoms), for which data will be collected at baseline, four weeks, post intervention, and after six months follow-up. In addition, self-report data will be collected on quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, self-care, and personality, while complications and glycemic control will be assessed from medical files and blood pressure will be measured. Group differences will be analyzed with repeated measures analysis of covariance.The study is supported by grants from the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and Tilburg University and has been approved by a medical ethics committee. It is hypothesized that emotional

  12. Why behavior analysts should study emotion: the example of anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Friman, P C; Hayes, S C; Wilson, K G

    1998-01-01

    Historically, anxiety has been a dominant subject in mainstream psychology but an incidental or even insignificant one in behavior analysis. We discuss several reasons for this discrepancy. We follow with a behavior-analytic conceptualization of anxiety that could just as easily be applied to emotion in general. Its primary points are (a) that languageable humans have an extraordinary capacity to derive relations between events and that it is a simple matter to show that neutral stimuli can acquire discriminative functions indirectly with no direct training; (b) that private events can readily acquire discriminative functions; (c) that anxiety disorders seem to occur with little apparent direct learning or that the amount of direct learning is extraordinarily out of proportion with the amount of responding; and (d) that the primary function of anxious behavior is experiential avoidance. We conclude that the most interesting aspects of anxiety disorders may occur as a function of derived rather than direct relations between public events and overt and private responses with avoidance functions. Implicit in this conclusion and explicit in the paper is the assertion that anxiety is a suitable subject for behavior-analytic study. PMID:9532758

  13. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Daniel W.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. PMID:25754194

  14. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality.

  15. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    PubMed

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.

  16. Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline

    2004-12-01

    Although the distinction between independent immigrants and refugees has an impact on policy, services, and public opinion because it implies differences in resettlement needs, few recent studies have documented the validity of this assumption. In this population-based survey of recent migrants in Quebec (N = 1871), immigration status (refugee, independent, or sponsored immigrant) is examined in relation to premigration exposure to political violence and refugees' emotional distress, assessed with the SCL-25. A higher percentage of refugees reported exposure to political violence in their homeland, but the percentages of exposed independent (48%) and sponsored (42%) immigrants were unexpectedly high. Emotional distress was significantly higher among Chinese respondents who had witnessed acts of violence and in subjects from Arab countries who reported persecution. These results suggest that service providers and policy makers should not assume that independent immigrants have not been exposed to political violence before their migration.

  17. Past victimizations and dating violence perpetration in adolescence: the mediating role of emotional distress and hostility.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Gagné, Marie-Hélène

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress. The sample was composed of 1,259 high school students aged between 14 and 19 years who answered self-report questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted according to Baron and Kenny's approach. Logistic and linear regression analyses reveal that being victim of sexual harassment by peers and of dating violence are associated to physical dating violence perpetration via a partial mediating effect of hostility in girls. Contrary to results with girls, there is a complete mediating effect of emotional distress for boys. Results suggest that dating violence prevention and intervention strategies could be adapted according to gender and that sexual harassment should be addressed.

  18. Memory and Coping with Stress: The Relationship Between Cognitive-Emotional Distinctiveness, Memory Valence, and Distress

    PubMed Central

    Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C.; Klein, Kitty

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. The first study found that lower levels of CED in memories of the September 11 terrorist attacks predicted greater frequency of intrusive thoughts about the attacks. The second study revealed CED levels are higher in negative events, in comparison to positive events and that low CED levels in emotionally intense negative events are associated with a pattern of greater event-related distress. The third study replicated the findings from the previous study when examining CED levels in participants’ memories of the 2004 Presidential election. The fourth study revealed that low CED in emotionally intense negative events is associated with worse mental health. We argue that CED is an adaptive and healthy coping feature of stressful memories. PMID:18569690

  19. Memory and coping with stress: the relationship between cognitive-emotional distinctiveness, memory valence, and distress.

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C; Klein, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. The first study found that lower levels of CED in memories of the September 11 terrorist attacks predicted greater frequency of intrusive thoughts about the attacks. The second study revealed that CED levels are higher in negative events, in comparison to positive events and that low CED levels in emotionally intense negative events are associated with a pattern of greater event-related distress. The third study replicated the findings from the previous study when examining CED levels in participants' memories of the 2004 Presidential election. The fourth study revealed that low CED in emotionally intense negative events is associated with worse mental health. We argue that CED is an adaptive and healthy coping feature of stressful memories.

  20. Emotional contagion of distress in young pigs is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor.

    PubMed

    Goumon, Sébastien; Špinka, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study tested whether emotional contagion occurs when piglets directly observe a penmate in distress (restraint) and whether there is an effect of previous experience on the response to subsequent restraint or exposure to conspecific distress. Piglets (49.7 ± 0.7 days) were exposed in pairs to two stress phases (SP1 and SP2) in an arena divided into two pens by a wire mesh wall. During SP1, one of the pigs of a pair was either restrained (Stress treatment) or sham-restrained (Control treatment), while the other pig was considered observer. During SP2, the previous observer was restrained, while its penmate took the observer role. Heart rate variability, locomotion, vocalizations, body/head/ear and tail postures were monitored. During SP1, observer pigs responded to conspecific distress with increased indicators of attention (looking at, proximity to and snout contacts with the distressed pigs) and increased indicators of fear (reduced locomotion, increased freezing). During SP2, the observer pigs that had been restrained previously reacted more strongly (through higher proximity, decreased locomotion, increased freezing) to observing the penmate in restraint than pigs without the previous negative experience. This study suggests that young pigs are susceptible to emotional contagion and that this contagion is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor. These findings have implications for pig welfare in practical animal husbandry systems.

  1. Cognitive representations of breast cancer, emotional distress and preventive health behaviour: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Decruyenaere, M; Evers-Kiebooms, G; Welkenhuysen, M; Denayer, L; Claes, E

    2000-01-01

    Individuals at high risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer are faced with difficult decisions regarding genetic testing, cancer prevention and/or intensive surveillance. Large interindividual differences exist in the uptake of these health-related services. This paper is aimed at understanding and predicting how people emotionally and behaviourally react to information concerning genetic predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer. For this purpose, the self-regulation model of illness representations is elaborated. This model suggests that health-related behaviour is influenced by a person's cognitive and emotional representation of the health threat. These representations generate coping behaviour aimed at resolving the objective health problems (problem-focussed coping) and at reducing the emotional distress induced by the health threat (emotion-focussed coping). Based on theoretical considerations and empirical studies, four interrelated attributes of the cognitive illness representation of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer are described: causal beliefs concerning the disease, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility to the disease and perceived controllability. The paper also addresses the complex interactions between these cognitive attributes, emotional distress and preventive health behaviour.

  2. Do improvements in emotional distress correlate with becoming more mindful? A study of older adults.

    PubMed

    Splevins, Kate; Smith, Alistair; Simpson, Jane

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed (1) to investigate changes in older adults' emotional wellbeing (specifically depression, anxiety and stress levels) and mindful ability following a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) course; (2) to explore correlations between mindfulness (measured as an overall ability and as individual components; observe, describe, act with awareness and accept without judgement) and changes in depression, anxiety and stress levels. Twenty-two participants took an eight-week MBCT course. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded pre- and post-intervention, as was mindfulness ability (measured both as an overall ability and as individual components). Significant improvements in emotional wellbeing and mindfulness were reported post-MBCT, with large to moderate effect sizes. Increased mindfulness was moderately and significantly associated with improved emotional wellbeing. Increases on all four components of mindfulness were positively associated with greater emotional wellbeing, however only act with awareness and accept without judgement were significantly correlated (with reduced depression). Older adults in our sample reported higher scores on observe and act with awareness than other populations. This study adds to a growing evidence-base indicating the efficacy of MBCT for depression, anxiety and stress, and extends these finding to older adults. This study found older adults to have elevated levels of certain facets of mindfulness and recommendations are made for researching the possibility that mindfulness may be an extension of the developmental process.

  3. Main and Interactive Effects of Emotion Dysregulation and Breath-Holding Duration in Relation to Panic-Relevant Fear and Expectancies about Anxiety-Related Sensations among Adult Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Charles P.; Johnson, Kirsten A.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the main and interactive effects of emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance in relation to panic-relevant variables among daily smokers. The sample consisted of 172 adults (61.2% male; Mage = 31.58, SD = 11.51), who reported smoking an average of 15.99 cigarettes per day (SD = 10.00). Results indicated that both emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance were significantly related to interoceptive fear and agoraphobia. Additionally, emotion dysregulation, but not distress tolerance, was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity. All effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by average cigarettes per day, tobacco-related physical illness, and panic attack history. The interaction between emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance significantly predicted interoceptive and agoraphobic fears as well as the cognitive component of anxiety sensitivity. Such findings underscore the importance of emotion dysregulation and distress tolerance in regard to panic-specific fear and expectancies about anxiety-related sensations among daily smokers. PMID:22119451

  4. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C; Steers, Mai-Ly N; Foster, Dawn W; Young, Chelsie M; Lu, Qian

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment.

  5. Pain and emotional distress among substance-use patients beginning treatment relative to a representative comparison group

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Katharina L.; Colditz, Jason B.; Carr, Kathryn; Asphaug, Victoria J.; McCarty, Dennis; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: A secondary analysis assessed health-related quality of life characteristics (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, and types of pain) among patients entering substance-use treatment, and identified characteristics specific to treatment modalities relative to a representative comparison group. Methods: As part of a larger alcohol bank assessment, substance-use patients (n=406) beginning methadone treatment (n=170) or other outpatient treatment (n=236) and a comparison group representative of the general population (n=1000) completed a survey measuring anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain interference, and pain in the last 7 days. Previous studies lacked comparable and concurrent assessments across these three groups. Results: Patients entering substance-use treatment had relatively high levels of emotional distress and poorer health-related quality of life relative to the general population. Among treatment modalities, patients beginning methadone treatment reported the highest levels of pain interference and pain behavior and the poorest physical functioning. Prior to the potentially modifying effects of methadone maintenance, patients beginning agonist therapy reported the greatest levels of compromised quality of life. Conclusion: These data present the magnitude of differences in health-related quality of life characteristics between treatment and comparison groups using the same assessment rubric and may help inform the design and timing of treatment modalities, thereby enhancing treatment efficacy for patients. PMID:25275876

  6. Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Data come from a school-based survey in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1,032); 10% were LGBT, 58% were female, and ages ranged from 13 to 19 years. About 45% were Black, 31% were Hispanic, and 14% were White. LGBT youth scored significantly higher on the scale of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely than heterosexual, non-transgendered youth to report suicidal ideation (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001) and self-harm (21% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001). Mediation analyses showed that perceived discrimination accounted for increased depressive symptomatology among LGBT males and females, and accounted for an elevated risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation among LGBT males. Perceived discrimination is a likely contributor to emotional distress among LGBT youth.

  7. Response expectancy versus response hope in predicting birth-related emotional distress and pain.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raluca; David, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Response expectancies and response hopes have been shown to be two distinct constructs with important implications for nonvolitional outcomes. More specifically, studies show that response expectancies: (1) are sufficient to cause nonvolitional outcomes, (2) are not mediated by other psychological variables, and (3) are self-confirming while seemingly automatic. A new programmatic research line has differentiated between people's response expectancies and their response hopes regarding nonvolitional outcomes and showed that even if response hope and response expectancy are separate constructs, they are not unrelated. These concepts have not yet been studied in pregnant women. Moreover, determining the causal factors that best explain the variance of emotional distress and pain in pregnancy is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interrelations between response expectancy and response hope in pregnant women with respect to (1) emotional distress prior to giving birth and (2) pain during giving birth. Additionally, self-reported labor hours were analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results show that response expectancy for pain directly predicts pain, and that the discrepancy between response hopes and response expectancies is a strong predictor of investigated outcomes. Thus, our results support the idea that preventive psychological interventions for pregnant women should emphasize adjusting response expectancies and response hopes regarding the pain and emotional distress associated with giving birth. We believe that the results have both theoretical and practical implications and the topic deserves further investigation.

  8. Emotional Distress Among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between LGBT status and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Data come from a school-based survey in Boston, MA (n=1,032); 10% were LGBT, 58% were female, and age ranged from 13-19 years. About 45% were Black, 31% were Hispanic, and 14% were White. LGBT youth scored significantly higher on the scale of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely than heterosexual, non-transgendered youth to report suicidal ideation (30% vs. 6%, p<0.0001) and self-harm (5% vs. 3%, p<0.0001). Mediation analyses showed that perceived discrimination accounted for increased depressive symptomatology among LGBT males and females, and accounted for an elevated risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation among LGBT males. Perceived discrimination is a likely contributor to emotional distress among LGBT youth. PMID:19636742

  9. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between organizational and incident factors and emotional distress in emergency ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul; Williams, Yvette; Page, Nicola; Hood, Kerenza; Woollard, Malcolm; Vetter, Norman

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression among emergency ambulance personnel. A questionnaire and reminder were sent anonymously to 1029 emergency ambulance personnel in a large ambulance service. Among the 617 respondents, levels of PTSD symptoms did not differ according to grade, but men had a higher prevalence rate than women. Key predictors of the severity of symptoms were organizational stress, the frequency of experiencing potentially traumatic incidents, length of service, and dissociation in response to an index incident. The degree of organizational, but not incident-related, stress discriminated between 'cases' and 'non-cases'. Nine and 23% of recorded scores indicated clinical levels of depression and anxiety respectively. Several work factors were associated with these emotions, explaining 38% of anxiety and 31% of depression scores. Both organizational and individually based interventions may be necessary to minimize PTSD and other emotional disorders among ambulance personnel.

  11. Study protocol of an RCT of EMOTION: An indicated intervention for children with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Patras, Joshua; Martinsen, Kristin Dagmar; Holen, Solveig; Sund, Anne Mari; Adolfsen, Frode; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari Potulski; Neumer, Simon-Peter

    2016-09-26

    High levels of anxiety and depression are common psychological symptoms among children and adolescents. These symptoms affect young people in multiple life domains and are possible precursors of long-term psychological distress. Despite relatively high prevalence, few children with emotional problems are referred for clinical treatment, indicating the need for systematic prevention. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate an indicated preventive intervention, EMOTION Coping Kids Managing Anxiety and Depression (EMOTION), to reduce high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. This is a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 36 schools, which are assigned to one of two conditions: (a) group cognitive behavioral intervention EMOTION or (b) treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments will be undertaken at pre-, mid - intervention, post-, and one year after intervention. The children (8-11 years old) complete self-report questionnaires. Parents and teachers report on children. The primary outcome will be changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) respectively. Secondary outcomes will be changes in self-esteem, quality of life, and school and daily functioning. Observers will assess implementation quality with ratings of fidelity based on video recordings of group leaders leading the EMOTION group sessions. The present study is an important contribution to the field regarding working with children with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results of this study will provide an indication whether or not the EMOTION program is an effective intervention for the prevention of later depression and/or anxiety in children. The study will also provide information about the EMOTION program's effect on quality of life, self-esteem, and school functioning of the children participating in the study. Finally, the project will provide insight into

  12. Self-conscious emotions in worry and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Chow, Philip I; Berenbaum, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Current theories regarding worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) highlight the potential avoidance functions of worry, and it has been suggested that worry functions to avoid self-conscious emotions in particular. Therefore, the present study examined the roles of proneness and aversion to self-conscious emotions in worry and GAD. Cross-sectional data from two samples were collected: (1) a sample of 726 undergraduates, and (2) a selected sample of 51 community members, 37.3% of whom met DSM-IV criteria for GAD. Zero-order correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations of self-conscious emotion constructs to worry and GAD. Proneness to guilt and shame (propensities for experiencing guilt and shame, respectively) were assessed via the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3. Aversion to guilt and shame (perceptions of guilt and shame, respectively, as especially painful, undesirable emotions) were assessed using the Guilt Aversion Assessment and Shame-Aversive Reactions Questionnaire, respectively. Worry was assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and GAD was assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders. Correlations indicated positive associations between self-conscious emotion constructs and worry/GAD. However, in the selected community sample, regression analyses indicated that only shame aversion was positively associated with worry/GAD, over and above all other self-conscious emotion constructs and depression. Results suggest a prominent role for an intolerance for shame in worry and GAD, which is broadly consistent with psychological models of worry. Future directions for research and clinical implications are discussed. Positive clinical implications: Evidence supporting the theorized importance of self-conscious emotions in worry and GAD. Specifically highlights the need to address intolerance for shame in treatment. Limitations: Small sample size in Study 2. Use of cross

  13. Bullying victimization and emotional distress: is there strength in numbers for vulnerable youth?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; McMorris, Barbara J; Gower, Amy L; Chatterjee, Debanjana

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines whether the prevalence of vulnerable peers in school protects the emotional health of youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or questioning (LGBQ), overweight, or have a disability, and if the adverse emotional effects of bullying victimization are mitigated by the presence of these peers. Survey data come from a large school-based sample of adolescents attending 505 schools. The primary independent variable was the percent of students in school with each vulnerability characteristic. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated the odds of internalizing problems, self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among students who were LGBQ, overweight or had a disability. Cross-level interaction terms were added to determine if the association between being victimized and emotional distress was moderated by the presence of vulnerable peers. Greater presence of similar students was, on average, protective against emotional distress for LGBQ girls and overweight boys. In contrast, greater presence of students with a disability was, on average, a risk factor among girls with a disability. Several tests of effect modification indicated that odds of emotional distress for those who had been victimized were lower in schools with a higher proportion of vulnerable youth. The presence of a similar peer group may increase the likelihood that a bystander or witness to bullying will react in a helpful way. School personnel, health care providers and other youth service professionals should inquire about social relationships at school, including experiences of harassment and perceptions of peer support, to buffer negative experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neither state or trait anxiety alter the response to distracting emotionally neutral sounds.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Robert; Hunter, Mike D; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory suggests that heightened anxiety, whether due to trait or state factors, causes an increased vulnerability to distraction even when the distracters are emotionally neutral. Recent passive oddball studies appear to support this theory in relation to the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds. However such studies have manipulated emotional state via the content of task stimuli, thus potentially confounding changes in emotion with differences in task demands. To identify the effect of anxiety on the distraction caused by emotionally neutral sounds, 50 participants completed a passive oddball task requiring emotionally neutral sounds to be ignored. Crucially, state anxiety was manipulated independent of the task stimuli (via unrelated audiovisual stimuli) thus removing confounds relating to task demands. Neither state or trait anxiety was found to influence the susceptibility to distraction by emotionally neutral sounds. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the impact of emotion on attention.

  15. Maladaptive emotion regulation is related to distressed personalities in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen; von Känel, Roland; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2012-10-01

    Cardiac patients with Type D ('distressed') personality perceive more stress. It is unclear to what extent Type D personality might represent deficits in emotion regulation that are known to play an important role in the development of mental disorders. This study evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation and Type D personality and assessed the influence of mood and stress on Type D. Emotion regulation, mood, perceived stress and Type D personality were assessed in 163 cardiac patients. Maladaptive emotional regulation was more pronounced in Type D patients. Depressed mood and perceived partner-related stress were higher in patients with Type D than in those with Non-Type D. Regression models revealed a stronger association between emotion regulation and Type D personality (odds ratio=3.16; 95% confidence interval=1.53, 6.54) than for depressed mood (odds ratio=1.19; 95% confidence interval=1.02, 1.38). Patients with deficits in emotion regulation are more likely to have Type D personality. Deficits in emotion regulation might be an agent for future intervention studies to change Type D and its prognostic effect. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Billotti, Danielle; Murphy, Vicky; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the consequences of different forms of emotion regulation. Eighty nine healthy participants viewed a distressing video of the aftermath of road traffic accidents under either suppression (of both felt and expressed affect), acceptance, or no-regulation control instructions and the immediate and longer-term consequences on emotion, mood, and memory were examined. Suppression (relative to control) led to reduced subjective experience of fear when viewing the video, but did not alter electrodermal (EDA) or heart rate (HR) response. Subsequently, suppression led to a less marked subjective emotional reaction to positive but not negative emotional images, reduced free recall memory of the video, and a greater likelihood of experiencing zero intrusions of the video's content. Acceptance (relative to control) had no impact when viewing the video, was associated with a less marked increase in EDA activity in the 5 min period immediately after viewing the video, a more marked HR deceleration and EDA response to both positive and negative images, and elevated negative affect at one week follow-up. These findings suggest, contrary to the current clinical zeitgeist, that emotion suppression can successfully lead to an ongoing down-regulation of emotion and memory, whereas acceptance may elevate subsequent emotionality. PMID:19559401

  17. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  18. Socio-economic status and emotional distress of female Turkish immigrants and native German women living in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Aichberger, M C; Bromand, Z; Heredia Montesinos, A; Temur-Erman, S; Mundt, A; Heinz, A; Rapp, M A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2012-06-01

    Many immigrants face more economic strains and hardship than non-immigrants. Income inequality and an increasing social gap between immigrants and non-immigrants in Europe warrant further studies on the impact of socioeconomic factors on health in immigrant groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of socioeconomic status (SES) and emotional distress in women of Turkish descent and in women of German descent. A total of 405 women of German or Turkish descent residing in Berlin were interviewed. Emotional distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and SES was examined by level of education, employment status, and income. The associations of emotional distress and SES were estimated in multivariate linear regression analyses. Unemployment was associated with increased levels of emotional distress in all women, with the highest level of distress in the group of unemployed Turkish women. The overall SES level was related to a greater level of emotional distress in Turkish women, but not in German women (-3.2, 95%CI -5.9 - -.5; p=.020 vs. -.8, 95%CI -2.7 - 1.2; p=.431). Further stratified analyses by relationship status revealed that the association of SES and emotional distress only remained significant among single women. The impact of socioeconomic hardship appears to be complicated by social roles and expectations related to these. Further in-depth study of the complex nature of the interaction of social roles and socioeconomic position in female Turkish immigrants in Germany is needed to better understand differing risk patterns for emotional distress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder). Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53) in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02). There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required. PMID:22799879

  20. Anxiety, Depression, and General Psychological Distress in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Şahan, Ebru; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Çanga, Yiğit; Güngör, Barış; Onuk, Tolga; İpek, Göktürk; Çakıllı, Yasin; Arugaslan, Emre; Bolca, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between psychiatric illness and heart disease has been frequently discussed in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress, and coronary slow flow (CSF). Methods In total, 44 patients with CSF and a control group of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA) were prospectively recruited. Clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and echocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were recorded. Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scales were administered to each patient. Results The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and atherosclerotic risk factors. In the CSF group, BAI score, BDI score, and general symptom index were significantly higher than controls (13 [18.7] vs. 7.5 [7], p = 0.01; 11 [14.7] vs. 6.5 [7], p = 0.01; 1.76 [0.81] vs. 1.1[0.24], p = 0.01; respectively). Patients with CSF in more than one vessel had the highest test scores. In univariate correlation analysis, mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame counts were positively correlated with BAI (r = 0.56, p = 0.01), BDI (r = 0.47, p = 0.01), and general symptom index (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). The psychiatric tests were not correlated with risk factors for atherosclerosis. Conclusion Our study revealed higher rates of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress in patients with CSF. This conclusion warrants further studies. PMID:26559983

  1. Predicting changes in quality of life and emotional distress in Chinese patients with lung, gastric, and colon-rectal cancer diagnoses: the role of psychological resilience.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Li, Peng Fei; Liang, Mu Zi; Zhu, Yun Fei; Zeng, Zhen; Hu, Guang Yun; Wang, Shu Ni; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2017-06-01

    Patients with cancer often experience considerable emotional distress, which decreases their quality of life (QOL). Resilience is defined as the psychological characteristics that promote positive adaptation in the face of stress and adversity; however, the relationships among QOL, resilience, and emotional distress in patients with cancer, especially Chinese patients with cancer, are under-researched in the literature. Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 items, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were applied in this study. Univariate correlated analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to test the associations among resilience, emotional distress, and QOL with a sample of 276 participants. A Sobel test was conducted to determine whether the indirect effect of resilience was significant. The mean ratings of QOL (59.2), resilience (20.8), anxiety (43.1), and depression (47.7) were reported. The correlations between resilience and QOL in patients with lung cancer were significantly increased compared with patients with gastric or colorectal cancer (Spearman coefficient squares of 0.284, 0.189, and 0.227, respectively). The highest quartile of the resilience level was associated with a 64% (odds ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.75, P = .006), 70% (odds ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.63), and 90% (odds ratio = 0.10, 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.26, P < .001) reduction in the risk of emotional distress compared with the lowest quartile. The Sobel test indicated a buffering effect of resilience that was significant for depression (Sobel value = 2.002, P = .045) but not anxiety (Sobel value = 1.336, P = .182). The present study suggests that psychological resilience is positively associated with QOL and may comprise a robust buffer between depression and QOL in Chinese patients with cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Crossed views of burden and emotional distress of cancer patients and family caregivers during palliative care.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Tanguy; Fournier, Emmanuelle; Penel, Nicolas; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    Studies regarding natural caregivers' burden (CB) in palliative situations, as well as its determinants and consequences, have been numerous during the last 20 years. Yet, studies regarding how terminally ill cancer patients perceive their CB (self-perceived burden, SPB) are less common. This study aims to assess the links between CB and SPB evaluated by means of the very same items. It also aims at identifying the determinants of potential differences between CB and SPB and their consequences on emotional distress among both members of the dyad. Sixty cancer patients from a palliative care unit and their principal natural caregiver completed questionnaires concerning the subjective burden of the caregiver, their own personal emotional distress and that of the other member of the dyad. Globally, patients had a good perception of their CB, although a little overestimated, except for their difficulties in managing their time. Caregivers overestimated patients' distress. The minimisation by patients of CB was a source of emotional distress for the latter, and the perception of being a burden to others was a source of depression for patients. These results did not depend on the nature of the relationship between patients and their caregivers. This data confirmed the need to study the experiences of the patient-caregiver dyad as well as their communication of their respective experiences, with a prospect to offer clinical interventions to optimise the quality of life and health of patients and their close relatives.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Skydiving as emotion regulation: the rise and fall of anxiety is moderated by alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Tim; Cazenave, Nicolas; Le Scanff, Christine

    2008-06-01

    We investigated alexithymia and the fluctuation of anxiety in skydiving women. Alexithymia significantly moderated the pre- to postjump fluctuation of state anxiety such that only alexithymic skydivers' anxiety diminished as a consequence of performing a skydive. This suggests that skydiving is an effective means of emotion regulation for alexithymic women. However, the significant rise in anxiety shortly after landing suggests that any emotional benefits are short-lived. No anxiety fluctuations emerged for nonalexithymic skydivers. The Alexithymia x Time interaction remained significant when controlling for age, experience, and trait anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential dependence on risk-taking activities for alexithymic women.

  4. Trajectories of Change in Emotion Regulation and Social Anxiety During Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Lee, Ihno; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) may decrease social anxiety by training emotion regulation skills. This randomized controlled trial of CBT for SAD examined changes in weekly frequency and success of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, as well as weekly intensity of social anxiety among patients receiving 16 weekly sessions of individual CBT. We expected these variables to (1) differ from pre-to-post-CBT vs. Waitlist, (2) have differential trajectories during CBT, and (3) covary during CBT. We also expected that weekly changes in emotion regulation would predict (4) subsequent weekly changes in social anxiety, and (5) changes in social anxiety both during and post-CBT. Compared to Waitlist, CBT increased cognitive reappraisal frequency and success, decreased social anxiety, but had no impact on expressive suppression. During CBT, weekly cognitive reappraisal frequency and success increased, whereas weekly expressive suppression frequency and social anxiety decreased. Weekly decreases in social anxiety were associated with concurrent increases in reappraisal success and decreases in suppression frequency. Granger causality analysis showed that only reappraisal success increases predicted decreases in subsequent social anxiety during CBT. Reappraisal success increases pre-to-post-CBT predicted reductions in social anxiety symptom severity post-CBT. The trajectory of weekly changes in emotion regulation strategies may help clinicians understand whether CBT is effective and predict decreases in social anxiety. PMID:24632110

  5. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  6. Pathways to social anxiety: the role of reinforcement sensitivities and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-12-30

    Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety.

  7. Patient distress and emotional disclosure: a study of Chinese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Yan; Gao, Hui; Peng, Jingjing; Tan, Yong; Li, Yan

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted to extend research on the reluctance for emotional disclosure to Chinese patients with a variety of types of cancer. A quantitative survey was conducted among 400 cancer patients in China. Statistical analysis revealed that among four confirmed factors on reluctance for emotional disclosure to physicians, no perceived need scored highest, followed by unwillingness to bother, no practical use, and fear of negative impact. Patient distress was negatively associated with no perceived need and no practical use. Patients with low family support scored significantly lower in all factors except fear of negative impact. Education and income affected the factor of no perceived need. Those patients having limited family support and limited education indicated a higher need for emotional support from their physicians and were more likely to open up to them. Cultural traits should be integrated into supportive cancer care research.

  8. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    PubMed

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification.

  9. Specificity of emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety: an internet study.

    PubMed

    Rusch, Silke; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2012-09-01

    There is evidence for an association between social anxiety and emotion regulation difficulties. This study investigates that emotion regulation difficulties are specific to two domains of social anxiety. An explorative study was conducted to examine the associations between emotion regulation facets and social anxiety in the normal population. N= 149 healthy volunteers participated in an internet-based survey. Emotion regulation deficits were measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale which consists of six subscales. Social anxiety was measured by the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that anxiety of interactive social situations is associated with non-acceptance of negative emotions, impulse control difficulties, and lack of functional emotion regulation strategies over and above the impact of age and general psychopathology. In contrast, anxiety of being observed by others was not specifically associated with emotion regulation strategies. The results support the hypothesis that specific emotion regulation deficits are relevant to specific aspects of social anxiety. Implications for further research and therapy are discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Associations of Emotional Distress and Perceived Health in Persons With Atrial Fibrillation and Their Partners Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-08-01

    Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Parents of children with cancer: a longitudinal study of emotional distress, coping style, and marital adjustment two and twenty months after diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, L M; Czyzewski, D I; Jones, C L

    1996-08-01

    Evaluated emotional distress, coping style, and marital adjustment in 84 parents (42 couples) of children with cancer 2 months after diagnosis and again about 20 months after diagnosis. As expected, mothers' mean state anxiety and trait anxiety scores decreased to near normal levels over time. Fathers' scores were lower initially and did not change. Neither mothers' nor fathers' mean marital adjustment scores changed over time. Marital adjustment at treatment follow-up was predicted by depression and the spouse's marital satisfaction in mothers, and depression, child health status, and spouse's marital satisfaction in fathers. In contrast to findings obtained 2 months after diagnosis, coping style was not related to marital adjustment at follow-up. Results are discussed in terms of possible gender differences in the role of social support in marital adjustment and the stability versus situational specificity of coping styles.

  12. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Johanna Özlem; Naumann, Eva; Holmes, Emily Alexandra; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Samson, Andrea Christiane

    2017-02-01

    The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.

  13. Impaired attribution of emotion to facial expressions in anxiety and major depression.

    PubMed

    Demenescu, Liliana R; Kortekaas, Rudie; den Boer, Johan A; Aleman, André

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety disorders. There is a need to review and integrate the published literature on emotional expression recognition in anxiety disorders and major depression. A detailed literature search was used to identify studies on explicit emotion recognition in patients with anxiety disorders and major depression compared to healthy participants. Eighteen studies provided sufficient information to be included. The differences on emotion recognition impairment between patients and controls (Cohen's d) with corresponding confidence intervals were computed for each study. Over all studies, adults with anxiety disorders had a significant impairment in emotion recognition (d = -0.35). In children with anxiety disorders no significant impairment of emotion recognition was found (d = -0.03). Major depression was associated with an even larger impairment in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (d = -0.58). Results from the current analysis support the hypothesis that adults with anxiety disorders or major depression both have a deficit in recognizing facial expression of emotions, and that this deficit is more pronounced in major depression than in anxiety.

  14. Impaired Attribution of Emotion to Facial Expressions in Anxiety and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Demenescu, Liliana R.; Kortekaas, Rudie; den Boer, Johan A.; Aleman, André

    2010-01-01

    Background Recognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety disorders. There is a need to review and integrate the published literature on emotional expression recognition in anxiety disorders and major depression. Methodology/Principal Findings A detailed literature search was used to identify studies on explicit emotion recognition in patients with anxiety disorders and major depression compared to healthy participants. Eighteen studies provided sufficient information to be included. The differences on emotion recognition impairment between patients and controls (Cohen's d) with corresponding confidence intervals were computed for each study. Over all studies, adults with anxiety disorders had a significant impairment in emotion recognition (d = −0.35). In children with anxiety disorders no significant impairment of emotion recognition was found (d = −0.03). Major depression was associated with an even larger impairment in recognition of facial expressions of emotion (d = −0.58). Conclusions/Significance Results from the current analysis support the hypothesis that adults with anxiety disorders or major depression both have a deficit in recognizing facial expression of emotions, and that this deficit is more pronounced in major depression than in anxiety. PMID:21152015

  15. Perfectionism and negative/positive affect associations: the role of cognitive emotion regulation and perceived distress/coping.

    PubMed

    Castro, Juliana; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana T; Macedo, António

    2017-01-01

    To explore 1) if perfectionism, perceived distress/coping, and cognitive emotion regulation (CER) are associated with and predictive of negative/positive affect (NA/PA); and 2) if CER and perceived distress/coping are associated with perfectionism and if they mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations. There is a distinction between maladaptive and adaptive perfectionism in its association with NA/PA. CER and perceived distress/coping may mediate the maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and NA/PA associations. 344 students (68.4% girls) completed the Hewitt & Flett and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales, the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. NA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive CER and perceived distress (positively), positive reappraisal and planning, and perceived coping (negatively). PA predictors were maladaptive/adaptive perfectionism and perceived distress (negatively), positive reappraisal and planning, positive refocusing and perceived coping (positively). The association between maladaptive perfectionism and NA was mediated by maladaptive CER/low adaptive CER, perceived distress/low coping. Maladaptive perfectionism and low PA association was mediated by perceived distress. High PA was determined by low maladaptive perfectionism and this association was mediated by adaptive REC and coping. Adaptive perfectionism and NA association was mediated by maladaptive CER and perceived distress. CER and perceived distress/coping are associated and mediate the perfectionism-NA/PA associations.

  16. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  17. Childhood Emotional Invalidation and Adult Psychological Distress: The Mediating Role of Emotional Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Elizabeth D.; Mendelson, Tamar; Lynch, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Adults (n=127) completed a series of self-report questionnaires and 88 completed an additional measure of current avoidant coping in response to a laboratory stressor. Findings strongly supported a model in which a history of childhood emotional invalidation was associated with chronic emotional inhibition in adulthood. (Contains references.)…

  18. Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity.

    PubMed

    Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships.

  19. Assessment of nuclear anxiety among American students: Stability over time, secular trends, and emotional correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, M.D.

    1989-10-01

    Studies of reactions and attitudes toward nuclear war have progressed from the use of anecdotal evidence to multi-item psychological measures. Additional psychometric data and substantive results of the Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ; Newcomb, 1986) are reported here. Data from three independent samples of students from the United States collected in 1984, 1986, and 1987 were compared and contrasted. The 1986 data were obtained immediately following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Test-retest reliability of the NAQ items and subscales was quite high and comparable among samples and established the across-time stability of the measure. There were several secular trends across years on items and subscales, indicating some increased concern about nuclear power (particularly in 1986), but also a general increase in nuclear concerns, fears, and anxiety. Anticipated sex differences were found on many of the NAQ items and subscales. Correlations between the NAQ subscales and the nine SCL-90-R scales (Derogatis, 1977) were consistent for the 1986 and 1987 samples. In latent variable analyses, a general factor of Emotional Distress was significantly correlated with a general factor of Nuclear Anxiety, as well as specifically with nuclear concern and fear for the future.

  20. Sexual Assault Disclosure Recipients' Experiences: Emotional Distress and Changes in the Relationship With the Victim.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Jennifer; Paul, Lisa A; Sasson, Sapir; Porter, Abigail; Hasulube, Jemi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual assault victims are more likely to disclose their experience to friends and family than formal support sources (e.g., police, counselors). As such, disclosure receipt is a relatively common occurrence, but little is known about the recipients' disclosure experience. This study examined predictors of recipient emotional distress and positive and negative changes in the victim-recipient relationship postdisclosure among 69 female undergraduates at 3 universities. Predictors of distress included greater self-rated closeness to the victim and greater confusion about how to help. Positive changes were predicted by greater closeness and less responsibility attributed to the victim, and negative changes were predicted by less closeness, greater assigned responsibility, and greater perceived ineffectiveness of one's help. Implications for improving the disclosure experience via psychoeducational interventions are presented.

  1. Anxiety, emotional security and the interpersonal behavior of individuals with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Russell, J J; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, D C; Bleau, P; Pinard, G; Young, S N

    2011-03-01

    Interpersonal functioning is central to social anxiety disorder (SAD). Empirical examinations of interpersonal behaviors in individuals with SAD have frequently relied on analogue samples, global retrospective reports and laboratory observation. Moreover, research has focused on avoidance and safety behaviors, neglecting potential links between SAD and affiliative behaviors. The influence of situational anxiety and emotional security on interpersonal behaviors was examined for individuals with SAD (n=40) and matched normal controls (n=40). Participants monitored their behavior and affect in naturally occurring social interactions using an event-contingent recording procedure. Individuals with SAD reported higher levels of submissive behavior and lower levels of dominant behavior relative to controls. Consistent with cognitive-behavioral and evolutionary theories, elevated anxiety in specific events predicted increased submissiveness among individuals with SAD. Consistent with attachment theory, elevations in event-level emotional security were associated with increased affiliative behaviors (increased agreeable behavior and decreased quarrelsome behavior) among members of the SAD group. Results were not accounted for by concurrent elevations in sadness or between-group differences in the distribution of social partners. These findings are consistent with predictions based on several theoretical perspectives. Further, the present research documents naturally occurring interpersonal patterns of individuals with SAD and identifies conditions under which these individuals may view social interactions as opportunities for interpersonal connectedness.

  2. Neural Correlates of Emotional Interference in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients’ interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738

  3. Just Breathe: The Effects of Emotional Dysregulation and Test Anxiety on GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Samantha D.; Wasieleski, David T.; Whatley, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    College is considered to be one of the most evaluative and stressful times during a student's academic career. A student's inability to regulate emotions may be correlated with an increased level of test anxiety. Previous research has indicated significant relationships between emotional dysregulation and generalized anxiety disorders (e.g.,…

  4. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  5. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  6. Initial Study Using Fixed Role and Rational Emotive Therapy in Treating Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Thomas O.; Trexler, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    College students reporting high levels of public speaking anxiety received fixed role, or rational emotive group therapy, or no therapy. Support for the hypothesis that treatment would reduce anxiety more than no treatment was secured. Results lend support to the assumption that psychotherapy is effective in reducing emotional disorders, and that…

  7. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  8. Initial Study Using Fixed Role and Rational Emotive Therapy in Treating Public Speaking Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Thomas O.; Trexler, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    College students reporting high levels of public speaking anxiety received fixed role, or rational emotive group therapy, or no therapy. Support for the hypothesis that treatment would reduce anxiety more than no treatment was secured. Results lend support to the assumption that psychotherapy is effective in reducing emotional disorders, and that…

  9. Emotional exhaustion and distress among nurses: how important are AIDS-care specific factors?

    PubMed

    van Servellen, G; Leake, B

    1994-01-01

    This study describes distress symptomatology and levels of job-related exhaustion in a sample of 153 hospital nurses currently caring for AIDS patients. While the level of emotional exhaustion in the sample was not alarmingly high, these nurses did report symptoms of distress. Levels of emotional exhaustion were related to a variety of personal demographic, AIDS-specific, and job-related factors. These factors included: age, income, years of practice on the unit, recent change in shift, type of unit, discomfort caring for AIDS patients, willingness to continue caring for AIDS patients, number of AIDS patients cared for, job tension, job influence, and enthusiasm about returning to work. Regression analysis indicated, however, that six general job-related factors accounted for about 46% of the variation in emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that general job-related factors such as 8-hour shifts, changing shifts, level of job tension, and other factors characterizing all hospital care are particularly worthy of future study.

  10. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; Mage=23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Hanson, Karen L.; Lejuez, C.W.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT-C) Computer Version to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Methods Participants, ages 16–18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically-matched, non-drinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at three time points: HED were first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over four subsequent weeks of monitored abstinence. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. Results Findings indicate that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk for escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. PMID:24818520

  12. Is the effect of coping styles disease specific? Relationships with emotional distress and quality of life in acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brands, Ingrid; Bol, Yvonne; Stapert, Sven; Köhler, Sebastian; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the use of coping styles and the relationships linking coping to emotional distress and quality of life in patients with acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis. Cross-sectional cohort study of 143 patients with acquired brain injury and 310 patients with multiple sclerosis in the chronic stage. Quality of life was measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9), coping styles with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS-T, task-oriented; CISS-E, emotion-oriented; CISS-A, avoidance), emotional distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Coping styles did not differ between types of multiple sclerosis and varied only little with regard to severity of disease. In both patient groups, task-oriented coping was most used followed by avoidance and emotion-oriented coping. Patients with multiple sclerosis used all styles to a greater extent. In acquired brain injury, lower CISS-E and lower HADS scores were associated with higher LiSat-9 scores. CISS-E had a direct effect on LiSat-9 and an indirect effect via HADS. In multiple sclerosis, next to lower CISS-E and lower HADS scores, higher CISS-A scores were also associated with higher LiSat-9 scores. CISS-E had an indirect effect and CISS-A had a direct and indirect effect on LiSat-9. In both patient groups, coping patterns are similar, and emotion-oriented coping negatively influences quality of life. Additionally, in multiple sclerosis, seeking emotional support and distraction (CISS-A) was positively associated with quality of life. Interventions to improve adaptive coping could be organized within a neurorehabilitation setting for both patient groups together.

  13. The Development of Anxiety Disorders: Considering the Contributions of Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety…

  14. Delineating Components of Emotion and Its Dysregulation in Anxiety and Mood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennin, Douglas S.; Holaway, Robert M.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies sought to elucidate the components of emotion and its dysregulation and examine their role in both the overlap and distinctness of the symptoms of 3 highly comorbid anxiety and mood disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and social anxiety disorder). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that 4…

  15. The Development of Anxiety Disorders: Considering the Contributions of Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety…

  16. Delineating Components of Emotion and Its Dysregulation in Anxiety and Mood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennin, Douglas S.; Holaway, Robert M.; Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies sought to elucidate the components of emotion and its dysregulation and examine their role in both the overlap and distinctness of the symptoms of 3 highly comorbid anxiety and mood disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, and social anxiety disorder). In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that 4…

  17. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0–30 and 60–150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state. PMID:25540618

  18. Comparison of EEG propagation speeds under emotional stimuli on smartphone between the different anxiety states.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Ayumi; Hayashi, Takuto; Urata, Tatsuya; Taya, Masato; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of different anxiety states on information processing as measured by an electroencephalography (EEG) using emotional stimuli on a smartphone. Twenty-three healthy subjects were assessed for their anxiety states using The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and divided into two groups: low anxiety (I, II) or high anxiety (III and IV, V). An EEG was performed while the participant was presented with emotionally laden audiovisual stimuli (resting, pleasant, and unpleasant sessions) and emotionally laden sentence stimuli (pleasant sentence, unpleasant sentence sessions) and EEG data was analyzed using propagation speed analysis. The propagation speed of the low anxiety group at the medial coronal for resting stimuli for all time segments was higher than those of high anxiety group. The low anxiety group propagation speeds at the medial sagittal for unpleasant stimuli in the 0-30 and 60-150 s time frames were higher than those of high anxiety group. The propagation speeds at 150 s for all stimuli in the low anxiety group were significantly higher than the correspondent propagation speeds of the high anxiety group. These events suggest that neural information processes concerning emotional stimuli differ based on current anxiety state.

  19. Internet Gaming Disorder Explains Unique Variance in Psychological Distress and Disability After Controlling for Comorbid Depression, OCD, ADHD, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Benjamin T D; McEvoy, Peter M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2017-02-01

    This study extends knowledge about the relationship of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) to other established mental disorders by exploring comorbidities with anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and assessing whether IGD accounts for unique variance in distress and disability. An online survey was completed by a convenience sample that engages in Internet gaming (N = 404). Participants meeting criteria for IGD based on the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9) reported higher comorbidity with depression, OCD, ADHD, and anxiety compared with those who did not meet the IGD criteria. IGD explained a small proportion of unique variance in distress (1%) and disability (3%). IGD accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in disability than anxiety and ADHD, and a similar proportion to depression. Replications with clinical samples using longitudinal designs and structured diagnostic interviews are required.

  20. Perceived hunger mediates the relationship between attachment anxiety and emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I

    2013-08-01

    Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger.

  1. Associations between social anxiety and emotional intelligence within clinically depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Nolidin, Karen; Downey, Luke A; Hansen, Karen; Schweitzer, Issac; Stough, Con

    2013-12-01

    Impairments in emotional intelligence (EI) have been found in individuals with high general and social anxiety; however, no studies have examined this relationship in a clinically depressed population. Thirty-one patients (11 male, 20 female) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major affective disorder and 28 non-clinical controls (5 male, 23 female) completed self-report instruments assessing EI, depression and social anxiety. Compared to a control group, the clinical group scored lower on the EI dimensions of Emotional Recognition and Expression, Understanding Emotions, Emotional Management, and Emotional Control. Regression analyses revealed Emotional Control was a significant predictor of interaction, performance, and generalised social anxiety. Self-report measures of EI may have predictive value in terms of early identification of those at risk of developing social anxiety and depression. The current study points to the potential value of conducting further studies of a prospective nature.

  2. Positive and negative emotion prospectively predict trajectories of resilience and distress among high-exposure police officers.

    PubMed

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Brown, Adam D; Henn-Haase, Clare; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C; Marmar, Charles R

    2013-06-01

    Responses to both potentially traumatic events and other significant life stressors have been shown to conform to discrete patterns of response such as resilience, anticipatory stress, initial distress with gradual recovery, and chronic distress. The etiology of these trajectories is still unclear. Individual differences in levels of negative and positive emotion are believed to play a role in determining risk and resilience following traumatic exposure. In the current investigation, we followed police officers prospectively from academy training through 48 months of active duty, assessing levels of distress every 12 months. Using latent class growth analysis, we identified 4 trajectories closely conforming to prototypical patterns. Furthermore, we found that lower levels of self-reported negative emotion during academy training prospectively predicted membership in the resilient trajectory compared with the more symptomatic trajectories following the initiation of active duty, whereas higher levels of positive emotion during academy training differentiated resilience from a trajectory that was equivalently low on distress during academy training but consistently grew in distress through 4 years of active duty. These findings emerging from a prospective longitudinal design provide evidence that resilience is predicted by both lower levels of negative emotion and higher levels of positive emotion prior to active duty stressor exposure.

  3. Water insecurity and emotional distress: coping with supply, access, and seasonal variability of water in a Bolivian squatter settlement.

    PubMed

    Wutich, Amber; Ragsdale, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Recent research suggests that insecure access to key resources is associated with negative mental health outcomes. Many of these studies focus on drought and famine in agricultural, pastoral, and foraging communities, and indicate that food insecurity mediates the link between water insecurity and emotional distress. The present study is the first to systematically examine intra-community patterns of water insecurity in an urban setting. In 2004-2005, we collected interview data from a random sample of 72 household heads in Villa Israel, a squatter settlement of Cochabamba, Bolivia. We examined the extent to which water-related emotional distress is linked with three dimensions of water insecurity: inadequate water supply; insufficient access to water distribution systems; and dependence on seasonal water sources, and with gender. We found that access to water distribution systems and female gender were significantly associated with emotional distress, while water supply and dependence on seasonal water sources were not. Economic assets, social assets, entitlements to water markets, and entitlements to reciprocal exchanges of water were significantly associated with emotional distress, while entitlements to a common-pool water resource institution were not. These results suggest that water-related emotional distress develops as a byproduct of the social and economic negotiations people employ to gain access to water distribution systems in the absence of clear procedures or established water rights rather than as a result of water scarcity per se.

  4. EXPLORATION OF ANXIETY SENSITIVITY AND DISTRESS TOLERANCE AS VULNERABILITY FACTORS FOR HOARDING BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Timpano, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.; Richey, J. Anthony; Murphy, Dennis L.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The phenomenon of compulsive hoarding, characterized by the acquisition of and failure to discard a large number of possessions, is increasingly recognized as a significant public health burden. Despite the magnitude of the impairment associated with this condition, empirical research is still in the nascent stages and many facets of the phenomenology, underlying vulnerability and risk factors for hoarding, are as of yet unknown. Method The overall aim of the current investigation was to examine the association between hoarding behaviors and two potential vulnerability factors—anxiety sensitivity (AS) and distress tolerance (DT). In addition, we investigated the robustness of these associations as well as the interaction between the two hypothesized risk factors. Three studies (total N = 745) involving independent nonclinical samples assessed hoarding, AS, DT, and relevant covariates using a range of measures. Results Findings revealed that AS and hoarding are significantly and robustly associated with one another beyond general depressive, anxiety, and nonhoarding obsessive—compulsive symptoms. Hoarding was also found to be associated with low DT. Consistent with prediction, AS and DT interacted such that DT may play a less important role among individuals with low AS. By contrast, low DT appears to increase vulnerability to hoarding symptoms among individuals high in AS. Results are discussed with regard to future research and treatment implications. PMID:19123454

  5. Psychophysiological and self-reported reactivity associated with social anxiety and public speaking fear symptoms: Effects of fear versus distress.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Dora; Constantinou, Elena; Paraskeva-Siamata, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined standardized anxiety situations, including social anxiety and animal fear scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher during social anxiety imagery. Public speaking fear was associated with increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity associated with social anxiety could be attributed to depression levels, while the specificity associated with public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also depression and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally-oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially-diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Method Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African-American; 59% female; Mean age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, while intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally-oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally-oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence, and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety. PMID:23534812

  7. Emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and depressive versus anxiety symptoms during adolescence: hopelessness as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We expanded on past research by examining hopelessness as a mediator of the relationships between these interpersonal stressors and symptoms. Participants included 225 adolescents (55% African American; 59% female; M age = 12.84 years) who completed measures at baseline (Time 1) and two follow-up assessments (Times 2 and 3). Symptoms of depression and anxiety (social, physical, total) were assessed at Time 1 and Time 3, whereas intervening emotional maltreatment, peer victimization, and hopelessness were assessed at Time 2. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that emotional abuse was a nonspecific predictor of increases in both depressive symptoms and symptoms of social, physical, and total anxiety, whereas relationally oriented peer victimization predicted depressive symptoms specifically. Emotional neglect did not predict increases in depressive or anxiety symptoms. In addition, hopelessness mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and increases in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. These findings suggest that emotional abuse and relationally oriented peer victimization are interpersonal stressors that are relevant to the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence and that hopelessness may be one mechanism through which emotional abuse contributes to an increased risk of depression and social anxiety.

  8. Association between Level of Emotional Intelligence and Severity of Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R.J.R.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, Karina S.

    2008-01-01

    Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP. PMID:18439799

  9. Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S

    2008-12-01

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.

  10. An Investigation of Experiential Avoidance, Emotion Dysregulation, and Distress Tolerance in Young Adult Outpatients with Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Follette, Victoria M.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated three domains of emotional functioning—emotion dysregulation, distress tolerance and experiential avoidance—in young adult outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method Participants were 40 young adult outpatients at a university counseling center who reported current suicidal ideation and met diagnostic criteria for BPD or experienced subthreshold BPD symptoms (i.e., met diagnostic criteria for 3 or 4 symptoms). Participants completed three self-report measures of emotional functioning—experiential avoidance (AAQ-II), emotion dysregulation (DERS), and distress tolerance (DTS)—and a behavioral measure of distress tolerance (PASAT-C) in addition to self-report measures of depression and BPD symptom severity. Results Partial correlations demonstrated that both emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance were significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after accounting for depression. However, neither the self-report or behavioral measures of distress tolerance were related to BPD symptom severity. A regression analysis with emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance as independent variables revealed that only experiential avoidance was significantly associated with BPD symptom severity after controlling for depression symptoms. Conclusion The current findings suggest that experiential avoidance may be a central process in BPD symptom severity. Future research directions are discussed. PMID:22452755

  11. Effect of anxiety on memory for emotional information in older adults.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sara; Montorio, Ignacio; Cabrera, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have shown that anxiety is associated with a better memory of negative events. However, this anxiety-related memory bias has not been studied in the elderly, in which there is a preferential processing of positive information. To study the effect of anxiety in a recognition task and an autobiographical memory task in 102 older adults with high and low levels of trait anxiety. Negative, positive and neutral pictures were used in the recognition task. In the autobiographical memory task, memories of the participants' lives were recorded, how they felt when thinking about them, and the personal relevance of these memories. In the recognition task, no anxiety-related bias was found toward negative information. Individuals with high trait anxiety were found to remember less positive pictures than those with low trait anxiety. In the autobiographical memory task, both groups remembered negative and positive events equally. However, people with high trait anxiety remembered life experiences with more negative emotions, especially when remembering negative events. Individuals with low trait anxiety tended to feel more positive emotions when remembering their life experiences and most of these referred to feeling positive emotions when remembering negative events. Older adults with anxiety tend to recognize less positive information and to present more negative emotions when remembering life events; while individuals without anxiety have a more positive experience of negative memories.

  12. Hours of sleep in adolescents and its association with anxiety, emotional concerns, and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Carli, Vladimir; Iosue, Miriam; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Keeley, Helen; Keresztény, Agnes; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Mars, Urša; Saiz, Pilar A; Varnik, Peter; Sisask, Merike; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    Anxiety and concerns in daily life may result in sleep problems and consistent evidence suggests that inadequate sleep has several negative consequences on cognitive performance, physical activity, and health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between mean hours of sleep per night, psychologic distress, and behavioral concerns. A cross-sectional analysis of the correlation between the number of hours of sleep per night and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (Z-SAS), the Paykel Suicidal Scale (PSS), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was performed on 11,788 pupils (mean age±standard deviation [SD], 14.9±0.9; 55.8% girls) from 11 different European countries enrolled in the SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) project. The mean number of reported hours of sleep per night during school days was 7.7 (SD, ±1.3), with moderate differences across countries (r=0.06; P<.001). A reduced number of sleeping hours (less than the average) was more common in girls (β=0.10 controlling for age) and older pupils (β=0.10 controlling for sex). Reduced sleep was found to be associated with increased scores on SDQ subscales of emotional (β=-0.13) and peer-related problems (β=-0.06), conduct (β=-0.07), total SDQ score (β=-0.07), anxiety (Z-SAS scores, β=-10), and suicidal ideation (PSS, β=-0.16). In a multivariate model including all significant variables, older age, emotional and peer-related problems, and suicidal ideation were the variables most strongly associated with reduced sleep hours, though female gender, conduct problems measured by the SDQ, and anxiety only showed modest effects (β=0.03-0.04). Our study supports evidence that reduced hours of sleep are associated with potentially severe mental health problems in adolescents. Because sleep problems are common among adolescents partly due to maturational processes and changes in sleep patterns, parents, other adults, and adolescents should pay more attention to

  13. The Influence of Emotional Stimuli on Attention Orienting and Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Hardin, Michael G.; Mogg, Karin; Benson, Valerie; Bradley, Brendan P.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Liversedge, Simon P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and are associated with aberrant emotion-related attention orienting and inhibitory control. While recent studies conducted with high-trait anxious adults have employed novel emotion-modified antisaccade tasks to examine the influence of emotional information on…

  14. Quality of life and emotional distress in early stage and locally advanced cervical cancer patients: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ferrandina, Gabriella; Mantegna, Giovanna; Petrillo, Marco; Fuoco, Gilda; Venditti, Laura; Terzano, Serena; Moruzzi, Cristina; Lorusso, Domenica; Marcellusi, Andrea; Scambia, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigates QoL issues and emotional distress in early stage cervical cancer (ECC) patients undergoing radical surgery (RS) and in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients triaged to chemoradiation (CT/RT) followed by RS. The Global Health Status scale of EORTC QLQ-C30 (GHS), the EORTC QLQ-CX24 (CX24) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire were administered at baseline, and after 3, 6, and 12 months from surgery. For LACC patients QoL assessment was also performed after CT/RT. Statistical analysis was performed by the ANOVA for repeated measures and the Between Subject test. In ECC and LACC patients, the GHS scores improved over time (5.5% difference in mean scores compared to baseline in ECC, and 7.0% difference in mean score compared to baseline in LACC patients). An early worsening of lymphedema scores was documented in ECC cases (14.6% difference in mean values compared to baseline, p value=0.001), and in LACC patients (difference up to 28.3% of mean values, value=0.0001). Menopausal symptoms persistently worsened over time reaching >15% difference of mean values compared to baseline in both groups. Sexual activity scores markedly improved both in ECC and LACC patients (difference of mean score values compared to baseline was 16.5% in ECC, and 6.7% in LACC patients). Both ECC and LACC patients experienced an improvement of anxiety scores. Lymphedema and menopausal symptoms were the most disabling treatment-related sequelae; the amount of QoL issues and their multifaceted aspects require the cooperation of multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incorporating patient-reported outcomes to improve emotional distress screening and assessment in an ambulatory oncology clinic.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Anne C; Buia Amport, Stephanie; Corjulo, Diane; Harvey, Katherine L; McCorkle, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of distress and well-being of patients with cancer is not always documented or addressed in a clinical visit, reflecting a need for improved psychosocial screening. A multidisciplinary team completed process mapping for emotional distress assessment in two clinics. Barriers were identified through cause-and-effect analysis, and an intervention was chosen. Patient-reported outcomes were collected over 6 months using the validated National Comprehensive Cancer Network Emotional Distress Thermometer (EDT) paper tool. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures were compared before and after intervention. During 6 months, a total of 864 tools were collected from 1,344 patients in two ambulatory clinics (64%). Electronic medical record documentation of distress increased from 19.2% to 34% during the 6 months before and after intervention. QOPI measures showed an increase in emotional well-being documentation. Of 29 new and 835 return patients, 62% indicated mild distress (EDT, 0 to 3), 18% moderate (EDT, 4 to 6), and 11% severe (EDT, 7 to 10). The average distress score of new patients was significantly higher than that of return patients (5.39 [n = 26] v 2.52 [n = 754]; P < .001). The top problems for patients with moderate and severe distress were worry, fatigue, pain, and nervousness; depression and sadness were particularly noted in patients reporting severe distress. Eleven percent of patients were referred to the social worker on site. A pilot intervention collecting Patient-reported outcomes in two ambulatory clinics led to increase in psychosocial distress screening followed by sustained improvement, indicated by both process and QOPI measures. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Emotional arousal state influences the ability of amygdalar endocannabinoid signaling to modulate anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morena, Maria; Leitl, Kira D; Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gray, J Megan; Campolongo, Patrizia; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-12-01

    Systemic activation of cannabinoid receptors often induces biphasic effects on emotional memory and anxiety depending on the levels of emotional arousal associated to the experimental context. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) represents a crucial structure for the ability of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling to modulate emotional behaviour, and receives dense projections from brainstem arousal system nuclei. We examined whether changes in emotional arousal state would influence the ability of acute eCB manipulations within the BLA to modulate anxiety. Rats were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) under low or high arousal conditions. The low emotional arousal group was extensively handled and habituated to the experimental room and tested under red light condition, the high emotional arousal group was not handled or habituated and tested under high light condition. We examined amygdalar eCB anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels immediately after the EPM and the effects of intra-BLA administration of the AEA hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 or the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor KML29 on anxiety behaviour. The modulation of anxiety-like behaviour by eCBs in the BLA was strictly dependent on the environmental-associated emotional arousal. Pharmacologically-induced elevations of AEA or 2-AG in the BLA decreased anxiety under conditions of low emotional arousal. Conversely, when the level of emotional arousal increased, local eCB manipulation was ineffective in the modulation of the emotional arousal-induced anxiety response. These findings suggest that, depending on the emotional arousal state, eCB system is differentially activated to regulate the anxiety response in the amygdala and help to understand the state-dependency of many interventions on anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Impact of suspected food allergy on emotional distress and family life of parents prior to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Knibb, Rebecca C; Semper, Heather

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is associated with psychological distress in both child and parent. It is unknown whether parental distress is present prior to clinical diagnosis or whether experiences at clinic can reduce any distress present. This study aimed to assess anxiety and depression in parents and the impact of suspected food allergy on the lives of families before and after a visit to an allergy clinic. One hundred and twenty-four parents visiting an allergy clinic for the first time to have their child assessed for food allergy completed a study-specific questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 50 parents completed these 4-6 wk later in their own home. Most parents (86.4%) reported suspected food allergy had an impact on their family life prior to clinic attendance; 76% had made changes to their child's diet. 32.5% of parents had mild-to-severe anxiety before their clinic visit; 17.5% had mild-to-moderate depression. Post-clinic, 40% had mild-to-severe anxiety; 13.1% had mild-to-moderate depression. There were no significant differences in anxiety (p = 0.34) or depression scores (p = 0.09) before and after the clinic visit. Anxiety and depression is present in a small proportion of parents prior to diagnosis of food allergy in their child and this does not reduce in the short term after the clinic visit. Identification of parents at risk of suffering from distress is needed and ways in which we communicate allergy information before and at clinic should be investigated to see if we can reduce distress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Negative Attachment Cognitions and Emotional Distress in mainland Chinese Adolescents: A Prospective Multi-Wave Test of Vulnerability-Stress and Stress Generation Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Ma, Denise; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the relation between attachment cognitions, stressors, and emotional distress in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Specifically, it was examined whether negative attachment cognitions predicted depression and anxiety symptoms, and if a vulnerability-stress or stress generation model best explained the relation between negative attachment cognitions and internalizing symptoms. Method Participants included 558 adolescents (310 females and 248 males) from an urban school in Changsha, and 592 adolescents (287 females and 305 males) from a rural school in Liuyang, both in Hunan province located in mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of negative attachment cognitions at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline and at regular one month intervals for an overall 6-month follow-up (i.e., six follow-up assessments). Results Higher levels of negative attachment cognitions predicted prospective depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, support was found for a stress generation model that partially mediated this longitudinal association. No support was found for a vulnerability-stress model. Conclusion Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for development of depression and anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. PMID:23237030

  19. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls.

  20. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  1. Emotional Awareness: A Transdiagnostic Predictor of Depression and Anxiety for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Amy; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L; Abela, John R Z; Elias, Maurice J; Selby, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that low emotional awareness may be associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety among children and adolescents. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, it has remained unclear whether low emotional awareness predicts subsequent internalizing symptoms. The current study used longitudinal data to examine the role of emotional awareness as a transdiagnostic predictor of subsequent symptoms of depression and anxiety. Participants were 204 youth (86 boys and 118 girls) ages 7-16 who completed self-report measures of emotional awareness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, as well as measures of depression and anxiety symptoms every 3 months for a year. Results from hierarchical mixed effects modeling indicated that low baseline emotional awareness predicted both depressive and anxiety symptoms across a 1-year period. These findings suggest that emotional awareness may constitute a transdiagnostic factor, predicting symptoms of both depression and anxiety, and that emotional awareness training may be a beneficial component of treatment and prevention programs for youth depression and anxiety.

  2. Emotion-focused perspective on generalized anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis of clients' in-session presentations.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katie; O'Keeffe, Nora; Cullen, Hannah; Durcan, Aoife; Timulak, Ladislav; McElvaney, James

    2017-09-11

    The classification of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is influenced by the tradition of conceptualizing disorders in the context of their clinical presentation and subsequent professional thinking around them. Our qualitative, descriptive-interpretative study uses a theoretical framework drawn from emotion-focused therapy (EFT) as the basis of our interpretation of GAD clients' presentation of their difficulties. The current research consists of an investigation into the GAD presentation based on a multiple case study observational qualitative design. In total, 93 video/audio-taped sessions from 14 clients were used for the analyses. The sessions were analyzed using an EFT case conceptualization framework. The findings capture common themes across the cases covering the EFT framework domains: triggers of emotional pain (e.g., trauma, rejection), problematic self-treatment (e.g., worry, self-criticism, self-interruption), global distress (e.g., anxiety, low mood, somatic symptoms), apprehension/anxiety (fear of triggers and chronic painful emotions), emotional avoidance (e.g., self-distraction), behavioral avoidance (e.g., avoidance of conflict, over-compliance), core painful feelings (e.g., sadness/loneliness, shame, fear), and unmet needs (e.g., to be loved, to be acknowledged, to be protected). Discussion focuses on examining findings in the context of existing psychological models of GAD. The implications for practice as well as limitations of the study are also discussed. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: This is an attempt to provide an in-depth case conceptualization based on the EFT theoretical framework of the clients with GAD that attended EFT. Thus, it should contribute to clinical understanding of the presentation of the clients with GAD. Methodologically, the study uses an original qualitative approach, in which in-session presentations of 14 clients are thoroughly tracked and analyzed within an existing theoretical framework

  3. Preliminary evidence for an emotion dysregulation model of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mennin, Douglas S; Heimberg, Richard G; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M

    2005-10-01

    Three studies provide preliminary support for an emotion dysregulation model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In study 1, students with GAD reported heightened intensity of emotions, poorer understanding of emotions, greater negative reactivity to emotional experience, and less ability to self-soothe after negative emotions than controls. A composite emotion regulation score significantly predicted the presence of GAD, after controlling for worry, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. In study 2, these findings were largely replicated with a clinical sample. In study 3, students with GAD, but not controls, displayed greater increases in self-reported physiological symptoms after listening to emotion-inducing music than after neutral mood induction. Further, GAD participants had more difficulty managing their emotional reactions. Implications for GAD and psychopathology in general are discussed.

  4. From Anxiety to Enthusiasm: Emotional Patterns among Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Studying to become a teacher is a highly emotional experience. Nevertheless, little is known about emotional patterns and emotional change. The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of student teachers' academic emotions by exploring patterns of emotions experienced in emotionally loaded episodes. A total of 19 primary school student…

  5. Emotional intensity reduces later generalized anxiety disorder symptoms when fear of anxiety and negative problem-solving appraisal are low.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko

    2015-08-01

    While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination.

  6. The influence of anxiety on the initial selection of emotional faces presented in binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Gray, Katie L H; Adams, Wendy J; Garner, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the initial selection of emotional faces presented in binocular rivalry is highly influenced by self-reported state and trait anxiety-level. Heightened anxiety was correlated with increased perception of angry and fearful faces, and decreased perception of happy expressions. These results are consistent with recent evidence of involuntary selection of threat in anxiety.

  7. The mediating role of emotional intelligence between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Suicide Risk and Emotional Distress in Chinese Social Media: A Text Mining and Machine Learning Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tim MH; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Yip, Paul SF

    2017-01-01

    Background Early identification and intervention are imperative for suicide prevention. However, at-risk people often neither seek help nor take professional assessment. A tool to automatically assess their risk levels in natural settings can increase the opportunity for early intervention. Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether computerized language analysis methods can be utilized to assess one’s suicide risk and emotional distress in Chinese social media. Methods A Web-based survey of Chinese social media (ie, Weibo) users was conducted to measure their suicide risk factors including suicide probability, Weibo suicide communication (WSC), depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Participants’ Weibo posts published in the public domain were also downloaded with their consent. The Weibo posts were parsed and fitted into Simplified Chinese-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SC-LIWC) categories. The associations between SC-LIWC features and the 5 suicide risk factors were examined by logistic regression. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) model was applied based on the language features to automatically classify whether a Weibo user exhibited any of the 5 risk factors. Results A total of 974 Weibo users participated in the survey. Those with high suicide probability were marked by a higher usage of pronoun (odds ratio, OR=1.18, P=.001), prepend words (OR=1.49, P=.02), multifunction words (OR=1.12, P=.04), a lower usage of verb (OR=0.78, P<.001), and a greater total word count (OR=1.007, P=.008). Second-person plural was positively associated with severe depression (OR=8.36, P=.01) and stress (OR=11, P=.005), whereas work-related words were negatively associated with WSC (OR=0.71, P=.008), severe depression (OR=0.56, P=.005), and anxiety (OR=0.77, P=.02). Inconsistently, third-person plural was found to be negatively associated with WSC (OR=0.02, P=.047) but positively with severe stress (OR=41.3, P=.04). Achievement-related words were

  9. Assessing Suicide Risk and Emotional Distress in Chinese Social Media: A Text Mining and Machine Learning Study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qijin; Li, Tim Mh; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Yip, Paul Sf

    2017-07-10

    Early identification and intervention are imperative for suicide prevention. However, at-risk people often neither seek help nor take professional assessment. A tool to automatically assess their risk levels in natural settings can increase the opportunity for early intervention. The aim of this study was to explore whether computerized language analysis methods can be utilized to assess one's suicide risk and emotional distress in Chinese social media. A Web-based survey of Chinese social media (ie, Weibo) users was conducted to measure their suicide risk factors including suicide probability, Weibo suicide communication (WSC), depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Participants' Weibo posts published in the public domain were also downloaded with their consent. The Weibo posts were parsed and fitted into Simplified Chinese-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SC-LIWC) categories. The associations between SC-LIWC features and the 5 suicide risk factors were examined by logistic regression. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) model was applied based on the language features to automatically classify whether a Weibo user exhibited any of the 5 risk factors. A total of 974 Weibo users participated in the survey. Those with high suicide probability were marked by a higher usage of pronoun (odds ratio, OR=1.18, P=.001), prepend words (OR=1.49, P=.02), multifunction words (OR=1.12, P=.04), a lower usage of verb (OR=0.78, P<.001), and a greater total word count (OR=1.007, P=.008). Second-person plural was positively associated with severe depression (OR=8.36, P=.01) and stress (OR=11, P=.005), whereas work-related words were negatively associated with WSC (OR=0.71, P=.008), severe depression (OR=0.56, P=.005), and anxiety (OR=0.77, P=.02). Inconsistently, third-person plural was found to be negatively associated with WSC (OR=0.02, P=.047) but positively with severe stress (OR=41.3, P=.04). Achievement-related words were positively associated with depression (OR

  10. Effect of trait anxiety on prefrontal control mechanisms during emotional conflict.

    PubMed

    Comte, Magali; Cancel, Aïda; Coull, Jennifer T; Schön, Daniele; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Boukezzi, Sarah; Rousseau, Pierre-François; Robert, Gabriel; Khalfa, Stéphanie; Guedj, Eric; Blin, Olivier; Weinberger, Daniel R; Fakra, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Converging evidence points to a link between anxiety proneness and altered emotional functioning, including threat-related biases in selective attention and higher susceptibility to emotionally ambiguous stimuli. However, during these complex emotional situations, it remains unclear how trait anxiety affects the engagement of the prefrontal emotional control system and particularly the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a core region at the intersection of the limbic and prefrontal systems. Using an emotional conflict task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated in healthy subjects the relations between trait anxiety and both regional activity and functional connectivity (psychophysiological interaction) of the ACC. Higher levels of anxiety were associated with stronger task-related activation in ACC but with reduced functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). These results support the hypothesis that when one is faced with emotionally incompatible information, anxiety leads to inefficient high-order control, characterized by insufficient ACC-LPFC functional coupling and increases, possibly compensatory, in activation of ACC. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of the neural circuitry underlying anxiety and may offer potential treatment markers for anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Emotional dysregulation and anxiety control in the psychopathological mechanism underlying drive for thinness.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it.

  12. Measuring anxiety in depressed patients: A comparison of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman

    2017-10-01

    DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Both the DADSI and HAMA were more highly correlated with measures of anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety severity in depressed patients, though the HAMA was more highly confounded with measures of depression than the DADSI. The DADSI is briefer than the HAMA, and may be more feasible to use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model with Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…

  14. Social Anxiety and Positive Emotions: A Prospective Examination of a Self-Regulatory Model with Tendencies to Suppress or Express Emotions as a Moderating Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…

  15. Relations of tripartite dimensions of emotion to childhood anxiety and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chorpita, B F; Plummer, C M; Moffitt, C E

    2000-06-01

    This study examined preliminary higher-order models relating tripartite dimensions of emotion to severity of anxiety and depressive disorders in 100 clinically referred children and adolescents. In light of the accumulating support for multifactor models of vulnerability and negative emotion in children, the present investigation was designed to establish preliminary estimates of the structure and magnitude of the relations of three emotion factors with dimensions of social anxiety, depression, panic, generalized anxiety, obsessions/compulsions, and separation anxiety. Results were consistent with structures that minimally specified two higher-order emotion factors, yet only some parameter estimates were consistent with theory regarding the tripartite model. Problems with the measurement of tripartite factors and possibilities for further research are outlined.

  16. Functional and psychological outcomes following burn injury: reduced income and hidden emotions are predictors of greater distress.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Jeanne; James, Frances; McNeill, Rob; Brown, Paul; Cameron, Linda; Mills, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether functional and psychosocial outcomes after burn injury in New Zealand are consistent with the international literature. Fifty participants with burns >10% TBSA and a mean of 5.1 years since burn completed a survey that included questionnaires and open-ended questions. The rates of psychosocial distress for this sample were consistent with international reports. Psychological distress was predicted by negative change in income and by reports that the individual has hidden thoughts and emotions from others. Respondents also described positive changes in their life as a result of the burn injury that were independent of negative outcomes. Participants indicated good long-term functional improvement but ongoing psychological distress. Important indicators for poor outcome may be loss of income and reluctance to discuss emotions.

  17. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  18. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  19. Psychological Factors Associated with Emotional Distress among Palestinian Arabs from East Jerusalem Accessing Psychiatric Care in Israel.

    PubMed

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Levav, Itzhak; Danilovich, Eli; Abu-Tair, Mamoun; Podolsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    The Palestinian population residing in East Jerusalem is characterized by high rates of poverty and unemployment and is subject to discrimination in various forms, including infrastructure of mental health services. Little is known about the help seeking needs and practices of East Jerusalem residents. We examined socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of a consecutive sample Palestinian residents from East Jerusalem (N=50) who accessed a specially assigned psychiatric clinic in Israel. In addition, we examined the psychological factors associated with emotional distress among these service-users upon entry to care. Participants completed a survey in Arabic that included a socio-demographic questionnaire and measures assessing emotional distress, perceived exposure to discrimination and social support, and mental health stigma. Participants reported high levels of emotional distress. Female gender, low socioeconomic status, higher perceived exposure to discrimination and higher perceived social support were associated with increased emotional distress. Findings add to the scarce body of knowledge on specific mental health characteristics of East Jerusalem Palestinian residents.

  20. Community Violence and Psychological Distress: The Protective Effects of Emotional Social Support and Sense of Personal Control among Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Beth Spenciner; Wilson, W. Cody

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study investigated three mechanisms of protection (preventive, compensatory, buffering) for two factors (emotional social support, sense of personal control) in the relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among 947 diverse, older adolescents. Findings indicate that social support and sense of…

  1. Children's hostile intent attributions and emotional distress: What do parents perceive?

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Cramer, Christine M; Coyne, Sarah M; Olsen, Joseph A

    2017-09-28

    Traditionally, assessments of social information processing and associated emotional distress have used children's self-reports. We posit that additional informants, such as parents, may help illuminate the association between these variables and aggression. Our sample was composed of 222 dual-parent families of fourth-grade children (103 boys; 119 girls). Children responded to instrumental and relational provocations and their parents read the same scenarios and responded the way they believed their child would. Peer nominations provided aggression scores. We explored how means differed by provocation type (relational vs. instrumental), informant (mother, father, and child), and gender of child. The results also suggest that parent perceptions may effectively predict children's participation in relational and physical aggression, above and beyond the child's self-reports. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 'Locus of control', health-related quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Federica; Gison, Annalisa; Bonassi, Stefano; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Tonto, Francesca; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated locus of control and its subscales in Parkinson's disease. A total of 50 consecutive Parkinson's disease participants and 50 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled. External locus of control was significantly higher in Parkinson's disease participants, whereas internal locus of control had no significant differences. External locus of control and internal locus of control were correlated in control group, but not in Parkinson's disease. In Parkinson's disease participants, external locus of control was negatively associated with health-related quality of life as well as positively associated with emotional distress and disease severity (but not with disability). After adjusting to confound variables, the associations remained. On the other hand, internal locus of control was negatively associated with depression.

  3. Normal-weight and overweight female adolescents with and without extreme weight-control behaviours: Emotional distress and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse emotional distress and concerns related to body image in 712 normal-weight and overweight adolescent girls. A total of 12.3 per cent of the normal-weight girls and 25 per cent of the overweight girls showed extreme weight-control behaviours. In normal-weight adolescents, their engagement in extreme weight-control behaviours was associated with high levels of somatic symptoms, a drive for thinness and control over eating. In overweight girls, high levels of drive for thinness and anxiety were associated with extreme weight-control behaviours. Finally, the implications for preventive and therapeutic programmes are discussed.

  4. [Close family relationships and the emotional distress in lung cancer patients awaiting surgery and healthy controls].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Joanna D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look for effects of attachment styles for emotional distress presented in depression in 117 lung cancer patients under surgical treatment and in 112 healthy subjects. The three attachment styles were assessed by means of the instrument based on Hazan and Shaver's (1987). Depression was measured by self-reporting Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Manova variance analysis revealed significant main effect of the factor "group" which indicated higher level of depression in cancer patients than controls, significant main effect of factor "attachment style" which exhibited higher level of depression in the anxious-ambivalent subjects than in the secure ones, significant main effect of interaction between these two factors which revealed higher level of depression in the anxious-ambivalent style in lung cancer patients than in controls. Analysis of correlations indicated that the patients' secure style was adversely associated with depression, the anxious-ambivalent style positively correlated with patients' depression, the avoidant style did not correlate significantly with depression neither in healthy nor affected by the disease subjects. The secure subjects and the avoidant subjects did not differ significantly in the level of depression. The results indicate that the secure style and the avoidant style may protect lung cancer subjects before operation from excessive reacting with distress demonstrated in depressive symptoms. The ambivalent style was favorable for higher depression and it could be a risk factor for mood disorders in clinical group.

  5. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  6. How head and neck consultants manage patients' emotional distress during cancer follow-up consultations: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Humphris, Gerry; Ghazali, Naseem; Friderichs, Simon; Grosset, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients suffer substantial emotional problems. This study aimed to explore how utterance-level variables (source, type and timing of emotional cues) and patient-level variables (e.g. age, gender and emotional well-being) relate to consultants' responses (i.e. reducing or providing space) to patient expressions of emotional distress. Forty-three HNC outpatient follow-up consultations were audio recorded and coded, for patients' expressions of emotional distress and consultants' responses, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Multilevel logistic regression modelled the probability of the occurrence of consultant-reduced space response as a function of patient distress cue expression, controlling for consultation and patient-related variables. An average of 3.5 cues/concerns (range 1-20) was identified per consultation where 84 out of 152 total cues/concerns were responded by reducing space. Cue type did not impact on response; likewise for the quality of patient emotional well-being. However, consultants were more likely to reduce space to cues elicited by patients, as opposed to those initiated by themselves. This reduced space response was more pronounced as the consultation continued. However, about 6 min into the consultation, this effect (i.e. tendency to block patients) started to weaken. Head and neck consultants' responses to negative emotions depended on source and timing of patient emotional expressions. The findings are useful for training programme development to encourage consultants to be more flexible and open in the early stages of the consultation.

  7. Fear and anxiety as separable emotions: an investigation of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Adam M; Kemp, Samantha E; Corr, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    The Gray and McNaughton (2000) theory draws on a wide range of animal data to hypothesize that the emotions of fear and anxiety are separable. The authors tested their hypothesis in two studies. The first study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear, anxiety, and neuroticism; correlational analysis revealed that fear and anxiety are not interchangeable constructs. The second study examined associations between scores on questionnaire measures of fear/anxiety and performance in a military training setting; regression analysis revealed that fear captured significant variance in performance that was not shared with anxiety. These results imply that hypotheses derived from nonhuman animal data may hold important implications for understanding human emotion and motivation, especially in relation to fear and anxiety.

  8. Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals. PMID:20959131

  9. Problem video game playing is related to emotional distress in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo

    2016-09-29

    Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.

  10. Experimental Single-Session Imagery Rescripting of Distressing Memories in Bowel/Bladder-Control Anxiety: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Pajak, Rosanna; Kamboj, Sunjeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Bowel and bladder obsession [bowel/bladder-control anxiety (BBCA)] is a viscerally centered phobic syndrome involving a specific concern about losing control of bowel or bladder functioning in a public place. Like other anxiety disorders, BBCA is characterized by intrusive imagery. We have previously described the nature of intrusive mental imagery in BBCA and found imagery themes to be linked to actual experiences of loss of control or to “near misses.” A causal role for imagery in symptom maintenance can be inferred by examining the effects of imagery rescripting. Moreover, successful rescripting may point to a potentially efficacious avenue for treatment development. Three cases of imagery rescripting are described here with pre-, post-, and follow-up (1-week) data reported. After rescripting, two participants experienced pronounced reductions in imagery vividness, distress, shame, disgust, and belief conviction. Most importantly, all three participants experienced a reduction in fear-associated bladder and/or bowel sensations. The results support a causal role for mental imagery in bowel-bladder-control anxiety and suggest that rescripting of distressing intrusive memories linked to recurrent images may be a useful avenue for development of cognitive-behavioral treatments of bladder/bowel-control anxiety. PMID:25566101

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Anxiety: Identifying Continuity and Change in Anxious Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a way for thinking about continuity and change in childhood anxiety symptoms. Considerations for a model of continuity and change in anxious emotion are discussed first. Then, a perspective which may resolve inconsistencies across studies on the stability of childhood anxiety problems overtime is presented. The perspective…

  12. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  13. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to "work" for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60-70%…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Anxiety: Identifying Continuity and Change in Anxious Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines a way for thinking about continuity and change in childhood anxiety symptoms. Considerations for a model of continuity and change in anxious emotion are discussed first. Then, a perspective which may resolve inconsistencies across studies on the stability of childhood anxiety problems overtime is presented. The perspective…

  15. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  16. Prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients before the start of chemotherapy: potential of the distress thermometer as an ultra-brief screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Jorge; Campla, Cristóbal; D’Aguzan, Nicole; Barraza, Soledad; Padilla, Oslando; Sánchez, Cesar; Palma, Silvia; González, Matías

    2014-01-01

    Emotional distress (ED) is greater for oncology patients in comparison with the general population, and this has implications for the quality of life of the patient and his/her family, adherence to the treatment, and eventually, survivorship. In general, the detection of these symptoms is low, which explains the need for detection systems appropriate to the clinical reality of the oncology team. The objective of this study is to evaluate for the first time the usefulness of an ultra-brief screening instrument [distress thermometer (DT)], in a group of Chilean oncology patients. A total of 166 outpatients were evaluated at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, before starting chemotherapy. Two screening instruments were applied: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and DT. The application of HADS resulted in a prevalence of 32.7% of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A ≥ 8), 15.7% of depression symptoms (HADS-D ≥ 8), and 39.8% had a total score of HADS-T ≥ 11. The DT resulted in the prevalence of 32.5% of distress or ED (DT ≥ 5). The validity of the DT was evaluated as a screening tool in comparison with HADS, observing, in relation to the anxiety scale (HADS-A), a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.4% (DT ≥ 4); depression (HADS-D), a sensitivity of 69.2% and specificity of 74.3% (DT ≥ 5); and in relation to the total scale (HADS-T), a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 73.0% (DT ≥ 4). This study demonstrates the elevated prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients, before the start of chemotherapy, and confirms the potential of the DT as a brief screening instrument with easy application. The DT will allow the clinician to increase the detection threshold in the Chilean oncology population, intervene in a timely manner, and contribute to the comprehensive handling of the oncology patient without affecting the time needed for assistance. PMID:24966889

  17. Emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: behavioral and neural responses to three socio-emotional tasks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to involve deficits in emotion regulation, and more specifically, deficits in cognitive reappraisal. However, evidence for such deficits is mixed. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal, we examined reappraisal-related behavioral and neural responses in 27 participants with generalized SAD and 27 healthy controls (HC) during three socio-emotional tasks: (1) looming harsh faces (Faces); (2) videotaped actors delivering social criticism (Criticism); and (3) written autobiographical negative self-beliefs (Beliefs). Results Behaviorally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser reappraisal-related reduction in negative emotion in the Beliefs task. Neurally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser BOLD responses in reappraisal-related brain regions when reappraising faces, in visual and attention related regions when reappraising criticism, and in the left superior temporal gyrus when reappraising beliefs. Examination of the temporal dynamics of BOLD responses revealed late reappraisal-related increased responses in HC, compared to SAD. In addition, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which showed reappraisal-related increased activity in both groups, had similar temporal dynamics in SAD and HC during the Faces and Criticism tasks, but greater late response increases in HC, compared to SAD, during the Beliefs task. Reappraisal-related greater late DMPFC responses were associated with greater percent reduction in negative emotion ratings in SAD patients. Conclusions These results suggest a dysfunction of cognitive reappraisal in SAD patients, with overall reduced late brain responses in prefrontal regions, particularly when reappraising faces. Decreased late activity in the DMPFC might be associated with deficient reappraisal and greater negative reactivity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00380731 PMID

  18. Cognitive and emotional covariates of violence exposure among former prisoners: links to antisocial behavior and emotional distress and implications for theory.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Schappell, Ashley; Middlemass, Keesha; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this study, formerly incarcerated men (N = 123) were assessed for their experiences with violence in the community as well as their current behavioral and mental health status (antisocial behavior and emotional distress). Participants also completed measures of two constructs theorized to moderate relations between exposure to violence and outcomes: cognitive beliefs supporting aggressive responding and negative emotional reactivity to witnessed violence. Data on key social-demographic background factors affecting outcomes were also collected. Analyses showed that, after controlling the effects of background factors, relationships between experiences with violence in the community and behavioral/mental health were moderated by cognitive beliefs and emotional reactivity. At high levels of support for aggressive responding, significant positive links were observed between exposure to violence and antisocial behavior as well as emotional distress. At high levels of negative reactivity to violence, a significant positive link was observed between exposure to violence and emotional distress (but not antisocial behavior). Findings are discussed with respect to research and theory on the effects of exposure to violence in high-risk adult populations. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Psychological Distress, Anxiety, and Depression of Cancer-Affected BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ringwald, Johanna; Wochnowski, Christina; Bosse, Kristin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schäffeler, Norbert; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the intermediate- and long-term psychological consequences of genetic testing for cancer patients has led to encouraging research, but a clear consensus of the psychosocial impact and clinical routine for cancer-affected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is still missing. We performed a systematic review of intermediate- and long-term studies investigating the psychological impact like psychological distress, anxiety, and depression in cancer-affected BRCA mutation carriers compared to unaffected mutation carriers. This review included the screening of 1243 studies. Eight intermediate- and long-term studies focusing on distress, anxiety, and depression symptoms among cancer-affected mutation carriers at least six months after the disclosure of genetic testing results were included. Studies reported a great variety of designs, methods, and patient outcomes. We found evidence indicating that cancer-affected mutation carriers experienced a negative effect in relation to psychological well-being in terms of an increase in symptoms of distress, anxiety, and depression in the first months after test disclosure. In the intermediate- and long-term, no significant clinical relevant symptoms occurred. However, none of the included studies used specific measurements, which can clearly identify psychological burdens of cancer-affected mutation carriers. We concluded that current well-implemented distress screening instruments are not sufficient for precisely identifying the psychological burden of genetic testing. Therefore, future studies should implement coping strategies, specific personality structures, the impact of genetic testing, supportive care needs and disease management behaviour to clearly screen for the possible intermediate- and long-term psychological impact of a positive test disclosure.

  20. General emotion processing in social anxiety disorder: neural issues of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Herwig, Uwe; Delsignore, Aba; Jäncke, Lutz; Rufer, Michael

    2013-05-30

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by deficient emotion regulation prior to and in anxiety-evoking situations. Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have increased brain activation also during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli pointing to biased general emotion processing. In the current study we addressed the neural correlates of emotion regulation by cognitive control during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli in patients with SAD. Thirty-two patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the announced anticipation and perception of emotional stimuli. Half of them were trained and instructed to apply reality-checking as a control strategy, the others anticipated and perceived the stimuli. Reality checking significantly (p<0.01) reduced activity in insular, amygdalar and medial thalamic areas during the anticipation and perception of negative emotional stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex was comparably active in both groups (p>0.50). The results suggest that cognitive control in patients with SAD influences emotion processing structures, supporting the usefulness of emotion regulation training in the psychotherapy of SAD. In contrast to studies in healthy subjects, cognitive control was not associated with increased activation of prefrontal regions in SAD. This points to possibly disturbed general emotion regulating circuits in SAD.

  1. Intimate partner violence in neighborhood context: The roles of structural disadvantage, subjective disorder, and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Kuhl, Danielle C; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D

    2015-09-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent's level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Neighborhood Context: The Roles of Structural Disadvantage, Subjective Disorder, and Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438

  3. The Clinical Application of Emotion Research in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Some Proposed Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huppert, Jonathan D.; Alley, Amie C.

    2004-01-01

    Major psychological theories of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have begun to suggest that worry may function as avoidance of emotions. On the basis of these findings, a number of researchers have begun to develop techniques to address emotional deficits in GAD. However, most techniques suggested to date have been from outside a…

  4. The role of negative emotionality and impulsivity in depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Boschloo, L; Vogelzangs, N; van den Brink, W; Smit, J H; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H

    2013-06-01

    Much is still unclear about the role of personality in the structure of common psychiatric disorders such as depressive/anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. This study will therefore examine whether various traits of negative emotionality and impulsivity showed shared or specific associations with these disorders. Method Cross-sectional data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), including individuals with no DSM-IV psychiatric disorder (n = 460), depressive/anxiety disorder only (i.e. depressive and/or anxiety disorder; n = 1398), alcohol dependence only (n = 32) and co-morbid depressive/anxiety disorder plus alcohol dependence (n = 358). Aspects of negative emotionality were neuroticism, hopelessness, rumination, worry and anxiety sensitivity, whereas aspects of impulsivity included disinhibition, thrill/adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility. Aspects of negative emotionality formed a homogeneous dimension, which was unrelated to the more heterogeneous construct of impulsivity. Although all aspects of negative emotionality were associated with alcohol dependence only, associations were much stronger for depressive/anxiety disorder only and co-morbid depressive/anxiety disorder with alcohol dependence. The results for impulsivity traits were less profound and more variable, with disinhibition and boredom susceptibility showing modest associations with both depressive/anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence, whereas low thrill/adventure seeking and high disinhibition were more strongly related with the first and the latter, respectively. Our results suggest that depressive/anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence result from shared as well as specific aetiological pathways as they showed the same associations with all aspects of negative emotionality, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility as well as specific associations with thrill/adventure seeking and disinhibition.

  5. Perceived need for psychosocial support depending on emotional distress and mental comorbidity in men and women with cancer.

    PubMed

    Faller, Hermann; Weis, Joachim; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Szalai, Carina; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    Although elevated levels of distress are supposed to constitute a need for psychosocial support, the relation between elevated distress and need for support does not appear to be straightforward. We aimed to determine cancer patients' perceived need for psychosocial support, and examine the relation of need to both self-reported emotional distress and the interview-based diagnosis of a mental disorder. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51% women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of need for psychosocial support. We measured distress with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Thermometer (DT) and depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). In a subsample, we evaluated the presence of a mental disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). 32.1% (95%-CI 30.6 to 33.6) of patients perceived a need for psychosocial support. Younger age, female sex, and higher education were associated with more needs, being married and living with a partner with fewer needs, respectively. While up to 51.2% of patients with elevated distress levels reported a need for psychosocial support, up to 26.1% of those without elevated distress levels perceived such a need. Results were similar across distress assessment methods. Our findings emphasize that the occurrence of mental distress is one important but not an exclusive factor among different motives to report the need for psychosocial support. We should thus consider multifaceted perspectives, facilitators and barriers when planning and implementing patient-centered psychosocial care services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms.

  7. Malleability of Attentional Bias for Positive Emotional Information and Anxiety Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Charles T.; Bomyea, Jessica; Amir, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Recent research supports a causal link between attentional bias for negative emotional information and anxiety vulnerability (MacLeod, Rutherford, Campbell, Ebsworthy, & Holker, 2002). However, little is known about the role of positive emotional processing in modulating anxiety reactivity to stress. In the current study we used an attentional training paradigm designed to experimentally manipulate the processing of positive emotional cues. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a computerized probe detection task designed to induce selective processing of positive stimuli or to a sham condition. Following training, participants were exposed to a laboratory stressor (i.e., videotaped speech), and state anxiety and positive affect in response to the stressor were assessed. Results revealed that individual variability in the capacity to develop an attentional bias for positive information following training predicted subsequent emotional responses to the stressor. Moreover, individual differences in social anxiety, but not depression, moderated the effects of the attentional manipulation, such that, higher levels of social anxiety were associated with diminished attentional allocation toward positive cues. The current findings point to the potential value of considering the role of positive emotional processing in anxiety vulnerability. PMID:21401232

  8. Differences in negative mood-induced smoking reinforcement due to distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and depression history

    PubMed Central

    Karelitz, Joshua L.; Giedgowd, Grace E.; Conklin, Cynthia A.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and may do so to a greater degree in smokers vulnerable to negative mood dysregulation. Methods Adult smokers (N = 71) without current depression were randomly assigned to one of two smoking conditions (nicotine or denic cigarettes, presented blind) maintained across all sessions. Subjects completed one neutral mood session and four negative mood induction sessions. Negative mood inductions included one each of the following: 1) overnight smoking abstinence, 2) challenging computer task, 3) public speech preparation, 4) watching negative mood slides. In each session, subjects took 4 puffs on their assigned cigarette, rated it for “liking” (reward), and then smoked those cigarettes ad libitum (reinforcement) during continued mood induction. Affect was assessed intermittently before and after smoking. Differences in responses were examined as functions of self-reported history of major depression and levels of distress tolerance and anxiety sensitivity. Results Smoking reinforcement, but not reward or negative affect relief, was greater in all sessions in those with a history of depression and greater after overnight abstinence in those with lower distress tolerance. Reward and affect relief, but not reinforcement, were greater during speech preparation among those high in anxiety sensitivity. Conclusions Low distress tolerance may enhance acute smoking reinforcement due to abstinence, while depression history may broadly increase acute smoking reinforcement regardless of mood. Neither smoking reward nor affect help explain these individual differences in smoking reinforcement. PMID:20217051

  9. Identification of emotional facial expressions among behaviorally inhibited adolescents with lifetime anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Pollak, Seth D.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined differences in emotion expression identification between adolescents characterized with behavioral inhibition (BI) in childhood with and without a lifetime history of anxiety disorder. Participants were originally assessed for behavioral inhibition during toddlerhood and for social reticence during childhood. During adolescence, participants returned to the laboratory and completed a facial-emotion identification task and a clinical psychiatric interview. Results revealed that behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of anxiety disorder displayed a lower threshold for identifying fear relative to anger emotion expressions compared to non-anxious behaviorally inhibited adolescents and non-inhibited adolescents with or without anxiety. These findings were specific to behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of social anxiety disorder. Thus, adolescents with a history of both BI and anxiety, specifically social anxiety, are more likely to differ from other adolescents in their identification of fearful facial expressions. This offers further evidence that perturbations in the processing of emotional stimuli may underlie the etiology of anxiety disorders. PMID:24800906

  10. Thinking About the Unthinkable: The Relationship Between Death Anxiety and Cognitive/Emotional Response to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationship betwen death anxiety and cognitive/emotional responses to the threat of nuclear war in 345 college students. Results from Templer Death Anxiety Scale and questionnaire about nuclear war found death anxiety positively related to nuclear anxiety, and negligibly associated with perceptions of political efficacy and support for…

  11. Common and disorder-specific neural responses to emotional faces in generalised anxiety, social anxiety and panic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fonzo, Gregory A.; Ramsawh, Holly J.; Flagan, Taru M.; Sullivan, Sarah G.; Letamendi, Andrea; Simmons, Alan N.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence exists for abnormal brain function across various anxiety disorders, direct comparison of neural function across diagnoses is needed to elicit abnormalities common across disorders and those distinct to a particular diagnosis. Aims To delineate common and distinct abnormalities within generalised anxiety (GAD), panic and social anxiety disorder (SAD) during affective processing. Method Fifty-nine adults (15 with GAD, 15 with panic disorder, 14 with SAD, and 15 healthy controls) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a facial emotion matching task with fearful, angry and happy faces. Results Greater differential right amygdala activation to matching fearful v. happy facial expressions related to greater negative affectivity (i.e. trait anxiety) and was heightened across all anxiety disorder groups compared with controls. Collapsing across emotional face types, participants with panic disorder uniquely displayed greater posterior insula activation. Conclusions These preliminary results highlight a common neural basis for clinical anxiety in these diagnoses and also suggest the presence of disorder-specific dysfunction. PMID:25573399

  12. Perceived Emotion Control Moderates the Relationship between Neuroticism and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Michelle L; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-08-01

    The relationships between neuroticism, perceived emotion control, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity were examined in 293 individuals diagnosed with GAD at a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Hierarchical regression analyses performed within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that (1) neuroticism and perceived emotion control both predicted a latent variable of GAD in the expected direction, and (2) perceived emotion control moderated the relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity, such that lower levels of perceived emotion control were associated with a stronger relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity. The other dimensions of perceived control (i.e., stress and threat control) did not moderate the effect of neuroticism on GAD severity. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications to conceptual models of the psychopathology of GAD, and theory-based differential relationships between dimensions of vulnerability, perceived control, and anxiety disorders.

  13. Perceived Emotion Control Moderates the Relationship between Neuroticism and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Michelle L.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between neuroticism, perceived emotion control, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity were examined in 293 individuals diagnosed with GAD at a specialty anxiety disorders clinic. Hierarchical regression analyses performed within a structural equation modeling framework revealed that (1) neuroticism and perceived emotion control both predicted a latent variable of GAD in the expected direction, and (2) perceived emotion control moderated the relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity, such that lower levels of perceived emotion control were associated with a stronger relationship between neuroticism and GAD severity. The other dimensions of perceived control (i.e., stress and threat control) did not moderate the effect of neuroticism on GAD severity. The findings are discussed with regard to their implications to conceptual models of the psychopathology of GAD, and theory-based differential relationships between dimensions of vulnerability, perceived control, and anxiety disorders. PMID:26236059

  14. A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL STRUCTURE OF EMOTIONS OF DISTRESS: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS IN A SAMPLE OF FEMALE JAPANESE AND AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    ARNAULT, Denise SAINT; SAKAMOTO, Shinji; MORIWAKI, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Negative emotions such as anger, sadness and fear are universal; however, there is cultural variability in the ways that specific emotions cluster together. This Experience Sampling Method study collected daily life emotions of distress for 44 American and 50 Japanese college students. These women reported their experiences of 37 distresses once a day for seven days. Cluster Analysis revealed that Americans had upset, depression, hostility and dependency clusters. The Japanese had depression, sad/angry, gloomy, hate and interpersonal clusters. Cultural analysis of idioms of distress and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24465087

  15. Empathy in Clinical Practice: How Individual Dispositions, Gender, and Experience Moderate Empathic Concern, Burnout, and Emotional Distress in Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one’s emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice. PMID:23620760

  16. Empathy in clinical practice: how individual dispositions, gender, and experience moderate empathic concern, burnout, and emotional distress in physicians.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean

    2013-01-01

    To better understand clinical empathy and what factors can undermine its experience and outcome in care-giving settings, a large-scale study was conducted with 7,584 board certified practicing physicians. Online validated instruments assessing different aspects of empathy, distress, burnout, altruistic behavior, emotional awareness, and well-being were used. Compassion satisfaction was strongly associated with empathic concern, perspective taking and altruism, while compassion fatigue (burnout and secondary traumatic stress) was more closely related to personal distress and alexithymia. Gender had a highly selective effect on empathic concern, with women displaying higher values, which led to a wide array of negative and devalued feelings. Years of experience did not influence dispositional measures per se after controlling for the effect of age and gender. Participants who experienced compassion fatigue with little to no compassion satisfaction showed the highest scores on personal distress and alexithymia as well as the strongest indicators of compassion fatigue. Physicians who have difficulty regulating their negative arousal and describing and identifying emotions seem to be more prone to emotional exhaustion, detachment, and a low sense of accomplishment. On the contrary, the ability to engage in self-other awareness and regulate one's emotions and the tendency to help others, seem to contribute to the sense of compassion that comes from assisting patients in clinical practice.

  17. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joscelyn E; Miller, Gregory A; Sass, Sarah M; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing.

  18. Task relevance of emotional information affects anxiety-linked attention bias in visual search.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias.

  19. Neural correlates of suspiciousness and interactions with anxiety during emotional and neutral word processing

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Miller, Gregory A.; Sass, Sarah M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Zhou, Jing; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Suspiciousness is usually classified as a symptom of psychosis, but it also occurs in depression and anxiety disorders. Though how suspiciousness overlaps with depression is not obvious, suspiciousness does seem to overlap with anxious apprehension and anxious arousal (e.g., verbal iterative processes and vigilance about environmental threat). However, suspiciousness also has unique characteristics (e.g., concern about harm from others and vigilance about social threat). Given that both anxiety and suspiciousness have been associated with abnormalities in emotion processing, it is unclear whether it is the unique characteristics of suspiciousness or the overlap with anxiety that drive abnormalities in emotion processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained during an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that suspiciousness interacts with anxious apprehension to modulate initial stimulus perception processes. Suspiciousness is associated with attention to all stimuli regardless of emotion content. In contrast, anxious arousal is associated with a later response to emotion stimuli only. These results suggest that suspiciousness and anxious apprehension share overlapping processes, but suspiciousness alone is associated with a hyperactive early vigilance response. Depression did not interact with suspiciousness to predict response to emotion stimuli. These findings suggest that it may be informative to assess suspiciousness in conjunction with anxiety in order to better understand how these symptoms interact and contribute to dysfunctional emotion processing. PMID:25018737

  20. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): New Evidence of Factor Structure, Item-Level Measurement Invariance, and Validity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Antonio F; Berzins, Tiffany; Acosta, Melina; Pirani, Saifa; Osman, Augustine

    2017-05-11

    Three studies examining the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) extended the initial instrument development studies for this recently introduced inventory. The ADDI-27 is an empirically derived short form of the Mood and Anxiety Questionaire-90 (MASQ-90) comprising three scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress. The main objectives of Study 1 (N = 700) were to examine the factor structure of the ADDI-27 and its measurement invariance across gender at the item level. The objective of Study 2 (N = 538) was to examine evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the ADDI-27. The objective of Study 3 (N = 240) was to assess further evidence for the nomological network and convergent and discriminant validity of the ADDI-27 scores. Results of exploratory structural equation modeling yielded strong support for a 3-factor model, with approximate fit indexes meeting or exceeding the conventional cutoffs. With p ≤ .001 as the criterion for detecting noninvariance, results of measurement invariance analysis suggested that all of the ADDI-27 items were invariant across gender. Results of multivariate validity analyses across 2 studies provided support for the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on the ADDI-27 scales.

  1. Minimal Clinically Important Difference in the Physical, Emotional, and Total Symptom Distress Scores of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; Shamieh, Omar; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Khamash, Odai; Perez-Cruz, Pedro Emilio; Kwon, Jung Hye; Muckaden, Mary Ann; Park, Minjeong; Arthur, Joseph; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is one of the most commonly used symptom batteries in clinical practice and research. We used the anchor-based approach to identify the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for improvement and deterioration for ESAS physical, emotional, and total symptom distress scores. In this multicenter prospective study, we asked patients with advanced cancer to complete their ESAS at the first clinic visit and at a second visit three weeks later. The anchor for MCID determination was Patient's Global Impression regarding their physical, emotional, and overall symptom burden ("better," "about the same," or "worse"). We identified the optimal sensitivity/specificity cutoffs for both improvement and deterioration for the three ESAS scores and also determined the within-patient changes. A total of 796 patients were enrolled from six centers. The ESAS scores had moderate responsiveness, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve between 0.69 and 0.76. Using the sensitivity-specificity approach, the optimal cutoffs for ESAS physical, emotional, and total symptom distress scores were ≥3/60, ≥2/20, and ≥3/90 for improvement, and ≤-4/60, ≤-1/20, and ≤-4/90 for deterioration, respectively. These cutoffs had moderate sensitivities (59%-68%) and specificities (62%-80%). The within-patient change approach revealed the MCID cutoffs for improvement/deterioration to be 3/-4.3 for the physical score, 2.4/-1.8 for the emotional score, and 5.7/-2.9 for the total symptom distress score. We identified the MCIDs for physical, emotional, and total symptom distress scores, which have implications for interpretation of symptom response in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional processing of emotional material in types of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Fajkowska, Małgorzata; Domaradzka, Ewa; Wytykowska, Agata

    2017-03-08

    The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that differences and similarities in patterns of attentional processing in recently proposed types of anxiety and depression are connected with the dominant (reactive, regulative) function they play in stimulation processing and their structural components. Participants (N = 1247) filled out the Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire, which assesses types of anxiety and depression, and completed the Emotional Faces Attentional Test one week later. The obtained results confirmed our prediction and suggested that the proposed typology of anxiety and depression is valid in the adaptive meanings of both phenomena.

  3. Study protocol: Intensive Care Anxiety and Emotional Recovery (Icare)-a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Maria I; Aitken, Leanne M; Cooke, Marie L

    2013-08-01

    Survivors of intensive care units (ICUs) commonly present with symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during recovery. A number of factors have been identified as predictors of these adverse emotional outcomes, but the role of state anxiety during critical illness in the development of these emotional problems remains unknown. The Intensive Care Anxiety and Emotional Recovery (ICARe) study protocol proposes the development of a statistical model to determine the relationship between state anxiety during ICU stay and symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD at three occasions; after ICU discharge but prior to hospital discharge and at the third and sixth months post ICU discharge. Prospective study including adult patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary metropolitan Australian hospital for ≥24 h who are able to: (1) communicate verbally or nonverbally; (2) understand English and (3) open their eyes spontaneously or in response to voice to respond to the Faces Anxiety Scale (state anxiety assessment). One hundred and seventy patients will be assessed for their levels of state anxiety during their ICU stay to achieve a sample size of about 104 patients six months after discharge. The outcomes of the ICARe study will include symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD assessed by standardised questionnaires widely used in intensive care research. Demographic, clinical, and social support information will also be collected. The projected sample size will provide sufficient power to evaluate the association between state anxiety and adverse emotional outcomes, as well as a variety of variables that will be entered into a multivariate regression analysis. This study will provide new evidence to improve care during critical illness and reduce adverse outcomes during recovery with the potential to decrease unnecessary suffering, promote comfort and improve long-term recovery. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses

  4. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…

  5. Perfectionism, Anxiety, and Depressive Distress: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbaglou, Meysam; Cribbie, Robert; Irvine, Jane; Radhu, Natasha; Vora, Khushboo; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a mediational model in which negative automatic thoughts and anxiety sensitivity were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students from an urban Canadian university. The data were collected from…

  6. Initial validation of the Death and Dying Distress Scale for the assessment of death anxiety in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sandra; Rydall, Anne; Hales, Sarah; Rodin, Gary; Lo, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The experience of death anxiety in patients with advanced cancer has been understudied partly because of the lack of a tailored measure for this population. The Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS) was constructed to address this gap. Although an initial version of this instrument has shown promising psychometric properties, validation of the finalized version is needed. This study aims to validate the recent 15-item DADDS by examining its factor structure and construct validity. Sixty participants with advanced or metastatic cancer were recruited from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, into a pilot trial of a psychological intervention. This article analyzes the baseline measures on death anxiety, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Axis 1 Disorders), generalized anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), and preparation for end of life (Quality of Life at the End of Life-Cancer Scale). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Construct validity was assessed by correlations between measures. Factor analysis revealed a dominant single factor explaining more than 75% of the shared variation between items. Factor loadings were high, ranging from 0.57 to 0.86. Item communalities were evenly ranged from 0.33 to 0.75 and with the 15:1 variable to factor ratio, suggest the viability of parameter estimates despite the small sample size. Cronbach's alpha was 0.95. Death anxiety was associated with less preparation for end of life (r = -0.68, P < 0.0001), more generalized anxiety (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001), and more depressive symptom severity (r = 0.50, P < 0.0001). Individuals with major depression had greater death anxiety than the nondepressed (mean difference = 17; 95% CI = 1.5-33), as did individuals with minor depression (mean difference = 25; 95% CI = 10-41). The DADDS

  7. Anxiety mediates the relationship between sleep onset latency and emotional eating in minority children.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; McClain, Arianna D; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2010-12-01

    This study examined associations between sleep onset latency and emotional eating in a minority sample of children. A cross-sectional school-based study of sleep, psychological constructs, diet and physical activity was conducted in 6 public and private schools in Los Angeles County. An ethnically diverse sample of 356 third through fifth graders completed confidential self-report surveys. Multilevel regression (MLM) analyses were conducted to study associations while controlling for gender, ethnicity, and the random effect of school. Girls made up 57% of the total sample, which was predominantly Latino (42.6%), followed by African Americans (21.6%) and Asians (19.2%). MLM revealed that there were significant associations between sleep onset latency and emotional eating (p=.030), depressive symptomology (p<.0001) and trait anxiety (p<.0001). Sobel's test for mediation showed that trait anxiety (p=.011) but not depressive symptomology (p=.141) was a mediator of the relationship between sleep onset latency and emotional eating. Thereby providing a mechanism through which sleep onset latency is related to emotional eating. These findings suggest that sleep onset latency is associated with increased anxiety, depressive symptoms, and emotional eating. Although causal inferences cannot be drawn from this cross-sectional data, future studies should examine the possibility that problems falling asleep could lead to emotional dysregulation that in turn leads to emotional eating. Emotional eating may be one avenue by which sleep disturbances lead to overweight and obesity.

  8. Motion and emotion: anxiety-axial connections in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Šumec, Rastislav; Rektorová, Irena; Jech, Robert; Menšíková, Kateřina; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen; Sochorová, Dana; Dušek, Ladislav; Kaňovský, Petr; Rektor, Ivan; Pavlík, Tomáš; Filip, Pavel; Bareš, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Anxiety is a serious and frequent complication in Parkinson's disease (PD) that significantly affects the quality of life of patients. Multiple neuroanatomical, experimental, and clinical studies suggest its close association with axial disturbances. However, whether this relation applies for PD patients (commonly suffering from axial difficulties, such as balance and gait disturbance) has not been properly tested yet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PD patients suffering from axial symptoms have higher levels of anxiety than others and to identify other factors associated with anxiety-axial connections. In this questionnaire study, 212 patients with PD were assessed by standardized scales, such as Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, examining their mood and cognitive status. These data were correlated to dominant motor symptoms of these patients, such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. Unlike other motor symptoms, only axial symptoms showed to be significantly related to higher levels of anxiety. The patients suffering from anxiety and axial problems have also shown significantly higher depression levels. Axial disturbances are related to higher anxiety levels in PD patients. It is crucial to pay high attention to symptoms of anxiety in patients having postural instability or gait disorder. Further clinical studies are desirable to investigate new, practical implications of anxiety-axial connection to provide complex management options of these serious symptoms.

  9. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: The influence of social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wangelin, Bethany C.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

  10. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: the influence of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Bradley, Margaret M; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distress Screening in a Multidisciplinary Lung Cancer Clinic: Prevalence and Predictors of Clinically-Significant Distress

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Love, Celia L.; Kirsh, Kenneth L.; Moore, Pamela G.; Passik, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Screening for distress in cancer patients is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and a Distress Thermometer has previously been developed and empirically-validated for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the rates and predictors of distress in a sample of patients being seen in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic. Consecutive patients (N = 333) were recruited from an outpatient multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic to complete the Distress Thermometer, an associated Problem Symptom List, and two questions about interest in receiving help for symptoms. Over half (61.6%) of patients reported distress at a clinically significant level, and 22.5% of patients indicated interest in receiving help with their distress and/or symptoms. Problems in the areas of family relationships, emotional functioning, lack of information about diagnosis/treatment, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning were associated with higher reports of distress. Specific symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain and fatigue were most predictive of distress. Younger age was also associated with higher levels of distress. Distress was not associated with other clinical variables, including stage of illness or medical treatment approach. Similar results were obtained when individuals who had not yet received a definitive diagnosis of lung cancer (n = 134) were excluded from analyses; however, family problems and anxiety were no longer predictive of distress. Screening for distress in a multidisciplinary lung cancer clinic is feasible and a significant number of patients can be expected to meet clinical criteria for distress. Results also highlight younger age and specific physical and psychosocial symptoms as predictive of clinically-significant distress. Identification of the presence and predictors of distress are the first steps toward appropriate referral and treatment of symptoms and problems that contribute to cancer patients’ distress. PMID

  12. Effects of Nursing Care Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring on Anxiety, Distress, And Coping, When Infertility Treatment Fails: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Durgun Ozan, Yeter; Okumuş, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The failure of infertility treatment leads to individual, familial, and social problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the nursing care program based on Watson’s "Theory of Human Caring" on anxiety and distress caused by coping when the treatment fails. Methods: This study randomized controlled trial study was conducted from April to November 2012, with 86 Turkish women with infertility (intervention group: 45, control group: 41). Follow-up of 32 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from intervention group, and 35 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from control group, continued for another four weeks. Data were collected through Spiel Berger’s State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, Distress Scale, and Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The analyses of data were conducted using SPSS ver 13. Results: The intervention and control groups significantly differed in terms of anxiety, distress, and coping levels. The intervention group’s mean anxiety score decreased by thirteen points and distress by fourteen points (in a positive direction). The intervention group’s mean positive coping style score increased. Whereas a negative increase was observed in the control group’s values depending on the failure of the treatment. Conclusion: Watson’s theory of human caring is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with infertility treatment to decrease levels of anxiety and distress, and to increase the positive coping style among infertile women. PMID:28680864

  13. Emotion recognition specialization and context-dependent risk of anxiety and depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hartman, Catharina A; Van Oort, Floor V A; Nederhof, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background Some adolescents function poorly in apparently benign environments, while others thrive despite hassles and difficulties. The aim of this study was to examine if adolescents with specialized skills in the recognition of either positive or negative emotions have a context-dependent risk of developing an anxiety or depressive disorder during adolescence, depending on exposure to positive or harsh parenting. Methods Data came from a large prospective Dutch population study (N = 1539). At age 11, perceived parental rejection and emotional warmth were measured by questionnaire, and emotion recognition skills by means of a reaction-time task. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed at about age 19, using a standardized diagnostic interview. Results Adolescents who were specialized in the recognition of positive emotions had a relatively high probability to develop an anxiety disorder when exposed to parental rejection (Bspecialization*rejection = 0.23, P < 0.01) and a relatively low probability in response to parental emotional warmth (Bspecialization*warmth = −0.24, P = 0.01), while the opposite pattern was found for specialists in negative emotions. The effect of parental emotional warmth on depression onset was likewise modified by emotion recognition specialization (B = −0.13, P = 0.03), but the effect of parental rejection was not (B = 0.02, P = 0.72). In general, the relative advantage of specialists in negative emotions was restricted to fairly uncommon negative conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is no unequivocal relation between parenting behaviors and the probability to develop an anxiety or depressive disorder in adolescence, and that emotion recognition specialization may be a promising way to distinguish between various types of context-dependent reaction patterns. PMID:25642389

  14. The Frequency of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories and Future Thoughts in Relation to Daydreaming, Emotional Distress, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  15. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Care and Caring in the ICU: Family Members’ Distress and Perceptions about Staff Skills, Communication, and Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Eve B.; Spain, David A.; Muhtadie, Luma; McDade-Montez, Liz; Macia, Kathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are sometimes highly distressed and report lower satisfaction with communication and emotional support from staff. Within a study of emotional responses to traumatic stress, associations between family distress and satisfaction with aspects of ICU care were investigated. Materials and Methods In 29 family members of trauma patients who stayed in an ICU, we assessed symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during ICU care. Later, family members rated staff communication, support, and skills and their overall satisfaction with ICU care. Results Ratings of staff competence and skills were significantly higher than ratings of frequency of communication, information needs being met, and support. Frequency of communication and information needs being met were strongly related to ratings of support (rs = .75–.77) and staff skills (rs = .77–.85), and aspects of satisfaction and communication showed negative relationships with symptoms of depression (rs= −.31–−.55) and PTSD (rs = −.17–−.43). Conclusions Although satisfaction was fairly high, family member distress was negatively associated with several satisfaction variables. Increased understanding of the effects of traumatic stress on family members may help staff improve communication and increase satisfaction of highly distressed family members. PMID:25682345

  17. Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Accessing and Healing Emotional Injuries for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alladin, Assen

    2016-07-01

    Although anxiety disorders on the surface may appear simple, they often represent complex problems that are compounded by underlying factors. For these reasons, treatment of anxiety disorders should be individualized. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy, an individual comprehensive treatment protocol that integrates cognitive, behavioral, mindfulness, psychodynamic, and hypnotic strategies in the management of anxiety disorders. The treatment approach is based on the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which provides the rationale for integrating diverse strategies in the psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Due to its evidence-based and integrated nature, the psychotherapy described here provides accuracy, efficacy, and sophistication in the formulation and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders.

  18. A Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Reduces Anxiety Sensitivity But Not Intolerance of Uncertainty or Distress Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been posited for the anxiolytic effects of exercise, including reductions in anxiety sensitivity through interoceptive exposure. Studies on aerobic exercise lend support to this hypothesis; however, research investigating aerobic exercise in comparison to placebo, the dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise anxiety sensitivity, the efficacy of aerobic exercise on the spectrum of anxiety sensitivity and the effect of aerobic exercise on other related constructs (e.g. intolerance of uncertainty, distress tolerance) is lacking. We explored reductions in anxiety sensitivity and related constructs following a single session of exercise in a community sample using a randomized controlled trial design. Forty-one participants completed 30 min of aerobic exercise or a placebo stretching control. Anxiety sensitivity, intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 3-day and 7-day follow-ups. Individuals in the aerobic exercise group, but not the control group, experienced significant reductions with moderate effect sizes in all dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Intolerance of uncertainty and distress tolerance remained unchanged in both groups. Our trial supports the efficacy of aerobic exercise in uniquely reducing anxiety sensitivity in individuals with varying levels of the trait and highlights the importance of empirically validating the use of aerobic exercise to address specific mental health vulnerabilities. Aerobic exercise may have potential as a temporary substitute for psychotherapy aimed at reducing anxiety-related psychopathology.

  19. What's so special about eating? Examining unhealthy diet of adolescents in the context of other health-related behaviours and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maartje; de Ridder, Denise; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Dorsselaer, Saskia

    2007-05-01

    This study examines to what extent unhealthy diet in adolescents is related to other types of health-risk behaviours (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake). Whereas previous studies have emphasised that adolescents engage in health-risk behaviour because of a tendency to break the rules, the present study hypothesises that unhealthy diet may differ from this general pattern because emotional distress is involved. Data from the cross-sectional Dutch Health Behaviour in School aged Children study (N=5730) were employed to examine this issue. Participants completed questionnaires on eating habits, health-related behaviours, and emotional distress. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesis that unhealthy diet is only weakly related to other health-risk behaviours. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, emotional distress was not a significant predictor of unhealthy diet. Further research is required to examine which factors other than emotional distress are responsible for engaging in unhealthy diets in adolescence.

  20. Emotional Distress, Drinking, and Academic Achievement across the Adolescent Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.; Hensel, Devon J.

    2008-01-01

    Our study of the adolescent life course proposes that substantial maturation occurs within three intertwined arenas of development: the social, the psychological, and the normative attainment. Further, each arena may be linked, respectively, to three youth problem dimensions: drinking, depressive affect, and academic achievement. We use latent growth curves and the Youth Development Study (effective N=856) to track a panel of teens from their freshman to senior year in high school. There are 54.4% girls and 45.6% boys, and 75.7% non-Hispanic whites and 24.3% other races/ethnicities. Two research goals are addressed: (1) estimate each dimension’s unique developmental trajectory across high school, and (2) model the dimensions together in order to assess their reciprocal influences. While mean levels in all three dimensions increased over time, distinct developmental patterns were observed, especially in drinking and depression. For example, more drinking occasions—a social activity for most teens—may help assuage some teens’ emotional distress, especially girls’. These patterns suggest a synergistic relationship between the social and psychological arenas of development. Contrary to expectation, higher freshman depressive affect was associated with a significantly sharper increase in GPA over time for girls. PMID:19169430

  1. Emotional Imagery and the Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder…

  2. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of 98 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange Situation, a limiting task designed to elicit infant frustration, and a novelty task designed to elicit infant fear. Mothers were asked to remain uninvolved during the first minute of each task, and then instructed to engage with their infants as they wished for the remaining three minutes. Independent of concurrent maternal sensitivity, resistant infants were significantly more distressed than secure and avoidant infants. Avoidant infants engaged in fewer active mother-oriented regulation behaviors than secure and resistant infants and engaged in more self-soothing in the mother involved condition than the mother uninvolved condition. Resistant infants engaged in more physical comfort with their mothers and more venting than both secure and avoidant infants, and exhibited a smaller variety of adaptive non-mother-oriented strategies than did secure infants. There were few differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors as a function of emotion task and maternal involvement. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22919285

  3. Mediators of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients: Response expectancies and emotional distress

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Hypnosis is widely recognized as an empirically supported intervention to improve postsurgical outcomes. However, to date, no research has examined mediators of hypnotic benefit among surgery patients. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress would mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). In a sample of 200 women undergoing breast conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years), structural equation modeling revealed the following: 1) hypnotic effects on postsurgical pain were partially mediated by pain expectancy (p< .0001), but not by distress (p=.12); 2) hypnotic effects on postsurgical nausea were partially mediated by presurgical distress (p=.02), but not by nausea expectancy (p=.10); 3) hypnotic effects on postsurgical fatigue were partially mediated by both fatigue expectancy (p=.0001) and presurgical distress (p=.02). These results improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for hypnotic phenomena in the surgical setting, and suggest that future hypnotic interventions target patient expectancies and distress to improve postsurgical recovery. PMID:20099953

  4. Explaining elevated social anxiety among Asian Americans: emotional attunement and a cultural double bind.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anna S; Fung, Joey; Wang, Shu-Wen; Kang, Sun-Mee

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has documented elevated levels of social anxiety in Asian American college students when compared with their European American peers. The authors hypothesized that higher symptoms among Asians could be explained by cultural differences in attunement to the emotional states of others. Socialization within interdependent cultures may cultivate concerns about accurately perceiving other's emotional responses, yet at the same time, norms governing emotional control may limit competencies in emotion recognition. A sample of 264 Asian American and European American college students completed measures of social anxiety, attunement concerns (shame socialization and loss of face), and attunement competencies (self-reported sensitivity and performance on emotion recognition tasks). Results confirmed that ethnic differences in social anxiety symptoms were mediated by differences in attunement concerns and competencies in emotion recognition. Asian American college students may find themselves in a double bind that leads to social unease because of a cultural emphasis on sensitivity to others' emotions in the midst of barriers to developing this attunement skill set.

  5. A Step Toward a Better Understanding of the Relationship Between Victimization and Emotional Distress: Indirect Effect of Adult Attachment and Interaction With Household Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela

    2016-09-21

    A history of victimization has been linked to the latter development of emotional distress. However, not all victims develop emotional distress in response to victimization, emphasizing the need to identify mediators that can guide intervention, as well as moderators to more targeted preventive actions. Within a developmental psychology framework, we aimed to test two models: (a) the role of adult attachment as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, and (b) the role of household dysfunctions as moderators in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, in psychiatric patients. Participants were 120 adult psychiatric patients, between ages 20 and 79 years (M = -47.22, SD = 13.102) that responded to questions assessing household dysfunction in the family of origin, victimization, and adult attachment. Results revealed that adult attachment was a significant mediator in the association between victimization and emotional distress. Parental mental disorder and total household adversity were significant moderators for that same association. These results provide important clues for intervention. The focus on promoting secure adult relationships may contribute not only to the psychosocial adjustment of psychiatric patients but also to a healthier family functioning. Reducing the household dysfunction may provide a protective environment for the development of children, promoting a positive psychosocial adjustment, also preventing the intergenerational transmission of violence, insecure attachment, and emotional distress.

  6. Resilience, Pain Interference, and Upper Limb Loss: Testing the Mediating Effects of Positive Emotion and Activity Restriction on Distress.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michaela V; Armstrong, Trey W; Poritz, Julia; Elliott, Timothy R; Jackson, Warren T; Ryan, Tiffany

    2016-05-01

    To test mediating effects of positive emotion and activity restriction on the associations of resilience and pain interference with distress reported by individuals with traumatic upper limb loss evaluated for prosthetics. Cross-sectional correlational study of several demographic and self-report measures of resilience, pain interference, activity restriction, positive emotions, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Six regional centers throughout the United States. A total of 263 prospective participants consented to be evaluated for eligibility and need for upper extremity prosthetics; participants (N=202; 57 women [28.2%] and 145 men [71.8%]; mean age, 41.81±14.83y; range, 18.01-72.95y) who sustained traumatic injuries were retained in this study. Most of them were identified as white (70.8%; n=143), followed by black (10.4%; n=21), Hispanic (9.9%; n=20), Asian (3.0%; n=6), other (1.5%; n=3), and missing (4.5%; n=9). Not applicable. Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and depression screen. Resilience and pain interference were significantly correlated in predicted directions with positive emotions, activity restriction, and the 2 distress variables. A path model revealed that the associations of resilience and pain interference with both distress variables were completely mediated by positive emotions and activity restriction. There were no significant direct effects of resilience or pain interference on either distress variable. Resilience may facilitate adjustment via beneficial and predicted associations with positive emotions and active engagement with the environment. These relations are independent of the significant and inverse associations of pain interference with these same variables. Longitudinal research is needed to understand interactions between positive emotions and activity over time in promoting adjustment after traumatic limb loss. Individuals reporting depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms may

  7. Specificity of relations between adolescents' cognitive emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2016-09-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which cognitive emotion regulation strategies were "common or transdiagnostic correlates" of symptoms of depression and anxiety and/or "specific correlates" distinguishing one problem category from the other. The sample comprised 582 13- to 16-year-old secondary school students. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by the SCL-90, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies were measured by the CERQ, in a cross-sectional design. Multivariate regression analyses were performed. Before controlling for comorbidity, the same cognitive emotion regulation strategies that were related to symptoms of depression were also related to symptoms of anxiety. However, after controlling for comorbid anxiety symptoms, rumination, self-blame (only girls), positive reappraisal, and positive refocusing (the latter two inversely) were uniquely (and significantly) associated with depression symptoms; and after controlling for comorbid depression symptoms, catastrophising and other-blame were uniquely related to anxiety symptoms. The results supported the cognitive content-specificity model, in which anxiety is supposed to be uniquely characterised by thoughts concerning the overestimation of threats and harm, and depression is supposed to be uniquely characterised by negative evaluations of self, and of past and future events.

  8. Anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: the role of engagement with sources of emotional support information.

    PubMed

    Mello, Susan; Tan, Andy S L; Armstrong, Katrina; Sanford Schwartz, J; Hornik, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    This study explores cancer survivors' engagement with information about emotional support from doctors, interpersonal sources, and the media and examines to what extent such engagement affects subsequent self-reported anxiety and depression. Patients with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer (n = 1,128) were surveyed over 3 years following diagnosis. Using lagged logistic regression, we predicted the odds of experiencing anxiety or depression based on earlier engagement with sources of emotional support, adjusting for prior symptoms and confounders. Among those reporting anxiety or depression (n = 476), we also asked whether information engagement affected the severity of those symptoms. Participants obtained information about emotional support from multiple sources, but most often from physicians. Discussions with physicians about emotional support increased the odds of cancer survivors subsequently reporting anxiety or depression by 1.58 times (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.35; p = 0.025), adjusted for prior symptoms and confounders. Scanning from media sources was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting emotional symptoms (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.87; p = 0.039). However, among those who reported symptoms, doctor-patient engagement predicted slightly reduced interference of these symptoms with daily activities (B = -0.198; 95% CI: -0.393 to -0.003; p = 0.047). Important implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Anxieties: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, Sajjad Ullah; Anwar, Mumtaz Ali; Warraich, Nosheen Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is an important area of psychology, which has gained acceptance in almost every academic discipline. It also seems to influence the various academic activities undertaken by students. This article, which is part of a larger study, reviews the literature on emotional intelligence, and its relationship with the academic and…

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Academic Anxieties: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, Sajjad Ullah; Anwar, Mumtaz Ali; Warraich, Nosheen Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is an important area of psychology, which has gained acceptance in almost every academic discipline. It also seems to influence the various academic activities undertaken by students. This article, which is part of a larger study, reviews the literature on emotional intelligence, and its relationship with the academic and…

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medical interventions for the management of procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in pediatric oncology: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Tse, Alice M

    2010-12-01

    This integrative review aims to identify evidence in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsyINFO, and COCHRANE) regarding the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medical interventions, either alone or as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy, in alleviating procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in children and adolescents with cancer. A total of 32 articles met inclusion criteria. Results suggest that mind-body interventions, including hypnosis, distraction, and imagery, may be effective, alone or as adjuncts to pharmacological interventions, in managing procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in pediatric oncology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medical Interventions for the Management of Procedure-Related Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Pediatric Oncology: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Wendy; Tse, Alice M.

    2016-01-01

    This integrative review aims to identify evidence in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsyINFO, and COCHRANE) regarding the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medical interventions, either alone or as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy, in alleviating procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in children and adolescents with cancer. A total of 32 articles met inclusion criteria. Results suggest that mind–body interventions, including hypnosis, distraction, and imagery, may be effective, alone or as adjuncts to pharmacological interventions, in managing procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in pediatric oncology. PMID:21035021

  13. Fathers' postnatal distress, parenting self-efficacy, later parenting behavior, and children's emotional-behavioral functioning: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. The psychology of HPA axis activation: Examining subjective emotional distress and control in a phobic fear exposure model.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Stefanie E; Snodgrass, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; Briggs, Hedieh; Curtis, George C; Abelson, James L

    2017-02-09

    The HPA axis plays a key role in mediating the effects of "stress" on health, but clarifying mechanisms requires an understanding of psycho-biological linkages. There has long been an implicit assumption that subjective emotional distress (e.g., fear) should activate the HPA axis. Although this assumption was challenged 25 years ago (Curtis, 1976), laboratory studies in humans are limited. In this study we sought to replicate Curtis' findings and extend it by investigating if presence or absence of stressor control shapes HPA axis reactivity in a phobic fear exposure model. We recruited 19-45-year-old specific phobia participants (n=32 spider/snake phobia; n=14 claustrophobia) and gradually exposed them to their feared object or situation while measuring hormonal (ACTH and cortisol) and subjective (emotional distress, perceived control) responses. Utilizing a dyadic yoked design, we compared HPA reactivity when the pace of exposure was controlled by participants to identical exposure given to matched participants in the absence of control. Results showed that phobic fear exposure generated intense emotional distress without a corresponding increase in HPA axis activity. Although our actual manipulation of control failed to impact HPA responses, perceived control during exposure was associated with lower cortisol, an effect that was moderated by actual availability of stressor control. Our findings replicate Curtis' findings and challenge the still common but unsupported assumption that HPA axis activity reflects subjective distress. These results also highlight the importance of both perceived and actual aspects of stressor control in understanding what is truly "stressful" to the HPA axis system.

  15. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n=59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD.

  17. Test Anxiety in Spanish Adolescents: Examining the Role of Emotional Attention, and Ruminative Self-focus and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pena, Mario; Losada, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Emotional attention has been found as a key predictive dimension of stress. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of emotional attention, measured using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), on the level of test anxiety, and measured using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). In addition, we examined the potential mediating role of Self-Rumination and Self-Reflection, as measured through the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), on the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The sample included 385 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 19 years of age. Mediation analysis results are consistent with a model in which Self-Rumination, but no Self-Reflection, mediates the relationship between Emotional Attention and Test Anxiety. Finally, several potential implications of these findings to improve quality of life in adolescents are discussed. PMID:28871234

  18. Prefrontal mediation of emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder during laughter perception.

    PubMed

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Ethofer, Thomas; Ritter, Jan; Weigel, Lena; Erb, Michael; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal. We found that reappraisal abolished the negative laughter interpretation bias in SAD and that this process was directly mediated through activation patterns of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) serving as a cerebral pivot between biased social perception and its normalization through reappraisal. Connectivity analyses revealed reduced prefrontal control over threat-processing sensory cortices (here: the temporal voice area) during cognitive emotion regulation in SAD. Our results indicate a central role for the left DLPFC in SAD which might represent a valuable target for future research on interventions either aiming to directly modulate cognitive emotion regulation in SAD or to evaluate its potential as physiological marker for psychotherapeutic interventions relying on emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional eating as a mediator between anxiety and cholesterol in population with overweight and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mensorio, Marinna S; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Palomar, Gonzalo; Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2016-12-23

    Although the relationship between cholesterol and mood states (especially anxiety) has been well studied, few researches have included the role of eating styles in this relationship. This study explored the associations among eating styles, negative emotional symptoms, and levels of cholesterol (and other medical variables) in a population with hypertension and overweight or obesity, analyzing the possible mediation mechanisms involved. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 68 adults with hypertension and overweight/obesity, and stepwise multiple regression analysis and mediation analyses were carried out to test the hypothesis that eating styles mediate the relationship between negative emotional symptoms and cholesterol. Several significant correlations among age, anthropometric, medical, and psychological variables (eating styles and negative emotional symptoms) were found. There was a significant indirect effect of anxiety on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol through emotional eating. Results suggest that emotional eating has a relevant role in the rise in total and LDL cholesterol, acting as a mediator in the relationship between anxiety and cholesterol. This finding could have important implications, since it introduces a new variable in the relationship between emotions and cholesterol and, therefore, changes the way of understanding this relationship, and of treating high cholesterol in a hypertensive sample.

  20. [Attachment patterns and anxiety in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions].

    PubMed

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Dziekan, Karolina; Wiśniewska, Dominika; Czuszkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of research concerning attachment patterns and anxiety in adolescents suffering from mixed disorders of conduct and emotions. Both clinical and control group completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The first questionnaire measures parental style as perceived by the child, it consists of two scales: care and control. The second one the temporary condition of "state anxiety" and the more general and long-standing quality of "trait anxiety". The study revealed that adolescents from the clinical group perceive their parents as less protective than the control. Adolescents from the clinical group revealed also a higher level of anxiety, both as a state and as a trait. The basic conclusion is that there are differences between groups in family functioning--adolescents from the clinical group received less protection from parents, which may influence their behaviours aimed at providing them more safety.

  1. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  2. A community study on emotional distress among Arab and Jewish Israelis over the age of 60.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Annarosa Anat; Kohn, Robert; Blumstein, Tzvia; Geraisy, Nabil; Novikov, Ilya; Levav, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    The elderly constitute a vulnerable group for psychopathology, yet research on their mental health among both Arab and Jews in Israel remains limited. The same is the case in Arab countries. This paper reports on the contrasting distribution of the mean emotional distress (ED) scores and rates of suspected clinical cases, and their related risk factors, among community residents over the age of 60. Several national agencies conducted a survey on 5,055 elderly individuals to investigate their health status, including ED. The interview included socio-demographic and behavioral health items, as well as a modified 12 item-GHQ as a measure of ED. Total ED scores and prevalence rates for suspected psychopathology were calculated. Their respective risk factors were examined using univariate and multivariate methods. The ED scores were highest among Muslim Arabs (4.9), followed by Christian Arabs (4.2), Jews (3.1) and Druzes (2.8