Frey, Benicio N.; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jaworska, Natalia; Steiner, Meir; Lieshout, Ryan J. Van; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Ravindran, Arun V.
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. This section on “Special Populations” is the sixth of six guidelines articles. Results: Recent studies inform the treatment of MDD in children and adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women, women in perimenopause or menopause, and the elderly. Evidence for efficacy of treatments in these populations is more limited than for the general adult population, however, and risks of treatment in these groups are often poorly studied and reported. Conclusions: Despite the limited evidence base, extant data and clinical experience suggest that each of these special populations can benefit from the systematic application of treatment guidelines for treatment of MDD. PMID:27486149
Quilty, Lena C.; Ravitz, Paula; Rosenbluth, Michael; Pavlova, Barbara; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Velyvis, Vytas; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Ravindran, Arun V.; Uher, Rudolf
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) has revised its 2009 guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults by updating the evidence and recommendations. The target audiences for these 2016 guidelines are psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Psychological Treatments” is the second of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 25 questions under 5 broad categories: 1) patient characteristics relevant to using psychological interventions; 2) therapist and health system characteristics associated with optimizing outcomes; 3) descriptions of major psychotherapies and their efficacy; 4) additional psychological interventions, such as peer interventions and computer- and technology-delivered interventions; and 5) combining and/or sequencing psychological and pharmacological interventions. Conclusions: First-line psychological treatment recommendations for acute MDD include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and behavioural activation (BA). Second-line recommendations include computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy. Where feasible, combining psychological treatment (CBT or IPT) with antidepressant treatment is recommended because combined treatment is superior to either treatment alone. First-line psychological treatments for maintenance include CBT and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Patient preference, in combination with evidence-based treatments and clinician/system capacity, will yield the optimal treatment strategies for improving individual outcomes in MDD. PMID
Giacobbe, Peter; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Blumberger, Daniel M.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Downar, Jonathan; Modirrousta, Mandana; Patry, Simon; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Ravindran, Arun V.
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Neurostimulation Treatments” is the fourth of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 31 questions for 6 neurostimulation modalities: 1) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 2) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 3) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 4) magnetic seizure therapy (MST), 5) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and 6) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Most of the neurostimulation treatments have been investigated in patients with varying degrees of treatment resistance. Conclusions: There is increasing evidence for efficacy, tolerability, and safety of neurostimulation treatments. rTMS is now a first-line recommendation for patients with MDD who have failed at least 1 antidepressant. ECT remains a second-line treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression, although in some situations, it may be considered first line. Third-line recommendations include tDCS and VNS. MST and DBS are still considered investigational treatments. PMID:27486154
Lam, Raymond W.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Tourjman, S. Valérie; Bhat, Venkat; Blier, Pierre; Hasnain, Mehrul; Jollant, Fabrice; Levitt, Anthony J.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; McInerney, Shane J.; McIntosh, Diane; Milev, Roumen V.; Müller, Daniel J.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Pearson, Norma L.; Ravindran, Arun V.; Uher, Rudolf
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Pharmacological Treatments” is the third of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. With little new information on older medications, treatment recommendations focus on second-generation antidepressants. Results: Evidence-informed responses are given for 21 questions under 4 broad categories: 1) principles of pharmacological management, including individualized assessment of patient and medication factors for antidepressant selection, regular and frequent monitoring, and assessing clinical and functional outcomes with measurement-based care; 2) comparative aspects of antidepressant medications based on efficacy, tolerability, and safety, including summaries of newly approved drugs since 2009; 3) practical approaches to pharmacological management, including drug-drug interactions and maintenance recommendations; and 4) managing inadequate response and treatment resistance, with a focus on switching antidepressants, applying adjunctive treatments, and new and emerging agents. Conclusions: Evidence-based pharmacological treatments are available for first-line treatment of MDD and for management of inadequate response. However, given the limitations of the evidence base, pharmacological management of MDD still depends on tailoring treatments to the patient. PMID:27486148
Balneaves, Lynda G.; Faulkner, Guy; Ortiz, Abigail; McIntosh, Diane; Morehouse, Rachel L.; Ravindran, Lakshmi; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Lam, Raymond W.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments” is the fifth of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Results: Evidence-informed responses were developed for 12 questions for 2 broad categories of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions: 1) physical and meditative treatments (light therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, yoga, and acupuncture) and 2) natural health products (St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids; S-adenosyl-L-methionine [SAM-e], dehydroepiandrosterone, folate, Crocus sativus, and others). Recommendations were based on available data on efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Conclusions: For MDD of mild to moderate severity, exercise, light therapy, St. John’s wort, omega-3 fatty acids, SAM-e, and yoga are recommended as first- or second-line treatments. Adjunctive exercise and adjunctive St. John’s wort are second-line recommendations for moderate to severe MDD. Other physical treatments and natural health products have less evidence but may be considered as third-line treatments. CAM treatments are generally well tolerated. Caveats include methodological limitations of studies and paucity of data on long-term outcomes and drug interactions. PMID:27486153
McIntosh, Diane; Wang, JianLi; Enns, Murray W.; Kolivakis, Theo; Michalak, Erin E.; Sareen, Jitender; Song, Wei-Yi; Kennedy, Sidney H.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Milev, Roumen V.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Ravindran, Arun V.
Background: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Methods: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. This section is the first of six guidelines articles. Results: In Canada, the annual and lifetime prevalence of MDD was 4.7% and 11.3%, respectively. MDD represents the second leading cause of global disability, with high occupational and economic impact mainly attributable to indirect costs. DSM-5 criteria for depressive disorders remain relatively unchanged, but other clinical dimensions (sleep, cognition, physical symptoms) may have implications for depression management. e-Mental health is increasingly used to support clinical and self-management of MDD. In the 2-phase (acute and maintenance) treatment model, specific goals address symptom remission, functional recovery, improved quality of life, and prevention of recurrence. Conclusions: The burden attributed to MDD remains high, whether from individual distress, functional and relationship impairment, reduced quality of life, or societal economic cost. Applying core principles of care, including comprehensive assessment, therapeutic alliance, support of self-management, evidence-informed treatment, and measurement-based care, will optimize clinical, quality of life, and functional outcomes in MDD. PMID:27486151
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009.
Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Schaffer, Ayal; Parikh, Sagar V; Beaulieu, Serge; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L Trevor; Young, Allan H; Alda, Martin; Milev, Roumen; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R; Berk, Michael; Ha, Kyooseob; Kapczinski, Flávio
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update. This second update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications. The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain mostly unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotics continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Tamoxifen is now suggested as a third-line augmentation option. The combination of olanzapine and carbamazepine is not recommended. For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. New data support the use of adjunctive modafinil as a second-line option, but also indicate that aripiprazole should not be used as monotherapy for bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, and olanzapine continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. New data support the use of quetiapine monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the prevention of manic and depressive events, aripiprazole monotherapy for the prevention of manic events, and risperidone long-acting injection monotherapy and adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive ziprasidone for the prevention of mood events. Bipolar II disorder is frequently overlooked in treatment guidelines, but has an important clinical impact on patients' lives. This update provides an expanded look at bipolar II disorder.
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013.
Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Parikh, Sagar V; Schaffer, Ayal; Beaulieu, Serge; Alda, Martin; O'Donovan, Claire; Macqueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L Trevor; Milev, Roumen; Bond, David J; Frey, Benicio N; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Lafer, Beny; Birmaher, Boris; Ha, Kyooseob; Nolen, Willem A; Berk, Michael
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with updates in 2007 and 2009. This third update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications.The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain largely unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotic agents continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Monotherapy with asenapine, paliperidone extended release (ER), and divalproex ER, as well as adjunctive asenapine, have been added as first-line options.For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, as well as olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. Lurasidone monotherapy and the combination of lurasidone or lamotrigine plus lithium or divalproex have been added as a second-line options. Ziprasidone alone or as adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive levetiracetam have been added as not-recommended options for the treatment of bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, risperidone long-acting injection, and adjunctive ziprasidone continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Asenapine alone or as adjunctive therapy have been added as third-line options.
Rapp, Amy; Dodds, Alice; Walkup, John T; Rynn, Moira
This article provides a brief review of the current available data concerning present treatment and potential new treatment advances for pediatric anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Disorder-specific treatment methods and innovations, particularly computer-assisted methods of delivery for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) will be reviewed. Additionally, the paper will discuss novel psychopharmacological compounds (e.g., D-cycloserine, riluzole, memantine, and anticonvulsant medications). Available evidence for the efficacy of novel medication strategies in adult studies and implications for their use in pediatrics will be discussed.
Struzik, Lukasz; Vermani, Monica; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Katzman, Martin A
Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive chronic anxiety in association with many somatic symptoms. The disorder has pervasive effects on quality of life, including work, social and educational aspects and requires long-term therapy. Available studies in patients are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition-revised and fourth edition, which have defined generalized anxiety disorder and demonstrate the efficacy of benzodiazepines, azapirones, some antidepressants and psychotherapy. Benzodiazepines are effective anxiolytics for short-term use but are accompanied by many adverse events. The antidepressants, paroxetine and venlafaxine (Efexor), have demonstrated efficacy in patients with generalized anxiety disorder with mild side-effect profiles. They have the additional benefit of efficacy in depression, which frequently occurs comorbidly in these patients. Long-term efficacy has been shown with venlafaxine in the treatment of this chronic condition, confirming that as in depression, the goal must not just be remission beyond simple symptom resolution but also on to improved functioning and quality of life. Psychotherapy with applied relaxation, cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy show the most promise in resolving and maintaining treatment gains in the long-term. These approaches may be useful alone or in combination with adjunctive pharmacotherapy to achieve remission. Based on current evidence, the recommended approach to achieving long-term benefits for patients with generalized anxiety disorder is antidepressant therapy with paroxetine or venlafaxine in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy.
An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled studies, which preclude any definite conclusion about their effectiveness in specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), CBT was clearly better than psychoanalytic therapy in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and performance anxiety Psychological debriefing for PTSD appeared detrimental to the patients in one high-quality meta-analysis. Uncontrolled studies of psychosurgery techniques for intractable OCD demonstrated a limited success and detrimental side effects. The same was true for sympathectomy in ereutophobia. Transcranial neurostimulation for OCD is under preliminary study. The theoretical and practical problems of CBT dissemination are discussed.
Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…
Murrough, James W.; Yaqubi, Sahab; Sayed, Sehrish; Charney, Dennis S.
Introduction Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorders in the United States and worldwide. Basic research has provided critical insights into the mechanism regulating fear behavior in animals and a host of animal models have been developed in order to screen compounds for anxiolytic properties. Despite this progress, no mechanistically novel agents for the treatment of anxiety have come to market in more than two decades. Areas covered The current review will provide a critical summary of current pharmacological approaches to the treatment of anxiety and will examine the pharmacotherapeutic pipeline for treatments in development. Anxiety and related disorders considered herein include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. The glutamate, neuropeptide and endocannabinoid systems show particular promise as future targets for novel drug development. Expert opinion In the face of an ever-growing understanding of fear related behavior, the field awaits the translation of this research into mechanistically novel treatments. Obstacles will be overcome through close collaboration between basic and clinical researchers with the goal of aligning valid endophenotypes of human anxiety disorders with improved animal models. Novel approaches are needed to move basic discoveries into new, more effective treatments for our patients. PMID:26012843
Beck, Frank M.; And Others
Women, self-referred for dental anxiety, were given four weeks of cue-controlled relaxation treatment. Nonorthogonal planned comparisons indicated significant decreases on dental anxiety, anxiety differential, and state anxiety scales, and systolic blood pressure. Participants reported that treatment was helpful in controlling anxiety when…
... abdominal pain. If you're considering taking any herbal supplement as a treatment for anxiety, talk to your ... you take other medications. The interaction of some herbal supplements and certain medications can cause serious side effects. ...
Bystritsky, Alexander; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cameron, Michael E.; Schiffman, Jason
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health conditions. Although they are less visible than schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, they can be just as disabling. The diagnoses of anxiety disorders are being continuously revised. Both dimensional and structural diagnoses have been used in clinical treatment and research, and both methods have been proposed for the new classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-5). However, each of these approaches has limitations. More recently, the emphasis in diagnosis has focused on neuroimaging and genetic research. This approach is based partly on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of how biology, stress, and genetics interact to shape the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety disorders can be effectively treated with psychopharmacological and cognitive–behavioral interventions. These inter ventions have different symptom targets; thus, logical combinations of these strategies need to be further studied in order to improve future outcomes. New developments are forthcoming in the field of alternative strategies for managing anxiety and for treatment-resistant cases. Additional treatment enhancements should include the development of algorithms that can be easily used in primary care and with greater focus on managing functional impairment in patients with anxiety. PMID:23599668
This paper sought to identify some of the dimensions, correlates, and effective treatments of mathematics anxiety. The introductory section provides a statement of the problem, defines the purpose, organization, and limitation of the study, and includes a glossary of terms. In the second section, an annotated bibliography is presented, organized…
Francis, Sarah E
Recent research has examined the contribution of parental anxiety sensitivity to child anxiety, suggesting only a modest relationship between these two variables. No study to date, however, has examined the role of parental anxiety sensitivity in parent reports of the child's anxiety. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive risk factor for the development of anxiety, would be significantly correlated with parents' reports of their child's anxiety, specifically with respect to panic and separation anxiety. The present study employed a sample of 56 treatment-seeking children and their parents. Parent and child reports of the child's anxiety were obtained, and self-reports of anxiety sensitivity were obtained from parent and child. Parent reports of their child's panic and separation anxiety symptoms were significantly related to not only parental anxiety sensitivity (r = .39 and r = .29, respectively) but also the child's self-reported level of anxiety sensitivity (r = .35 and r = .37, respectively). These findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity, a significant predictor of panic symptomatology amongst both adults and children, might be related to parents' perceptions of their child's symptoms of panic and separation anxiety. These findings further suggest taking into consideration parental levels of anxiety sensitivity when interpreting parent reports of child anxiety in clinical settings.
... fullstory_163295.html Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments Researchers suggest that dealing with a patient's ... Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Anxiety may prompt prostate cancer patients to opt for potentially unnecessary treatments, a ...
Farach, Frank J.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Jun, Janie J.; Jerud, Alissa B.; Zoellner, Lori A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.
Modern pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders are safer and more tolerable than they were 30 years ago. Unfortunately, treatment efficacy and duration have not improved in most cases despite a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of anxiety. Moreover, innovative treatments have not reached the market despite billions of research dollars invested in drug development. In reviewing the literature on current treatments, we argue that evidence-based practice would benefit from better research on the causes of incomplete treatment response as well as the comparative efficacy of drug combinations and sequencing. We also survey two broad approaches to the development of innovative anxiety treatments: the continued development of drugs based on specific neuroreceptors and the pharmacological manipulation of fear-related memory. We highlight directions for future research, as neither of these approaches is ready for routine clinical use. PMID:23023162
Creswell, Cathy; Willetts, Lucy; Murray, Lynne; Singhal, Meghna; Cooper, Peter
Anxiety disorders are common among parents of anxious children and have been found to impede child treatment outcomes, yet it is unclear whether it is parental anxiety that needs to be targeted in therapy or associated parental behaviours. Twenty-two children (6-12 years) with a current anxiety disorder and their mothers received cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) for child anxiety. In addition, of the 12 mothers who met criteria for a current anxiety disorder, 6 received CBT for their own disorder. Assessments were made of the mother-child interaction. The main findings were: (1) children did less well from treatment where their mothers had a current anxiety disorder; (2) treatment of maternal anxiety disorder did not improve child treatment outcome; and (3) maternal overinvolvement and expression of fear was associated with child treatment outcome. The results suggest that in the context of maternal anxiety disorder, child treatment outcome may be improved by specifically targeting parenting behaviours.
A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.
A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793
Krugman, Martin; And Others
Compared neuro-linguistic programing treatment for anxiety with self-control desensitization of equal duration and a waiting-list control group in treating public speaking anxiety. Results indicated that neither treatment was more effective in reducing anxiety than merely waiting for one hour. (Author/MCF)
Edie, Cecil A.
Anxiety management training (AMT), developed by Suinn and Richardson, is a short-term treatment procedure for alleviating a variety of manifestations of anxiety. It is based on the theory that anxiety or fear responses themselves can become discriminative stimuli and that clients can be conditioned to respond to those stimuli with antagonistic…
Wu, Monica S; Salloum, Alison; Lewin, Adam B; Selles, Robert R; McBride, Nicole M; Crawford, Erika A; Storch, Eric A
Although there are efficacious, evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders, youth often experience delays in seeking therapy. Myriad reasons may contribute to this lag in treatment initiation, with some youth possessing concerns about therapy. Treatment concerns are broadly characterized by worries/ambivalence about seeking treatment, including concerns about the negative reactions, consequences, and inconvenience of treatment. As no studies exist for youth with anxiety disorders, this study examined the phenomenology of treatment concerns in 119 treatment-seeking, anxious youth and utilized a structural equation model to examine the relationship between child anxiety, depressive symptoms, treatment concerns, and anxiety-related functional impairment. Over 90 % of the children positively endorsed some type of treatment-related fear, with the most frequently expressed concern being that therapy would take too much time (50.4 %). Based on the model, both child anxiety and depressive symptoms predicted functional impairment, and treatment concerns mediated the relationship between child anxiety and functional impairment.
Hudson, Jennifer L; Newall, Carol; Rapee, Ronald M; Lyneham, Heidi J; Schniering, Carolyn C; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Schneider, Sophie; Seeley-Wait, Elizabeth; Edwards, Susan; Gar, Natalie S
Parental anxiety is a risk to optimal treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. The current trial examined whether the addition of a brief parental anxiety management (BPAM) program to family cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more efficacious than family CBT-only in treating childhood anxiety disorders. Two hundred nine children (aged 6-13 years, 104 female, 90% Caucasian) with a principal anxiety disorder were randomly allocated to family CBT with a five-session program of BPAM (n = 109) or family CBT-only (n = 100). Family CBT comprised the Cool Kids program, a structured 12-week program that included both mothers and fathers. Overall, results revealed that the addition of BPAM did not significantly improve outcomes for the child or the parent compared to the CBT-only group at posttreatment or 6-month follow-up. Overall, however, children with nonanxious parents were more likely to be diagnosis free for any anxiety disorder compared to children with anxious parents at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. BPAM did not produce greater reductions in parental anxiety. The results support previous findings that parent anxiety confers poorer treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. Nevertheless the addition of BPAM anxiety management for parents in its current format did not lead to additional improvements when used as an adjunct to family CBT in the treatment of the child's anxiety disorder. Future benefits may come from more powerful methods of reducing parents' anxiety.
... include Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Treatment can involve medicines, therapy or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health
Mohatt, Justin; Bennett, Shannon M; Walkup, John T
Separation, generalized, and social anxiety disorders are common and impairing for children and adolescents. Childhood-onset anxiety disorders frequently persist into adulthood and place youths at risk for future psychiatric disorders, including mood and substance use disorders. Comorbidity is common in childhood anxiety disorders, and studies increasingly take this into account when assessing potential treatments. Existing studies support a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. The strongest evidence supports use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Combination treatment with SSRIs and CBT has been found to be more effective than either treatment alone. Early detection and treatment of childhood anxiety disorders can prevent substantial impairment over the course of a child's development and accumulation of functional disability. Early treatment also may prevent later development of adult psychiatric illness. The authors review the treatment literature and present the case of an adolescent who is brought in for evaluation after years of untreated anxiety.
Misri, Shaila; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena
Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother-infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum.
Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena
Abstract Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%–10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%–10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother–infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum. PMID:26125602
Pontone, Gregory M.; Williams, James R.; Anderson, Karen E.; Chase, Gary; Goldstein, Susanne R.; Grill, Stephen; Hirsch, Elaina S.; Lehmann, Susan; Little, John T.; Margolis, Russell L.; Palanci, Justin; Rabins, Peter V.; Weiss, Howard D.; Marsh, Laura
Objective Neither best practices nor an evidence-base for the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety in Parkinson's disease has been established. This study investigated pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders in idiopathic Parkinson's disease and the associated clinical features. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Three community-based movement disorder neurology practices Participants 250 subjects with Parkinson's disease. Measurements Anxiety disorder diagnoses were established by consensus using a panel of six psychiatrists with expertise in geriatric psychiatry and movement disorders. Current medications were provided by the treating neurologists at the time of interview. Results Amongst subjects with anxiety disorders only, 53% were untreated with medications. However, when anxious subjects with comorbid depressive disorders were included, 70.8% were on medications effective for treatment of anxiety. Subjects with anxiety and comorbid depressive disorders were more likely to be treated for their psychiatric disturbances than subjects with anxiety disorders alone (Odds Ratio 8.33) as were subjects with comorbid motor fluctuations (Odds Ratio, 3.65). There were no differences in the types of anti-anxiety medications used in regard to the presence of depression or motor fluctuations. Conclusions These findings suggest that over half of non-depressed Parkinson's disease patients with clinically significant anxiety are untreated with medication. A better understanding of the role of clinical features associated with anxiety in PD, such as depression and motor fluctuations, may improve the recognition and treatment of anxiety disorders in this population. PMID:23567419
Kring, Ann M; Persons, Jacqueline B; Thomas, Cannon
We tested the hypothesis that the tripartite model [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and psychometric implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] can be extended to account for change during treatment for anxiety and depression. Forty-one patients treated naturalistically in private practice with cognitive behavior therapy completed weekly measures of depression, anxiety, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and anxious arousal (AA). Consistent with the model, NA was associated with anxiety and depression during treatment, PA was more strongly related to depression than to anxiety, and AA was more strongly related to anxiety than to depression. As predicted, symptoms of depression and anxiety and NA all decreased during treatment. As predicted, AA also decreased, particularly for patients with panic disorder. PA increased during treatment, but only for patients who showed a significant decline in depression and only over an extended period of treatment. Nearly two-thirds of the variance in anxiety change was accounted for by changes in depression and NA, and just over three-fourths of the variance in depression change was accounted for by changes in anxiety and NA, indicating that much of the change in anxiety and depression across the course of treatment is shared in common.
Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Tobak, Anne
Depression and anxiety are disabling disorders that affect many individuals. Drugs that interfere with the reuptake and/or metabolism of biogenic amines have been used to treat depression for more than four decades. An important development in the treatment of depression has been the emergence of triple reuptake inhibitors (SNDRIs), which inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Preclinical and clinical research indicates that drugs inhibiting the reuptake of all of these neurotransmitters can produce a more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. Allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors can produce anxiolytic, sedative/hypnotic and anesthetic effects, presumably from enhancing the inhibitory neurotransmission of GABAA through a facilitation of receptor function. Benzodiazepines have been used with great success as anxiolytics, but the use of these drugs is limited because of their addictive potential and sedative side effects. This feature review discusses the design and synthesis of antidepressants based on the monoamine hypothesis of depression, and presents the current status of research on GABAA receptor modulators as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders.
Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; And Others
Speech-anxious students (N=69) classified as experiencing primarily cognitive or somatic symptoms of anxiety received cognitive restructuring, coping relaxation, a combined cognitive-somatic treatment (stress inoculation) or no treatment. Cognitive indices of anxiety indicated that matched treatments resulted in more facilitative patterns of…
Barrett, Paula M.; And Others
Evaluates a family-based treatment for childhood anxiety. Children (N=79) with separation anxiety, overanxious disorder or social phobia were randomly allocated to three treatment conditions: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), CBT and family management, or a waiting list. Indicated 69.8% of the children no longer fulfilled diagnostic criteria for…
Stonerock, Gregory L.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.
Background Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in individuals pre-selected because of their high anxiety. Purpose To review and critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were randomized to an exercise or non-exercise control condition. Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. Results Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for select groups, similar to established treatments and greater than placebo. However, most studies had significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence and fitness levels. Conclusions Exercise may be a useful treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous, methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive conclusions about its effectiveness. PMID:25697132
Silver, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Theodore; Milrod, Barbara
This article presents information on child and adolescent psychodynamic psychotherapy (CAPP). Following a definition of anxiety, the authors present study outcomes of nonpsychodynamic treatment approaches, alone and in combination with psychopharmacologic treatment, then explore psychodynamic approaches. A detailed overview of psychodynamic psychotherapy is presented, along with 2 cases illustrating the use of CAPP in young patients with anxiety. Also presented are tables and boxes summarizing CAPP therapeutic processes and strategies as intervention for anxious youth.
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Johnco, Carly; Storch, Eric A.
SUMMARY Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been a recent proliferation of research examining the prevalence, phenomenology, assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders among youth with ASD. While there is currently very limited support for the use of pharmacological agents to treat anxiety among youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety, there has been overwhelming support across numerous modestly sized controlled studies for the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. This review discusses advances in the treatment literature for anxiety in youth with ASD, and discusses the current evidence base for whether standard treatment needs to be adapted for this population. PMID:26548429
Baldwin, David S; Nair, Rajesh V
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram is the active enantiomer of citalopram and has proven efficacy in the treatment of major depression, panic disorder and social phobia. Accumulating data indicate that it is also efficacious in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder. This drug profile summarizes the current evidence-base for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, describes the findings of a series of randomized placebo-controlled and comparator-controlled trials of escitalopram, examines the strengths and weaknesses of current treatment approaches and considers potential new therapies for the treatment of this common, chronic and impairing anxiety disorder. In summary, escitalopram is effective and well tolerated in both the short- and long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, and has advantages over benzodiazepines and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine.
Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.
The present study examined multiple informant agreement in reports of treatment gains in a sample of children (M age = 10.27) treated for social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Mothers and fathers agreed on their child's improvement, and parents and children also generally agreed on the child's improvement.…
Hewitt, Sarah N.; Egan, Sarah; Rees, Clare
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations or events, and it has been found to be an important maintaining factor in a number of different anxiety disorders. It is often included as a part of cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety disorders but its specific contribution to treatment outcome…
A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)
De Coteau, Tami; Anderson, Jessiline; Hope, Debra
Although there is a small but growing body of literature examining the psychopathology of anxiety among Native Americans, no data are available regarding the efficacy of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders among Native Americans. Moreover, exceptional challenges arise in adapting mainstream approaches to Native Americans, such…
Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Valeta, Thalia
Anxiety in epilepsy has recently become a focus of interest for a number of reasons. Epidemiological studies have established that anxiety disorders are twice as common in patients with epilepsy compared to the general population, while in referral centres their prevalence is even higher. In addition, it has been recently appreciated that anxiety exerts a significant negative impact on the quality of life of patients with epilepsy of any age. With regard to the pathogenesis of anxiety in epilepsy, a number of theories have been put forward including those based on psychodynamics, learning-cognition, and neurobiology. From a clinical point of view, anxiety may occur as a comorbid disorder with epilepsy or be directly linked with epilepsy as a preictal, ictal, postictal or interictal phenomenon. The treatment of anxiety in patients with epilepsy requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, clinical assessment. Regarding pharmacological therapies, it should be recognised that some drugs prescribed for anxiety disorders are associated with a high risk of seizures, whereas some antiepileptic drugs possess anxiolytic properties that could be of use in the management of epileptic patients with anxiety. The correct diagnosis and successful treatment of anxiety is expected to have significant benefits for the quality of life of epileptic patients.
Wei, Chiaying; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety disorders are prevalent in youth. Despite demonstrated efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), approximately 40% of anxiety-disordered youth remain unresponsive to treatment. Because developmental and etiological models suggest that parental factors are relevant to the onset and maintenance of childhood anxiety, researchers have proposed and investigated family-based interventions with increased parent work in treatment, aiming to improve the efficacy of treatment for childhood anxiety. However, contrary to what theoretical models suggest, data to date did not indicate additive benefit of family-based CBT in comparison with child-centered modality. Is parent/family involvement unnecessary when treating childhood anxiety disorders? Or could there be the need for specificity (tailored family-based treatment) that is guided by a revised conceptualization that improves the implementation of a family-based intervention? The current review examines (1) relevant parental factors that have been found to be associated with the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety and (2) interventions that incorporate parental involvement. Relevant findings are integrated to formulate a "targeted" treatment approach for parental involvement in CBT for youth anxiety. Specifically, there is potential in the assessment of parent/family factors prior to treatment (for appropriateness) followed by a target-oriented implementation of parent training.
Luby, Joan L.
Objective Empirical studies have now established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as early as age 3.0. As empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments. Method A comprehensive literature search revealed several small randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic treatments for preschool anxiety and depression. The literature also contains case series of behavioral and psychopharmacologic interventions for specific anxiety disorders. However, to date, no large-scale RCTs of treatment for any anxiety or depressive disorder specifically targeting preschool populations have been published. Results Several age-adapted forms of cognitive behavioral therapy have been developed and preliminarily tested in small RCTs, and appear promising for a variety of forms of preschool anxiety disorders. Notably, these adaptations centrally involve primary caregivers and utilize age-adjusted methodology such as cartoon-based materials and co-constructed drawing or narratives. Modified forms of Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) have been tested and appear promising for both anxiety and depression. While preventive interventions that target parenting have shown significant promise in anxiety, these methods have not been explored in area of early childhood depression. Studies of the impact of parental treatment on infants suggest that direct treatment of the youngest children may be necessary to affect long-term change. Conclusions Recommendations are made for clinical treatment of these disorders where psychotherapy is the first line of intervention. PMID:23582866
Music performance anxiety (MPA) regularly occurs when musicians present themselves before an audience in performance situations, and thus, it plays an important role in the careers of professional musicians. MPA is expressed on the emotional and physical level, as well as on the levels of thinking and behavior, and extends along a continuum of varying severity. Its performance-impairing, afflicting form is considered to be a specific type of social phobia, which requires therapy. There are different psychological theories, which contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of MPA and provide basic principles for the various treatment approaches. Current "best practice," in our clinical experience, is a personal- and problem-oriented approach within a multimodal therapy model, including the range of psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral therapies, body-oriented methods, and mental techniques. In order to avoid severe MPA, prevention in the field of music pedagogic is very important. Thus, the concepts of dealing positively with MPA should be implemented very early into the instrumental and vocal education of musicians.
Blessing, Esther M; Steenkamp, Maria M; Manzanares, Jorge; Marmar, Charles R
Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, is a pharmacologically broad-spectrum drug that in recent years has drawn increasing interest as a treatment for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of the current review is to determine CBD's potential as a treatment for anxiety-related disorders, by assessing evidence from preclinical, human experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies. We found that existing preclinical evidence strongly supports CBD as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder when administered acutely; however, few studies have investigated chronic CBD dosing. Likewise, evidence from human studies supports an anxiolytic role of CBD, but is currently limited to acute dosing, also with few studies in clinical populations. Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders, with need for further study of chronic and therapeutic effects in relevant clinical populations.
Mahe, V; Balogh, A
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and has a poor prognosis, although it is often thought to be a minor complaint. This disorder has a chronic course of 5-15 years and longer. Long-term treatment with the commonly used benzodiazepines is controversial because of concerns over tolerance and dependence. We performed a thorough search of the literature for clinical trials of a duration of over 2 months conducted in patients with generalized anxiety disorder in order to identify any successful long-term treatment of this disorder. Only eight long-term reports of studies conducted in well-defined homogeneous groups of patients diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder were found with the methodology of these studies presenting a number of limiting factors. The results are inconclusive and no reference drug could be identified. In addition, an adequate evaluation of the long-term treatment of GAD has not yet been performed.
Buckner, Julia D; Carroll, Kathleen M
Despite emerging evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapies for marijuana dependence, variability in outcome exists. This study examined the role of anxiety on treatment involvement and outcome. Four questions were examined: (1) Is greater anxiety associated with greater impairment at baseline? (2) Is baseline anxiety related to greater marijuana use and problems following treatment? (3) Does adding cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to motivation enhancement therapy (MET) reduce anxiety relative to MET alone; (4) Are reductions in anxiety associated with better outcomes? The sample comprised 450 marijuana-dependent patients in the Marijuana Treatment Project. Marijuana use and anxiety were measured at pretreatment and 4- and 9-month follow-ups. At baseline, anxiety was linked to more marijuana-related problems. CBT was associated with less anxiety at follow-up compared to MET alone. Reductions in anxiety were related to less marijuana use. In fact, reduction in anxiety from baseline to 4-month follow-up was associated with less marijuana use at 9 months, but reduction in marijuana use did not predict subsequent anxiety. Data suggest that anxiety is an important variable that deserves further attention in marijuana-dependence treatment.
Pollack, M H
Growing appreciation of the prevalence of and morbid sequelae associated with social anxiety disorder has focused increasing interest on the development of effective treatment strategies. A number of pharmacologic interventions, including the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A, beta-blockers, benzodiazepines, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The choice of initial treatment depends on a variety of factors including comorbidity, prior treatment history, patient preference, and adverse effect profile. This article will examine the effectiveness of various pharmacologic agents for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, discuss considerations for long-term management, and review strategies for optimizing treatment in patients who are partially responsive or unresponsive to initial therapy.
Reaven, Judy; Washington, Lindsay; Moody, Eric J.; Stern, Jessica A.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey
In response to the high co-occurrence of anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several interventions have been developed for this population. In spite of promising findings, some youth with ASD respond only minimally to anxiety interventions. The current study explores the role of parental anxiety in youth treatment outcome. Thirty-one youth with ASD, ages 7–18, and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory pre- and post-treatment. Contrary to previous research, there was no correlation between parental anxiety and youth anxiety at baseline or post-treatment. However, parental trait anxiety significantly decreased from pre- to post-treatment for parents of treatment responders. The findings are consistent with previous research and suggest youth-to-parent influence. PMID:25778837
Duff, Desiree C.; Levine, Timothy R.; Beatty, Michael J.; Woolbright, Jessica; Park, Hee Sun
Research investigating public speaking anxiety treatments is subject to demand effects. This study tests the relative effectiveness of systematic desensitization (SD) and multiple treatment method (MT) containing visualization therapy against no-treatment and credible placebo controls. Data (N = 238) were collected at six points in a public…
Wehry, Anna M; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M; Connolly, Sucheta D; Strawn, Jeffrey R
Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social, and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity, and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of these conditions in youth and suggest that the combination of psychotherapy + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy.
Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.
Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…
Johnco, Carly J.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Lewin, Adam B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Storch, Eric A.
This study examined optimal guidelines to assess treatment response and remission for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). Data was collected for 108 children aged 7-16 years with comorbid anxiety and ASD before and after receiving cognitive behavior therapy. Optimal cut-offs on the…
Reaven, Judy; Washington, Lindsay; Moody, Eric J; Stern, Jessica A; Hepburn, Susan L; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey
In response to the high co-occurrence of anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several interventions have been developed for this population. In spite of promising findings, some youth with ASD respond only minimally to such interventions. To understand potential factors that may impact treatment response, the current study explores the role of parental anxiety in youth treatment outcome. Thirty-one youth with ASD, ages 7-18, and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory pre- and post-treatment. Contrary to previous research, there was no correlation between parental anxiety and youth anxiety at baseline or post-treatment. However, parental trait anxiety significantly decreased from pre- to post-treatment for parents of treatment responders. The findings are consistent with previous research and suggest a youth-to-parent influence.
Lin, C-S; Wu, S-Y; Yi, C-A
Accumulating evidence has revealed that dental anxiety (DA), as a dispositional factor toward the dental situation, is associated with the state anxiety (SA) and pain related to dental procedures. However, conclusions from individual studies may be limited by the treatment procedures that patients received, the tools used to assess DA, or the treatment stages when anxiety or pain was assessed. It is unclear whether DA, at the study level, accounts for the variance in pretreatment SA. The impact of DA and SA on pain at different treatment stages has not been systematically investigated. To address these questions, we present novel meta-analytical evidence from 35 articles (encompassing 47 clinical groups) that investigated DA in a clinical group. Subgroup analyses revealed that the studies of surgical and nonsurgical procedures did not significantly differ in either DA or pretreatment SA. Furthermore, metaregressions revealed DA as a significant predictor that explained the variance in SA assessed before and during treatment but not after treatment. The findings suggest that patient DA has a significant impact on patient SA. Metaregressions revealed DA as a significant predictor that explained the variance in expected pain, pain during treatment and posttreatment pain. In contrast, pretreatment SA was a significant predictor that explained the variance in expected pain. The findings reveal that DA has a consistent impact on pain through the entire period of dental treatment. Altogether, the findings highlight the role of DA as an overall indicator for anxiety and pain, across different types of dental procedures or treatment stages. We conclude that anxiety should be assessed as a critical step not only in anxiety management for high-DA patients, but also in pain control for all dental patients.
Frencken, J E F M; Flohil, K A; de Baat, C
Dental treatment anxiety usually develops during childhood due to a bad experience and the dental drill as well as the injection needle are the most common causes. The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment provides the opportunity to provoke little or no dental treatment anxiety because only hand instruments are used and local anaesthesia is seldom required. Several scientific studies have indicated that the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment causes less pain, discomfort and anxiety by comparison with conventional treatments. Therefore, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment is considered to be promising for the treatment of carious lesions in anxious children and adults, and potentially also for patients suffering from dental treatment phobia. Furthermore, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment may be indicated as the primary treatment method in children to prevent dental treatment anxiety and treatment under general anaesthesia. These conclusions must still be confirmed with responsible scientific research.
Carek, Peter J; Laibstain, Sarah E; Carek, Stephen M
Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric conditions seen in the general medical setting, affecting millions of individuals in the United States. The treatments for depression and anxiety are multiple and have varying degrees of effectiveness. Physical activity has been shown to be associated with decreased symptoms of depression and anxiety. Physical activity has been consistently shown to be associated with improved physical health, life satisfaction, cognitive functioning, and psychological well-being. Conversely, physical inactivity appears to be associated with the development of psychological disorders. Specific studies support the use of exercise as a treatment for depression. Exercise compares favorably to antidepressant medications as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate depression and has also been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medications. While not as extensively studied, exercise has been shown to be an effective and cost-efficient treatment alternative for a variety of anxiety disorders. While effective, exercise has not been shown to reduce anxiety to the level achieved by psychopharmaceuticals.
He, Yuxin; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely
Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely
Steketee, G; Perry, JC; Goisman, RM; Warshaw, MG; Massion, AO; Peterson, LG; Langford, L; Weinshenker, N; Farreras , IG; Keller , MB
The authors report on development, reliability, and findings of the Psychosocial Treatments Interview (PTI) to assess treatments reported by patients in a naturalistic study of the longitudinal course of anxiety disorders. The PTI ascertains frequency of different types of psychosocial treatments, based on patients' reports. The PTI showed good internal consistency and very good interrater reliability. At first 6-month follow-up, the most common modalities were supportive, medication discussion, and dynamic intervention. Combinations were common. Delivery of treatments differed by site. Overall, the PTI fills a methodological need for the assessment of the treatments reported by patients in naturalistic follow-up studies. PMID:9185065
Steketee, G; Perry, J C; Goisman, R M; Warshaw, M G; Massion, A O; Peterson, L G; Langford, L; Weinshenker, N; Farreras, I G; Keller, M B
The authors report on development, reliability, and findings of the Psychosocial Treatments Interview (PTI) to assess treatments reported by patients in a naturalistic study of the longitudinal course of anxiety disorders. The PTI ascertains frequency of different types of psychosocial treatments, based on patients' reports. The PTI showed good internal consistency and very good interrater reliability. At first 6-month follow-up, the most common modalities were supportive, medication discussion, and dynamic intervention. Combinations were common. Delivery of treatments differed by site. Overall, the PTI fills a methodological need for the assessment of the treatments reported by patients in naturalistic follow-up studies.
Anderson, Page; Jacobs, Carli; Rothbaum, Barbara O
This article reviews the empirical literature pertaining to the use of computer-supported cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders, including palmtop computers, virtual reality exposure therapy, and personal computer software programs. The advantages and disadvantages unique to each type of technology are described. The review concludes with a discussion of ethical issues, barriers to the use of technology by clinicians, and suggestions for a process by which scientists and practitioners can conceptualize how technology can advance our understanding of anxiety and our dissemination of effective treatments.
Zahreddine, Nada; Richa, Sami
Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and very disabling anxiety disorder. First-line medications are antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). However, a substantial number of patients do not reach remission while on antidepressants and they may develop troublesome side effects, which highlights the necessity of new therapeutic options for GAD. Methods: The purpose of this review is to discuss all non-antidepressant treatments studied in GAD. We searched MedLine for English articles published between 1980 and 2012, containing the following keywords: "generalized (or generalised) anxiety disorder" OR "anxiety disorder", AND "drug therapy" OR "herbal medicine". 76 articles were finally selected. Results: Pregabalin is the anticonvulsant with the most robust level of evidence in GAD. It rapidly reduces anxiety, have a safe side effect profile and presents a low potential for abuse. Among antipsychotics, quetiapine is the one of choice in GAD, with similar efficacy to SSRIs in low dosages, yet with lower overall tolerability. Benzodiazepines, buspirone and hydroxyzine are Food and Drugs administration (FDA) approved for GAD and have relatively good evidence of efficacy. Other drugs (betablockers, zolpidem, riluzole, etc…) and natural remedies (e.g. Piper methysticum) could be potential treatment options, yet additional research is warranted. Conclusion: Pregabalin and quetiapine are the two most promising non-antidepressant treatments for GAD.
Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel; Craske, Michelle G.; Chavira, Denise A.; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Rose, Raphael D.; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy S.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B.
When treating anxious patients with co-occurring depression, research demonstrates that both types of symptoms independently improve. The current analyses examined how reductions in anxiety and depression may be interrelated both during treatment, as well as over time following treatment. Participants were 503 individuals with one or more DSM-IV anxiety disorders who completed a collaborative care anxiety management program. Anxiety and depression were assessed at each treatment session (i.e., session by session data) and also at 6, 12, and 18-month post-baseline assessments (i.e., long-term outcomes data). Mediation analysis examined changes in symptoms in session by session data and long-term outcomes data. Anxiety and depression changed reciprocally in session by session data; change in anxiety mediated change in depression to a greater extent than vice versa. In the long-term outcomes data, change in anxiety mediated change in depression. However, the reverse mediation model of the long-term outcomes period revealed that accounting for changes in depression altered the effect of time on anxiety. Thus, temporal change during active treatment may share similarities with those related to maintaining gains after treatment, although differences arose in the reverse mediation models. Limitations of the methodology and implications of anxiety treatment for depression outcomes are discussed. PMID:26228164
Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel; Craske, Michelle G; Chavira, Denise A; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy S; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B
When treating anxious patients with co-occurring depression, research demonstrates that both types of symptoms independently improve. The current analyses examined how reductions in anxiety and depression may be interrelated both during treatment, as well as over time following treatment. Participants were 503 individuals with one or more DSM-IV anxiety disorders who completed a collaborative care anxiety management program. Anxiety and depression were assessed at each treatment session (i.e., session by session data) and also at 6, 12, and 18-month post-baseline assessments (i.e., long-term outcomes data). Mediation analyses examined changes in symptoms in session by session data and long-term outcomes data. Anxiety and depression changed reciprocally in session by session data; change in anxiety mediated change in depression to a greater extent than vice versa. In the long-term outcomes data, change in anxiety mediated change in depression. However, the reverse mediation model of the long-term outcomes period revealed that accounting for changes in depression altered the effect of time on anxiety. Thus, temporal change during active treatment may share similarities with those related to maintaining gains after treatment, although differences arose in the reverse mediation models. Limitations of the methodology and implications of anxiety treatment for depression outcomes are discussed.
Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H
Identifying baseline characteristics associated with treatment outcome in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder (SAD) or post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed two secondary analyses of the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management trial. Baseline characteristics and their interactions with treatment assignment were analyzed via stepwise logistic regression models and receiver-operating criterion analyses by disorder predicting remission and response for each disorder. Predictors for poor outcome across diagnoses were comorbid depression and low socioeconomic status. Good outcome was associated with positive treatment expectancy and high self-efficacy expectancy. SAD had the lowest rate of remission and response compared to the other anxiety disorders, and differed in respect to its predictors of treatment outcome. Perceived social support predicted treatment outcome in SAD. The special role of SAD among the other anxiety disorders requires further study both because of its worse prognosis and its more specific treatment needs.
Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper A J; Reese, Hannah E
In this article, we consider the evidence supporting the range of applications of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, and we examine some of the complex issues encountered for the combination of pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. The available evidence supports CBT as an effective first-line treatment for anxiety disorders offering longer-term maintenance of treatment gains. There is also evidence that CBT is an effective strategy for pharmacotherapy nonresponders, a replacement strategy for patients who wish to discontinue their medications, and a standard strategy for pharmacotherapy patients who need to boost their treatment response. Relative to combination therapy, we review some of the conditions that may influence the longevity of treatment gains from CBT.
Luby, Joan L.
Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…
Norman, Trevor R; Olver, James S
Duloxetine, a medication with effects on both serotonin and noradrenaline transporter molecules, has recently been approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. The evidence for its efficacy lies in a limited number of double blind, placebo controlled comparisons. Statistically significant improvements in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale from baseline were demonstrated in all studies at doses of 60 to 120 mg per day. The significance of such changes in terms of clinical improvements compared to placebo is less certain, particularly when the effect size of the change is calculated. In comparative trials with venlafaxine, duloxetine was as effective in providing relief of anxiety symptoms. In addition to improvements in clinical symptoms duloxetine has also been associated with restitution of role function as measured by disability scales. Duloxetine use is associated with nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, insomnia, somnolence, hyperhidrosis, decreased libido and vomiting. These treatment emergent side effects were generally of mild to moderate severity and were tolerated over time. Using a tapered withdrawal schedule over two weeks in the clinical trials, duloxetine was associated with only a mild withdrawal syndrome in up to about 30% of patients compared to about 17% in placebo treated patients. Duloxetine in doses of up to 200 mg twice daily did not prolong the QTc interval in healthy volunteers. Like other agents with dual neurotransmitter actions duloxetine reduces the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in short term treatments. Further evidence for its efficacy and safety in long term treatment is required.
Melnick, Joseph; Russell, Ronald W.
This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and the directed experience hypnotic technique in reducing self-reported test anxiety and increasing the academic performance of test-anxious undergraduates (N=36). The results are discussed as evidence for systematic desensitization as the more effective treatment in reducing…
Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.
The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in…
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth,…
Gorini, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Algeri, Davide; Repetto, Claudia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder characterized by 6 months of "excessive anxiety and worry" about a variety of events and situations. Anxiety and worry are often accompanied by additional symptoms like restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and disturbed sleep. GAD is usually treated with medications and/or psychotherapy. In particular, the two most promising treatments seem to be cognitive therapy and applied relaxation. In this study we integrated these approaches through the use of a biofeedback enhanced virtual reality (VR) system used both for relaxation and controlled exposure. Moreover, this experience is strengthened by the use of a mobile phone that allows patients to perform the virtual experience even in an outpatient setting. This paper describe the results of a controlled trial (NCT00602212) involving 20 GAD patients randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) the VR and Mobile group (VRMB) including biofeedback; (2) the VR and Mobile group (VRM) without biofeedback; (3) the waiting list (WL) group. The clinical data underlined that (a) VR can be used also in the treatment of GAD; (b) in a VR treatment, patients take advantage of a mobile device that delivers in an outpatient setting guided experiences, similar to the one experienced in VR.
Creswell, Cathy; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam
Anxiety of childhood is a common and serious condition. The past decade has seen an increase in treatment-focussed research, with recent trials tending to give greater attention to parents in the treatment process. This review examines the efficacy of family-based cognitive behaviour therapy and attempts to delineate some of the factors that might have an impact on its efficacy. The choice and timing of outcome measure, age and gender of the child, level of parental anxiety, severity and type of child anxiety and treatment format and content are scrutinised. The main conclusions are necessarily tentative, but it seems likely that Family Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (FCBT) is superior to no treatment, and, for some outcome measures, also superior to Child Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CCBT). Where FCBT is successful, the results are consistently maintained at follow-up. It appears that where a parent is anxious, and this is not addressed, outcomes are less good. However, for children of anxious parents, FCBT is probably more effective than CCBT. What is most clear is that large, well-designed studies, examining these factors alone and in combination, are now needed.
Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander
Anxiety disorders are common, costly and debilitating, and yet often unrecognized or inadequately treated in real world, primary care settings. Our group has been researching ways of delivering evidence-based treatment for anxiety in primary care settings, with special interest to preserving the fidelity of the treatment while at the same time promoting its sustainability once the research is over. In this paper, we describe the programs we have developed and our directions for future research. Our first study evaluated the efficacy of CBT and expert pharmacotherapy recommendations for panic disorder in primary care, using a collaborative care model of service delivery (CCAP). Symptom, disability and mental health functioning measures were superior for the intervention group compared to treatment as usual both in the short term and the long term, although also more costly. In our ongoing CALM study, we have extended our population to include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic disorder, while at the same time utilizing clinicians with limited mental health care experience. In addition to pharmacotherapy management, we developed a computer-assisted CBT that guides both novice clinician and patient, thereby contributing to sustainability once the research is over. We have also incorporated a measurement based approach to treatment planning, using a web-based tracking system of patient status. To date, the computer-assisted CBT program has been shown to be acceptable to clinicians and patients. Clinicians rated the program highly, and patients engaged in the program. Future directions for our research include dissemination and implementation of the CALM program, testing potential alternations to the CALM program, and distance delivery of CALM. PMID:19632667
Seim, Richard W.; Waller, Stacey A.; Spates, C. Richard
It is often argued that exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders are only effective if the exposures are presented continuously until a marked decrement in anxiety is achieved (e.g. Foa & Kozak, 1986). However, the data supporting this conclusion is limited. This study compared two treatments for public speaking anxiety: one requiring…
Katzman, Martin A
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic disorder that frequently co-occurs with a variety of co-morbidities in patients with somatic conditions and other mental disorders. GAD is highly prevalent and is one of the most common anxiety disorders seen by primary care physicians. The individual and societal cost associated with GAD is high and the marked level of impairment experienced by patients with this disorder is equivalent in magnitude to that reported in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, patients with GAD are at risk of suicide or suicide attempts, and are frequent users of healthcare services. Thus, GAD is a serious and chronic condition that requires appropriate long-term treatment. The focus of acute treatment for patients with GAD is the improvement of symptoms, while the primary goal of long-term clinical management is remission, i.e. the complete resolution of both symptoms and functional impairment. The consensus across current treatment guidelines is that first-line treatment for patients with GAD should consist of an antidepressant, either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as sertraline, paroxetine or escitalopram, or a selective serotonin noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) such as venlafaxine or duloxetine. However, the SSRIs and SNRIs have efficacy limitations, such as lack of response in many patients, a 2- to 4-week delay before the onset of symptom relief, lack of full remission, and risk of relapse. In addition, there are troublesome adverse effects associated with both the SSRIs and SNRIs. Evidence from early clinical studies of the atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of anxiety and GAD indicate that they may have a potential role in the treatment of GAD, either as monotherapy or as augmentation to standard treatment.
Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.
Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…
Baldwin, David S; Ajel, Khalil; Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Nowak, Magda; Rafiq, Rizwan
A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD. PMID:23836974
Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S
Anxiety is common, but under-treated, in primary care. Behavioral health providers embedded in primary care can help address this treatment gap. Guidance on anxiety treatment preferences would help inform tailoring of clinical practice and new interventions to be more patient-centered and increase treatment engagement. We surveyed 144 non-treatment seeking Veteran primary care patients (82.6 % male, 85.4 % White, age M = 59.8 years, SD = 13.9) reporting current anxiety symptoms (M = 13.87, SD = 3.66, on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Questionnaire) on their likelihood of attending anxiety treatment featuring various levels of 11 attributes (modality, type, location, format, provider, visit frequency, visit length, treatment duration, type of psychotherapy, symptom focus, and topic/skill). Participants indicated clear preferences for individual, face-to-face treatment in primary care, occurring once a month for at least 30 min and lasting at least three sessions. They also tended to prefer a stress management approach focused on trouble sleeping or fatigue, but all topics/skills were rated equivalently. For most attributes, the highest rated options were consistent with characteristics of integrated care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Daley, Paul C.; And Others
Compared relative efficiency of anxiety management training (AMT) in large group to AMT in small groups and to a wait-list control. Immediately after treatment, small group AMT participants reported significantly less general anxiety than controls. Seven-week follow-up revealed maintenance of this reduction of general anxiety.
Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina
To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…
Streim, Leonard; O'Brien, Richard M.
Mathematics anxiety involves feelings of tension and stress that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems in academic and daily life situations. To investigate the relative effectiveness of group negative practice and group anxiety management training in reducing mathematics anxiety, 72 math-anxious high school students were divided…
Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116
Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC.
Huang, David; Wun, Edmund; Stern, Avichai
In light of preoperative and postoperative mortality and morbidity, continued advancement in pain and anxiety management would benefit millions. Although significant strides have been made in the past few decades, it is imperative that research and development continue. This article discusses types of pain and anxiety, the relationship between pain and anxiety, the physiology of pain and anxiety, and current trends in pain and anxiety management.
Milrod, Barbara; Markowitz, John C; Gerber, Andrew J; Cyranowski, Jill; Altemus, Margaret; Shapiro, Theodore; Hofer, Myron; Glatt, Charles
Clinically significant separation anxiety disorder in childhood leads to adult panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. The prevailing pathophysiological model of anxiety disorders, which emphasizes extinction deficits of fear-conditioned responses, does not fully consider the role of separation anxiety. Pathological early childhood attachments have far-reaching consequences for the later adult ability to experience and internalize positive relationships in order to develop mental capacities for self-soothing, anxiety tolerance, affect modulation, and individuation. Initially identified in attachment research, the phenomenon of separation anxiety is supported by animal model, neuroimaging, and genetic studies. A role of oxytocin is postulated. Adults, inured to their anxiety, often do not identify separation anxiety as problematic, but those who develop anxiety and mood disorders respond more poorly to both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. This poorer response may reflect patients' difficulty in forming and maintaining attachments, including therapeutic relationships. Psychotherapies that focus on relationships and separation anxiety may benefit patients with separation anxiety by using the dyadic therapist-patient relationship to recapture and better understand important elements of earlier pathological parent-child relationships.
Norton, Peter J; Price, Esther C
The efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for anxiety in adults has been supported by multiple meta-analyses. However, most have focused on only 1 diagnosis, thereby disallowing diagnostic comparisons. This study examined the efficacy of CBT across the anxiety disorders. One hundred eight trials of CBT for an anxiety disorder met study criteria. Cognitive therapy and exposure therapy alone, in combination, or combined with relaxation training, were efficacious across the anxiety disorders, with no differential efficacy for any treatment components for any specific diagnoses. However, when comparing across diagnoses, outcomes for generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder were superior to those for social anxiety disorder, but no other differences emerged. CBT effects were superior to those for no-treatment and expectancy control treatments, although tentative evidence suggested equal effects of CBT when compared with relaxation-only treatments.
Tryon, Warren W; McKay, Dean
Learning and memory are interdependent processes. Memories are learned, and cumulative learning requires memory. It is generally accepted that learning contributes to psychopathology and consequently to pertinent memory formation. Neuroscience and psychological research have established that memory is an active reconstructive process that is influenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors including post-event information. Recent research on the treatment of anxiety disorders using medications (i.e., d-cyclcloserine) to alter neurological systems associated with memory used in conjunction with behavior therapy suggests that memory is part of a central mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of these conditions. The main thesis of this article is that learning-based interventions create new memories that may modify existing ones. This raises the possibility of using such memory modifications to measure intervention outcome. A connectionist context for understanding this phenomenon and informing intervention is provided, with specific reference to post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Recommendations for future research examining the role of memory change in treatment outcome are suggested.
Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David
Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…
Misri, Shaila; Albert, Gillian; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Kendrick, Kristin; Carter, Diana; Ryan, Deirdre; Oberlander, Tim F
Little is known about the biopsychosocial determinants that predict postpartum treatment outcome for mood and anxiety disorders. Postpartum mood and anxiety symptoms and psychosocial/biological variables were recorded for 8 months of 22 women treated with antidepressants during pregnancy. Depression scores decreased by 58%, whereas anxiety scores decreased by 35%. Family history of psychiatric illness and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted depressive treatment outcome, and sexual abuse history and prior psychiatric illness unrelated to pregnancy predicted anxiety outcome. Biological and psychosocial variables predicted pharmacological treatment outcome in postpartum-depressed and anxious women.
Attention bias modification (ABM) is a newly emerging therapy for anxiety disorders that is rooted in current cognitive models of anxiety and in established experimental data on threat-related attentional biases in anxiety. This review describes the evidence indicating that ABM has the potential to become an enhancing tool for current psychological and pharmacological treatments for anxiety or even a novel standalone treatment. The review also outlines the gaps in need of bridging before ABM techniques could be routinely applied and incorporated into standard treatment protocols.
Caporino, Nicole E; Read, Kendra L; Shiffrin, Nina; Settipani, Cara; Kendall, Philip C; Compton, Scott N; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Keeton, Courtney; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Gosch, Elizabeth; Albano, Anne M
This study examined (a) demographic and clinical characteristics associated with sleep-related problems (SRPs) among youth with anxiety disorders, and (b) the impact of anxiety treatment: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, and pill placebo on SRPs. Youth (N = 488, ages 7-17, 50% female, 79% White) with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia participated. SRPs were reported by parents and youth. Findings differed by informant and by type of SRP, with evidence that SRPs are associated with age, anxiety severity, externalizing problems, functional impairment, and family burden at pretreatment. Anxiety treatment reduced SRPs; effect sizes were small to medium. Reductions in parent-reported separation-related sleep difficulties were significantly greater in active treatment than in the placebo condition, with the greatest reductions reported by parents of youth whose active treatment was multimodal or included sertraline. Youth whose anxiety treatment involved CBT reported significantly greater decreases in dysregulated sleep (e.g., sleeplessness). Both CBT for anxiety and sertraline appear to be somewhat effective in reducing SRPs, and multimodal treatment may be preferable depending on the symptom presentation. To inform practice, future research should examine a broad range of SRPs, incorporate objective measures of sleep, and evaluate the impact of behavioral strategies that directly target SRPs in youth with anxiety disorders.
Caporino, Nicole E.; Read, Kendra L.; Shiffrin, Nina D.; Settipani, Cara A.; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Albano, Anne Marie; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective This study examined (a) demographic and clinical characteristics associated with sleep-related problems (SRPs) among youth with anxiety disorders, and (b) the impact of anxiety treatment: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, and pill placebo on SRPs. Method Youth (N = 488, ages 7-17, 50% female, 79% White) with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia participated. SRPs were reported by parents and youth. Results Findings differed by informant and by type of SRP, with evidence that SRPs are associated with age, anxiety severity, externalizing problems, functional impairment, and family burden at pretreatment. Anxiety treatment reduced SRPs; effect sizes were small to medium. Reductions in parent-reported separation-related sleep difficulties were significantly greater in active treatment than in the placebo condition, with the greatest reductions reported by parents of youth whose active treatment was multimodal or included sertraline. Youth whose anxiety treatment involved CBT reported significantly greater decreases in dysregulated sleep (e.g., sleeplessness). Conclusions Both CBT for anxiety and sertraline appear to be somewhat effective in reducing SRPs, and multimodal treatment may be preferable depending on the symptom presentation. To inform practice, future research should examine a broad range of SRPs, incorporate objective measures of sleep, and evaluate the impact of behavioral strategies that directly target SRPs in youth with anxiety disorders. PMID:26467211
Cobham, Vanessa E.; Dadds, Mark R.; Spence, Susan H.; McDermott, Brett
This study reports on the results of a long-term follow-up of 60 (29 girls and 31 boys, all of Caucasian ethnicity) children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and treated 3 years earlier with child-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or child-focused CBT plus parental anxiety management (PAM). Sixty-seven children aged 7 to…
Johnco, Carly; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Lewin, Adam B.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Storch, Eric A.
This study examined optimal guidelines to assess treatment response and remission for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). Data was collected for 108 children aged 7–16 years with comorbid anxiety and ASD before and after receiving cognitive behavior therapy. Optimal cut-offs on the PARS were assessed using signal detection analyses using receiver operating characteristic methods. Maximum agreement with response criteria was achieved at 15% reduction in symptoms on the PARS. Maximum agreement with remission criteria was achieved at 40% reduction in symptoms, or at a score of 10 or below at post-treatment. Results have implications for standardizing criteria used in research trials and clinical practice. PMID:26031924
Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.
It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…
McCabe, Randi E.; Antony, Martin M.
Health anxiety can present a challenge for clinicians, both from the perspective of assigning a "DSM-IV" diagnosis and in developing an appropriate treatment plan. The case of Mrs. A. illustrates some of the complexities that arise in the diagnosis and treatment of health anxiety. Mrs. A. is a 60-year-old retired teacher who presented to a…
Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Svecova, Jana; Jacobson, Amy Brown; Whiteside, Stephen P.
The objective of this study was to facilitate the bidirectional communication between researchers and clinicians about the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder. Forty-four children were assessed before and after cognitive behavioral treatment with the parent versions of the Spence Child Anxiety Scale…
Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy
Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…
Olatunji, Bunmi O; Cisler, Josh M; Tolin, David F
Although psychiatric comorbidity is common among patients with anxiety disorders, its impact on treatment outcome remains unclear. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between diagnostic comorbidity and treatment outcome for patients with anxiety disorders. One hundred forty-eight anxiety-disordered treatment samples (combined N=3534) were examined for post-treatment effects from the PsychINFO database. Samples consisted of those exposed to both active (CBT, dynamic therapy, drug treatment, CBT+drug treatment, mindfulness) and inactive treatments (placebo/attention control, wait-list). All treatments were associated with significant improvement at post-treatment, and active treatments were associated with greater effects than were inactive treatments. However, overall comorbidity was generally unrelated to effect size at post-treatment or at follow-up. A significant negative relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome was found for mixed or "neurotic" anxiety samples when examining associations between comorbidity and specific diagnoses. Conversely, there was a significant positive relationship between overall comorbidity and treatment outcome for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and PTSD or sexual abuse survivors. These findings suggest that while diagnostic comorbidity may not impact the effects of specific anxiety disorder treatments, it appears to differentially impact outcome for specific anxiety disorder diagnoses.
Reaven, Judy; Washington, Lindsay; Moody, Eric J.; Stern, Jessica A.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey
In response to the high co-occurrence of anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several interventions have been developed for this population. In spite of promising findings, some youth with ASD respond only minimally to such interventions. To understand potential factors that may impact treatment response, the current…
Marker, Craig D.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Abramova, Viktoriya; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective This study examined changes in the therapeutic alliance and in self-reported anxiety over the course of 16 weeks of manual-based family treatment for child anxiety disorders. Method 86 children (51.3% female; aged 7.15 to 14.44; 86.2% Caucasian, 14.8% minority) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia, and their parents, received family treatment for anxiety disorders in youth. Child, therapist, and parent ratings of therapeutic alliance and child ratings of state anxiety were measured each session. Latent difference score growth modeling investigated the interacting relationship. Results Therapeutic alliance change, as rated by the mother and by the therapist, was a significant predictor (medium effect) of latter change in child anxiety (with greater therapeutic alliance leading to later reduction in anxiety). However, changes in child-reported anxiety also predicted latter change in father- and therapist-reported alliance (small-to-medium effect). Prospective relationships between child-reported therapeutic alliance and child-reported symptom improvement were not significant. Conclusions Results provide partial support for a reciprocal model in which therapeutic alliance improves outcome, and anxiety reduction improves therapeutic alliance. PMID:23009693
Ledley, Deborah Roth; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Hayes, Sarah A; Zaider, Talia I; Dyke, Melanie Van; Turk, Cynthia L; Kraus, Cynthia; Fresco, David M
Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and impairing disorder for which viable cognitive-behavioral therapies exist. However, these treatments have not been easily packaged for dissemination and may be underutilized as a result. The current study reports on the findings of a randomized controlled trial of a manualized and workbook-driven individual cognitive-behavioral treatment for social anxiety disorder (Hope, Heimberg, Juster, & Turk, 2000; Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2006). This treatment package was derived from an empirically supported group treatment for social anxiety disorder and intended for broad dissemination, but it has not previously been subjected to empirical examination on its own. As a first step in that examination, 38 clients seeking treatment for social anxiety disorder at either the Adult Anxiety Clinic of Temple University or the Anxiety Disorders Clinic of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln were randomly assigned to receive either immediate treatment with this cognitive-behavioral treatment package or treatment delayed for 20 weeks. Evaluation at the posttreatment/postdelay period revealed substantially greater improvements among immediate treatment clients on interviewer-rated and self-report measures of social anxiety and impairment. Three-month follow-up assessment revealed maintenance of gains. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Treadwell, K R; Kendall, P C
This study investigated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders, the valence and content of self-statements, and the impact of treatment on the internal dialogue. Participants (151 8- to 13-year-olds) included 71 youth with anxiety disorders and 80 control participants. Positive and negative self-statements and a states-of-mind (SOM) ratio were examined. Results indicated that the negative self-statements and SOM ratio (but not positive self-statements) of children with anxiety disorders significantly predicted anxiety. Results also indicated that negative (but not positive cognition) and SOM ratio predicted improvement in anxiety after treatment and mediated treatment gains. Results of analyses to explore the content specificity hypothesis were mixed. The impact of negative self-talk on children's anxious symptomatology and favorable treatment outcome is discussed.
Pittig, Andre; Alpers, Georg W; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G
Recent studies on reward-based decision-making in the presence of anxiety-related stimuli demonstrated that approach-avoidance conflicts can be assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, the clinical relevance of these decision conflicts has not been demonstrated. To this end, the present study investigated avoidant decisions in treatment-seeking individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a gambling task, advantageous choices to maximize gains were associated with task-irrelevant angry faces and disadvantageous choices with happy faces. The clinical relevance of avoidant decisions for in vivo anxiety in a social stress situation (public speaking) were examined (n = 44). In a subsample (n = 20), the predictive value for a reduction of avoidance following behavioral therapy was also evaluated. Results indicated a close link between more frequent avoidant decisions and elevated in vivo anxiety. Moreover, individuals who showed a deficit in the goal-directed adjustment of their decisions also showed higher and sustained distress during the social stressor and reported less decrease of avoidance following treatment. The findings highlight the importance of an avoidant decision-making style for the experience of acute distress and the maintenance of avoidance in SAD. Assessing avoidant decision-making may help to predict the response to behavioral treatments.
Burns, Michelle Nicole; Siddique, Juned; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Mohr, David C.
Objective Anxiety is highly comorbid with depression, but little is known about the impact of anxiety disorders on the effectiveness of empirically supported psychotherapies for depression. We examined such outcomes for people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and depression, with versus without comorbid anxiety disorders. Design Participants with MS (N = 102) received 16 weeks of telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression and were followed for one year post-treatment. Results Participants with comorbid anxiety disorders improved to a similar degree during treatment as those without anxiety disorders. Outcomes during follow-up were mixed, and thus we divided the anxiety diagnoses into distress and fear disorders. The distress disorder (GAD) was associated with elevated anxiety symptoms during and after treatment. In contrast, fear disorders (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia) were linked to depression, specifically during follow-up, across 3 different measures. Conclusions People with GAD receiving treatment for depression may benefit from additional services targeting anxiety more specifically, while those with comorbid fear disorders may benefit from services targeting maintenance of gains after treatment. PMID:20804269
Green, Sheryl M; Haber, Erika; Frey, Benicio N; McCabe, Randi E
Along with physical and biological changes, a tremendous amount of upheaval and adjustment accompany the pregnancy and postpartum period of a woman's life that together can often result in what is commonly known as postpartum depression. However, anxiety disorders have been found to be more frequent than depression during pregnancy and at least as common, if not more so, during the postpartum period, e.g., Brockington et al., (Archieves Women's Ment Health 9:253-263, 2006; Wenzel et al. (J Anxiety Disord, 19:295-311, 2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established psychological treatment of choice for anxiety; however, few studies have specifically examined a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting perinatal anxiety. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program specifically tailored to address perinatal anxiety in 10 women who were either pregnant or within 12 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from a women's clinic at an academic hospital setting, with anxiety identified as their principal focus of distress. Following a diagnostic interview confirming a primary anxiety disorder and completion of assessment measures, participants completed a 6-week CBGT program. There was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following the CBGT program (all p < 0.05). Participants also reported high acceptability and satisfaction with this treatment for addressing their perinatal anxiety. These findings suggest that CBGT for perinatal anxiety is a promising treatment for both anxiety and depressive symptoms experienced during the perinatal period. Further studies are needed to evaluate the treatment efficacy through larger controlled trials.
Enright, Matthew; Baldo, Tracy D.; Wykes, Scott D.
Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and…
Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.
Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Papp, Lazlo A.
In the absence of data, pharmacotherapy with benzodiazepines has become the mainstay of anxiety management in the elderly population. However, the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly has many problems. Elderly persons are more sensitive to anti-anxiety medications and are subject to a variety of increased risks, including cognitive impairment,…
Medeiros, Gustavo C; Sampaio, Daniela G; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E
Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18-29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas.
Medeiros, Gustavo C.; Sampaio, Daniela G.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Grant, Jon E.
Background and aims Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior. Methods The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18–29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD. Results The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life. Discussion and conclusions This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas. PMID:27363461
Benzodiazepines (BDZs) continue to be shrouded in controversy, mainly because of dependence associated with their long-term use and some of their side effects. Despite treatment recommendations favoring newer antidepressants, BDZs are still commonly prescribed for anxiety and related disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term use of BDZs for these conditions can be effective and safe and that BDZs can be combined with psychological therapy and antidepressants to produce optimal outcomes. Such findings, along with a failure to convincingly demonstrate the overall superiority of alternative pharmacotherapy for anxiety and related disorders, have given an impetus to a reconsideration of the role of BDZs. This article reviews BDZs and other pharmacotherapy options for anxiety and related disorders and suggests that treatment guidelines should acknowledge that BDZs can be used as first-line, long-term pharmacological treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder.
Pharmacological treatment of acute anxiety still relies on benzodiazepines, while chronic anxiety disorders and depression are treated with different antidepressants, according to specific indications. The monoaminergic axis is represented by two families which are being developed: (i) serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (SNDRI), also called triple reuptake inhibitors (TRI), for the treatment of depression (amitifadine), (ii) multimodal antidepressants for depression and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder mainly) (tedatioxetine, vortioxetine and vilazodone). Third-generation antipsychotics (aripiprazole, lurasidone, brexpiprazole, cariprazine) appear relevant in the treatment of resistant depression and some anxiety disorders. Among the modulators of the glutamatergic axis, promising compounds include: (i) ionotropic regulators of NMDA receptors: esketamine, AVP-923 and AVP-786, CERC-301, rapastinel (Glyx-13), NRX-1074 developed for depression, rapastinel and bitopertine developed for obsessive compulsive disorder, (ii) metabotropic glutamate receptors modulators: decoglurant and basimglurant developed for depression and mavoglurant developed for obsessive compulsive disorder.
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John
Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…
Cobham, Vanessa E.
Objective: This study compared 3 experimental conditions: wait-list, therapist-supported bibliotherapy, and individual therapy, in the treatment of child anxiety. Method: Participants were 55 children (25 girls and 30 boys), aged 7 to 14 years diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and their parents. Families were assigned using a modified random…
Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie
Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…
Kerns, Connor Morrow; Maddox, Brenna B.; Kendall, Philip C.; Rump, Keiran; Berry, Leandra; Schultz, Robert T.; Souders, Margaret C.; Bennett, Amanda; Herrington, John; Miller, Judith
This study investigated the accuracy of brief anxiety scales for non-treatment-seeking youth with autism spectrum disorder. In all, 54 youth (7-17?years; IQ: 67-158) with autism spectrum disorder and their parents completed (a) an expanded version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule--Child/Parent designed to capture typical and atypical…
Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…
King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.
This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…
Sareen, L; Stein, M
This review presents current literature on the epidemiology and treatment of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). This illness has been demonstrated to be the most common anxiety disorder with a 1-year prevalence of 7 to 8% and a lifetime prevalence of 13 to 14% in patients aged between 15 and 54 years. Social anxiety disorder can be classified into 2 subtypes, discrete and generalised. Morbidity is high with this disorder, and 70 to 80% of patients have co-morbid mental disorders. Although effective treatments are available, social anxiety disorder is under-recognised and under-treated. Treatments that have been systemically studied and have shown efficacy in patients with social anxiety disorder include pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, reversible inhibitors of monoamine-A and benzodiazepines) and short term psychotherapies (cognitive behaviour therapy, social skills training and exposure in vivo therapy). Beta-blockers are useful in treating performance-related anxiety. Few published data are available on the treatment of social anxiety disorder with a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. We conclude this review by discussing proposed algorithms for treating both subtypes of social anxiety disorder.
Counts, D. Kenneth; And Others
Studied use of electromyographic (CMG) biofeedback to increase efficacy of cue-controlled relaxation training in treatment of test anxiety. Results indicated cue-controlled relaxation was effective in increasing test performance for test-anxious subjects. EMG biofeedback did not contribute to effectiveness. Self-report measures of anxiety are…
Kendall, Philip C.; Treadwell, Kimberli R. H.
The authors investigated features of self-statements as predictors of anxiety in children with and without anxiety disorder (AD) and as a mediator of treatment of ADs in children. Children (N = 145) between the ages of 9 and 13 years participated (71 AD youth, 84 controls). Self-statements were classified by valence and content. Results indicated…
Reigada, Laura C.; Fisher, Paige H.; Cutler, Cynthia; Warner, Carrie Masia
Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are largely undetected and the majority of youth do not receive services. Given the deleterious consequences of anxiety disorders, early identification and intervention have public health implications. In order to increase identification and treatment of anxious youth, expansion to nonpsychiatric…
Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.
This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…
Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence
Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in youth with ASD. To complete the review, the panel held monthly conference calls and two face-to-face meetings over a fourteen-month period. Thirty eight published studies were reviewed and ten assessment measures were examined: four were deemed appropriate for use in clinical trials, although with conditions; three were judged to be potentially appropriate, while three were considered not useful for clinical trials assessing anxiety. Despite recent advances, additional relevant, reliable and valid outcome measures are needed to evaluate treatments for anxiety in ASD. PMID:24158679
Norton, Peter J; Hayes, Sarah A; Hope, Debra A
Researchers have recently explored transdiagnostic anxiety treatments based on models of anxiety emphasizing a single common pathway across diagnostic categories. Results from a previous study [Norton and Hope, in press] indicated that a transdiagnostic approach was effective for both targeted and untargeted anxiety disorders. Consistent with the tripartite model, the transdiagnostic treatment should also influence symptoms of a broader pathology such as negative affectivity. This follow-up to Norton and Hope found significant decreases in depressed mood for clients undergoing transdiagnostic treatment for anxiety when compared to wait-list control participants. Although not statistically established, severity of depressive diagnoses seemed to generally decrease across treatment, whereas no change in severity occurred for those not receiving treatment.
Pachana, Nancy A; Egan, Sarah J; Laidlaw, Ken; Dissanayaka, Nadeeka; Byrne, Gerard J; Brockman, Simone; Marsh, Rodney; Starkstein, Sergio
A significant proportion of persons affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) are over age 65 years. Mental health issues are often less a focus of treatment in this population than physical manifestations of the illness. Anxiety or depression alone, as well as comorbid depression and anxiety, are underrecognized in patients with PD and are associated with deleterious effects on physical and interpersonal functioning, negatively impacting quality of life and well-being. We offer a brief overview of salient clinical points with respect to assessment and treatment approaches to enhance efficacy of the treatment of mental health symptoms in older adults with PD. Cognitive behavior therapy involves the patient learning to overcome behavioral avoidance associated with anxiety and challenge unhelpful negative cognitions. It is suggested that cognitive behavior therapy is an effective approach to treatment of anxiety and depression in PD and should be offered as a treatment to patients.
Kamrowska, Anna; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka
Risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) within life is estimated at 2.6-5.1%. Amongst etiological factors that affect the development of the disorder are: biological and psychological problems, including cognitive models. There are known several cognitive models: metacognitive, Borkovec'c model and the model developed in Quebec. Key cognitive contents that occur with generalized anxiety disorder are focused on two aspects: metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty. A primary purpose of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the modification of dysfunctional beliefs about worry. Cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing anxiety, makes it easier to operate in the professional sphere and improves the quality of life.
Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Röver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Görlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk
To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P < 0.0001]. ES were 2.25 for serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (n = 23 study arms), 2.15 for benzodiazepines (n = 42), 2.09 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 62) and 1.83 for tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15). ES for psychotherapies were mindfulness therapies, 1.56 (n = 4); relaxation, 1.36 (n = 17); individual cognitive behavioural/exposure therapy (CBT), 1.30 (n = 93); group CBT, 1.22 (n = 18); psychodynamic therapy 1.17 (n = 5); therapies without face-to-face contact (e.g. Internet therapies), 1.11 (n = 34); eye movement desensitization reprocessing, 1.03 (n = 3); and interpersonal therapy 0.78 (n = 4). The ES was 2.12 (n = 16) for CBT/drug combinations. Exercise had an ES of 1.23 (n = 3). For control groups, ES were 1.29 for placebo pills (n = 111), 0.83 for psychological placebos (n = 16) and 0.20 for waitlists (n = 50). In direct comparisons with control groups, all investigated drugs, except for citalopram, opipramol and moclobemide, were significantly more effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose
Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Francis, Sarah E; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Chorpita, Bruce F
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorder among children and adolescents. We examined 111 treatment outcome studies testing 204 treatment conditions for child and adolescent anxiety published between 1967 and mid-2013. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review using the PracticeWise Evidence-Based Services database. Using guidelines identified by this journal (Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, 2014), studies were included if they were conducted with children and/or adolescents (ages 1-19) with anxiety and/or avoidance problems. In addition to reviewing the strength of the evidence, the review also examined indicators of effectiveness, common practices across treatment families, and mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. Six treatments reached well-established status for child and adolescent anxiety, 8 were identified as probably efficacious, 2 were identified as possibly efficacious, 6 treatments were deemed experimental, and 8 treatments of questionable efficacy emerged. Findings from this review suggest substantial support for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as an effective and appropriate first-line treatment for youth with anxiety disorders. Several other treatment approaches emerged as probably efficacious that are not primarily CBT based, suggesting that there are alternative evidence-based treatments that practitioners can turn to for children and adolescents who do not respond well to CBT. The review concludes with a discussion of treatments that improve functioning in addition to reducing symptoms, common practices derived from evidence-based treatments, mediators and moderators of treatment outcomes, recommendations for best practice, and suggestions for future research.
Milrod, Barbara; Altemus, Margaret; Gross, Charles; Busch, Fredric; Silver, Gabrielle; Christos, Paul; Stieber, Joshua; Schneier, Franklin
Clinically significant separation anxiety [SA] has been identified as being common among patients who do not respond to psychiatric interventions, regardless of intervention type (pharmacological or psychotherapeutic), across anxiety and mood disorders. An attachment formation and maintenance domain has been proposed as contributing to anxiety disorders. We therefore directly determined prevalence of SA in a population of adult treatment non-responders suffering from primary anxiety. In these separation anxious nonresponders, we pilot-tested an SA-focused, attachment-based psychotherapy for anxiety, Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy-eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], and assessed whether hypothesized biomarkers of attachment were engaged. We studied separation anxiety [SA] in 46 adults (ages 23-70 [mean 43.9 (14.9)]) with clinically significant anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]≥15), and reporting a history of past non-response to psychotherapy and/or medication treatments. Thirty-seven (80%) had clinically significant symptoms of separation anxiety (Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms [SCI-SAS] score≥8). Five of these subjects completed an open clinical trial of Panic Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy eXtended Range [PFPP-XR], a 21-24 session, 12-week manualized attachment-focused anxiolytic psychodynamic psychotherapy for anxiety. Patients improved on "adult threshold" SCI-SAS (current separation anxiety) (p=.016), HARS (p=0.002), and global severity, assessed by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (p=.0006), at treatment termination. Salivary oxytocin levels decreased 67% after treatment (p=.12). There was no significant change in high or low frequency HRV after treatment, but change in high frequency HRV inversely correlated with treatment change in oxytocin (p<.02), and change in low frequency HRV was positively associated with change in oxytocin (p<.02). SA is surprisingly prevalent among non-responders to
DeBoer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Utschig, Angela C; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper AJ
Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise. PMID:23002943
Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Over 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes. Effectively treating comorbid anxiety in individuals with BD has been recognized as one of the biggest unmet needs in the field of bipolar disorder. Recently, the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) was developed to be applicable to the full range of anxiety and mood disorders, based upon converging evidence from genetics, cognitive and affective neuroscience, and behavioral research suggesting common, core emotion-related pathology. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of the UP for the treatment of BD with comorbid anxiety, in a clinical replication series consisting of three cases. PMID:22822175
Chavira, Denise A; Drahota, Amy; Garland, Ann F; Roesch, Scott; Garcia, Maritza; Stein, Murray B
In this study, we examine the feasibility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety in primary care, using two modes of treatment delivery. A total of 48 parents and youth (8-13) with anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to receive 10-sessions of CBT either delivered by a child anxiety specialist in the primary care clinic or implemented by the parent with therapist support by telephone (i.e., face-to-face or therapist-supported bibliotherapy). Feasibility outcomes including satisfaction, barriers to treatment participation, safety, and dropout were assessed. Independent evaluators, blind to treatment condition, administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up; clinical self-report questionnaires were also administered. Findings revealed high satisfaction, low endorsement of barriers, low drop out rates, and no adverse events across the two modalities. According to the CGI-I, 58.3%-75% of participants were considered responders (i.e., much or very much improved) at the various time points. Similar patterns were found for remission from "primary anxiety disorder" and "all anxiety disorders" as defined by the ADIS. Clinically significant improvement was seen on the various parent and child self-report measures of anxiety. Findings suggest that both therapy modalities are feasible and associated with significant treatment gains in the primary care setting. (clinicaltrials.gov unique identifier: NCT00769925).
Chavira, Denise A.; Drahota, Amy; Garland, Ann; Roesch, Scott; Garcia, Maritza; Stein, Murray B.
In this study, we examine the feasibility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety in primary care, using two modes of treatment delivery. A total of 48 parents and youth (8–13) with anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to receive 10-sessions of CBT either delivered by a child anxiety specialist in the primary care clinic or implemented by the parent with therapist support by telephone (i.e., face-to-face or therapist-supported bibliotherapy). Feasibility outcomes including satisfaction, barriers to treatment participation, safety, and dropout were assessed. Independent evaluators, blind to treatment condition, administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up; clinical self-report questionnaires were also administered. Findings revealed high satisfaction, low endorsement of barriers, low drop out rates, and no adverse events across the two modalities. According to the CGI-I, 58.3%–75% of participants were considered responders (i.e., much or very much improved) at the various time points. Similar patterns were found for remission from “primary anxiety disorder” and “all anxiety disorders” as defined by the ADIS. Clinically significant improvement was seen on the various parent and child self-report measures of anxiety. Findings suggest that both therapy modalities are feasible and associated with significant treatment gains in the primary care setting. PMID:25075802
Masia Warner, Carrie; Colognori, Daniela; Kim, Rachel E.; Reigada, Laura C.; Klein, Rachel G.; Browner-Elhanan, Karen J.; Saborsky, Amy; Petkova, Eva; Reiss, Philip; Chhabra, Manoj; McFarlane-Ferreira, Yvonne B.; Phoon, Colin K.; Pittman, Nanci; Benkov, Keith
Background Children and adolescents who seek medical treatment for persistent physical distress often suffer from co-occurring anxiety disorders. Treatment options for this impaired population are limited. This study tests the feasibility and potential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting pain and anxiety for youth with impairing functional physical symptoms and anxiety disorders presenting to pediatricians for medical care. Methods Children and adolescents (aged 8–16) experiencing somatic complaints, without an explanatory medical disorder (i.e., functional), were recruited from primary care and specialty (gastroenterologists and cardiologists) pediatricians. Forty children, primarily with gastrointestinal symptoms, who met criteria for a co-occurring anxiety disorder, were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment addressing pain and anxiety, Treatment of Anxiety and Physical Symptoms (TAPS), or to a waiting-list control. Results TAPS was found to be an acceptable treatment for this population and was superior to the waiting-list condition. Eighty percent of children in TAPS were rated as treatment responders by independent evaluators compared with none of the controls. Overall, self- and parent ratings indicated reductions in children’s somatic discomfort and anxiety following intervention. TAPS participants maintained clinical gains three months following treatment. Conclusions The study supports the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting co-occurring physical distress and anxiety in youth presenting for medical treatment. Such an approach has the potential to exert broad impact on children’s dysfunction and to minimize exposure to invasive, ineffective, and costly medical procedures and treatments. PMID:21681863
Pitman, Seth R; Hilsenroth, Mark J
We attempted to replicate earlier findings of interpersonal subtypes in patients with anxiety disorder (Psychotherapy. 2011;48:304-310) and examine whether these subtypes are characterized by different types of pathology and respond differently to treatment. Interpersonal problems were measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Cooperation; 2000) in a sample of 31 patients with anxiety disorder. Results demonstrated the existence of 4 interpersonal subtypes. The subtypes did not differ in severity of anxiety and global levels of symptoms at pretreatment or in Reliable Change Index of anxiety symptoms over the course of treatment. However, they were significantly different in terms of overall interpersonal problems (p = 0.004). Regarding treatment variables, half of the patients in the nonassertive cluster discontinued treatment prematurely. The number of psychotherapy sessions attended was significantly different across the 4 clusters (p = 0.04), with socially avoidant patients attending significantly greater number of sessions.
Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Ruiguo; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong
The objective of this work is To investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking of social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military personnel. Military personnel (n=11,527) were surveyed from May to August 2007 using a multistage whole cohort probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment, and a military-related socio-demographic questionnaire was used to describe the prevalence distribution. A unified survey was performed to investigate 11 different social situations. The short-form health survey was used to assess role impairment. The 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder were 3.34% (95% CI: 3.25-3.42%) and 6.22% (95% CI: 6.11-6.32%), respectively. Social anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of depression, substance abuse, panic attacks/disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Childhood foster, female, stressful life events, younger age, and being divorced/widowed increase the incidence of social anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking was relatively rare. Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder in military personnel in China, and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness, substance abuse and other mental disorder. Early detection and treatment of social anxiety disorder are important because of the low rate of treatment-seeking.
Fear of dental treatment is undoubtedly widespread. In the present study this fear, the "stress phenomenon", has been investigated. So-called biosignals were used to demonstrate the factual presence of these "anxiety conditions"; it has been found that they are increasing at the beginning of treatment and reach peak levels during certain much feared procedures. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that audio-analgesia may reduce anxiety and stress.
Weisberg, Risa B.; Beard, Courtney; Moitra, Ethan; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.
Background We examined the adequacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders over up to 5 years of follow-up. Method Five hundred thirty-four primary care patients at 15 US sites, who screened positive for anxiety symptoms, were assessed for anxiety disorders. Those meeting anxiety disorder criteria were offered participation and interviewed again at six and 12 months postintake, and yearly thereafter for up to 5 years. We utilized existing definitions of appropriate pharmacotherapy and created definitions of potentially adequate psychotherapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Results At intake, of 534 primary care participants with anxiety disorders, 19% reported receiving appropriate pharmacotherapy and 14% potentially adequate CBT. Overall, 28% of participants reported receiving potentially adequate anxiety treatment, whether pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both. Over up to five years of follow-up, appropriate pharmacotherapy was received by 60% and potentially adequate CBT by 36% of the sample. Examined together, 69% of participants received any potentially adequate treatment during the follow-up period. Over the course of follow-up, primary care patients with MDD, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and with medicaid/medicare were more likely to receive appropriate anxiety treatment. Ethnic minority members were less likely to receive potentially adequate care. Conclusions Potentially adequate anxiety treatment was rarely received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders at intake. Encouragingly, rates improved over the course of the study. However, potentially adequate CBT remained much less utilized than pharmacotherapy and racial-ethnic minority members were less likely to received care, suggesting much room for improved dissemination of quality treatment. PMID:24190762
Furnham, Adrian; Wilson, Emma; Chapman, Amy; Persuad, Raj
Objective This paper concerned the perceived suffering/side effects caused by various well-known treatments for personal problems. It looked at whether people understood whether potentially painful treatments that confront negative aversive affect were effective or not. Method In total, 106 participants completed a long questionnaire assessing the ‘psychological pain’ ratings of 30 psychotherapy treatments, varying in fear exposure, for four relatively common anxiety disorders: social phobia, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Results Factor analytic results revealed four clear factors underlying lay efficacy beliefs of psychotherapy interventions, varying in fear exposure: talking therapies, fear confrontation, fear avoidance, and alternative therapies. Talking therapies were rated the most effective across all disorders, but also the most painful. Fear avoidance therapies were rated the least effective and, along with alternative medicine, the least painful. Treatments involving fear exposure were rated the most painful. Regression analysis revealed talking therapies to be rated more efficacious by younger subjects than older subjects. Conclusion Most people seem able to differentiate between the efficacies of interventions for different anxiety disorders and hold consensually held optimistic conceptions about the usefulness of psychotherapy treatments and counseling that involve fear exposure, despite knowledge of the psychophysical side effects that these therapies often entail. They favored talking cures over others, but that may have been due to misleading items in the questionnaire. PMID:26405431
Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder which is characterized by worrisome mentation about future outcomes. Because the evocative stimuli in GAD are largely internally derived, the feared outcomes contained in worry episodes can be invoked--and responded to--regardless of external context. We hypothesized that individuals with GAD would be entrained to internally-regulated, fixed patterns of anxiety on a day-to-day basis and that successful therapeutic intervention would serve to mitigate this entrainment. Thus, the present study examined the constructs of flexibility and rigidity as they apply to the daily fluctuation of anxious symptoms in individuals with GAD. We aimed to demonstrate that an apparently variable system can be conceptualized as rigid when the variability maps onto stable and predictable periodic oscillations. Sixty-nine individuals completed cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Average age was 36.62 years (SD = 11.56), and participants were mostly Caucasian (89.5%) and female (68.4%). Daily-diary data indicating level of anxiety on a 0 to 100-point scale and collected four times per day were subjected to spectral analysis in order to determine the spectral power attributable to daily oscillations--which was related to the degree of rigidity in daily anxiety. Diurnal rigidity decreased throughout therapy and the degree to which rigidity was reduced significantly predicted reliable change at post-treatment. Thus, symptom rigidity can be conceptualized as stable periodic fluctuation and is discernible from other metrics of volatility in repeated measures data. Moreover, diurnal rigidity is significantly reduced during treatment, facilitating flexible responding to environmental demands.
Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie
Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572
Fristad, Mary A.
This study examined the role of comorbid anxiety in treatment outcome for children with mood disorders (N= 165; age 8–11) participating in Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP). Assessments occurred at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months for two randomly assigned groups: immediate treatment and 1-year wait-list. Most children (69%) had comorbid anxiety disorders. Baseline comorbid anxiety, as reported on the Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS), was associated with higher Children’s Depression Rating Scale- Revised (CDRS-R) scores but not Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores. Higher levels of anxiety symptoms were associated with lower Children’s Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) scores. Participation in MF-PEP did not significantly reduce anxiety symptoms (p=0.62). However, presence of comorbid anxiety did not impede reduction in depressive (CDRS-R, p=0.74) or manic (YMRS scores, p=0.94) symptoms following MF-PEP. More baseline anxiety symptoms were associated with greater improvement in C-GAS scores post-treatment (p= 0.02). Implications are discussed. PMID:21912843
Kraus, Cynthia A; Seignourel, Paul; Balasubramanyam, Valli; Snow, A Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L; Kunik, Mark E; Schulz, Paul E; Stanley, Melinda A
Anxiety is common in dementia and is associated with decreased independence and increased risk of nursing home placement. However, little is known about the treatment of anxiety in dementia. This article reports results from two patients who were treated with a modified version of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in dementia (CBT-AD). Modifications were made in the content, structure, and learning strategies of CBT to adapt skills to the cognitive limitations of these patients and include collaterals (i.e., family members, friends, or other caregivers) in the treatment process. The patients received education and awareness training and were taught the skills of diaphragmatic breathing, coping self-statements, exposure, and behavioral activation. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale was used to characterize dementia severity and determine eligibility for treatment (a CDR score of 0.5 to 2.0 was required for participation). Other measures included the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Outcome data showed improvement in anxiety as measured by standardized rating scales. We conclude that CBT-AD is potentially useful in treating anxiety in dementia patients and that this technique merits further study.
The majority of aggressive children exhibit symptoms of anxiety, yet none of our developmental models of aggression incorporate the role of anxiety, and our treatments ignore this comorbidity. This article outlines a novel theoretical model that specifies three hypotheses about comorbid anxious and aggressive children: (a) unpredictable parenting induces anxiety in children that in turn triggers aggressive behavior; (b) prolonged periods of anxiety deplete children's capacity to inhibit impulses and trigger bouts of aggression, and aggression in turn functions to regulate levels of anxiety; and (c) minor daily stressors give rise to anxiety while cognitive perseveration maintains anxious moods, increasingly disposing children to aggress. Little or no research has directly tested these hypotheses. Extant research and theory consistent with these claims are herein reviewed, and future research designs that can test them specifically are suggested. The clinical implications most relevant to the hypotheses are discussed, and to improve the efficacy of treatments for childhood aggression, it is proposed that anxiety may need to be the primary target of treatment.
Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin
Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems.
Kerns, Connor Morrow; Maddox, Brenna B; Kendall, Philip C; Rump, Keiran; Berry, Leandra; Schultz, Robert T; Souders, Margaret C; Bennett, Amanda; Herrington, John; Miller, Judith
This study investigated the accuracy of brief anxiety scales for non-treatment-seeking youth with autism spectrum disorder. In all, 54 youth (7-17 years; IQ: 67-158) with autism spectrum disorder and their parents completed (a) an expanded version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child/Parent designed to capture typical and atypical fears and (b) brief scales of anxiety symptoms (Behavior Assessment Schedule for Children, Second Edition; Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Negative Affective Self-Statement Questionnaire; Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale). The results indicate that measures lacked adequate sensitivity and specificity, and the detection of atypical fears was particularly poor. Revised cut scores are offered, but refined and/or revised instruments are likely needed for research on youth with autism spectrum disorder.
Hundt, Natalie E; Armento, Maria E A; Porter, Bennett; Cully, Jeffrey A; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda
Increasing numbers of patients are treated in integrated primary care mental health programs. The current study examined predictors of satisfaction with treatment in patients from a randomized clinical trial of late-life generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in primary care. Higher treatment satisfaction was associated with receiving CBT rather than enhanced usual care. Treatment credibility, treatment expectancies, social support, and improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms predicted higher treatment satisfaction in the total sample. In the CBT group, only credibility and adherence with treatment predicted satisfaction. This suggests that older patients receiving CBT who believe more strongly in the treatment rationale and follow the therapist's recommendations more closely are likely to report satisfaction at the end of treatment. In addition, this study found that adherence mediated the relationship between treatment credibility and treatment satisfaction. In other words, patients' perceptions that the treatment made sense for them led to greater treatment adherence which then increased their satisfaction with treatment.
Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F; Schwencke, Genevieve; Andrews, Gavin; Johnston, Luke; Craske, Michelle G; McEvoy, Peter
Disorder-specific cognitive behavioural therapy programs delivered over the internet (iCBT) with clinician guidance are effective at treating specific anxiety disorders and depression. The present study examined the efficacy of a transdiagnostic iCBT protocol to treat three anxiety disorders and/or depression within the same program (the Wellbeing Program). Seventy-seven individuals with a principal diagnosis of major depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and/or social phobia were randomly assigned to a Treatment or Waitlist Control group. Treatment consisted of CBT-based online educational lessons and homework assignments, weekly email or telephone contact from a clinical psychologist, access to a moderated online discussion forum, and automated emails. Eighty one percent of Treatment group participants completed all 8 lessons within the 10 week program. Post-treatment data were collected from 34/37 Treatment group and 35/37 Control group participants, and 3-month follow-up data were collected from 32/37 Treatment group participants. Relative to Controls, Treatment group participants reported significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 item, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item, and Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 item scales, with corresponding between-groups effect sizes (Cohen's d) at post treatment of.56,.58, and.52, respectively. The clinician spent a mean time of 84.76 min (SD=50.37) per person over the program. Participants rated the procedure as highly acceptable, and gains were sustained at follow-up. These results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of transdiagnostic iCBT in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders.
Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…
Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P
Anxiety disorders are common and difficult to treat. Some cognitive models of anxiety propose that attention bias to threat causes and maintains anxiety. This view led to the development of a computer-delivered treatment: attention bias modification (ABM) which predominantly trains attention avoidance of threat. However, meta-analyses indicate disappointing effectiveness of ABM-threat-avoidance training in reducing anxiety. This article considers how ABM may be improved, based on a review of key ideas from models of anxiety, attention and cognitive control. These are combined into an integrative framework of cognitive functions which support automatic threat evaluation/detection and goal-directed thought and action, which reciprocally influence each other. It considers roles of bottom-up and top-down processes involved in threat-evaluation, orienting and inhibitory control in different manifestations of attention bias (initial orienting, attention maintenance, threat avoidance, threat-distractor interference) and different ABM methods (e.g., ABM-threat-avoidance, ABM-positive-search). The framework has implications for computer-delivered treatments for anxiety. ABM methods which encourage active goal-focused attention-search for positive/nonthreat information and flexible cognitive control across multiple processes (particularly inhibitory control, which supports a positive goal-engagement mode over processing of minor threat cues) may prove more effective in reducing anxiety than ABM-threat-avoidance training which targets a specific bias in spatial orienting to threat.
Boswell, James F.; Llera, Sandra J.; Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.
In this paper we present a case of failure in an integrative treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) combining cognitive-behavioral therapy, an empirically supported treatment for GAD, and interpersonal-emotional processing therapy. The client of focus dropped out of treatment after the 8th session. Based on our analysis of this case, we…
Gryczkowski, Michelle R.; Tiede, Michael S.; Dammann, Julie E.; Jacobsen, Amy Brown; Hale, Lisa R.; Whiteside, Stephen P. H.
The present study examines treatment length and timing of exposure from two child anxiety disorders clinics. Data regarding symptoms and treatment characteristics for 28 youth were prospectively obtained through self, parent, and therapist report at each session. Information regarding length of treatment, timing of exposure initiation, and…
Barrera, Terri L.; Zeno, Darrell; Bush, Amber L.; Barber, Catherine R.; Stanley, Melinda A.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in older adults and, although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for late-life GAD, effect sizes are only moderate and attrition rates are high. One way to increase treatment acceptability and enhance current cognitive behavioral treatments for GAD in older adults might be to…
Gallo, Kaitlin P; Comer, Jonathan S; Barlow, David H
Progress disseminating and implementing evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) for the anxiety disorders has been gradual. To date, the dominant approach for promoting the uptake of EBPTs in clinical settings has been to target the education and training of mental health providers, with many consumers remaining unaware of the potential benefits of EBPTs for anxiety disorders. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing may be a promising vehicle for increasing EBPT utilization rates in the treatment of anxiety disorders. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and important considerations for applying DTC efforts to promote evidence-based care in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and reviews current DTC efforts in this area, including resources on the Internet and other media and in-person events. We conclude with recommendations for future efforts in the DTC marketing of EBPTs for the anxiety disorders, including the need for increased funding and grassroots efforts to inform consumers about anxiety disorders and their most effective treatments.
Traditional perspectives on children's fears and anxiety neither provide satisfying answers to fundamental and important questions nor provide paths to effective clinical intervention. Recently, investigators assessing and treating phobic children by means of active, multi-layered, coping-oriented, temporally extended, and child-centered methods…
Kushner, Marlene; And Others
This manual describes a Relaxation-Information Presentation program based on the clinical observation that anxiety is a serious barrier to detoxification for many methadone clients, and on experimental evidence indicating that expectations may play a greater role in the discomfort experienced during detoxification than the actual methadone dose.…
Anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems in the United States today. It is the number one mental health problem among American women and ranks as a close second to substance abuse among men. In fact, alcoholism is the only other disorder that affects a greater number of people throughout the county. Fifteen percent of the American…
Apprehension on the part of students who must engage in public speaking figures high on the list of student fears. Speech anxiety has been viewed as a trait--the overall propensity to fear giving speeches--and as a state--the condition of fearfulness on a particular occasion of speech making. Methodology in therapy research should abide by the…
Taboas, William R; McKay, Dean; Whiteside, Stephen P H; Storch, Eric A
Parents are often perceived as a contributing or maintaining source of youth anxiety disorders, making them natural targets for either intervention or involvement in treatment protocols. Efforts to increase the efficacy and durability of standard treatments by incorporating parents have been successful, yet they often do not outperform child-focused treatment. Breinholst et al. (2012) review and discuss several overlooked parental research variables (anxiety, overcontrol, beliefs and assumptions, global family dysfunction) found to promote and maintain child anxiety. However, it remains unclear how these proposed variables interfere with active therapeutic ingredients (e.g., exposure) or how the identified problems might be addressed. We propose that insufficient attention to exposure-based treatment and family behavioral responses explain the comparatively low added value for parental involvement in child anxiety treatment and outline directions for research to address them. With meaningful attention being given to exposure and its accompanying variables in the treatment of childhood anxiety, we believe that treatment outcomes and intervention acceptability can be improved.
Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W; Silverman, Wendy K; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S; Vasey, Michael W; Jaccard, James
Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age = 11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. All children completed the ABMT protocol with no canceled or missed sessions. Child self-ratings on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did parent ratings on child anxiety-related impairment. Parent ratings on child anxiety and internalizing symptoms displayed non-significant decreases from pretreatment to posttreatment. These findings support the potential promise of ABMT as a feasible adjuvant treatment that reduces anxiety and impairment among child anxiety CBT nonresponders.
Kendall, Philip C; Treadwell, Kimberli R H
The authors investigated features of self-statements as predictors of anxiety in children with and without anxiety disorder (AD) and as a mediator of treatment of ADs in children. Children (N = 145) between the ages of 9 and 13 years participated (71 AD youth, 84 controls). Self-statements were classified by valence and content. Results indicated that children's anxious, but not positive or depressed, self-statements significantly predicted anxiety in children with and without AD. For children with AD, changes in anxious self-statements mediated treatment gains, replicating a previously reported finding. A states of mind ratio mediated only 1 outcome measure, and positive and depressive cognitions served no mediating role. The impact of anxious self-talk on children's adjustment and implications for cognitive theory of anxiety in children are discussed.
Lang, Russell; Mahoney, Richard; El Zein, Farah; Delaune, Elizabeth; Amidon, Megan
Clinical question What treatment improves social interactions and reduces reports of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a co-occurring anxiety disorder? Results Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials suggest that cognitive behavior therapy in tandem with direct instruction of social skills using applied behavior analysis intervention components may be effective for treating anxiety in individuals with high functioning ASD. For individuals with ASD, an anxiety disorder, and an intellectual disability, systematic desensitization may be effective. Implementation Intervention should emphasize teaching social skills. Reinforcers (ie, rewards based upon the client’s interests) should be used to encourage participation in therapy. Treatment should incorporate visual aides and family involvement. Intervention components involving abstract concepts, visualization, and discussions of emotions are less useful given difficulties in abstract reasoning and communication inherent to ASD. PMID:21326652
Liber, Juliette M; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Goedhart, Arnold W; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; van der Leeden, Adelinde J M; Markus, Monica T; Treffers, Philip D A
A substantial percentage of children with anxiety disorders do not respond adequately to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Examination of parental factors related to treatment outcome could contribute to a further understanding of treatment outcome responses. This study investigated the predictive value of paternal and maternal emotional warmth, rejection, overprotection, anxiety, and depression for CBT outcome in clinic-referred anxious children (ages 8-12). Levels of maternal emotional warmth, paternal rejection and anxiety, and depressive symptoms predicted treatment success and failure. A higher level of maternal emotional warmth was associated with a less favorable treatment outcome. Higher levels of paternal rejection, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were consistently associated with a less favorable treatment outcome.
Boettcher, Johanna; Aström, Viktor; Påhlsson, Daniel; Schenström, Ola; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between)=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290).
Weck, Florian; Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Neng, Julia M B; Höfling, Volkmar
The role of treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) is rarely investigated in psychotherapeutic treatment for health anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the role of the assessment perspective for the evaluation of treatment delivery factors and their relevance for treatment outcome. Therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance were evaluated by independent raters, therapists, patients, and supervisors in 68 treatments. Patients with severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis) were treated with cognitive therapy or exposure therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed with a standardized interview by independent diagnosticians. A multitrait-multimethod analysis revealed a large effect for the assessment perspective of therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance. The rater perspective was the most important for the prediction of treatment outcome. Therapeutic alliance and therapist competence accounted for 6% of the variance of treatment outcome while therapist adherence was not associated with treatment outcome. Therapist competence was only indirectly associated with treatment outcome, mediated by therapeutic alliance. Both therapeutic alliance and therapist competence demonstrated to be important treatment delivery factors in psychotherapy for health anxiety. A stronger consideration of those processes during psychotherapy for health anxiety might be able to improve psychotherapy outcome.
Turner, Jarrod S.; Leach, David J.
This report describes three single-case experimental evaluations of Behavioral Activation Treatment of Anxiety (BATA) applied with a 51-year-old male, a 62-year-old female, and a 53-year-old female, each of whom met DSM-IV criteria for anxiety. Each case was a clinical replication of an initial trial of BATA reported in Turner and Leach (2009).…
Kaplan, Gary B; Heinrichs, Stephen C; Carey, Robert J
Clinical interventions which produce cue and contextual extinction learning can reduce craving and relapse in substance abuse and inhibit conditioned fear responses in anxiety disorders. In both types of disorders, classical conditioning links unconditioned drug or fear responses to associated contextual cues and result in enduring pathological responses to multiple stimuli. Extinction therapy countermeasures seek to reduce conditioned responses using a set of techniques in which patients are repeatedly exposed to conditioned appetitive or aversive stimuli using imaginal imagery, in vivo exposure, or written scripts. Such interventions allow patients to rehearse more adaptive responses to conditioned stimuli. The ultimate goal of these interventions, extinction of the original conditioned response, is a new learning process that results in a decrease in frequency or intensity of conditioned responses to drug or fear cues. This review explores extinction approaches in conditioned drug reward and fear responses. The behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms of conditioned reward and fear responses and their extinction are derived from our understanding of the animal literature. Extensive neuroscience research shows that even though many mechanisms differ in conditioned fear and reward, converging prefrontal cortical glutamatergic pathways underlie extinction learning. Efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral treatment approaches in addiction and anxiety disorders may be optimized by enhancing extinction and weakening the bond between the original conditioned stimuli and conditioned responses. Adjunctive pharmacotherapy approaches using agents which alter glutamate or γ-aminobutyric acid signaling or epigenetic mechanisms in prefrontal cortical pathways can enhance extinction learning. A comparative study of extinction processes and its neural mechanisms can be translated into more effective behavioral and pharmacological treatment approaches in
Thorp, Steven R.; Ayers, Catherine R.; Nuevo, Roberto; Stoddard, Jill A.; Sorrell, John T.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of different types of behavioral treatments for geriatric anxiety [cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, CBT with relaxation training (RT), and RT alone]. Method We compared effect sizes from 19 trials. Analyses were based on uncontrolled outcomes (comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment scores) and effects relative to control conditions on both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results Treatments for older adults with anxiety symptoms were, on average, more effective than active control conditions. Effect sizes were comparable to those reported elsewhere for CBT for anxiety in the general population or for pharmacotherapy in anxious older adults. CBT (alone or augmented with RT) does not appear to add anything beyond RT alone, although a direct comparison is challenging given differences in control conditions. Effects on depressive symptoms were smaller, with no differences among treatment types. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioral treatments are effective for older adults with anxiety disorders and symptoms. Results must be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the literature, including differing sample characteristics and control conditions across studies. PMID:19155744
Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E; Heimberg, Richard G; Weiss, Barry D
Despite the high prevalence of and significant psychological burden caused by anxiety disorders, as few as 25% of individuals with these disorders seek treatment, and treatment seeking by African-Americans is particularly uncommon. This purpose of the current study was to gather information regarding the public's recommendations regarding help-seeking for several anxiety disorders and to compare Caucasian and African-American participants on these variables. A community sample of 577 US adults completed a telephone survey that included vignettes portraying individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia/social anxiety disorder (SP/SAD), panic disorder (PD), and for comparison, depression. The sample was ½ Caucasian and ½ African American. Respondents were significantly less likely to recommend help-seeking for SP/SAD and GAD (78.8% and 84.3%, respectively) than for depression (90.9%). In contrast, recommendations to seek help for panic disorder were common (93.6%) and similar to rates found for depression. The most common recommendations were to seek help from a primary care physician (PCP). African Americans were more likely to recommend help-seeking for GAD than Caucasians. Findings suggested that respondents believed individuals with anxiety disorders should seek treatment. Given that respondents often recommended consulting a PCP, we recommend educating PCPs about anxiety disorders and empirically-supported interventions.
Reuland, Meg M; Teachman, Bethany A
Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents' maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents' intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10-15; N=18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents' cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents' biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents' biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial.
Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin
This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder.
Physiotherapy for the treatment of vaginismus is perceived as an intervention aimed to normalize muscle tone of the pelvic floor in order to allow vaginal penetration in accordance with the traditional view of vaginal spasm as its defining feature. Newer definitions recognize the experience of anxiety as well as pain, and effective treatment approaches should address these components as well. Physiotherapists often encounter women who, as a result of severe anxiety, are unable to undergo examination and treatment, despite their expressed desire to do so. This article describes a therapeutic intervention designed to help women with vaginismus prepare for examination and treatment by addressing the component of anxiety in real-life situations. This approach is also appropriate for nurse practitioners and physicians who work with this patient population and may be adapted for sex therapists to teach as a home exercise.
Brenes, Gretchen A; McCall, W Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D; Stanley, Melinda A
This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed.
Brenes, Gretchen A.; McCall, W. Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D.; Stanley, Melinda A.
This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:20661315
Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Spitalnick, Josh
Objective Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Method Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Results Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high quality program overall. Additionally, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Conclusion Virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182
Sarver, Nina Wong; Beidel, Deborah C; Spitalnick, Josh S
Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high-quality program overall. In addition, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Findings indicate that the virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.
Silver, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Theodore; Milrod, Barbara
Synopsis Information is presented here on CAPP – child and adolescent psychodynamic psychotherapy. Following a definition of anxiety, the authors present study outcomes of non-psychodynamic treatment approaches, alone and in combination with psychopharmacologic treatment, then explore psychodynamic approaches. A detailed overview of psychodynamic psychotherapy is presented, along with two cases illustrating the use of CAPP with young patients with anxiety. The authors also present tables and boxes summarizing CAPP therapeutic processes and strategies as intervention for anxious youth. PMID:23164129
Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L.
The aim of this study was to address claims that among bona fide treatments no one is more efficacious than another by comparing the relative efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) and relaxation therapy (RT) in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD). Two fixed-effects meta-analyses were…
Vasa, Roma A.; Carroll, Laura M.; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A.; Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mazurek, Micah O.; Bennett, Amanda E.; Wink, Logan K.; Bernal, Maria Pilar
This study systematically examined the efficacy and safety of psychopharmacological and non-psychopharmacological treatments for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four psychopharmacological, nine cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and two alternative treatment studies met inclusion criteria. Psychopharmacological studies were…
Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Feeny, Norah C.
Although illness phobias are fairly common disorders, their treatment has been scarcely addressed in the literature. The current article discusses the treatment of a 9-year-old female diagnosed with health-related anxiety--specifically, a phobia of vomiting. A variety of cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as relaxation training (e.g., deep…
Aderka, Idan M.; Nickerson, Angela; Boe, Hans Jakob; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Objective: The present study quantitatively reviewed the literature on sudden gains in psychological treatments for anxiety and depression. The authors examined the short- and long-term effects of sudden gains on treatment outcome as well as moderators of these effects. Method: The authors conducted a literature search using PubMed, PsycINFO, the…
Cummings, Colleen M.; Fristad, Mary A.
This study examined the role of comorbid anxiety in treatment outcome for children with mood disorders (N = 165; age 8-11) participating in Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP). Assessments occurred at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months for two randomly assigned groups: immediate treatment and 1-year wait-list. Most children (69%) had…
Curran, James P.; Gilbert, Francis S.
Three outcome studies were conducted in order to evaluate various treatment procedures for subjects experiencing dating anxiety. The treatment procedures of specific focus was a skills training package using modeling, behavioral rehearsal, feedback, and in vivo practice as major components. The data from two studies indicates the skills training…
Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam
The article reviews psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in youth. Using criteria from Nathan and Gorman (2002), 32 studies are evaluated along a continuum of methodological rigor. In addition, the treatments evaluated in each of the 32 studies are classified according to Chambless et al.'s (1996) and Chambless and Hollon's…
Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen
Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention.
Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.
This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…
Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Moura, Caroline de Castro; Côrrea, Bruna; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Silva, Andreia Maria; de Carvalho, Emília Campos
Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG) activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMDs (RDC/TMDs), and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA) group (n = 31) and an AA sham group (n = 13). The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week). Results. Anxiety (p < 0.01) was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p = 0.04) and in the right side of the submandibular region (p = 0.02). Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p ≤ 0.01) and in the left side of the ATM (p < 0.01). In addition, electromyographic (EMG) activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p = 0.03). Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs. PMID:26495012
McHugh, R Kathryn
Anxiety disorders commonly co-occur with substance use disorders both in the general population and in treatment-seeking samples. This co-occurrence is associated with greater symptom severity, higher levels of disability, and poorer course of illness relative to either disorder alone. Little research has been conducted, however, on the treatment of these co-occurring disorders. This gap may not only leave anxiety untreated or undertreated but also increase the risk for relapse and poor substance use outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the current state of the literature on treating co-occurring anxiety and substance use disorders. In addition to presenting a brief overview of the epidemiology of this co-occurrence, the article discusses the challenges in assessing anxiety in the context of a substance use disorder, the evidence for various treatment approaches, and recent advances and future directions in this understudied area. Also highlighted is the need for future research to identify optimal behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for co-occurring anxiety and substance use disorders.
Sullivan, C; Schneider, P E; Musselman, R J; Dummett, C O; Gardiner, D
Virtual reality, a three-dimensional computer generated world, has been shown to relax adults during dental treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of virtual reality on the behavior and anxiety of children during dental treatment. The behavior, anxiety and heart rate of twenty-six children, ages five to seven years were evaluated for the first five minutes of two restorative treatment visits. Thirteen children viewed virtual reality at their first restorative visit and not the second, and thirteen children viewed virtual reality at the second restorative visit and not the first. Before and immediately following the restorative visits, each child was instructed to draw a human figure. The restorative appointments were video recorded and heart rate monitored. The drawings and videotapes were rated independently by two examiners. The Koppitz method of evaluating drawings was used to measure anxiety. The Frankl behavior rating scale was used to evaluate behavior. Differences (ANOVA) in behavior (p < or = 0.50) and anxiety (p < or = 0.65) were not significant. The overall pulse rate was significantly lower (ANOVA p < or = 0.001) when the child was wearing glasses and viewing virtual reality. In conclusion, virtual reality during dental treatment had no significant effect on the behavior or anxiety but significantly reduced the pulse.
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Sakolsky, Dara; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T.; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Iyengar, Satish; Kendall, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Birmaher, Boris; March, John
Objective To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7–17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of sertraline (SRT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO). Method The primary definition of remission was loss of all study-entry anxiety disorder diagnoses; additional definitions of remission were used. All outcomes were rated by independent evaluators blind to treatment assignment. Predictors of remission were also examined. Results Remission rates after 12 weeks of treatment ranged from 46% to 68% for COMB, 34% to 46% for SRT, 20% to 46% for CBT, and 15% to 27% for PBO. Rates of remission (i.e., achieving a nearly symptom-free state) were significantly lower than rates of response (i.e., achieving a clinically meaningful improvement relative to baseline) for the entire sample. Youth who received COMB had significantly higher rates of remission compared to all other treatment groups. Both monotherapies had higher remission rates compared to PBO, but rates were not different from each other. Predictors of remission were younger age, nonminority status, lower baseline anxiety severity, absence of other internalizing disorders (e.g., anxiety, depression), and absence of social phobia. Conclusions For the majority of children, some symptoms of anxiety persisted, even among those showing improvement after 12 weeks of treatment, suggesting a need to augment or extend current treatments for some children. PMID:22122292
Patki, Gaurav; Ali, Quaisar; Pokkunuri, Indira; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina
Earlier, we have reported that grape powder (GP) treatment prevented pharmacologic and psychological stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats. Protective effects of GP were attributed to its antioxidant effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits such as anxiety and memory impairment will be ameliorated with GP treatment. Using a National Institute of Aging recommended rodent model of aging, we examined a potentially protective role of antioxidant-rich GP in age-associated anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: young rats (3 months old) provided with tap water or with 15 g/L GP dissolved in tap water for 3 weeks, aged rats (21 months old) provided with tap water or with GP-treated tap water for 3 weeks (AG-GP). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in aged rats compared with young rats, GP-treated young rats, or aged control rats (P < .05). Also, GP treatment prevented age-induced anxiety-like behavior in AG-GP rats (P < .05). Neither short-term nor long-term age-associated memory deficits improved with GP treatment in AG-GP rats. Furthermore, aged rats showed increased level of physiological stress (corticosterone) and increased oxidative stress in the plasma (8-isoprostane) as well as in selected brain areas (protein carbonylation). Grape powder treatment prevented age-induced increase in corticosterone levels and plasma 8-isoprostane levels in aged rats (P < .05), whereas protein carbonylation was recovered in the amygdala region only (P < .05). Grape powder by regulating oxidative stress ameliorates age-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats, whereas age-associated memory deficits seem unaffected with GP treatment.
Orsolini, Laura; Tomasetti, Carmine; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Vellante, Federica; Fornaro, Michele; Fiengo, Annastasia; Mazza, Monica; Vecchiotti, Roberta; Perna, Giampaolo; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; De Berardis, Domenico
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a persistent condition characterized by chronic anxiety, exaggerated worry and tension, mainly comorbid with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line treatment of GAD. However, some patients may not respond to the treatment or discontinue due to adverse effects. Vortioxetine (VRX) is a multimodal antidepressant with a unique mechanism of action, by acting as 5-HT3A, 5-HT1D and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, partial agonist at the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors and inhibitor at the 5-HT transporter. Preliminary clinical trials showed contrasting findings in terms of improvement of the anxiety symptomatology and/or cognitive impairment. Here, we aim to systematically review the evidence currently available on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of VRX in the treatment of GAD. The generalizability of results on the efficacy of VRX in patients with anxiety symptomatology and GAD is limited due to few and contrasting RCTs so far available. Only two studies, of which one prevention relapse trial, reported a significant improvement in anxiety symptomatology compared to three with negative findings.
Swain, Jessica; Hancock, Karen; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Bowman, Jenny
With a lifetime prevalence of approximately 17% among community-dwelling adults, anxiety disorders are among the most pervasive of contemporary psychiatric afflictions. Traditional Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is currently the first line evidence-based psychosocial intervention for the treatment of anxiety. Previous research, however, has found that a significant proportion of patients do not respond to traditional CBT or exhibit residual symptomatology at treatment cessation. Additionally, there is a paucity of evidence among child populations and for the comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has a growing empirical base demonstrating its efficacy for an array of problems. A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for ACT in the treatment of anxiety. PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PsycExtra, Medline and Proquest databases were searched, reference lists examined and citation searches conducted. Two independent reviewers analysed results, determined study eligibility and assessed methodological quality. Thirty-eight studies met inclusion criteria (total n=323). The spectrum of DSM-IV anxiety disorders as well as test and public speaking anxiety were examined. Studies were predominantly between-group design and case studies, with few employing control comparisons. Several methodological issues limit conclusions; however results provide preliminary support for ACT. Larger scale, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to consolidate these findings.
Barry, Tom J.; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk
Models of exposure therapy, one of the key components of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders, suggest that attention may play an important role in the extinction of fear and anxiety. Evidence from cognitive research suggests that individual differences may play a causal role in the onset and maintenance of anxiety disorders and so it is also likely to influence treatment. We review the evidence concerning attention and treatment outcomes in anxiety disorders. The evidence reviewed here suggests that that attention biases assessed at pre-treatment might actually predict improved response to treatment, and in particular that prolonged engagement with threat as measured in tasks such as the dot probe is associated with greater reductions in anxious symptoms following treatment. We examine this research within a fear learning framework, considering the possible role of individual differences in attention in the extinction of fear during exposure. Theoretical, experimental and clinical implications are discussed, particularly with reference to the potential for attention bias modification programs in augmenting treatment, and also with reference to how existing research in this area might inform best practice for clinicians. PMID:26217284
Andreescu, Carmen; Varon, Daniel
Anxiety disorders are frequently encountered in the elderly, but they are largely undetected and untreated. Epidemiological studies indicate a prevalence ranging from 1.2 to 15 %. With the exception of generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia, which can often start in late life, most anxiety disorders in older patients are chronic and have their onset earlier in life. Anxiety disorders are an often unrecognized cause of distress, disability, and mortality risk in older adults, and they have been associated with cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cognitive decline. The mechanisms of anxiety in older adults differ from that in younger adults due to age-related neuropathology, as well as the loss and isolation so prominent in late life. Our review intends to provide a comprehensive summary of the most recent research done in the field of anxiety disorders in the elderly. Recent findings in clinical research, neuroimaging, neuroendocrinology, and neuropsychology are covered. An update on treatment options is discussed, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological alternatives.
Fairbanks, J M; Pine, D S; Tancer, N K; Dummit, E S; Kentgen, L M; Martin, J; Asche, B K; Klein, R G
An open-label pilot study examined fluoxetine treatment in 16 outpatients (9-18 years old) with mixed anxiety disorders. Following nonresponse to psychotherapy, fluoxetine monotherapy was started at 5 mg daily and was increased weekly by 5 or 10 mg daily for 6-9 weeks until improvement occurred or to a maximum of 40 mg (children under 12) or 80 mg (adolescents). Among patients on fluoxetine, severity of illness ratings were "much improved" (mean final Clinical Global Impression scale score 2.8 +/- 0.7). Clinical improvement occurred in 10 of 10 patients with current separation anxiety disorder, 8 of 10 with social phobia, 4 of 6 with specific phobia, 3 of 5 with panic disorder, and 1 of 7 with generalized anxiety disorder. Mean time to improvement was 5 weeks. Mean doses were 24 mg (0.7 mg/kg) for children and 40 mg (0.71 mg/kg) for adolescents. Side effects were transient and included drowsiness (31% of patients), sleep problems (19%), decreased appetite (13%), nausea (13%), abdominal pain (13%), and excitement (13%). No patient developed disinhibition, akathisia, or suicidality. These preliminary findings suggest fluoxetine effectiveness in separation anxiety disorder and social phobia. Youths with only one anxiety disorder appeared to respond to lower doses of fluoxetine than patients with multiple anxiety disorders (0.49 +/- 0.14 versus 0.80 +/- 0.28 mg/kg, p < 0.05).
Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta
Objective The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. Methods The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. Results A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients’ mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without
Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…
Cousineau, Héloïse; Marchand, André; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bélanger, Claude; Gosselin, Patrick; Langlois, Frédéric; Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J; Belleville, Geneviève
Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) frequently also suffer from insomnia. However, the impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders on insomnia has been understudied. Furthermore, comorbidity between anxiety disorders is common. Our main objective was to assess the impact of CBT for PDA or GAD on insomnia. In a quasi-experimental design, 86 participants with PDA and GAD received conventional CBT for their primary disorder or combined CBT for both disorders. Overall, CBTs had a significant impact on reducing insomnia symptoms (η = 0.58). However, among people with insomnia at pretest (67%), 33% still had an insomnia diagnosis, and the majority (63%) had clinically significant residual insomnia following treatment. In conclusion, the CBTs had a positive effect on the reduction of insomnia, but a significant proportion of participants still had insomnia problems following treatment. Clinicians should address insomnia during CBT for PDA and GAD.
Velasques, Bruna; Diniz, Claudia; Teixeira, Silmar; Cartier, Consuelo; Peressutti, Caroline; Silva, Farmy; de Carvalho, Marcele; Novaes, Aline; Bittencourt, Juliana; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Cheniaux, Elie; Basile, Luis; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro
This article considered already existing studies about Deep Brain Stimulation in Mood and Anxiety Disorders. In particular, articles regarding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression were mostly analyzed, due to the lack of researches about other types of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. We have concentrated on the target areas where Deep Brain Stimulation was most commonly applied, and on the effects this measure had on treatment-refractory patients. The obtained results showed that the stimulation of the: nucleus accumbens, subgenual cingulate cortex and ventral capsule/ventral striatum, has a positive influence on the development of the disorders investigated, sometimes showing the complete remission of the symptoms. Although Deep Brain Stimulation was overall found to be a promising and safe treatment for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, there are not enough studies proving its efficacy in wide samples and in the presence of more complex variables.
Ammar, G; Naja, W J; Pelissolo, A
Anxiety disorders are widespread psychiatric conditions with significant social and professional disability, poor quality of life, an increased risk of suicide, and frequent attendance of medical services. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) have demonstrated a rather robust efficacy for the treatment of most of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless a substantial number of patients are resistant or still suffer from residual symptoms despite this first line treatment. The objective of our paper is to review relevant studies for the pharmacologic management of anxiety disorders resistant to the first line treatment. For this purpose, we conducted a pubmed/medline search for double-blind placebo-controlled trials of treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. An adequate trial for a SRI in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should continue for at least 12 weeks. Special considerations of the comorbidities and symptom profile could help in the choice of an appropriate pharmacotherapy. Several trials have highlighted the efficacy of antipsychotics as an add-on to SRI in treatment-resistant OCD such as haloperidol more so when comorbid with a tic disorder, or risperidone that can reduce OCD as well as depressive symptoms. Aripiprazole has been shown efficacious in two placebo-controlled double-blind trials, while the efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine remains controversial. Other trials showed some efficacy of anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, topiramate), pindolol, memantin and N-acetylcystein as an adjunctive treatment to SRI for resistant OCD. Few trials have investigated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or SNRI resistant generalized anxiety disorder showing a failure of adjunctive therapy with olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone. These studies were underpowered and very limited in number. Adjunctive risperidone for resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed
Kasper, Siegfried; Iglesias-García, Celso; Schweizer, Edward; Wilson, Jacquelyn; DuBrava, Sarah; Prieto, Rita; Pitman, Verne W; Knapp, Lloyd
Discontinuation effects following cessation of 12 and 24 wk of pregabalin treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were evaluated in a placebo- and lorazepam-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial conducted in 16 countries. The study design consisted of two 12-wk treatment periods (periods 1 and 2), each followed by a 1-wk taper and two post-discontinuation assessments, one immediately following the taper and one 1-wk post-taper. Patients were assigned to receive an initially flexible dose of pregabalin 450-600 mg/d, pregabalin 150-300 mg/d, or lorazepam 3-4 mg/d for 6 wk; responders continued fixed-dose therapy for 6 additional weeks. Patients entering period 2 continued on the same fixed dose or switched to placebo. Discontinuation effects were evaluated with the Physician Withdrawal Checklist (PWC) and reported discontinuation-emergent signs and symptoms. Rebound anxiety was measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. GAD symptoms improved with all treatments and improvements were maintained over 12 and 24 wk. Low levels of discontinuation symptoms were evident in all treatment groups. For patients who received active treatment during both periods, mean (95% confidence interval) increases on the PWC from last visit on active treatment to the second post-discontinuation assessment were: pregabalin 450-600 mg/d: 2.8 (1.6-3.9), pregabalin 150-300 mg/d: 1.7 (0.7-2.8), lorazepam 3-4 mg/d: 2.2 (1.0-3.5). Rates of rebound anxiety were also low at both 12 and 24 wk (0-6%). This suggests that risk of discontinuation symptoms and rebound anxiety are low for pregabalin after 12 and 24 wk of treatment.
Pawlina, Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Botelho, Clóvis
Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded. PMID:26578135
Norman, Kaila R.; Silverman, Wendy K.
TOPIC Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health concern for youth. Unfortunately, a substantial number of children and adolescents do not respond positively to current evidence-based interventions and/or relapse. As pediatric anxiety disorders are fundamentally a systemic phenomenon, focusing on the ways in which parents become involved in their children’s anxiety symptoms may be a promising alternative approach to treatment. PURPOSE To inform psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) about the phenomenology, associated neurobiology, and assessment of family accommodation (FA) as well as clinical interventions targeting FA. FA refers to ways that parents adapt their own behaviors to reduce their children’s anxiety-related distress. SOURCES USED A literature search was performed using Psyc-INFO and PubMed. CONCLUSIONS Current findings indicate a high prevalence of FA associated with pediatric anxiety disorders. FA has a potentially deleterious impact on course of illness and treatment response and is associated with greater caregiver burden. Potential neurobiological underpinnings of FA include dysregulation of parent cortico-limbic circuitry and the oxytocinergic system. PMHNPs are in a unique position to identify families engaged in problematic FA, educate their clientele, provide psychotherapy services with the goal of reducing FA, and consult with multidisciplinary team members. PMID:26238937
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
Background: Chronic pediatric headache disorders are pervasive, debilitating, and associated with high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders. The combination of headaches and anxiety presents unique challenges for clinicians. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising treatment for pediatric headache, however, available treatments fail to…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Dierckx, Bram; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
Background: This study examined whether treatment response to stepped-care cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is associated with changes in threat-related selective attention and its specific components in a large clinical sample of anxiety-disordered children. Methods: Ninety-one children with an anxiety disorder were included in the present…
Beidas, Rinad S; Lindhiem, Oliver; Brodman, Douglas M; Swan, Anna; Carper, Matthew; Cummings, Colleen; Kendall, Philip C; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Compton, Scott N; March, John; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Keeton, Courtney P; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Sherrill, Joel
The objective of this study was to extend the probability of treatment benefit method by adding treatment condition as a stratifying variable, and illustrate this extension of the methodology using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study data. The probability of treatment benefit method produces a simple and practical way to predict individualized treatment benefit based on pretreatment patient characteristics. Two pretreatment patient characteristics were selected in the production of the probability of treatment benefit charts: baseline anxiety severity, measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and treatment condition (cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, their combination, and placebo). We produced two charts as exemplars which provide individualized and probabilistic information for treatment response and outcome to treatments for child anxiety. We discuss the implications of the use of the probability of treatment benefit method, particularly with regard to patient-centered outcomes and individualized decision-making in psychology and psychiatry.
Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.; Arch, Joanna; Espejo, Emmanuel; Keller, Melody; Langer, David
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to…
Kendall, Philip C.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Marker, Craig D.; Creed, Torrey A.; Puliafico, Anthony C.; Hughes, Alicia A.; Martin, Erin D.; Suveg, Cynthia; Hudson, Jennifer
The study examined the shape of therapeutic alliance using latent growth curve modeling and data from multiple informants (therapist, child, mother, father). Children (n = 86) with anxiety disorders were randomized to family-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (FCBT; N = 47) with exposure tasks or to family education, support, and attention…
Strien, Jan W.; And Others
Forty children with dyslexia were treated with visual hemisphere-specific stimulation based on their subtype of dyslexia. Children with L-type dyslexia (hurried, inaccurate reading) who received treatment with anxiety-laden words made fewer substantive errors and more fragmentations on a text-reading task, compared to children who received…
Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert JMG; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad
The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders. PMID:26487439
Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac
Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…
Eli, I; Baht, R; Blacher, S
Behavior modification techniques are effective in the treatment of extreme dental anxiety, but their success is by no means absolute. In the present article, the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), the self-report symptom inventory SCL-90R and a questionnaire accessing subjects' daydreaming styles (the Short Imaginal Process Inventory) were used to develop possible predictive measures for success and failure of behavior modification as a treatment for dental fear. The patients' level of distractibility and mind wandering, initial dental anxiety and somatization significantly predicted the success of therapy. The odds ratio indicated that the risk of therapy failure increased about 11 times with an increase of one scale of the Poor Attention Control Scale, about three times with an increase of one level of the mean DAS score, and 0.17 times with an increase of one level of somatization. The predictive value of the chosen scales was 80%. Thus, the use of these scales as part of an initial admittance process for patients who suffer from dental anxiety can enhance our ability to better recognize patients who are prone to fail behavior therapy as treatment for their problem, and enable their referral for other possible modes of treatment.
Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.
Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…
Steenen, Serge A; van Wijk, Arjen J; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Westrhenen, Roos; de Lange, Jan; de Jongh, Ad
The effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication as a treatment for alleviating either state or trait anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies concerned panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (four studies, total n = 130), specific phobia (two studies, total n = 37), social phobia (one study, n = 16), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (one study, n = 19). Three out of four panic disorder trials qualified for pooled analyses. These meta-analyses found no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of propranolol and benzodiazepines regarding the short-term treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Also, no evidence was found for effects of propranolol on PTSD symptom severity through inhibition of memory reconsolidation. In conclusion, the quality of evidence for the efficacy of propranolol at present is insufficient to support the routine use of propranolol in the treatment of any of the anxiety disorders.
Auster, Elana R.; Feeney-Kettler, Kelly A.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
In the current paper we discuss the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders using a problem-solving consultation framework. The role of consultation as a service delivery model in a school setting is elaborated on, as well as the contribution that consultation has in the movement towards evidence-based practices in school psychology.…
Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael
Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…
Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Conventional cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder, which is closely based on the treatment for depression, has been shown to be effective in numerous randomized placebo-controlled trials. Although this intervention is more effective than waitlist control group and placebo conditions, a considerable number of clients do not…
Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents’ intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10–15; N = 18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents’ cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents’ biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents’ biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:25445075
Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales
Background Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to
Wergeland, Gro Janne H; Fjermestad, Krister W; Marin, Carla E; Bjelland, Ingvar; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Silverman, Wendy K; Öst, Lars-Göran; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Oeding, Kristin; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R
A substantial number of children with anxiety disorders do not improve following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recent effectiveness studies have found poorer outcome for CBT programs than what is typically found in efficacy studies. The present study examined predictors of treatment outcome among 181 children (aged 8-15 years), with separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder, who participated in a randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of a 10-session CBT program in community clinics. Potential predictors included baseline demographic, child, and parent factors. Outcomes were as follows: a) remission from all inclusion anxiety disorders; b) remission from the primary anxiety disorder; and c) child- and parent-rated reduction of anxiety symptoms at post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. The most consistent findings across outcome measures and informants were that child-rated anxiety symptoms, functional impairment, a primary diagnosis of social phobia or separation anxiety disorder, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at post-treatment. Child-rated anxiety symptoms, lower family social class, lower pretreatment child motivation, and parent internalizing symptoms predicted poorer outcome at 1-year follow-up. These results suggest that anxious children with more severe problems, and children of parents with elevated internalizing symptom levels, may be in need of modified, additional, or alternative interventions to achieve a positive treatment outcome.
Marco, Eva M.; Rapino, Cinzia; Caprioli, Antonio; Borsini, Franco; Laviola, Giovanni; Maccarrone, Mauro
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric diseases with high personal costs and a remarkable socio-economic burden. However, current treatment of anxiety is far from satisfactory. Novel pharmacological targets have emerged in the recent years, and attention has focused on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, given the increasing evidence that supports its central role in emotion, coping with stress and anxiety. In the management of anxiety disorders, drug development strategies have left apart the direct activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors to indirectly enhance eCB signalling through the inhibition of eCB deactivation, that is, the inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. In the present study, we provide evidence for the anxiolytic-like properties of a novel, potent and selective reversible inhibitor of FAAH, ST4070, orally administered to rodents. ST4070 (3 to 30 mg/kg per os) administered to CD1 male mice induced an increase of time spent in the exploration of the open arms of the elevated-plus maze. A partial reduction of anxiety-related behaviour by ST4070 was also obtained in Wistar male rats, which moderately intensified the time spent in the illuminated compartment of the light-dark box. ST4070 clearly inhibited FAAH activity and augmented the levels of two of its substrates, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and N-palmitoylethanolamine, in anxiety-relevant brain regions. Altogether, ST4070 offers a promising anxiolytic-like profile in preclinical studies, although further studies are warranted to clearly demonstrate its efficacy in the clinic management of anxiety disorders. PMID:26360704
Rudd, M D; Joiner, T
Although the importance of affectively charged material in the treatment of panic and anxiety has been emphasized and implicitly viewed as essential for effective therapeutic change, a general framework for organizing, understanding, implementing, and evaluating symptom induction techniques has yet to be offered. This article offers a framework for organizing symptoms induction techniques, categorizing treatment targets, and, accordingly, assessing therapeutic change in the treatment of panic and anxiety. Symptom induction techniques are examined in three exposure domains: physiological, cognitive, and situational/circumstantial; treatment targets fall into five categories: (a) poor symptom tolerance and resultant hypersensitivity and hypervigilance, (b) avoidance of internal and external triggers, (c) the emergence of specific catastrophic thoughts and related misinterpretations, (d) diminished adaptive coping skills, and (e) a reduction in general self-efficacy. Additionally, a distinction is proposed between conditional and unconditional properties of symptom induction, with an emphasis on the potential deleterious role conditional properties play during the course of treatment.
Cuijpers, Pim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Koole, Sander; Huibers, Marcus; Berking, Matthias; Andersson, Gerhard
Recent years have seen a near-doubling of the number of studies examining the effects of psychotherapies for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults. The present article integrates this new evidence with the older literature through a quantitative meta-analysis. A total of 41 studies (with 2132 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for GAD) were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases, and were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies examined the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The majority of studies used waiting lists as control condition. The pooled effect of the 38 comparisons (from 28 studies) of psychotherapy versus a control group was large (g=0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.97) with low to moderate heterogeneity. The effects based on self-report measures were somewhat lower than those based on clinician-rated instruments. The effects on depression were also large (g=0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.82). There were some indications for publication bias. The number of studies comparing CBT with other psychotherapies (e.g., applied relaxation) or pharmacotherapy was too small to draw conclusions about comparative effectiveness or the long-term effects. There were some indications that CBT was also effective at follow-up and that CBT was more effective than applied relaxation in the longer term.
Hershenberg, Rachel; Gros, Daniel F; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga
Evidence-based treatment approaches for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) comprise psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of the two. First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and, in certain European guidelines, pregabalin, which gained European Commission approval. Although short- and long-term efficacy have been established for these agents in controlled trials, response rates of 60-70 % are insufficient, remission rates are relatively modest, and relapse rates considerable. Moreover, questions increasingly arise regarding tolerability and side-effect profiles. As an alternative, antipsychotics have long been of interest for the treatment of anxiety disorders, but investigation had been tempered by their potential for irreversible side effects. With the improved side-effect profiles of atypical antipsychotics, these agents are increasingly being investigated across Axis I disorders. Atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone have been shown to be helpful in addressing a range of anxiety and depressive symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and have since been used in the treatment of a range of mood and anxiety disorders. In this article, we review the efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics as adjunctive therapy and/or monotherapy for individuals with GAD, a currently off-label indication. The most evidence has accumulated for quetiapine. Findings suggest that approximately 50 % of participants tolerate the side effects, most commonly sedation and fatigue. Among this subset, those who continue treatment demonstrate significant reductions in anxiety when used as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy. The appropriateness of the use of antipsychotics in the treatment of GAD is discussed.
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Becker, Emily M.; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N.; Birmaher, Boris B.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; March, John S.
This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) . Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7–17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650
Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T; Becker, Emily M; Ginsburg, Golda S; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N; Birmaher, Boris B; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M; Kendall, Philip C; Suveg, Cynthia M; March, John S
This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) . Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7-17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement.
Andrews, Gavin; Titov, Nickolai
Internet treatment programs for anxiety and depressive disorders are becoming available and offer cost-effective alternatives to face-to-face treatment with medication or cognitive behaviour therapy. The Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, offers internet treatment courses at the VirtualClinic (http://www.virtualclinic.org.au) for people who meet diagnostic criteria for major depression, social phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. These courses are free to people recruited for research. The results of VirtualClinic trials show a high level of patient adherence and strong reductions in symptoms, and that very little clinician time is required. The four treatment programs that have been successfully evaluated in the VirtualClinic have been made available on a not-for-profit basis ($5 service fee) at the CRUfADclinic (http://www.crufadclinic.org) for general practitioners and other clinicians to use with their patients. These programs could be the first level of treatment in a stepped-care environment, where patients who do not benefit sufficiently could then receive face-to-face treatment from their clinician or be referred for specialist treatment.
Liber, Juliette M.; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Markus, Monica T.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
A substantial percentage of children with anxiety disorders do not respond adequately to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Examination of parental factors related to treatment outcome could contribute to a further understanding of treatment outcome responses. This study investigated the predictive value of paternal and maternal emotional warmth,…
Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
Background Although relatively new, the field of e-mental health is becoming more popular with more attention given to researching its various aspects. However, there are many areas that still need further research, especially identifying attrition predictors at various phases of assessment and treatment delivery. Objective The present study identified the predictors of posttreatment assessment completers based on 24 pre- and posttreatment demographic and personal variables and 1 treatment variable, their impact on attrition bias, and the efficacy of the 5 fully automated self-help anxiety treatment programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods A complex algorithm was used to diagnose participants’ mental disorders based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. A total of 3199 individuals did not formally drop out of the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out. However, only 347 participants who completed their treatment cycle also completed the posttreatment assessment measures. Based on these measures, predictors of attrition were identified and attrition bias was examined. The efficacy of the 5 treatment programs was assessed based on anxiety-specific severity scores and 5 additional treatment outcome measures. Results On average, completers of posttreatment assessment measures were more likely to be seeking self-help online programs; have heard about the program from traditional media or from family and friends; were receiving mental health assistance; were more likely to learn best by reading, hearing and doing; had a lower pretreatment
Schnorr, Stephanie L; Bachner, Harriet A
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models. Development of these alternative strategies is predicated on experimental evidence and diligent research on the biology of stress, fear, anxiety-related behaviors, and the gut-brain connection. This article provides a brief overview on biological markers of anxiety and the expanding nutritional literature relating to brain health and mental disorders. A case study demonstrates an example of a biopsychosocial approach integrating cognitive psychotherapy, dietary changes, and mindfulness activities, in treating symptoms of anxiety. This case study shows a possible treatment protocol to explore the efficacy of targeting the gut-brain-axis that may be used as an impetus for future controlled studies.
Simon, Arun K.; Bhumika, T. V.; Nair, N. Sreekumaran
Dental anxiety is one of the major problems affecting children, which impairs the rendering of dental care, leading to impaired quality of life. It often leads to occupational stress in dental personnel and conflict between parents/caregivers. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials done in children, to synthesize evidence of the effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in reducing dental anxiety in children compared to conventional restorative treatments. The databases searched included PubMed, Google Scholar and The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register. Eligible studies reporting dental anxiety by a variety of psychometric scales were tabulated. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. Among 416 studies retrieved through literature search, six studies matched the inclusion criteria. Due to lack of data, only three studies were included for meta-analysis using RevMan software (Review Manager, Version 5.3;The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, 2014). The pooled meta-analysis data, (standardized mean difference − 2.12 [95% confidence interval: −4.52, 0.27]) failed to show any difference between ART group and the conventional treatment group. In conclusion, ART was not more beneficial in reducing dental anxiety among pediatric dental patients. The findings are relevant in the field of clinical practice in dentistry in the management of the anxious pediatric dental patient. PMID:26038668
Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Bachner, Harriet A.
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models. Development of these alternative strategies is predicated on experimental evidence and diligent research on the biology of stress, fear, anxiety-related behaviors, and the gut-brain connection. This article provides a brief overview on biological markers of anxiety and the expanding nutritional literature relating to brain health and mental disorders. A case study demonstrates an example of a biopsychosocial approach integrating cognitive psychotherapy, dietary changes, and mindfulness activities, in treating symptoms of anxiety. This case study shows a possible treatment protocol to explore the efficacy of targeting the gut-brain-axis that may be used as an impetus for future controlled studies. PMID:27698624
Cafarella, Paul A; Effing, Tanja W; Usmani, Zafar-Ahmad; Frith, Peter A
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious contemporary health issue. Psychological co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression are common in COPD. Current evidence for treatment options to reduce anxiety and depression in patients with COPD was examined. There is evidence available for the efficacy of pharmacological treatments, cognitive behavioural therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, relaxation therapy and palliative care in COPD. Therapeutic modalities that have not been proven effective in decreasing anxiety and depression in COPD, but which have theoretical potential among patients, include interpersonal psychotherapy, self-management programmes, more extensive disease management programmes, supportive therapy and self-help groups. Besides pulmonary rehabilitation that is only available for a small percentage of patients, management guidelines make scant reference to other options for the treatment of mental health problems. The quantity and quality of research on mental health treatments in COPD have historically been insufficient to support their inclusion in COPD treatment guidelines. In this review, recommendations regarding assessment, treatment and future research in this important field were made.
Helton, Sarah G; Lohoff, Falk W
While antidepressants are widely used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, only half of the patients will respond to antidepressant treatment and only a third of patients will experience a remission of symptoms. Identification of genetic biomarkers that predict antidepressant treatment response could thus greatly improve current clinical practice by providing guidance on which drug to use for which patient. Most antidepressant drugs for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders have effects on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system; thus, genetic polymorphisms in the genes involved in this pathway represent logical candidates for investigation. This article reviews recent findings on the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs with a focus on serotonergic pathway polymorphisms and discusses future clinical applications.
Rothbaum, B O; Hodges, L F
One possible alternative to standard in vivo exposure may be virtual reality exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer-generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VRE therapy has been successful in reducing the fear of heights in the first known controlled study of virtual reality in the treatment of a psychological disorder. Outcome was assessed on measures of anxiety, avoidance, attitudes, and distress. Significant group differences were found on all measures such that the VRE group was significantly improved at posttreatment but the control group was unchanged. The efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy was also supported for the fear of flying in a case study. The potential for virtual reality exposure treatment for these and other disorders is explored.
Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K
This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.
Farris, Samantha G; DiBello, Angelo M; Allan, Nicholas P; Hogan, Julianna; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3; Taylor et al., 2007) is a self-report assessment of anxiety sensitivity, reflecting an individual's tendency to misinterpret the meaning of anxiety-relevant sensations. Despite this construct being related to a wide array of clinically significant smoking maintenance and relapse processes, the psychometric properties of scores on the ASI-3 have not yet been investigated for use among smokers. Therefore, the current study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the scores on the ASI-3 in a sample of cigarette smokers. Participants were treatment-seeking daily smokers who completed the ASI-3 at a precessation visit (Time 1, N = 464) and 3 months postcessation attempt (Time 2, n = 137). Confirmatory factor analyses results of the scores on ASI-3 at Time 1 and Time 2 revealed the hypothesized 3-factor model, including physical, social, and cognitive concerns. In addition, the ASI-3 factor scores evidenced factor stability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent, and discriminant, and predictive validity. The present study provides evidence in support of the validity and reliability of scores on the ASI-3 as a measure of anxiety sensitivity among treatment-seeking cigarette smokers.
Beydag, Kerime Derya
This descriptive study was performed to determine levels of the death anxiety levels of relatives of patients who being treated in a public hospital located in the Asian side of Istanbul and influencing factors. The sample was 106 patient relatives of patients from oncology or chemotherapy units of the hospital. Data were collected between May-June 2011 with the 15-item Death Anxiety Scale developed by Templer (1970) and adapted to Turkish by Senol (1989) and evaluated by number-percentage calculations, the Kruskal Wallis, Anova and t tests. Some 36.8% of the included group were aged 45 years and over, 57.5% were female and 65.1% were married. A statistically significant difference was found between the age groups, genders of the patient relatives, the period of cancer treatment regarding the death anxiety levels (p<0.05). The death anxiety levels of the patient relatives who were in the 17-39 age group, female and had a patient who was under treatment for less than 6 months were found to high as compared to others.
Over the past decades, behaviour and cognitive psychology have produced fruitful and mutually converging theories from which hypotheses could be derived on the nature and origin of fear and anxiety disorders. Notwithstanding the emergence of effective treatments, there are still many questions that remain to be answered. Here, I will argue that the burgeoning field of behavioural neuroscience may advance our understanding of fear, anxiety disorders and its treatments. Decades of fear-conditioning research across species have begun to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying associative fear learning and memory. The fear-conditioning paradigm provides a well-controlled and fine-grained research platform to examine these processes. Although the traditional fear conditioning paradigm was originally designed to unveil general principles of fear (un)learning, it is well-suited to understand the transition from normal fear to pathological fear and the mechanisms of change. This paper presents 1) a selection of fear conditioning studies on the generalization and persistence of associative fear memory as intermediate phenotypes of fear and anxiety disorders, and 2) insights from neuroscience on the malleability of fear memory with the potential to provide a long-term cure for anxiety and related disorders.
Lancastle, Deborah; Boivin, Jacky
The aim of this study was to examine the unique and shared predictive power of psychological variables on reproductive physical health. Three months before fertility treatment, 97 women completed measures of dispositional optimism, trait anxiety, and coping. Information about biological response to treatment (e.g., estradiol level) was collected from medical charts after treatment. Structural equation modeling showed that measured psychological variables were all significant indicators of a single latent construct and that this construct was a better predictor of biological response to treatment than was any individual predictor. This research contributes to evidence suggesting that the health benefits of dispositional optimism are due to its shared variance with neuroticism.
Bélanger, Lynda; Harvey, Allison G.; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Hein, Kerrie; Lamy, Manon; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.
Objective To evaluate the impact of comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders on treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia, behavior therapy (BT), or cognitive therapy (CT). Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years) with chronic insomnia, including 45 also presenting a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder. They were randomized to BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Outcome measures were the proportion of treatment responders (decrease of ≥ 8 points on the Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) and remissions (ISI score < 8) and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Proportion of treatment responders and remitters in the CBT condition was not significantly different between the subgroups with and without comorbidity. However, the proportion of responders was lower in the comorbidity subgroup compared to those without comorbidity in both the BT (34.4% vs 81.6%; p=0.007) and CT (23.6% vs 57.6%; p=0.02) alone conditions, although remission rates and pre-post ISI change scores were not. Pre to post change scores on the depression (−10.6 vs −3.9; p<0.001) and anxiety measures (−9.2 vs −2.5; p=.01) were significantly greater in the comorbidity subgroup relative to the subgroup without comorbidity but only for those treated with the full CBT; no difference was found for those treated with either BT or CT alone. Conclusions The presence of a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder did not reduce the efficacy of CBT for insomnia, but it did for its single BT and CT components when used alone. PMID:26963600
Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Walsh, Kate
The goals of this study were to evaluate the quality of information concerning anxiety disorders in children that is available on the Internet and to evaluate changes in the quality of website information over time. The authors identified websites addressing child anxiety disorders (N = 26) using a Google search and recommendations from an expert in child anxiety. Each website was evaluated on the extent to which it addressed questions that parents consider important, the quality of information, and the reading level. All websites provided adequate information describing treatment options; however, fewer websites had information addressing many questions that are important to parents, including the duration of treatment, what happens when treatment stops, and the benefits and risks of various treatments. Many websites provided inadequate information on pharmacological treatment. Most websites were of moderate quality and had more difficult reading levels than is recommended. Five years after the initial assessment, authors re-analyzed the websites in order to investigate changes in content over time. The content of only six websites had been updated since the original analysis, the majority of which improved on the three aforementioned areas of evaluation. Websites could be strengthened by providing important information that would support parent decision-making.
Hsu, Lorena; Alden, Lynn E
We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Results showed that participants were similar on willingness to seek treatment at low- and high-severity levels of social anxiety; however, at moderate levels, first-generation Chinese participants were significantly less willing to seek treatment compared to their European-heritage counterparts. The reluctance of first-generation Chinese participants to seek treatment was associated with greater Chinese-heritage acculturation, and was not related to perceiving symptoms of social anxiety as less impairing. The findings support the general contention that Asians in North America tend to delay treatment for mental health problems.
Scates, Sharon K. Harp; And Others
Examined effects of a cognitive-behavioral group condition, a reminiscence treatment group condition, and an activity group condition on anxiety and life satisfaction for senior citizens. No significant differences on life satisfaction and trait anxiety were found. (Author/ABL)
Liber, Juliette Margo; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8-12, n = 124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite measure…
Walker, Jerry V., III
This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as…
Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti
Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…
Cragan, Mary K.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.
Compared Anxiety Management Training (AMT) and Relaxation as Self-Control (RSC) in reducing stress in 55 anxious medical outpatients. At posttreatment and follow-up assessments, both AMT and RSC groups reported significantly less anxiety, stress reactivity, general physiological arousal, depression, and anger than controls. (JAC)
Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Brown, Lily A.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Craske, Michelle G.
Objective The presence of anxiety disorders is associated with poorer alcohol use disorder treatment outcomes, but little is known about the impact of alcohol use problems on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes despite their high comorbidity. The current study examined the impact of alcohol use symptom severity on anxiety disorder treatment outcomes in a multi-site primary care effectiveness study of anxiety disorder treatment. Method Data came from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) effectiveness trial. Participants (N = 1004) were randomized to an evidence-based anxiety intervention (including cognitive behavioral therapy and medications) or usual care in primary care. Participants completed measures of alcohol use, anxiety, and depression a baseline, 6-mo, 12-mo, and 18-mo follow-up periods. Patients with alcohol dependence were excluded. Results There were no significant moderating (Treatment Group x Alcohol Use Severity) interactions. The majority of analyses revealed no predictive effects of alcohol use severity on outcome; however, alcohol problems at baseline were associated with somewhat higher anxiety and depression symptoms at the 18-mo follow-up. Conclusions These data indicate that patients with alcohol problems in primary care can be effectively treated for anxiety disorders. Baseline alcohol problems were associated with some poorer long-term outcomes, but this was evident across CALM and usual care. These findings provide preliminary evidence that there may be no need to postpone treatment of anxiety disorders until alcohol problems are addressed, at least among those who have mild to moderate alcohol problems. Replication with more severe alcohol use disorders is needed. PMID:25615523
Salloum, Alison; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine guidelines for delineating treatment response and symptom remission for children with anxiety disorder based on the five item and Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS5), and replicate guidelines using the six item PARS (PARS6). Methods: Participants were 73 children 7–13 years of age with a primary anxiety disorder who received computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety. Signal detection analyses utilizing receiver operating curve procedures were used to determine optimal guidelines for defining treatment response and symptom remission for youth with anxiety disorders on the PARS5 and PARS6. The percent reduction in anxiety severity was used to predict treatment responder status. The percent reduction in symptoms and posttreatment raw score were used to predict remission status. Results: Optimal prediction of treatment response based on gold standard criteria was achieved at 15–20% reduction in symptoms on the PARS5 (with 20% reduction achieving marginally higher accuracy), and 20% reduction on the PARS6. A 25% reduction in symptoms on the PARS5 or a posttreatment raw score cutoff of 9 optimally predicted remission status. For the PARS6, a cutoff of 35% reduction or a posttreatment score of 11, was considered optimal for determining remission in clinical settings, whereas a 30% reduction or score of 12 was considered optimal for research settings. Conclusions: With different scoring options available for the PARS, these results provide guidelines for determining response and remission based on the PARS5 and PARS6 scores. Guidelines have implications for use in clinical trials, as well as for assessment of change in clinical practice. PMID:26579629
Strawn, Jeffrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D
A constellation of pharmacologic treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been developed over the past five decades, although each has a number of potential drawbacks in clinical practice. This review addresses one potentially new pharmacologic treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, the gamma-aminobutyric acid analogue pregabalin. We review the mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pregabalin as well as the results of 5 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Based entirely on data from these industry-sponsored (Pfizer), multi-site clinical trials in patients with GAD, pregabalin appears to be generally well tolerated and has rapid onset of action (approximately 1 week), comparable efficacy to benzodiazepines and lower discontinuation rates compared with other pharmacologic treatments. Thus in GAD, a disorder that is often suboptimally responsive to traditional psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic interventions - secondary to poor efficacy, tolerability, and/or side-effects - pregabalin may have a primary role in GAD patients, especially in those with certain psychiatric comorbidities or individuals who are on multi-drug regimens for medical comorbidities.
beta-Adrenoceptor blocking drugs have been used for the treatment of acute stress reactions, adjustment disorders, generalised anxiety, panic disorder and agoraphobia. In general they are effective in these disorders if somatic or autonomic symptoms are prominent but not extreme in degree. Thus, they are of more value for the relatively mild tremor of the anxious violinist in public performance than in the severe shaking noticed during a panic attack. It is most likely that beta-blockers act primarily by blocking peripheral adrenergic beta-receptors; symptoms that are mediated through beta-stimulation, such as tremor and palpitations, are helped most. Improvement is noted within 1 to 2 hours and with relatively low doses (e.g. propranolol 40 mg/day). Some recent studies, however, have suggested that when longer treatment using higher doses (e.g. propranolol 160 mg/day) is given, improvement in other forms of anxiety is noted after several weeks of treatment. beta-blocking drugs are useful adjuncts to existing treatments for anxiety and are likely to enjoy wider use now that benzodiazepines are being avoided due to their dependence risks.
Tillfors, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard; Ekselius, Lisa; Furmark, Tomas; Lewenhaupt, Susanne; Karlsson, Anders; Carlbring, Per
Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown effective for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and public speaking fears. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promising results can be transferred to high school students suffering from this condition. A total of 19 speech-anxious high school students with SAD were randomized either into 9 weeks of Internet-delivered CBT or to a wait-list control group. Significant improvements were found on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The average within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the primary social anxiety scales at posttest were 0.98 and 1.38, respectively. However, the average number of completed modules in the CBT program was low. Although compliance can be improved, the results suggest that Internet-based guided self-help is effective in the treatment of high school students with SAD.
Fourneret, P; Desombre, H; de Villard, R; Revol, O
School refusal anxiety is a pathopsychological disorder which touches the young child, between 8 and 13 years. Even if the school refusal is studied for a long time, there is not still consensus as for the specific definition of this disorder or on the best way of treating it. Nevertheless, accountable of long-lasting difficulties in school integration, its short and medium term consequences are serious and well known: school desertion, mood disorder and behavioral problems. Speed and quality of the medico-psychological and educational interventions represent a important factor for evolution and prognosis. Although, psychological interventions remain essential, sometimes the interest of an associated psychotropic medication should be discussed. This one can indeed either improve their results or supporting their installations. Despite more than twenty controlled trials in the pediatric population, no definitive psychopharmacological treatment data exist for anxiety disorder in childhood and especially for school refusal disorder. The majority of the studies stress as well the interest of benzodiazepines as tricyclic antidepressants but without being able to specify the possible superiority of a chemical on the other. On the other hand, the side effects of each one are well-documented, in particular for the benzodiazepines (potential abuse, sedation, potential desinhibition, mnemonic disorder), limiting thus their uses in child. In this work, we would like to emphasize the interest of propranolol in the treatment of somatic symptoms usually met in school refusal anxiety. Although beta-blockers have been used in the treatment of neurovegetative symptoms associated with situational anxiety disorders, there is no controlled data and only some open data to guide pediatric use for anxiety disorders in children. Nevertheless, prescribed with low posology and in substitution of benzodiazepine, this medication enabled us in three severe clinical cases to shorter notably the
Wallace, Meredith L; McMakin, Dana L; Tan, Patricia Z; Rosen, Dana; Forbes, Erika E; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Kendall, Philip C; Mannarino, Anthony; Silk, Jennifer S
Do day-to-day emotions, social interactions, and sleep play a role in determining which anxious youth respond to supportive child-centered therapy (CCT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)? We explored whether measures of day-to-day functioning (captured through ecological momentary assessment, sleep diary, and actigraphy), along with clinical and demographic measures, were predictors or moderators of treatment outcome in 114 anxious youth randomized to CCT or CBT. We statistically combined individual moderators into a single, optimal composite moderator to characterize subgroups for which CCT or CBT may be preferable. The strongest predictors of better outcome included: (a) experiencing higher positive affect when with one's mother and (b) fewer self-reported problems with sleep duration. The composite moderator indicated that youth for whom CBT was indicated had: (a) more day-to-day sleep problems related to sleep quality, efficiency, and waking, (b) day-to-day negative events related to interpersonal concerns, (c) more DSM-IV anxiety diagnoses, and (d) college-educated parents. These findings illustrate the value of both day-to-day functioning characteristics and more traditional sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in identifying optimal anxiety treatment assignment. Future studies will need to enhance the practicality of real-time measures for use in clinical decision making and evaluate additional anxiety treatments.
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Deveney, Charise; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Bavopoulos, Nataly
Specific delivery of cognitive-behavioral skills is more effective in treating childhood anxiety compared to treatment that contains only nonspecific therapy factors. The findings are based on a randomized trial involving 112 children aged 7-16 years.
Behar, Evelyn; DiMarco, Ilyse Dobrow; Hekler, Eric B; Mohlman, Jan; Staples, Alison M
Theoretical conceptualizations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) continue to undergo scrutiny and refinement. The current paper critiques five contemporary models of GAD: the Avoidance Model of Worry and GAD [Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The nature, functions, and origins of worry. In: G. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: perspectives on theory assessment and treatment (pp. 5-33). Sussex, England: Wiley & Sons; Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O. M., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In: R. Heimberg, C. Turk, & D. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: advances in research and practice (pp. 77-108). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press]; the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model [Dugas, M. J., Letarte, H., Rheaume, J., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1995). Worry and problem solving: evidence of a specific relationship. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 109-120; Freeston, M. H., Rheaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 791-802]; the Metacognitive Model [Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 301-320]; the Emotion Dysregulation Model [Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 85-90]; and the Acceptance-based Model of GAD [Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 54-68]. Evidence in support of each model is critically reviewed, and each model's corresponding evidence-based therapeutic interventions are discussed. Generally speaking, the models share an
Perna, Giampaolo; Alciati, Alessandra; Riva, Alice; Micieli, Wilma; Caldirola, Daniela
Many aspects of long-term pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders (AnxDs) are still debated. We undertook an updated systematic review of long-term pharmacological studies on panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Relevant studies dating from January 1, 2012 to August 31, 2015 were identified using the PubMed database and a review of bibliographies. Of 372 records identified in the search, five studies on PD and 15 on GAD were included in the review. No studies on SAD were found. Our review confirms the usefulness of long-term pharmacological treatments for PD and GAD and suggests that they can provide further improvement over that obtained during short-term therapy. Paroxetine, escitalopram, and clonazepam can be effective for long-term treatment of PD. However, further studies are needed to draw conclusions about the long-term benzodiazepine use in PD, particularly for the possible cognitive side-effects over time. Pregabalin and quetiapine can be effective for long-term treatment of GAD, while preliminary suggestions emerged for agomelatine and vortioxetine. We did not find any evidence for determining the optimal length and/or dosage of medications to minimize the relapse risk. Few investigations have attempted to identify potential predictors of long-term treatment response. Personalized treatments for AnxDs can be implemented using predictive tools to explore those factors affecting treatment response/tolerability heterogeneity, including neurobiological functions/clinical profiles, comorbidity, biomarkers, and genetic features, and to tailor medications according to each patient's unique features.
Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S.; Vasey, Michael W.
Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age =11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. All children completed the ABMT protocol with no cancelled or missed sessions. Child self-ratings on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did parent ratings on child anxiety-related impairment. Parent ratings on child anxiety and internalizing symptoms displayed non-significant decreases from pretreatment to posttreatment. These findings support the potential promise of ABMT as a feasible adjuvant treatment that reduces anxiety and impairment among child anxiety CBT nonresponders. PMID:24211147
Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.
Taylor, Steven; Abramowitz, Jonathan S
Dissemination methods are used to increase the likelihood that a given treatment or form of clinical practice is implemented by clinicians in the community. Therapist training in treatment methods is an important component of dissemination. Successful dissemination also requires that roadblocks to treatment implementation are identified and circumvented, such as misconceptions that clinicians might hold about a given treatment. The present article offers a commentary on the papers included in the special issue on treatment dissemination for anxiety disorders. Most papers focus on issues concerning the training and education of clinicians with regard to exposure therapy. Training and education is an important step but should be part of a broad, multifaceted approach. There are several other important methods of treatment dissemination, including methods developed and implemented with success by the pharmaceutical industry, might also be used to disseminate psychosocial therapies. Optimal dissemination likely requires a broad perspective in which multiple dissemination methods are considered for implementation.
Proudfoot, Judith G
The rise of consumerism, escalating levels of technological change and increasing demand for better dissemination of psychological treatments signal a transformation in the treatment of mental health problems. Soon health care consumers will have a choice as to whether they wish to consult a clinician in his/her rooms in order to receive a diagnosis, treatment and support, or instead to receive these services electronically, or a combination of both. Some of the online services currently available include structured therapy programs, psychological treatment by email, real-time online counselling, professionally assisted chat rooms, self-help groups, health information and educational modules. This paper reviews the use of computer programs in mental health care and, in particular, for the treatment of anxiety and depression. Issues of feasibility, ethics, and effectiveness are discussed and the future of computer-based treatment programs in mental health is considered.
Newby, Jill M; McKinnon, Anna; Kuyken, Willem; Gilbody, Simon; Dalgleish, Tim
A broad array of transdiagnostic psychological treatments for depressive and anxiety disorders have been evaluated, but existing reviews of this literature are restricted to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. The current meta-analysis focused on studies evaluating clinician-guided internet/computerised or face-to-face manualised transdiagnostic treatments, to examine their effects on anxiety, depression and quality of life (QOL). Results from 50 studies showed that transdiagnostic treatments are efficacious, with large overall mean uncontrolled effects (pre- to post-treatment) for anxiety and depression (gs=.85 and .91 respectively), and medium for QOL (g=.69). Uncontrolled effect sizes were stable at follow-up. Results from 24 RCTs that met inclusion criteria showed that transdiagnostic treatments outperformed control conditions on all outcome measures (controlled ESs: gs=.65, .80, and .46 for anxiety, depression and QOL respectively), with the smallest differences found compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) control conditions. RCT quality was generally poor, and heterogeneity was high. Examination of the high heterogeneity revealed that CBT protocols were more effective than mindfulness/acceptance protocols for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: gs=.88 and .61 respectively), but not depression. Treatment delivery format influenced outcomes for anxiety (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.70, individual: g=.97, computer/internet: g=.96) and depression (uncontrolled ESs: group: g=.89, individual: g=.86, computer/internet: g=.96). Preliminary evidence from 4 comparisons with disorder-specific treatments suggests that transdiagnostic treatments are as effective for reducing anxiety, and may be superior for reducing depression. These findings show that transdiagnostic psychological treatments are efficacious, but higher quality research studies are needed to explore the sources of heterogeneity amongst treatment effects.
Silk, Jennifer S; Sheeber, Lisa; Tan, Patricia Z; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Forbes, Erika E; McMakin, Dana L; Dahl, Ronald E; Siegle, Greg J; Kendall, Philip C; Mannarino, Anthony; Ryan, Neal D
Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) provides anxious youth with skills and experiences to increase "brave" behavior in the face of feared situations. This study addresses whether parental encouragement of bravery during an anxiety provoking and potentially avoidable naturalistic speech task (a) differs between parents of youth (ages 9-13) with anxiety disorders (N=47) and parents of healthy non-anxious controls (N=20); (b) influences response to treatment; and (c) changes during treatment for anxious youth randomized to receive CBT (N=30) or Child-Centered Therapy (CCT; a non-directive active comparison treatment; N=17). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during a discussion of whether or not the child should complete an optional speech task. Parents of anxious youth showed less encouragement of bravery than parents of controls. Encouragement of bravery increased from pre- to post-treatment for youth who received CBT but not CCT, and pre-treatment encouragement of bravery predicted a better response to treatment, particularly for youth receiving CBT.
Hildebrandt, Tom; Bacow, Terri; Markella, Mariana; Loeb, Katharine L
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by its similarity to anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Family-based treatment (FBT) has shown promising initial results for treatment of AN in adolescents, yet the precise mechanisms of action are unknown. We present a theoretical argument and model, suggesting that FBT may work via exposure (and habituation) to food and its consumption. First, we review the evidence for pathological anxiety in AN, and suggest a framework for identifying specific anxious triggers, emotions (fear and worry) and avoidance strategies. Second, we briefly review evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and specifically exposure in its various forms is most effective for treating anxiety disorders in youth. Third, we consider distinct approaches to exposure therapy based on the pattern of triggers, anxious emotions and avoidance. We conclude that the interventions utilized in FBT share clear similarities to exposure with response prevention, a type of exposure therapy commonly used with OCD, and may work via facilitating habituation to food and eating in one's natural environment. We also highlight how parents facilitate this process in between sessions by effectively coaching their children and facilitating naturalistic exposure to food and related triggers. Options for future research are considered.
Mitte, Kristin; Noack, Peter; Steil, Regina; Hautzinger, Martin
A meta-analytic review of the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in generalized anxiety disorder was conducted. The main substance classes were compared: benzodiazepines and azapirones. The impact of methodological variables was investigated such as sample size and use of a placebo run-in. After a comprehensive literature search to May 2002 (via databases, hand search, secondary sources, internet, contact of researchers, and pharmaceutical companies), the results of 48 studies were integrated. Weighted Hedges g was computed and a random-effects analysis was done. Effect sizes were computed for anxiety, depression, and clinical significance. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Pharmacotherapy was superior to placebo in all symptom categories. Azapirones and benzodiazepines were equally effective. Compliance (as measured by dropout rate) was higher for benzodiazepines. Only sample size was significantly associated with effect size. Pharmacotherapy, especially benzodiazepines and azapirones, is effective in the short-term treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder. There was no superiority of 1 drug class in reducing symptomatology.
Lyubchenko, M; Baziak, Y
The aim of the work is to present the results of psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with anxiety disorders in the model of short-term strategic therapy. On the basis of the material the effectiveness of the short-term strategic approach is represented in the treatment of patients with phobic disorders. The apparent non-directive behavior of therapist allows to bypass the internal resistance of the patient. As a result of using the paradoxical prescriptions, phobic manifestations lost or significantly reduced their symptomatic significance. The combination of the neurolinguistic techniques and strategic approach gave to the psychotherapeutic process high effectiveness.
Schapira, Kurt; McClelland, H. A.; Griffiths, N. R.; Newell, D. J.
Forty-eight patients with anxiety states were treated with oxazepam (Serenid-D), which was administered in tablets of three different colours—red, yellow, and green. Every patient received one week's treatment with each colour, according to a random programme. A latin square design was used to ensure complete balance between the colours and between the weeks. The patients' symptoms were categorized and then assessed by both weekly physicians' ratings and daily self-rating, which showed close agreement. Colour preference was shown on both these scales in that symptoms of anxiety were most improved with green, whereas depressive symptoms appeared to respond best to yellow. Such colour preferences, however, did not reach levels of statistical significance, except for phobias as rated on the physicians' assessment. The results indicate that colour may play a part in the response to a drug. PMID:5420207
Calleo, Jessica S; Amspoker, Amber B; Sarwar, Aliya I; Kunik, Mark E; Jankovic, Joseph; Marsh, Laura; York, Michele; Stanley, Melinda A
Anxiety and depression often remain unrecognized or inadequately treated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective, but limited evidence supports its use for anxiety and depression in patients with PD. Sixteen patients with PD having significant anxiety and/or depressive symptoms were assigned to CBT or enhanced usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. The CBT intervention included tools for anxiety, depression, and healthy living with PD symptoms. Individual sessions were delivered by telephone or in person, based on patient preference. Treatment was feasible with participants choosing 67% of sessions by telephone and 80% completed treatment. The between-group effect sizes for change scores from baseline to posttreatment and baseline to 1-month follow-up were large (posttreatment: d = 1.49 for depression and 1.44 for anxiety; 1-month follow-up: d = .73 for depression and 1.24 for anxiety), although only the posttreatment effect size for depression was significant. This pilot CBT program is feasible for treatment of anxiety and depression in patients with PD.
Milad, Mohammed R; Rosenbaum, Blake L; Simon, Naomi M
Current exposure-based therapies aimed to reduce pathological fear and anxiety are now amongst the most effective interventions for trauma and anxiety related disorders. Nevertheless, they can be further improved to enhance initial and long-term outcomes. It is now widely accepted that a greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of fear extinction is needed to further develop and identify novel effective targeted treatments as well as prevention strategies for fear-based and anxiety-related disorders. Guided by elegant mechanistic, cellular, and molecular preclinical reports, data from imaging studies are beginning to shape our understanding of how fear is quelled in the human brain. In this article, we briefly review the neural circuits underlying fear extinction in rodents and healthy humans. We then review how these circuits may fail to extinguish fear in patients with anxiety disorders. We end with a discussion examining how fear extinction research may lead to significant advances of current therapeutics for anxiety disorders.
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Rey, Yasmin; Marin, Carla; Jaccard, James
Objective The current study presents an approach for empirically identifying tailoring variables at midtreatment of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols for youth with anxiety disorders that can be used to guide moves to second stage treatments. Method Using two independent data sets (Study 1 N = 240, M age = 9.86 years; Study 2 N = 341; M age = 9.53 years), we examined treatment response patterns after eight sessions of CBT (i.e., CBT midtreatment). Results We identified and replicated three classes of response patterns at CBT midtreatment: Early Responders, Partial Responders, and Nonresponders. Class membership at CBT midtreatment was predictive of outcome at CBT post. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to derive guidelines to optimize accuracy of assignment to classes at CBT midtreatment. Conclusions These findings support the promise of treatment response at CBT midtreatment to identify tailoring variables for use in abbreviating first stage treatments and facilitating moves to second stage treatments. PMID:25984794
Haug, Thomas; Nordgreen, Tine; Öst, Lars Göran; Havik, Odd E
Self-help treatments have the potential to increase the availability and affordability of evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders. Although promising, previous research results are heterogeneous, indicating a need to identify factors that moderate treatment outcome. The present article reviews the literature on self-help treatment for anxiety disorders among adults, with a total sample of 56 articles with 82 comparisons. When self-help treatment was compared to wait-list or placebo, a meta-analysis indicated a moderate to large effect size (g=0.78). When self-help treatment was compared to face-to-face treatment, results indicated a small effect that favored the latter (g=-0.20). When self-help was compared to wait-list or placebo, subgroup analyses indicated that self-help treatment format, primary anxiety diagnosis and procedures for recruitment of subjects were related to treatment outcome in bivariate analyses, but only recruitment procedures remained significant in a multiple meta-regression analysis. When self-help was compared to face-to-face treatment, a multiple meta-regression indicated that the type of comparison group, treatment format and gender were significantly related to outcome. We conclude that self-help is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and should be offered as part of stepped care treatment models in community services. Implications of the results and future directions are discussed.
Pfeffer, C R; Jiang, H; Domeshek, L J
Open-label buspirone was studied in 25 prepubertal psychiatric inpatients (age 8.0 +/- 1.8 years, 76% boys) presenting with anxiety symptoms and moderately aggressive behavior. Patients with severe aggression, requiring rapid treatment with mood stabilizers or neuroleptics, were excluded. A 3-week titration (maximum 50 mg daily) preceded a 6-week maintenance phase at optimal dose. Buspirone was discontinued in 6 children (25%): 4 developed increased aggression and agitation, and 2 developed euphoric mania. For the 19 patients who completed the study, mean optimal dose was 28 mg daily. Among completers, depressive symptoms were reduced 52% by Week 6 on Children's Depression Inventory (p < or = 0.001). Decreased aggressivity was reflected in a 29% reduction on Measure of Aggression, Violence, and Rage in Children [MAVRIC] ratings (p < or = 0.02) and in 86% less time in seclusion or physical restraints (p < or = 0.02). Clinical Global Assessment scores improved (CGAS 41 vs. 54, p < or = 0.01). Only 3 children improved sufficiently to continue buspirone after the study. Residual aggressivity and global functioning remained problematic. Buspirone may pose behavioral risks in treating moderate aggressivity in 24% of children with anxiety; in the others, the therapeutic effects on aggression, anxiety, and depression were limited but significant.
Lau, Jennifer Y F
Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are common and impairing. As many patients do not benefit from - or have difficulties accessing - frontline treatments, novel, effective and easy-to-deliver interventions are needed. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training has been used to treat adult anxiety disorders. CBM-I methods train individuals to endorse benign rather than negative resolutions of ambiguous cues. Developmental extensions of CBM-I are important for several reasons. First, implementing CBM-I in symptomatic children and adolescents may facilitate early preventative gains. Second, as training uses simple learning mechanisms, CBM-I may reflect a developmentally-suitable strategy for shaping adaptive processing styles. Third, as this age range involves protracted neurocognitive maturation and associated plasticity, administering CBM-I early could drive powerful, long-lasting benefits for emotional development. Finally, data from CBM-I studies could inform the cognitive mechanisms involved in the genesis of early-emerging anxiety. This paper provides the first organised review of CBM-I studies conducted in children and adolescents, and contains suggestions for future research that may help realise the therapeutic potential of early CBM-I interventions.
Pothoulaki, M; Macdonald, R A R; Flowers, P; Stamataki, E; Filiopoulos, V; Stamatiadis, D; Stathakis, Ch P
This study aimed to investigate the effects of preferred music listening on anxiety and pain perception in patients undergoing haemodialysis. A two group experimental design was used. Sixty people diagnosed with end stage renal failure undergoing haemodialysis treatment participated in this study. Preferred music listening was applied as an intervention. Anxiety and pain were measured pre-test and post-test. The control group scored significantly higher in state anxiety than the experimental group and experienced significantly higher pain intensity in post-test phase. Findings provide experimental evidence to support the effectiveness of preferred music listening in medical settings.
Van Ameringen, Michael; Simpson, William; Patterson, Beth; Turna, Jasmine
Although many people use the internet to diagnose mental health problems, little is known about the relationship between internet self-diagnosis and treatment-seeking. The MACSCREEN (a validated, self-report screening tool for anxiety and depression) was posted on our clinic homepage and respondents were invited to take an anxiety test. Three months after completing the MACSREEN and a variety of symptom severity scales, respondents were emailed a follow up questionnaire asking about treatment-seeking behaviours. Of the 770 MACSCREEN respondents, 103 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Of these, 100% met criteria for at least one anxiety or mood disorder diagnosis and 51% sought treatment after completing the MACSCREEN. In the 49% who did not seek treatment, fear of medication (57%), discomfort talking to their doctor about anxiety (28%) and the belief that symptoms were not severe enough (28%) were cited as barriers. Compared to non-seekers, treatment-seekers were significantly more likely to meet screening criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression. Higher Sheehan Disability Scale scores and being married (versus single) significantly increased the odds of treatment-seeking, suggesting that functional impairment and disease burden on the family may be stronger predictors of treatment seeking than overall severity of symptoms.
Kendall, Philip C.; Safford, Scott; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Webb, Alicia
Research suggests that the sequelae of childhood anxiety disorders, if left untreated, can include chronic anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. The current study evaluated the maintenance of outcomes of children who received a 16-week cognitive-behavioral treatment for primary anxiety disorders (generalized, separation, and social anxiety…
Koponen, Hannu; Allgulander, Christer; Erickson, Janelle; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Pritchett, Yili; Detke, Michael J.; Ball, Susan G.; Russell, James M.
Objective: This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Method: Patients were ≥ 18 years old and recruited from 5 European countries, the United States, and South Africa. The study had a 9-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. A total of 513 patients (mean age = 43.8 years; 67.8% female) with a DSM-IV–defined GAD diagnosis received treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day (N = 168), duloxetine 120 mg/day (N = 170), or placebo (N = 175). The primary efficacy measure was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) total score. Secondary measures included the Sheehan Disability Scale, HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores, and HAM-A response, remission, and sustained improvement rates. The study was conducted from July 2004 to September 2005. Results: Both groups of duloxetine-treated patients demonstrated significantly greater improvements in anxiety symptom severity compared with placebo-treated patients as measured by HAM-A total score and HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores (p values ranged from ≤ .01 to ≤ .001). Duloxetine-treated patients had greater functional improvements in Sheehan Disability Scale global and specific domain scores (p ≤ .001) than placebo-treated patients. Both duloxetine doses also resulted in significantly greater HAM-A response, remission, and sustained improvement rates compared with placebo (p values ranged from ≤ .01 to ≤ .001). The rate of study discontinuation due to adverse events was 11.3% for duloxetine 60 mg and 15.3% for duloxetine 120 mg versus 2.3% for placebo (p ≤ .001). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day were efficacious and well tolerated and thus may provide primary care physicians with a useful pharmacologic intervention for
Shechner, Tomer; Rimon-Chakir, Adi; Britton, Jennifer C.; Lotan, Danny; Apter, Alan; Bliese, Paul D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair
Objective Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) is a promising novel treatment for anxiety disorders, but clinical trials have focused largely on stand-alone formats among adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the augmenting effects of threat-based ABMT on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically anxious youth. Method Sixty-three treatment-seeking children with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: ABMT + CBT; ABMT placebo + CBT; and CBT-alone. Participants in the 2 ABMT conditions received repeated training on dot–probe tasks either designed to shift attention away from threats (active) or designed to induce no changes in attention patterns (placebo). Primary outcome measures were frequency and severity of anxiety symptoms as determined by a clinician using a semi-structured interview. Self- and parent-rated anxiety measures and threat-related attention bias scores were also measured before and after treatment. Results Both the active and placebo ABMT groups showed greater reductions in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms than the CBT-alone group. Furthermore, only the active ABMT group showed significant reduction in self- or parentrated anxiety symptoms. Finally, all groups showed a shift in attention patterns across the study, starting with a bias toward threat at baseline and shifting attention away from threat after treatment. Conclusions Active and placebo ABMT might augment the clinical response to CBT for anxiety. This effect could arise from benefits associated with performing computer-based paradigms such as the dot–probe task. Given the absence of group differences in attention-bias changes during treatment, possible mechanisms and methodological issues underlying the observed findings are discussed. Clinical trial registration information—Augmenting Effects of ABMT on CBT in Anxious Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01730625. PMID:24342386
Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard
In social anxiety disorder (SAD) co-morbid depressive symptoms as well as avoidance behaviors have been shown to predict insufficient treatment response. It is likely that subgroups of individuals with different profiles of risk factors for poor treatment response exist. This study aimed to identify subgroups of social avoidance and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample (N = 167) with SAD before and after guided internet-delivered CBT, and to compare these groups on diagnostic status and social anxiety. We further examined individual movement between subgroups over time. Using cluster analysis we identified four subgroups, including a high-problem cluster at both time-points. Individuals in this cluster showed less remission after treatment, exhibited higher levels of social anxiety at both assessments, and typically remained in the high-problem cluster after treatment. Thus, in individuals with SAD, high levels of social avoidance and depressive symptoms constitute a risk profile for poor treatment response.
Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence
Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…
Edenfield, Teresa M; Saeed, Sy Atezaz
In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have increased in popularity. This is especially true for treatments that are related to exercise and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in the treatment of both mental and physical illness. MBIs, such as Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), which are derived from ancient Buddhist and Yoga philosophies, have become popular treatments in contemporary psychotherapy. While there is growing evidence that supports the role of these interventions in relapse prevention, little is known about the role that MBIs play in the treatment of acute symptoms of depression and anxiety. Even less is known about the importance of specific components of MBIs (eg, mindfulness meditation [MM]) and the overall impact that these interventions have on the experience or expression of psychological distress. Moreover, few studies have rigorously evaluated the dose-response relationship that is required to effect positive symptom change and the mechanisms of change that are responsible for observed improvements. This review will define meditation and mindfulness, discuss the relationship between stress and health and how MM relates to therapeutically engaging the relaxation response, and review the empirical findings that are related to the efficacy of MM in the treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms. Given the paucity of research that examines the applications of these treatments in clinical populations, the limitations of applying these findings to clinical samples will be mentioned. A brief review of the issues related to the possible mechanisms of change and the dose-response relationship regarding MBIs, particularly MM, will be provided. Finally, limitations of the extant literature and future directions for further exploration of this topic will be offered. PMID:23175619
Orgeta, Vasiliki; Qazi, Afifa; Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin
Background Anxiety and depression are common in people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of both pharmacological and psychological therapies. Aims To evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of psychological treatments in treating depression and anxiety in people with dementia and MCI. Method We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological treatment versus usual care in people with dementia and MCI. Primary outcomes were symptoms of anxiety and depression. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, ability to perform daily activities, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognition and caregivers' self-rated depressive symptoms. Results We included six RCTs, involving 439 participants with dementia, which used cognitive–behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy, counselling or multimodal interventions including a specific psychological therapy. We found beneficial effects for both depression and anxiety. Overall, the quality of the evidence was moderate for depression and low for anxiety, due to the methodological limitations of the studies we identified and the limited number of trials. Conclusions The evidence from six RCTs suggests that psychological treatments are effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety for people with dementia. There is a need for high-quality, multicentre trials including standardised, well-defined interventions. PMID:26429684
Danforth, Alicia L; Struble, Christopher M; Yazar-Klosinski, Berra; Grob, Charles S
The first study of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy for the treatment of social anxiety in autistic adults commenced in the spring of 2014. The search for psychotherapeutic options for autistic individuals is imperative considering the lack of effective conventional treatments for mental health diagnoses that are common in this population. Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) involving the administration of MDMA in clinical trials have been rare and non-life threatening. To date, MDMA has been administered to over 1133 individuals for research purposes without the occurrence of unexpected drug-related SAEs that require expedited reporting per FDA regulations. Now that safety parameters for limited use of MDMA in clinical settings have been established, a case can be made to further develop MDMA-assisted therapeutic interventions that could support autistic adults in increasing social adaptability among the typically developing population. As in the case with classic hallucinogens and other psychedelic drugs, MDMA catalyzes shifts toward openness and introspection that do not require ongoing administration to achieve lasting benefits. This infrequent dosing mitigates adverse event frequency and improves the risk/benefit ratio of MDMA, which may provide a significant advantage over medications that require daily dosing. Consequently, clinicians could employ new treatment models for social anxiety or similar types of distress administering MDMA on one to several occasions within the context of a supportive and integrative psychotherapy protocol.
Yanartas, O; Kani, HT; Bicakci, E; Kilic, I; Banzragch, M; Acikel, C; Atug, O; Kuscu, K; Imeryuz, N; Akin, H
Objective Depression and anxiety are common disorders in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim is to prospectively determine the effect of psychiatric treatment on scores for depression, anxiety, quality of life (QoL), and sexual dysfunction in an outpatient population diagnosed with IBD and also anxiety and/or depression disorder. Patients and methods Patients who scored higher than the cutoff point on the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale were referred for further structured psychiatric evaluation and determination of the need for psychiatric drug treatment. Patients who underwent drug therapy completed Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Results Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the most common diagnoses. After 6 months, 47 patients had completely adhered to drug treatment (group A), whereas 20 were nonadherent (group B). In group A, all domains of SF-36, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale, depression/anxiety scores, and Crohn’s disease activity index were statistically improved after treatment when compared with the baseline. In group B, the three domains of SF-36, platelet count, and mean corpuscular volume were worse between baseline and at 6 months. Conclusion In IBD patients having any psychiatric disorder, 6 months of antidepressant drug treatment is associated with an improvement in depression, anxiety, QoL, and sexual functioning scores, as well as an improvement in Crohn’s disease activity index. On the other hand, insufficient psychiatric treatment seems to be related to a poor QoL. PMID:27069364
Gray, Wendy N.; Denson, Lee A.; Baldassano, Robert N.
Objective Knowledge of factors impacting adolescents’ ability to adhere to their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regimen is limited. The current study examines the collective impact of barriers to adherence and anxiety/depressive symptoms on adolescent adherence to the IBD regimen. Methods Adolescents (n = 79) completed measures of barriers to adherence, adherence, and anxiety/depressive symptoms at one of two specialty pediatric IBD clinics. Results Most adolescents reported barriers to adherence and 1 in 8 reported borderline or clinically elevated levels of anxiety/depressive symptoms. Anxiety/depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between barriers to adherence and adherence. Post hoc probing revealed a significant, additive effect of higher anxiety/depressive symptoms in the barriers–adherence relationship, with adherence significantly lower among adolescents with higher barriers and higher anxiety/depressive symptoms. Conclusions In order to optimize adherence in adolescents, interventions should target not only barriers to adherence but also any anxiety/depressive symptoms that may negatively impact efforts to adhere to recommended treatment. PMID:22080456
Pan, Li; Zhang, Jingping; Li, Lihua
We explored the effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and health-related quality of life of patients with ectopic pregnancy receiving methotrexate treatment. Ninety inpatients receiving this treatment were randomly assigned to a progressive muscle relaxation group (n = 45) or a control group (n = 45). The control group received standard single-dose methotrexate treatment, and the experimental group received methotrexate and additional muscle relaxation training until hospital discharge. The patients were evaluated with the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and SF-36 shortly after admission and before discharge from the hospital. Both covariance analysis and repeated measures ANOVA showed that muscle relaxation training can effectively improve the anxiety and health-related quality of life of patients with ectopic pregnancy receiving methotrexate treatment in an inpatient setting.
Rutherford, Bret R; Bailey, Veronika S.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Pott, Emily; Brown, Patrick J.; Roose, Steven P.
Objective The influence of study design variables and publication year on response to medication and placebo was investigated in clinical trials for social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder (PD). Method Hierarchical linear modeling determined whether publication year, treatment assignment (medication vs. placebo), study type (placebo-controlled or active comparator), study duration, and the number of study visits affected the mean change associated with medication and placebo. Results In the 66 trials examined, the change associated with both medication and placebo increased over time (t = 4.23, df = 39, P < .001), but average drug–placebo differences decreased over time (t = −2.04, df = 46, P = .047). More severe baseline illness was associated with greater drug–placebo differences for serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs, t = 3.46, df = 106, P = .001) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, t = 10.37, df = 106, P < .001). Improvement with medication was significantly greater in active-comparator studies compared to placebo-controlled trials (t = 3.41, df = 39, P = .002). A greater number of study visits was associated with greater symptom improvement in PD trials relative to SAD (t = 2.83, df = 39, P = .008) and GAD (t = 2.16, df = 39, P= .037). Conclusions Placebo response is substantial in SAD, GAD, and PD trials, and its rise over time has been associated with diminished drug–placebo differences. Study design features that influence treatment response in anxiety disorder trials include patient expectancy, frequency of follow-up visits, and baseline illness severity. PMID:26437267
Ride, Jemimah; Lancsar, Emily
Perinatal depression and anxiety (PNDA) are an international healthcare priority, associated with significant short- and long-term problems for women, their children and families. Effective treatment is available but uptake is suboptimal: some women go untreated whilst others choose treatments without strong evidence of efficacy. Better understanding of women’s preferences for treatment is needed to facilitate uptake of effective treatment. To address this issue, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was administered to 217 pregnant or postnatal women in Australia, who were recruited through an online research company and had similar sociodemographic characteristics to Australian data for perinatal women. The DCE investigated preferences regarding cost, treatment type, availability of childcare, modality and efficacy. Data were analysed using logit-based models accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Predicted probability analysis was used to explore relative attribute importance and policy change scenarios, including how these differed by women’s sociodemographic characteristics. Cost and treatment type had the greatest impact on choice, such that a policy of subsidising effective treatments was predicted to double their uptake compared with the base case. There were differences in predicted uptake associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics: for example, women with higher educational attainment were more likely to choose effective treatment. The findings suggest policy directions for decision makers whose goal is to reduce the burden of PNDA on women, their children and families. PMID:27258096
Riva, Giuseppe; Gorini, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Together with the cognitive-behavioural treatments, relaxation represents a useful approach for the treatment of GAD, but it has the limitation that it is hard to be learned. To overcome this limitation we propose the use of biofeedback enhanced virtual reality (VR) to facilitate the relaxation process. The VR relaxation experience will be strengthened by the use of a mobile phone able to track and visualize, in an outpatient setting too, the physiological data of the patients. To test this concept, we planned a randomized controlled trial (NCT00602212), including three groups of 15 patients each (for a total of 75 patients): (1) the VR group, (2) the non-VR group and (3) the waiting list (WL) group. This controlled trial will be able to evaluate the effects of the use of VR in relaxation while preserving the benefits of randomization to reduce bias.
Blanchard, Lauren B; McCarter, Gordon C
A 54-year-old male consulted his general practitioner for increasing general anxiety and mild panic attacks despite effective treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder, which included a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The patient would awaken suddenly at night with shortness of breath and overwhelming worry. During the daytime, he felt a general, nonspecific anxiety and frequently experienced sympathetic activation upon confronting routine challenges. He also experienced dyspnea-induced feelings of panic. He reported that he stopped taking the fish oil supplements after several more months of symptoms, and his anxiety and insomnia then largely disappeared. Several weeks later, he resumed consumption of high-EPA fish oil at the prior dosage for 2 days. On both nights, the patient reported nighttime awakening similar to the previous episodes, followed by daytime agitation. Since halting the fish oil supplements, the anxiety and insomnia have not returned and his depression remains in remission.
Gosschalk, Philip O.
This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…
Milosevic, Irena; Chudzik, Susan M; Boyd, Susan; McCabe, Randi E
This paper presents the development and preliminary evaluation of an integrated group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. The 12-session, manualized treatment was developed collaboratively by a mental health program in a teaching hospital and a community-based addictions service and administered in both settings. Results from an uncontrolled effectiveness trial of 29 treatment completers suggest that integrated group CBT may reduce stress and alcohol use symptoms and improve substance refusal self-efficacy. Changes in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and drug use were not significant, although the effect size for anxiety reduction was in the medium range. Nonetheless, the clinical significance of treatment effects on mood, anxiety, and substance use symptoms was modest. Changes in coping skills and quality of life were not significant, although medium-to-large effects were observed for changes in several coping skills. Participants reported being highly satisfied with treatment, found the treatment strategies to be useful, and noted an improvement in their functioning, particularly socially. Methodological and sample size limitations warrant more rigorous follow-up investigations of this treatment. Results are considered in the context of the current literature on integrated psychological treatments for these common comorbidities.
Walsh, Kate; Hope, Debra A.
Guided by the American Psychological Association's principles of evidence-based practice, this article reviews a single-case treatment outcome study whereby a client characteristic, sexual identity, was integrated into the assessment and treatment of social anxiety symptoms. The case involved a young adult European-American male who presented to a…
Richardson, Thomas; Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Sophie
Research has shown that computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in adults, although the outcomes with children and adolescents are unclear. The aim of the study is to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of cCBT for the prevention and treatment of depression…
Merikangas, K R; Merikangas, J R
This paper presents the results of a study comparing the effectiveness of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, atenolol, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAO-I), phenelzine, and the combination in treatment of 61 adults with migraine headache. The goals of the study are (1) to investigate the safety of concomitant treatment of migraine with beta-blockers and phenelzine, (2) to assess whether orthostatic hypertension and other side effects would be relieved, and (3) to compare the results of this open trial of phenelzine to those of a previous study using similar methods. Phenelzine was associated with a large decrease in the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. Anxiety and depression were also reduced by phenelzine both alone, and in combination with a beta-blocker. The results show that the combination of MAO-I's and beta-blockers can be administered safely, and can lead to the reduction in the side effects with either drug alone.
Bernik, Marcio; Sampaio, Thiago P A; Gandarela, Lucas
Fibromyalgia is associated with high level of pain and suffering. Lack of diagnosis leads to onerous indirect economic costs. Recent data indicate that fibromyalgia; anxiety disorders, and depression tend to occur as comorbid conditions. They also share some common neurochemical dysfunctions and central nervous system alterations such as hypofunctional serotonergic system and altered reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conversely, functional neuroimaging findings point to different patterns of altered pain processing mechanisms between fibromyalgia and depression. There is no cure for fibromyalgia, and treatment response effect size is usually small to moderate. Treatment should be based on drugs that also target the comorbid psychiatric condition. Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy should ideally be offered to all patients. Lifestyle changes, such as physical exercise should be encouraged. The message to patients should be that all forms of pain are true medical conditions and deserve proper care.
Hum, Kathryn M; Manassis, Katharina; Lewis, Marc D
The present study examined the cortical processes that mediate cognitive regulation in response to emotion-eliciting stimuli, before and after anxious children participated in a cognitive behavioral therapy program. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded from anxious children (n = 24, 8 males) and comparison children (n = 16, 7 males) at pre-and post-treatment sessions. The change in anxiety T-scores from pre- to post-treatment was used to signify clinical improvement among anxious children (Improvers: n = 11 vs. Non-improvers: n = 13). Event-related potential components were recorded while children performed a Go/No-go task using emotional facial expressions. For the P1 component, believed to reflect attention and/or arousal processes, Non-improvers had greater activation levels relative to Improver and comparison groups at both sessions. Greater P1 amplitudes at pre-treatment predicted non-improvement following treatment. For the frontal N2 component, thought to reflect cognitive control processing, Improvers recruited greater activation from pre- to post-treatment, a change in activation that was predictive of treatment outcome. Non-improvers showed increased cortical activation within the time window of the P1, whether at pre- or post-treatment. These data suggest that heightened perceptual vigilance may have led to poorer outcomes. Improvers showed increased prefrontal activation within the time window of the N2 from pre- to post-treatment. These data suggest that increased cognitive control may have led to improved treatment outcomes. In sum, P1 activation may serve as a predictor of treatment outcome, while N2 activation may serve as an indicator of treatment response.
Youth with anxiety often present to their pediatricians with a chief complaint of physical symptoms without any mention of anxiety or worry. Even in the absence of reported symptoms of anxiety in such presentations, screening for an anxiety disorder as the potential source of the somatic complaints should be pursued. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry about a number of events coupled with at least one physical symptom. GAD is commonly underdiagnosed and treated. Consequently, many youth undergo extensive medical testing in search of a cause for their somatic symptoms before anxiety is considered. It is important to screen for anxiety early in the process of evaluating somatic complaints. This review highlights the evidence base for identifying and treating GAD in children and provides an update on its epidemiology and etiology. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e349-e355.].
Allgulander, Christer; Bandelow, Borwin; Hollander, Eric; Montgomery, Stuart A; Nutt, David J; Okasha, Ahmed; Pollack, Mark H; Stein, Dan J; Swinson, Richard P
What are the current recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? GAD is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 4% to 7% in the general population. GAD is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry or anxiety about a number of events or activities that the individual experiences on more days than not over a 6-month period. Onset of GAD symptoms usually occurs during an individual's early twenties; however, high rates of GAD have also been seen in children and adolescents. The clinical course of GAD is often chronic, with 40% of patients reporting illness lasting >5 years. GAD is associated with pronounced functional impairment, resulting in decreased vocational function and reduced quality of life. Patients with GAD tend to be high users of outpatient medical care, which contributes significantly to healthcare costs. Currently, benzodiazepines and buspirone are prescribed frequently to treat GAD. Although both show efficacy in acute treatment trials, few long-term studies have been performed. Benzodiazepines are not recommended for long-term treatment of GAD, due to associated development of tolerance, psychomotor impairment, cognitive and memory changes, physical dependence, and a withdrawal reaction on discontinuation. The antidepressant venlafaxine extended-release (XR) has received approval for the treatment of GAD in the United States and many other countries. Venlafaxine XR has demonstrated efficacy over placebo in two randomized treatment trials of 6 months' duration as well as in other acute trials. Paroxetine is the first of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to receive US approval for the treatment of GAD. Paroxetine demonstrated superiority to placebo in short-term trials, and investigations into the use of other SSRIs are ongoing. This suggests that other SSRIs, and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, are likely to be effective in the treatment of GAD. Of the
Johnson, Kirsten A; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J
The current study investigated whether emotion dysregulation (difficulties in the self-regulation of affective states) mediated relationships between anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and related sensations) and cognitive-based smoking processes. Participants (n = 197; 57.5% male; mean age = 38.0 years) were daily smokers recruited as part of a randomized control trial for smoking cessation. Anxiety sensitivity was uniquely associated with all smoking processes. Moreover, emotion dysregulation significantly mediated relationships between anxiety sensitivity and the smoking processes. Findings suggest that emotion dysregulation is an important construct to consider in relationships between anxiety sensitivity and cognitive-based smoking processes among adult treatment-seeking smokers.
Jónsson, H; Thastum, M; Arendt, K; Juul-Sørensen, M
The efficacy of a group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Kids) of youth anxiety has been demonstrated at university clinics in Australia and Denmark and similar CBT programmes have been found effective within community settings in other countries. However, most effectiveness studies of CBT for youth anxiety have either used a mixture of CBT guidelines, or translated protocols not previous tested in an efficacy trial. This study used a benchmarking strategy to compare outcomes from the same CBT programme used at a university research clinic (N=87) and community centres (N=82). There was a significant reduction on both clinical and self-report measures of youth anxiety over time with medium to large effect sizes within both samples. Treatment effects on self-report measures of youth anxiety were significantly larger within the university sample, while changes in clinical measures of youth anxiety were similar in the two samples. Overall these findings suggest that an efficacious CBT group treatment programme developed within research contexts is transportable to community centres. Despite being effective within the community, the results indicate that the treatment may lose some of its efficacy when disseminated to the community.
Commissaris, R L; Hill, T J
In the management of both anxiety and depression, agents such as imipramine (IMI) are noted for their 3-5 week delay to onset of clinical effect. A similar delay to onset has been reported for the anxiolytic-like (i.e., anticonflict) effect of chronic IMI treatment (2.5 mg/kg, BID for 5 weeks) in the Conditioned Suppression of Drinking (CSD) conflict paradigm; similar effects have been reported with other antidepressants and in other conflict procedures. In contrast, in the Forced Swim Test (FST) model of depression, antidepressant-like effects are reported immediately following subchronic treatment with relatively high doses of these agents (e.g., 30 mg/kg IMI, 3 times in 24 hr). The present study examined the effects of this high-dose, subchronic treatment with IMI on CSD conflict behavior. Conflict-trained female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups with comparable pretreatment baselines for shocks received. Treatments (0, 15, and 30 mg/kg IMI) were administered intraperitoneally (IP) at 23, 5, and 1 hr prior to CSD conflict testing on day 1; CSD conflict behavior was then monitored daily (Mon-Fri) for 5 weeks following treatment. IMI treatment (30 and, to a lesser extent, 15 mg/kg) significantly reduced shocks received (punished responding) and water intake (unpunished responding) on day 1; although water intake was also slightly reduced in both IMI treatment groups for the remainder of test week 1, there was no difference in shocks received between the various treatments for this period. Subjects receiving 30 mg/kg IMI (but not those receiving 15 mg/kg IMI or vehicle) accepted significantly more shocks than controls on weeks 2-4 (maximal increase at week 3) and returned to pretreatment baseline levels by week 5. Thus, subchronic high-dose treatment with IMI (and perhaps other antidepressants) produces anxiolytic-like effects which are delayed in nature and persist for several weeks after treatment.
Attention bias modification (ABM) is a newly emerging therapy for anxiety disorders that is rooted in current cognitive models of anxiety and in established experimental data on threat-related attentional biases in anxiety. This review describes the evidence indicating that ABM has the potential to become an enhancing tool for current…
Liber, Juliette M.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Van Der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Van Gastel, Willemijn; Treffers, Philip D. A.
Background: The present study compares an individual versus a group format in the delivery of manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy (FRIENDS) for children with anxiety disorders. Clinically referred children (aged 8 to 12) diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (n = 52), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (n = 37), Social Phobia (n = 22) or…
Recently, the focus of health policies and initiatives has been directed toward mental health. More precisely, depressive and anxiety disorders have received particular attention because of their disabling outcomes and prevalence among most populations. Despite this increased interest, numerous issues regarding patients' willingness to seek treatment and the adequate recognition and treatment of these disorders by clinicians remain to be addressed. This article considers the factors that influence patients and physicians in their reticence to acknowledge and adequately treat depression and anxiety disorders. It also reviews the impact of society and the media, together with other factors relating to health care organization and administration that affect the treatment of depression and anxiety. In view of the multifaceted challenge involved, efforts to achieve a consensus in determining treatment for those with depressive and anxiety disorders are essential. A consensus will require easy, measurable, and reliable disability indicators; evidence that treatment of patients with varying levels of need is cost effective; and that persons who most need and would benefit from care can be reliably identified among the highly prevalent population of persons with more transient symptoms. Governments and other policymakers should be encouraged to provide appropriate coverage for access to primary and secondary care, the treatments required, and sufficient resources so that care is available when necessary. An important aspect of the challenge is to incorporate these efforts within the realistic constraints of primary care.
Cauffield, J S; Forbes, H J
Dietary supplement use has increased during the past decade. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients turn to dietary supplements because of a reluctance to take prescription medications or a lack of satisfaction with the results. They often perceive dietary supplements to be a safer or more natural alternative. Patients with mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, are among those who use dietary supplements. St. John's Wort is used to treat depression. Clinical studies comparing dietary supplements with low-dose antidepressants (maprotiline, amitriptyline, or imipramine at 75 mg/day) or high-dose antidepressants (imipramine at 150 mg/day) find no significant difference between treatments. Kava kava is used to treat anxiety. Clinical trials demonstrate it to be superior to placebo, and roughly equivalent to oxazepam 15 mg/day or bromazepam 9 mg/day. Agents discussed for use in sleep disorders include melatonin, valerian, 5-hydroxytryptamine, catnip, chamomile, gotu kola, hops, L-tryptophan, lavender, passionflower, skullcap, and valerian. Familiarity with the evidence for use and the possible resulting risks can help health professionals to guide patient decisions regarding use of dietary supplements.
Açikmeşe, Bariş; Haznedar, Seçil; Hatipoğlu, Iclal; Enginar, Nurhan
This study evaluated the effect of intermittent administration in the development of dependence to diazepam in chronic use of the drug. Gabapentin was used to provide an anxiolytic effect on drug-free days. During a 28-day treatment schedule, rats were given diazepam (15 mg/kg) once daily continuously, or intermittently with saline or gabapentin (50 mg/kg) on days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on days 10 and 30 using the elevated plus-maze test and novelty-induced grooming test. Contrary to continuous administration, intermittent diazepam did not provide anxiolytic-like activity on day 10; instead, it prevented withdrawal anxiety on day 30. Gabapentin produced anxiolytic-like effects during the withdrawal period, but not on day 10. These results suggest that intermittent administration of diazepam (given either alone or alternatively with a drug possessing anxiolytic activity) may be of value in preventing the development of physical dependence during the chronic use of the drug. However, further studies are needed to demonstrate that this protocol could effectively produce anxiolytic activity on diazepam-free days.
Meyer, Denny; Austin, David William; Kyrios, Michael
Background The development of e-mental health interventions to treat or prevent mental illness and to enhance wellbeing has risen rapidly over the past decade. This development assists the public in sidestepping some of the obstacles that are often encountered when trying to access traditional face-to-face mental health care services. Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the posttreatment effectiveness of five fully automated self-help cognitive behavior e-therapy programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) offered to the international public via Anxiety Online, an open-access full-service virtual psychology clinic for anxiety disorders. Methods We used a naturalistic participant choice, quasi-experimental design to evaluate each of the five Anxiety Online fully automated self-help e-therapy programs. Participants were required to have at least subclinical levels of one of the anxiety disorders to be offered the associated disorder-specific fully automated self-help e-therapy program. These programs are offered free of charge via Anxiety Online. Results A total of 225 people self-selected one of the five e-therapy programs (GAD, n = 88; SAD, n = 50; PD/A, n = 40; PTSD, n = 30; OCD, n = 17) and completed their 12-week posttreatment assessment. Significant improvements were found on 21/25 measures across the five fully automated self-help programs. At postassessment we observed significant reductions on all five anxiety disorder clinical disorder severity ratings (Cohen d range 0.72–1.22), increased confidence in managing one’s own mental health care (Cohen d range 0.70–1.17), and decreases in the total number of clinical diagnoses (except for the PD/A program, where a positive trend was found) (Cohen d range 0.45–1.08). In addition, we found significant improvements in
Lerner, Arturo G; Gelkopf, Marc; Skladman, Irena; Rudinski, Dmitri; Nachshon, Hanna; Bleich, Avi
An unique and intriguing characteristic of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and LSD-like substances is the recurrence of some of the symptoms which appear during the intoxication, in the absence of recent intake of hallucinogens. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a condition in which the re-experiencing of one or more perceptual symptoms causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning and may be extremely debilitating. Benzodiazepines are one of the recommended agents for the treatment of HPPD but it is unclear which of them may be more helpful. The goal of our investigation was to assess the efficacy of clonazepam in the treatment of LSD-induced HPPD. Sixteen patients fulfilled entrance criteria. All complained of HPPD with anxiety features for at least 3 months and were drug free at least 3 months. They received clonazepam 2 mg/day for 2 months. Follow-up was continued for 6 months. They were weekly evaluated during the 2 months of clonazepam administration and monthly during the follow-up period using the Clinical Global Impression Scale, a Self-report Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Patients reported a significant relief and the presence of only mild symptomatology during the clonazepam administration. This improvement was clearly sustained and persisted during a 6-month follow-up period. This study suggests that high potency benzodiazepines like clonazepam, which has serotonergic properties, may be more effective than low-potency benzodiazepines in the treatment of some patients with LSD-induced HPPD.
Owen, David R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Nutt, David J
Stratified medicine is a new term that figures highly in current MRC and NHS strategy. It has developed from the earlier terms individualised or personalised medicine and refers to the use of genetic and/or endophenotypic measures to allow better targeting of treatments. The best exemplar is HER2 positivity in breast cancer to determine the efficacy of Herceptin. Clinical trials of this anti-cancer drug were initially unpromising, but once the HER2 positive subgroup was identified it was found, in this subgroup only, to be highly effective. It is presumed that similar subgroups will be found for many common disorders not just cancers, and that these will lead to much better targeted treatments. Such an advance may be necessary to develop new treatments in certain fields where the development of broad-spectrum/blockbuster treatments appears to have reached the end of the road; a particular example of this is in psychiatry. In this paper we discuss this issue in relation to psychiatry using a new and interesting example of how genotyping might help rescue an apparently failed novel treatment in anxiety disorders.
Pettit, Jeremy W; Silverman, Wendy K; Rey, Yasmin; Marin, Carla; Jaccard, James
The current study presents an approach for empirically identifying tailoring variables at midtreatment of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocols for youth with anxiety disorders that can be used to guide moves to second-stage treatments. Using 2 independent data sets (Study 1 N = 240, M age = 9.86 years; Study 2 N = 341; M age = 9.53 years), we examined treatment response patterns after 8 sessions of CBT (i.e., CBT midtreatment). We identified and replicated 3 classes of response patterns at CBT midtreatment: Early Responders, Partial Responders, and Nonresponders. Class membership at CBT midtreatment was predictive of outcome at CBT posttreatment. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to derive guidelines to optimize accuracy of assignment to classes at CBT midtreatment. These findings support the promise of treatment response at CBT midtreatment to identify tailoring variables for use in abbreviating first-stage treatments and facilitating moves to second-stage treatments.
Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
Background Although in its infancy, the field of e-mental health interventions has been gaining popularity and afforded considerable research attention. However, there are many gaps in the research. One such gap is in the area of attrition predictors at various stages of assessment and treatment delivery. Objective This exploratory study applied univariate and multivariate analysis to a large dataset provided by the Anxiety Online (now called Mental Health Online) system to identify predictors of attrition in treatment commencers and in those who formally withdrew during treatment based on 24 pretreatment demographic and personal variables and one clinical measure. Methods Participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary diagnoses in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder) were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. Results Of 9394 potential participants, a total of 3880 clients enrolled and 5514 did not enroll in one of the treatment programs following the completion of pretreatment assessment measures (pretreatment attrition rate: 58.70%). A total of 3199 individuals did not formally withdraw from the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out (formal withdrawal during treatment dropout rate of 4.25%). The treatment commencers differed significantly (P<.001-.03) from the noncommencers on several variables (reason for registering, mental health concerns, postsecondary education, where first heard about Anxiety Online, Kessler-6 score, stage of change, quality of life, relationship status, preferred method of learning, and smoking status). Those who formally withdrew during
Summary The mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety disorders — the most prevalent class of mental disorders — remain unclear. Over the last 30 years investigators have used the animal model of conditioned fear stress (CFS) to investigate the brain structures and neurotransmitter systems involved in aversive emotional learning and memory. Recent studies have focused on the neuronal circuitry and cellular mechanisms of fearful emotional experiences. This review describes the CFS paradigm, discusses the neural circuit and neurotransmission underlying CFS, and explains the mechanism of action of pharmacological treatments of CFS. The focus of the review is on the molecular mechanisms of fear extinction, a phenomenon directly implicated in the clinical treatment of anxiety. Based on our assessment of previous work we will conclude by considering potential molecular targets for treating symptoms of anxiety and fear. PMID:25328347
Nicoletti, John A., Jr.
This report discusses the success of desensitization techniques in alleviating specific anxiety but its failure in treating generalized anxiety. Anxiety management training (AMTO has been developed to overcome some of the deficiencies of desensitization approaches. Through the use of instructions and cues to arouse anxiety responses and the…
Vera-Llonch, Montserrat; Dukes, Ellen; Rejas, Javier; Sofrygin, Oleg; Mychaskiw, Marko; Oster, Gerry
The objective of the present study was to describe a new model of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and its application to a comparison of pregabalin versus venlafaxine extended-release (XR) from a Spanish healthcare perspective. Microsimulation techniques, including Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) score, number of weeks with minimal or no anxiety (HAM-A
Reaven, Judy; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Beattie, Tricia L.; Sullivan, April; Moody, Eric J.; Stern, Jessica A; Hepburn, Susan L.; Smith, Isabel M.
Anxiety disorders frequently co-occur in youth with autism spectrum disorders. In addition to developing efficacious treatments for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders, it is important to examine the transportability of these treatments to real-world settings. Study aims were to (a) train clinicians to deliver Facing Your Fears:…
Brugués, Ariadna Ortiz
Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects many individuals independent of age, gender, experience, and hours of practice. In order to prevent MPA from happening or to alleviate it when it occurs, a review of the literature about its prevention and treatment was done. Forty-four articles, meeting evidence-based medicine (EBM) criteria, were identified and analyzed. Performance repertoire should be chosen based on the musician's skill level, and it should be practiced to the point of automaticity. Because of this, the role of music teachers is essential in preventing MPA. Prevention is the most effective method against MPA. Several treatments (psychological as well as pharmacological) have been studied on subjects in order to determine the best treatment for MPA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) seems to be the most effective, but further investigation is desired. Some musicians, in addition to CBT, also take beta-blockers; however, these drugs should only be prescribed occasionally after analyzing the situation and considering the contraindications and possible side effects. Despite these conclusions, more randomized studies with larger, homogeneous groups of subjects would be desirable (according to the EBM criteria), as well as support for the necessity of both MPA prevention and optimized methods of treatment when it does occur.
Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…
Lecrubier, Yves; Dolberg, Ornah T; Andersen, Henning F; Weiller, Emmauelle
The purpose of this article is to examine the similarities and differences between patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) versus Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) versus MDD with anxiety symptoms. Data were analysed from all randomized double-blind clinical studies with escitalopram that measured symptoms using either Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) or Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The contribution of each item of a scale to the total score was calculated before and after treatment, in remitters. Most single items of the HAMA contribute nearly equally in patients with GAD. In patients with MDD, four symptoms (i.e. anxious mood, tension, insomnia and concentration) contribute to most to the HAMA total score. In patients with GAD, three symptoms (tension, sleep and concentration) contribute two-thirds of the MADRS total score. In contrast, most MADRS items contribute equally to the total score in patients with MDD. After treatment to remission, the profile of residual symptoms MDD or GAD was similar to the symptom profile before treatment. Anxiety symptoms are very common in patients with MDD or GAD, and the symptomatic pattern is similar. In both disorders, the symptomatic pattern of residual symptoms is similar to the pattern of symptoms before treatment.
Reaven, Judith A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Nichols, Shana; Dasari, Meena; Flanigan, Erin; Hepburn, Susan
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders relative to children without ASD and those with other developmental disabilities. Thirty-three children with high-functioning ASD and their parents participated in an original, manualized cognitive behavioral group treatment aimed at reducing…
Brozovich, Faith A.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Over the past 25 years researchers have made enormous strides in the implementation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), although considerable work remains to be done. The present paper discusses a treatment refractory case seen in our clinic. The young man presented numerous interrelated obstacles, such as low…
Choate, Molly L.; Pincus, Donna B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Barlow, David H.
Research suggests that Parent-Child Interaction therapy (PCIT) works to improve the child's behavior by changing the child-parent interaction. PCIT has been effective in treating disruptive behavior in young children. This article describes a pilot study to apply PCIT to the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD). A multiple-baseline…
Melanson, Diane C.
A study examined the relative effectiveness and synergistic effect of two treatments for reducing speech anxiety--Self-Statement Modification (SSM), a therapy focused on modification of cognitive behavior; and Modified Desensitization (MD), a therapy focused on physiological variables, utilizing relaxation training, group hierarchy construction,…
Liber, Juliette M.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
Little is known about the contribution of technical and relational factors to child outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders. This study investigated the association between treatment adherence, the child-therapist alliance, and child clinical outcomes in manual-guided individual- and group-based CBT for…
Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.
While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…
Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…
Levin, Laura; Henderson, Heather A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
The importance of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment success is well established, but less is known about client characteristics that predict alliance. This study examined alliance predictors in adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders (n=31) who received a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth (Ehrenreich, Buzzella, Trosper, Bennett, & Barlow, 2008) in the context of a larger randomized controlled trial. Alliance was assessed at session three by therapists, clients, and independent observers. Results indicated that alliance ratings across the three informant perspectives were significantly associated with one another, but that pretreatment interpersonal variables (e.g., social support, attachment security, and social functioning in current family and peer relationships) were differentially associated with varying informant perspectives. Adolescent and observer ratings of alliance were both predicted by adolescent self-reports on measures reflecting how they perceive their interpersonal relationships. In addition, adolescent-reported symptom severity at pretreatment predicted observer ratings of alliance such that adolescents who indicated greater anxiety and depressive symptoms were rated as having stronger early alliances by independent observers. Therapists perceived having weaker early alliances with adolescents evidencing clinically significant depression at intake as compared with adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders alone. Future research is needed to examine whether identification of relevant interpersonal factors at intake can help improve initial therapeutic engagement and resulting outcomes for the psychosocial treatment of adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders.
Vasile, Russell G; Bruce, Steven E; Goisman, Robert M; Pagano, Maria; Keller, Martin B
The past decade has brought major new developments in the psychopharmacologic management of generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. We examined medication-prescribing patterns for the treatment of these anxiety disorders for 12 years to assess changes in patients' anti-anxiety psychotropic medication usage during that period of evolving practice guidelines. We examined psychotropic medication use in 305 patients with generalized anxiety disorder and 232 with social phobia enrolled in the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Disorders Research Project (HARP), a prospective, longitudinal study of anxiety disorders. Psychotropic treatment patterns seem to have remained relatively stable over 12 years with benzodiazepines the medications most commonly used for both generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Comparatively, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and venlafaxine usage as stand-alone medications for these disorders remained low throughout the follow-up period. At the 12-year follow-up, 24% of patients with generalized anxiety disorder and 30% of patients with social phobia were utilizing neither an SSRI/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) nor a benzodiazepine. Treatment recommendations for use of SSRIs and venlafaxine in the management of generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia initially promulgated in 1998 had a modest impact on changes in psychopharmacologic practice 4-5 years later. Difficulties in the implementation of treatment guidelines are discussed.
Santos, Hugo Henrique
Background The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient’s life. Objective This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Results Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (P<.001). A significant improvement in mean Internet addiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (P<.001), indicating medium Internet use. With respect to the relationship between IA and anxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. Conclusions This study is
Kim, Nancy S; Khalife, Danielle; Judge, Kelly A; Paulus, Daniel J; Jordan, Jake T; Yopchick, Jennelle E
A daily challenge in clinical practice is to adequately explain disorders and treatments to patients of varying levels of literacy in a time-limited situation. Drawing jointly upon research on causal reasoning and multimodal theory, the authors asked whether adding visual causal models to clinical explanations promotes patient learning. Participants were 86 people currently or formerly diagnosed with a mood disorder and 104 lay people in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, who were randomly assigned to receive either a visual causal model (dual-mode) presentation or auditory-only presentation of an explanation about generalized anxiety disorder and its treatment. Participants' knowledge was tested before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after the presentation. Patients and lay people learned significantly more from visual causal model presentations than from auditory-only presentations, and visual causal models were perceived to be helpful. Participants retained some information 4 weeks after the presentation, although the advantage of visual causal models did not persist in the long term. In conclusion, dual-mode presentations featuring visual causal models yield significant relative gains in patient comprehension immediately after the clinical session, at a time when the authors suggest that patients may be most willing to begin the recommended treatment plan.
Chavira, Denise A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Sherbourne, Cathy; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D.; Lang, Ariel J.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Welch, Stacy; Bumgardner, Kristin; Glenn, Daniel; Barrios, Velma; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle
Objective In the current study, we compare measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Method Participants were 18–65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at four different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the CALM intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) to usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Results Findings from propensity weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on two of seven engagement outcomes, namely number of sessions attended and patients’ understanding of CBT principles. Conclusions These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. PMID:24660674
Rabinak, Christine A; Phan, K Luan
Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress (PTSD), panic, and phobic disorders, can be conceptualized as a failure to inhibit inappropriate fear responses. A common, effective treatment strategy involves repeated presentations to the feared cue without any danger (extinction). However, extinction learning has a number of important limitations, and enhancing its effects, generalizability and durability via cognitive enhancers may improve its therapeutic impact. In this review we focus specifically on the role of the cannabinoid system in fear extinction learning and its retention. We address the following questions: What are the neural circuits mediating fear extinction?; Can we make fear extinction more effective?; Can cannabinoids facilitate fear extinction in humans?; How might the cannabinoid system effect fear extinction? Collectively, translational evidence suggest that enhancing cannabinoid transmission may facilitate extinction learning and its recall, and that the cannabinoid system is a potential pharmacological target for improving the active learning that occurs during exposure-based behavioral treatments prompting future research in terms of mechanisms research, novel treatment approaches ('cognitive enhancers'), and pharmacotherapeutic drug discovery.
Anker, J.J.; Kushner, M.G.; Thuras, P.; Menk, J.; Unruh, A.S.
Background Epidemiological studies and theory implicate drinking to cope (DTC) with anxiety as a potent moderator of the association between anxiety disorder (AnxD) and problematic alcohol use. However, the relevance of DTC to the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in those with a co-occurring AnxD has not been well studied. To address this, we examined whether DTC moderates the impact of two therapies: (1) a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to reduce DTC and anxiety symptoms; (2) a progressive muscle relaxation training (PMRT) program designed to reduce anxiety symptoms only. Methods Patients undergoing a standard AUD residential treatment with a co-occurring AnxD (N = 218) were randomly assigned to also receive either the CBT or PMRT. DTC in the 30 days prior to treatment was measured using the Unpleasant Emotions subscale of the Inventory of Drinking Situations. Results Confirming the predicted moderator model, the results indicated a significant interaction between treatment group and level of pre-treatment DTC behavior. Probing this interaction revealed that for those reporting more pre-treatment DTC behavior, 4-month alcohol outcomes were superior in the CBT group relative to the PMRT group. For those reporting less pre-treatment DTC behavior, however, 4-month alcohol outcomes were similar and relatively good in both treatment groups. Conclusions These findings establish a meaningful clinical distinction among those with co-occurring AUD-AnxD based on the degree to which the symptoms of the two disorders are functionally linked through DTC. Those whose co-occurring AUD-AnxD is more versus less strongly linked via DTC are especially likely to benefit from standard AUD treatment that is augmented by a brief CBT designed to disrupt this functional link. PMID:26718394
Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nickolai; Sunderland, Matthew; McMillan, Dean; Anderson, Tracy; Lorian, Carolyn; Robinson, Emma
The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a widely used measure of the worry characteristic of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a new brief screening tool for GAD, which is being increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The present study sought to provide comparison data on the relative psychometric properties of these two scales. The data of 195 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for GAD and who participated in two randomised treatment controlled trials were used. Factor analyses, internal consistency, correlational analyses, responsiveness to change, and agreement between the scales based on indentified clinical cutoffs were conducted. Factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure for the GAD-7 and a three-factor structure involving two method factors for the PSWQ. Both the GAD-7 and the PSWQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: .79-.91 and .86-.91, respectively), and moderate correlations (r = .51-.71) were observed between the scales across the treatment time points. The scales exhibited small correlations with the Sheehan Disability Scale at pretreatment (GAD-7 r = .38; PSWQ r = .26), but moderate correlations at posttreatment and follow-up (r = .59-.79). Agreement between the scales was limited using various clinical cutoffs identified within the literature. Both measures were sensitive to change, although the GAD-7 appeared to be more sensitive and may, therefore, confer some advantages in clinical work.
Haver, Brit; Gjestad, Rolf
The study focuses on the relationship between phobic anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, treatment and drinking outcome in female alcoholics. A structural equation analysis (LISREL) was used to test the strength and direction of predictor variables, enabling the development of models for the process of change taking place following treatment. Participants were patients attending a specific treatment programme for women with alcohol problems at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. One hundred and twenty female alcoholics consecutively admitted during 1991-1993 were followed up 2 years after treatment. The Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI) and Symptom Check List-90 were used at intake and follow-up. Duration of problem drinking and depression at follow-up affected drinking outcome directly and negatively, whereas duration of treatment affected drinking outcome directly and positively in all our models. Phobic anxiety on the other hand affected drinking outcome negatively and indirectly, via shorter treatment duration and higher depression at follow-up. Using different outcome variables as an end product resulted in only minor changes. Thus, the model presented is viewed as robust and clinically meaningful. The results underscore the importance of phobic anxiety and recurrent or sustained depression--in addition to the pre-treatment duration of problem drinking--for the drinking outcome among female alcoholics.
Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an integrative and experiential treatment approach that views emotions as fundamentally adaptive and privileges attention to, and exploration of, emotional experiences. EFT has been demonstrated to be efficacious with depression, interpersonal trauma and marital discord, but application to anxiety disorders is in its initial stages. The purpose of this paper is to present the main principles of using EFT with socially anxious patients and to make the case that EFT is particularly well suited for working with this patient group. The primary change processes in EFT for social anxiety include improving emotion awareness, reducing experiential avoidance and the activation and transformation of shame that underlies the symptomatic anxiety. Such processes lead to less self-criticism, to more self-compassion and self-soothing and to a more favourable perception of the self. A case example is used to illustrate how these principles were applied with a socially anxious patient.
McVicar, A J; Greenwood, C R; Fewell, F; D'Arcy, V; Chandrasekharan, S; Alldridge, L C
This pilot study sought to identify an appropriate methodology to investigate the impact of reflexology in healthcare settings. The study involved healthy volunteers to prevent unnecessary intervention to individuals who may already be experiencing health related trauma. Thirty participants underwent either reflexology or no treatment (control), in a cross-over experimental design. Self-reported anxiety (Spielberger STAI), cardiovascular parameters (BP and pulse rate) and salivary cortisol and melatonin concentrations were assessed before and after reflexology. Control data were obtained at the same time points in identical settings. Reflexology had a powerful anxiety-reduction effect ('state'; P<0.001) but no significant effect on underlying anxiety ('trait'). Cardiovascular parameters decreased (P<0.001). Baseline salivary cortisol and melatonin were not significantly correlated with STAI scores and did not change significantly following reflexology. Reflexology reduced 'state' anxiety and cardiovascular activity within healthy individuals, consistent with stress-reduction. Considering the connection between stress/anxiety and well being, the effects of reflexology may have beneficial outcomes for patients. These findings will be transferred to a study involving breast cancer patients where effects may be more pronounced particularly since cancer patients display disregulation of cortisol and melatonin secretion.
Dugas, Michel J; Ladouceur, Robert; Léger, Eliane; Freeston, Mark H; Langlois, Frédéric; Provencher, Martin D; Boisvert, Jean-Marie
A recently developed cognitive-behavioral treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) targets intolerance of uncertainty by the reevaluation of positive beliefs about worry, problem-solving training, and cognitive exposure. As previous studies have established the treatment's efficacy when delivered individually, the present study tests the treatment in a group format as a way to enhance its cost-benefit ratio. A total of 52 GAD patients received 14 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy in small groups of 4 to 6 participants. A wait-list control design was used, and standardized clinician ratings and self-report questionnaires assessed GAD symptoms, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety, depression, and social adjustment. Results show that the treatment group, relative to the wait-list group, had greater posttest improvement on all dependent variables and that treated participants made further gains over the 2-year follow-up phase of the study.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L
Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments.
Schneier, Franklin R; Pomplun, Marc; Sy, Melissa; Hirsch, Joy
Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fears of scrutiny and negative evaluation, but neural circuitry related to scrutiny in GSAD has been little studied. In this study, 16 unmedicated adults with GSAD and 16 matched healthy comparison (HC) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural response to viewed images of faces simulating movement into eye contact versus away from eye contact. GSAD patients were then treated for 8 weeks with paroxetine, and 15 patients were re-imaged. At baseline, GSAD patients had elevated neural response to eye contact in parahippocampal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus, posterior cingulate and middle occipital cortex. During paroxetine treatment, symptomatic improvement was associated with decreased neural response to eye contact in regions including inferior and middle frontal gyri, anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. Both the magnitude of GSAD symptom reduction with paroxetine treatment and the baseline comparison of GSAD vs. HCs were associated with neural processing of eye contact in distributed networks that included regions involved in self-referential processing. These findings demonstrate that eye contact in GSAD engages neurocircuitry consistent with the heightened self-conscious emotional states known to characterize GSAD patients during scrutiny.
Modern intensive care medicine has led to increased survival rates even after severe life-threatening medical conditions. In self-critical and multidimensional outcome research, however, it must be considered that beyond survival rates treatment on intensive care units (ICU) can also be associated with high long-term rates of depressive, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. Significant correlations with increased somatic morbidity and mortality, persisting cognitive impairments and significant deficits in health-related quality of life must also be taken into consideration. Empirical analysis of the risk factors reveals that a history of premorbid depression, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, age, female sex, personality traits, the underlying pathophysiological condition requiring ICU treatment, mode of sedation and analgesia, life support measures, such as mechanical ventilation, manifold traumatic experiences and memories during the stay in the ICU are all of particular pathogenetic importance. In order to reduce principally modifiable risk factors several strategies are illustrated, including well-reflected intensive care sedation and analgesia, special prophylactic medication regarding the major risk of traumatic memories and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological and psychotherapeutic interventions in states of increased acute stress symptoms and aids for personal memories and reorientation.
Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael
In this longitudinal study, we compare the effects of different types of relocation and level of affectedness on the incidence and relapse of mood and anxiety symptom treatments identified by publicly funded care or treatment one year before and one and two years after the '2011 Christchurch earthquake' in New Zealand. Based on a subset of Christchurch residents from differently affected areas of the city identified by area-wide geotechnical land assessments (no to severe land damage) 'stayers', 'within-city movers', 'out-of-city movers' and 'returners' were identified to assess the interaction effect of different levels of affectedness and relocation on the incidence and relapse of mood and anxiety symptom treatments over time. Health and sample information were drawn from the New Zealand Ministry of Health's administrative databases allowing us to do a comparison of the pre-/post-disaster treatment status and follow-up on a large study sample. Moving within the city and returning have been identified as general risk factors for receiving care or treatment for mood or anxiety symptoms. In the context of the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, moving within the city showed a protective effect over time, whereas returning was a significant risk factor in the first post-disaster year. Additionally, out-of-city movers from minor, moderately or severely damaged Christchurch's plain areas were identified as especially vulnerable two years post-disaster. Generally, no dose-response relationship between level of affectedness and mood or anxiety symptom treatments was identified, but the finding that similarly affected groups from the city's plain areas and the more affluent Port Hills showed different temporal treatment trends highlights the importance of including socio-economic status in exposure assessment. High-risk groups included females, older adults and those with a pre-existing mental illness. Consequently, mental health intervention programs should target these
Olatunji, Bunmi O; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Meltzer, Sari; Davis, Michelle L; Smits, Jasper A J; Powers, Mark B
The present investigation employed meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for hypochondriasis/health anxiety as well as potential moderators that may be associated with outcome. A literature search revealed 15 comparisons among 13 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) with a total sample size of 1081 participants that met inclusion criteria. Results indicated that CBT outperformed control conditions on primary outcome measures at post-treatment (Hedges's g = 0.95) and at follow-up (Hedges's g = 0.34). CBT also outperformed control conditions on measures of depression at post-treatment (Hedges's g = 0.64) and at follow-up (Hedges's g = 0.35). Moderator analyses revealed that higher pre-treatment severity of hypochondriasis/health anxiety was associated with greater effect sizes at follow-up visits and depression symptom severity was significantly associated with a lower in effect sizes at post-treatment. Although effect size did not vary as a function of blind assessment, smaller effect sizes were observed for CBT vs. treatment as usual control conditions than for CBT vs. waitlist control. A dose response relationship was also observed, such that a greater number of CBT sessions was associated with larger effect sizes at post-treatment. This review indicates that CBT is efficacious in the treatment of hypochondriasis/health anxiety and identifies potential moderators that are associated with outcome. The implications of these findings for further delineating prognostic and prescriptive indicators of CBT for hypochondriasis/health anxiety are discussed.
Nail, Jennifer E.; Christofferson, Jennifer; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James T.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Keeton, Courtney; Sakolsky, Dara
Background: Global academic difficulties have often been reported in youth with anxiety disorders, however, little is known about the specific academic deficits in this population. Objective: To (a) evaluate the prevalence of seven specific academic impairments in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, (b) determine whether these…
Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin
Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…
Leamon, Josh L.
Previous studies have shown a relationship between desensitization/relaxation and anxiety reduction but have failed to investigate the effect on other personality variables. To determine the effects of desensitization/relaxation (SD/R) and transactional analysis (TA) on locus of control, anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement, 54 college students…
Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…
Silverman, Wendy K.; Kurtines, William M.; Jaccard, James; Pina, Armando A.
This randomized clinical trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with minimal parent involvement to CBT with active parent involvement in a sample of 119 youths (7-16 years old; 33.6% Caucasian, 61.3% Latino) with anxiety disorders. The dynamics of change between youth anxiety and parent variables (positive-negative behaviors toward the…
den Boer, J A
Some anticipatory anxiety is expected on specific occasions such as giving a speech. However, some individuals have an excessive fear of such situations when they are under scrutiny, believing that their performance will cause them embarrassment or humiliation, frequently leading to deliberate avoidance of these situations. This disabling condition has been termed social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder is common, with a lifetime prevalence of 2% to 5%, but is probably underreported. The sufferer often avoids seeking assistance, leading to comorbid mental disorders, greater disability, and an increased risk of suicide. Consequently, a high burden is placed on the patient's caregivers and on society. The diagnosis of social anxiety disorder is aided by the patient's history together with DSM-IV criteria. Research into the neurobiology of social anxiety disorder suggests a dysfunction of postsynaptic serotonin receptors and a hypersensitivity to challenge with caffeine, CO2, and pentagastrin. Neuroimaging studies suggest a dysfunction of the striatal presynaptic dopamine transporter in social anxiety disorder. Clear guidelines for the management of social anxiety disorder, including both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, are yet to be established. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) show the most promise for the future, while cognitive-behavioral therapy may also be helpful. In the meantime, physicians should treat social anxiety disorder promptly and aggressively.
Laurer, Mattye; van der Vennet, Renée
This study investigated whether art production or viewing and sorting art reproductions would be more effective in reducing negative mood and anxiety for 28 adults with substance use disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and completed pre- and posttest measures of negative mood and anxiety The hypothesis that art…
Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. More than 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes.…
Suinn, Richard M.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.
Provides detailed information on anxiety management training, a relaxation-based, self-control therapy for the treatment of generalized anxiety, phobias, anger, and other stress-related disorders. Describes in detail the specific procedures of anxiety management training, summarizes research findings, and outlines means for deciding on proper use…
Klein, Evelyn R; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Skira, Kathryn; Gordon, Janice
This research assessed the feasibility of Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) developed by Elisa Shipon-Blum, a brief multimodal approach, to increase social communication in 40 children aged 5-12 years with selective mutism (SM). SM is a disorder in which children consistently fail to speak in specific situations although they have the ability to do so. Key features of this approach are the SM-Social Communication Comfort Scale (SCCS), transfer of control (ToC), a nonchalant therapeutic style, and cognitive-behavioral strategies over a brief time frame. Following 9 weeks of treatment, children showed significant gains in speaking frequency on all 17 items from the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a standardized measure of SM severity. Children also showed decreased levels of anxiety and withdrawal as reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). SM initial symptom severity and family therapy compliance, but not duration of SM, contributed to treatment outcomes.
Waters, Allison M; Craske, Michelle G
The tendency to disproportionately allocate attention to threat stimuli, to evaluate ambiguous or benign situations as overly threatening, and to exhibit overgeneralised and indiscriminate conditioned fear responses to threat and safe stimuli are hallmark clinical correlates of pathological anxiety. Investigation of these processes in children and adolescents suggests that anxiety-related differences increase with age, and that the specific conditions under which anxious children differ from non-anxious peers are poorly understood. Furthermore, research on cognitive biases and fear conditioning in anxious children and adolescents has progressed as quite distinct lines of investigation. Greater integration of key tenets from each perspective could advance knowledge and provide new directions for improving treatments. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we provide a qualitative review of the key principles from cognitive and conditioning theories of anxiety and the associated empirical research, including the underlying neurophysiological basis of these processes in anxious children and adolescents, in order to delineate the conditions under which anxiety-specific differences in threat-related cognitive biases and overgeneralised conditioned fear manifest in children and adolescents. Second, we synthesize these theoretical and empirical insights to propose a cognitive-learning formulation of anxiety in children and adolescents. We propose that conditioning and cognitive factors linked to differences in engagement of underlying neural circuits across development contribute to an internal representation of a wide range of stimuli as threatening, to which anxious children and adolescents adopt maladaptive attention regulation patterns of predominantly threat monitoring or threat avoidance. These maladaptive attention regulation patterns differentiate anxious children and adolescents in terms of predominantly high cognitive distress (e.g., worry and rumination
Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Keshavlal, Gohil Pratik; Bezbaruah, Babul B; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Munde, Nitin; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep
Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Esculetin (ESC), a coumarin derived potent antioxidant, also possessing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity. This study investigated the effect of ESC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice. ESC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 14 days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 15th day. Behavioural paradigms such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were employed to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice post-LPS injection. Hippocampal cytokines, MDA and GSH level, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured. ESC pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviour by modulating EPM and OFT parameters. Moreover, LPS-induced increase in immobility time in FST and TST were also prevented significantly (P<0.05) by ESC (50mg/kg). ESC pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and oxidative stress as well as plasma CORT level. In conclusion, the results suggest that ESC prevented LPS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour which may be governed by inhibition of cytokine production, oxidative stress and plasma CORT level. The results support the potential usefulness of ESC in the treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress.
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become biology teachers. Seventy received the treatment with the dissection video, and 65 viewed the life history video. We applied a pre/posttest treatment-comparison design and used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the State–Trait–Anxiety Inventory for State (STAI-S), and a self-efficacy measure three times: before the lesson (pretest), after the film treatment (posttest 1), and after the dissection (posttest 2). The dissection film group scored higher in PA, NA, and state anxiety (STAI-S) after the dissection video treatment and higher in self-efficacy after the dissection. The life history group showed no differences between the pretest and posttest 1. The dissection film has clear benefits—increasing PA and self-efficacy—that come at the cost of higher NA and higher STAI-S. PMID:27290738
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become biology teachers. Seventy received the treatment with the dissection video, and 65 viewed the life history video. We applied a pre/posttest treatment-comparison design and used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory for State (STAI-S), and a self-efficacy measure three times: before the lesson (pretest), after the film treatment (posttest 1), and after the dissection (posttest 2). The dissection film group scored higher in PA, NA, and state anxiety (STAI-S) after the dissection video treatment and higher in self-efficacy after the dissection. The life history group showed no differences between the pretest and posttest 1. The dissection film has clear benefits - increasing PA and self-efficacy - that come at the cost of higher NA and higher STAI-S.
Carter, Natalie J; McCormack, Paul L
Duloxetine (Cymbalta(R)) is a potent serotonin and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in the CNS. It is indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as well as other indications. In patients with GAD of at least moderate severity, oral duloxetine 60-120 mg once daily was effective with regard to improvement from baseline in assessments of anxiety and functional impairment, and numerous other clinical endpoints. Longer-term duloxetine 60-120 mg once daily also demonstrated efficacy in preventing or delaying relapse in responders among patients with GAD. In addition, duloxetine was generally well tolerated, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity in patients with GAD in short- and longer-term trials. Additional comparative and pharmacoeconomic studies are required to position duloxetine among other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and SNRIs. However, available clinical data, and current treatment guidelines, indicate that duloxetine is an effective first-line treatment option for the management of GAD. Duloxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin and noradrenaline transporters, and a weak inhibitor of dopamine transporters. It has a low affinity for neuronal receptors, such as alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic, dopamine D(2), histamine H(1), muscarinic, opioid and serotonin receptors, as well as ion channel binding sites and other neurotransmitter transporters, such as choline and GABA transporters. It does not inhibit monoamine oxidase types A or B. The pharmacokinetics of duloxetine in healthy volunteers were dose proportional over the range of 40-120 mg once daily. Steady state was typically reached by day 3 of administration. Duloxetine may be administered without regard to food or time of day. Duloxetine is highly protein bound and is widely distributed throughout tissues. It is rapidly and extensively metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and 2D6, and its
Andrews, G.; Sanderson, K.; Slade, T.; Issakidis, C.
Why does the burden of mental disorders persist in established market economies? There are four possibilities: the burden estimates are wrong; there are no effective treatments; people do not receive treatment; or people do not receive effective treatments. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing about the two commonest mental disorders, generalized anxiety disorder and depression, have been used in examining these issues. The burden of mental disorders in Australia is third in importance after heart disease and cancer, and anxiety and depressive disorders account for more than half of that burden. The efficacy of treatments for both disorders has been established. However, of those surveyed, 40% with current disorders did not seek treatment in the previous year and only 45% were offered a treatment that could have been beneficial. Treatment was not predictive of disorders that remitted during the year. The burden therefore persists for two reasons: too many people do not seek treatment and, when they do, efficacious treatments are not always used effectively. PMID:10885163
Sarris, Jerome; Stough, Con; Bousman, Chad A; Wahid, Zahra T; Murray, Greg; Teschke, Rolf; Savage, Karen M; Dowell, Ashley; Ng, Chee; Schweitzer, Isaac
Kava (Piper methysticum) is a plant-based medicine, which has been previously shown to reduce anxiety. To date, however, no placebo-controlled trial assessing kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been completed. A total of 75 participants with GAD and no comorbid mood disorder were enrolled in a 6-week double-blind trial of an aqueous extract of kava (120/240 mg of kavalactones per day depending on response) versus placebo. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and noradrenaline transporter polymorphisms were also analyzed as potential pharmacogenetic markers of response. Reduction in anxiety was measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) as the primary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on 58 participants who met inclusion criteria after an initial 1 week placebo run-in phase. Results revealed a significant reduction in anxiety for the kava group compared with the placebo group with a moderate effect size (P = 0.046, Cohen d = 0.62). Among participants with moderate to severe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-diagnosed GAD, this effect was larger (P = 0.02; d = 0.82). At conclusion of the controlled phase, 26% of the kava group were classified as remitted (HAMA ≤ 7) compared with 6% of the placebo group (P = 0.04). Within the kava group, GABA transporter polymorphisms rs2601126 (P = 0.021) and rs2697153 (P = 0.046) were associated with HAMA reduction. Kava was well tolerated, and aside from more headaches reported in the kava group (P = 0.05), no other significant differences between groups occurred for any other adverse effects, nor for liver function tests. Standardized kava may be a moderately effective short-term option for the treatment of GAD. Furthermore, specific GABA transporter polymorphisms appear to potentially modify anxiolytic response to kava.
Tomasino, Kathryn Noth; Lattie, Emily G; Palac, Hannah L; Kwasny, Mary J; Weingardt, Kenneth; Karr, Chris J; Kaiser, Susan M; Rossom, Rebecca C; Bardsley, Leland R; Caccamo, Lauren; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Schueller, Stephen M
Background Digital mental health tools have tended to use psychoeducational strategies based on treatment orientations developed and validated outside of digital health. These features do not map well to the brief but frequent ways that people use mobile phones and mobile phone apps today. To address these challenges, we developed a suite of apps for depression and anxiety called IntelliCare, each developed with a focused goal and interactional style. IntelliCare apps prioritize interactive skills training over education and are designed for frequent but short interactions. Objective The overall objective of this study was to pilot a coach-assisted version of IntelliCare and evaluate its use and efficacy at reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Participants, recruited through a health care system, Web-based and community advertising, and clinical research registries, were included in this single-arm trial if they had elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Participants had access to the 14 IntelliCare apps from Google Play and received 8 weeks of coaching on the use of IntelliCare. Coaching included an initial phone call plus 2 or more texts per week over the 8 weeks, with some participants receiving an additional brief phone call. Primary outcomes included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) for anxiety. Participants were compensated up to US $90 for completing all assessments; compensation was not for app use or treatment engagement. Results Of the 99 participants who initiated treatment, 90.1% (90/99) completed 8 weeks. Participants showed substantial reductions in the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 (P<.001). Participants used the apps an average of 195.4 (SD 141) times over the 8 weeks. The average length of use was 1.1 (SD 2.1) minutes, and 95% of participants downloaded 5 or more of the IntelliCare apps. Conclusions This study supports the IntelliCare framework of providing a suite of
McLeod, Bryce D; Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Kendall, Philip C
This study examined the score reliability and validity of observer- (Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Alliance scale [TPOCS-A]; Vanderbilt Therapeutic Alliance Scale Revised, Short Form [VTAS-R-SF]), therapist- (Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children Therapist Version [TASC-T]), and youth-rated (Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children Child Version [TASC-C]) alliance instruments. Youths (N = 50) aged 7-15 (Mage = 10.28 years, SD = 1.84; 88.0% Caucasian; 60.0% male) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder received manual-based cognitive-behavioral treatment. Four independent coders, 2 using the TPOCS-A and 2 using the VTAS-R-SF, rated 2 sessions per case from early (Session 3) and late (Sessions 12) treatment. Youth and therapists completed the TASC-C and TASC-T at the end Session 3 and 12. Internal consistency of the alliance instruments was α > .80 and interrater reliability of the observer-rated instruments was ICC(2,2) > .75. The TPOCS-A, VTAS-R-SF, and TASC-T scores showed evidence of convergent validity. Conversely, the TASC-C scores failed to converge with the other instruments in a sample of children (age <11), but did converge in a sample of adolescents (age ≥11). Findings supported the predictive validity of the TASC-T and TASC-C scores. However, whereas the direction of the alliance-outcome association for both observer-rated instruments was in the expected direction for children (negative), the correlations were in the opposite direction for adolescents (positive). Overall, findings support the score reliability of observer- and therapist-report alliance instruments, but questions are raised about the score validity for the observer- and youth-report alliance instruments. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Chan, Christian S.
Stepped care is an increasingly popular treatment model for common mental health disorders, given the large discrepancy between the demand and supply of healthcare service available. In this review, we aim to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of stepped care prevention and treatment with care-as-usual (CAU) or waiting-list control for depressive and/or anxiety disorders. 5 databases were utilized from its earliest available records up until April 2015. 10 randomized controlled trials were included in this review, of which 6 examined stepped care prevention and 4 examined stepped care treatment, specifically including ones regarding depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Only trials with self-help as a treatment component were included. Results showed stepped care treatment revealed a significantly better performance than CAU in reducing anxiety symptoms, and the treatment response rate of anxiety disorders was significantly higher in stepped care treatment than in CAU. No significant difference was found between stepped care prevention/treatment and CAU in preventing anxiety and/or depressive disorders and improving depressive symptoms. In conclusion, stepped care model appeared to be better than CAU in treating anxiety disorders. The model has the potential to reduce the burden on existing resources in mental health and increase the reach and availability of service. PMID:27377429
Knijnik, Daniela Z.; Blanco, Carlos; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moraes, Carolina U.; Mombach, Clarissa; Almeida, Ellen; Pereira, Marília; Strapasson, Atahualpa; Manfro, Gisele G.; Eizirik, Cláudio L.
Background Both Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are used as treatment strategies in reducing symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). However, many individuals remain symptomatic after treatment with PGT or clonazepam. Method Fifty-eight adult outpatients with a diagnosis of GSAD according to DSM-IV were randomized to 12 weeks PGT plus clonazepam or clonazepam. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale was the primary efficacy measure. Secondary efficacy measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score, the World Health Organization Instrument to Assess Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results CGI-I data from 57 patients (intent-to-treat population) showed that patients who received PGT plus clonazepam presented significantly greater improvement than those who received clonazepam (p=0.033). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy measures. Conclusion/Discussion Our study suggests that the combination of PGT with clonazepam may be a promising strategy for the treatment of GSAD, regarding gains in the global functioning. However the present study failed to detect more specific changes in social anxiety symptomatology between the two groups. PMID:18774274
Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael
This article explores the spatio-temporal variation of mood and anxiety treatments in the context of a severe earthquake sequence. The aim was to examine a possible earthquake exposure effect, identify populations at risk and areas with particularly large mood and anxiety treatment rate increases or decreases in the affected Christchurch urban area. A significantly stronger increase of mood and anxiety treatments among residents in Christchurch compared to others in New Zealand have been found, as well as children and elderly identified as especially vulnerable. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling revealed little changes in mood and anxiety treatment patterns for most parts of the city, whereas areas in the less affected north and northwest showed the strongest increases in risk. This effect may be linked to inner-city mobility activity as a consequence of the earthquakes, but also different levels of community cohesion after the disaster, which merit further research.
Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan
Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857
Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chagas, Marcos Hortes Nisihara; de Oliveira, Danielle Chaves Gomes; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio E; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S
Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST) on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naïve SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. A total of 24 never-treated patients with SAD were allocated to receive either CBD (600 mg; n=12) or placebo (placebo; n=12) in a double-blind randomized design 1 h and a half before the test. The same number of HC (n=12) performed the SPST without receiving any medication. Each volunteer participated in only one experimental session in a double-blind procedure. Subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N) and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance) were measured at six different time points during the SPST. The results were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group as assessed with the VAMS. The SSPS-N scores evidenced significant increases during the testing of placebo group that was almost abolished in the CBD group. No significant differences were observed between CBD and HC in SSPS-N scores or in the cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert factors of VAMS. The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC. PMID:21307846
Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chagas, Marcos Hortes Nisihara; de Oliveira, Danielle Chaves Gomes; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio E; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S
Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety conditions with impairment in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), one major non-psychotomimetic compound of the cannabis sativa plant, has shown anxiolytic effects both in humans and in animals. This preliminary study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST) on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naïve SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. A total of 24 never-treated patients with SAD were allocated to receive either CBD (600 mg; n=12) or placebo (placebo; n=12) in a double-blind randomized design 1 h and a half before the test. The same number of HC (n=12) performed the SPST without receiving any medication. Each volunteer participated in only one experimental session in a double-blind procedure. Subjective ratings on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N) and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance) were measured at six different time points during the SPST. The results were submitted to a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alert in their anticipatory speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert levels when compared with the control group as assessed with the VAMS. The SSPS-N scores evidenced significant increases during the testing of placebo group that was almost abolished in the CBD group. No significant differences were observed between CBD and HC in SSPS-N scores or in the cognitive impairment, discomfort, and alert factors of VAMS. The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC.
Bateson, Melissa; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental illnesses, with huge attendant suffering. Current treatments are not universally effective, suggesting that a deeper understanding of the causes of anxiety is needed. To understand anxiety disorders better, it is first necessary to understand the normal anxiety response. This entails considering its evolutionary function as well as the mechanisms underlying it. We argue that the function of the human anxiety response, and homologues in other species, is to prepare the individual to detect and deal with threats. We use a signal detection framework to show that the threshold for expressing the anxiety response ought to vary with the probability of threats occurring, and the individual's vulnerability to them if they do occur. These predictions are consistent with major patterns in the epidemiology of anxiety. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.
Dupuis, L. Lee; Lu, Xiaomin; Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Sung, Lillian; Devidas, Meenakshi; Mattano, Leonard A.; Carroll, William L.; Winick, Naomi; Hunger, Stephen P.; Maloney, Kelly W.; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S.
BACKGROUND This prospective study describes the procedure-related anxiety, treatment-related anxiety, pain, and nausea experienced by children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the first year of treatment. METHODS This study was undertaken at 31 Children’s Oncology Group (COG) sites. Eligible children who were 2 to 9.99 years old were enrolled in a COG trial for patients with newly diagnosed standard-risk ALL from 2005 to 2009. Parents completed a demographic survey at the baseline and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Cancer Module (proxy version) and the General Functioning Scale of the Family Assessment Device 1, 6, and 12 months after the diagnosis. The association between patient-related (age, sex, ethnicity, and treatment), parent-related (marital status and education), and family-related factors (functioning, income, and size) and symptom scores was evaluated. RESULTS The mean scores for procedure-related anxiety, treatment-related anxiety, and pain improved during the first year of treatment (P < .0389). The mean nausea score was poorer 6 months after the diagnosis in comparison with the other assessments (P = .0085). A younger age at diagnosis was associated with significantly worse procedure-related anxiety (P = .004). An older age (P = .0002) and assignment to the intensified consolidation study arm (P = .02) were associated with significantly worse nausea. CONCLUSIONS Children with ALL experienced decreasing treatment-related anxiety, procedure-related anxiety, and pain during the first year of treatment. In comparison with scores at 1 and 12 months, nausea was worse 6 months after the diagnosis. Minimization of procedure-related anxiety in younger children and improved nausea control in older children and those receiving more intensified treatment should be prioritized. PMID:26773735
Hu, Lin-lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-hua
Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000–0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety. PMID:25793006
Bukalo, Olena; Pinard, Courtney R; Holmes, Andrew
The burden of anxiety disorders is growing, but the efficacy of available anxiolytic treatments remains inadequate. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders focuses on identifying and modifying maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, and has a testable analogue in rodents in the form of fear extinction. A large preclinical literature has amassed in recent years describing the neural and molecular basis of fear extinction in rodents. In this review, we discuss how this work is being harnessed to foster translational research on anxiety disorders and facilitate the search for new anxiolytic treatments. We begin by summarizing the anatomical and functional connectivity of a medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)–amygdala circuit that subserves fear extinction, including new insights from optogenetics. We then cover some of the approaches that have been taken to model impaired fear extinction and associated impairments with mPFC–amygdala dysfunction. The principal goal of the review is to evaluate evidence that various neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems mediate fear extinction by modulating the mPFC–amygdala circuitry. To that end, we describe studies that have tested how fear extinction is impaired or facilitated by pharmacological manipulations of dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-HT, GABA, glutamate, neuropeptides, endocannabinoids and various other systems, which either directly target the mPFC–amygdala circuit, or produce behavioural effects that are coincident with functional changes in the circuit. We conclude that there are good grounds to be optimistic that the progress in defining the molecular substrates of mPFC–amygdala circuit function can be effectively leveraged to identify plausible candidates for extinction-promoting therapies for anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014
Bose, Anjana; Korotzer, Andrew; Gommoll, Carl; Li, Dayong
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling condition. Escitalopram and venlafaxine extended release (XR) both are indicated for the treatment of GAD. Outpatients (ages 18-65 years) with DSM-IV-defined GAD (Hamilton Anxiety Scale [HAMA] >or=20) were eligible to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, flexible-dose trial. Following randomization, patients received 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with escitalopram (10-20 mg/day; N=127), venlafaxine XR (75-225 mg/day; N=129), or placebo (N=136). The primary efficacy parameter was mean change from baseline at week 8 in HAMA total score, using the Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) approach. Secondary efficacy parameters were HAMA psychic anxiety subscale, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Treatment was completed by 77% of patients. The least square mean difference for change from baseline at week 8 in HAMA total score for escitalopram and venlafaxine XR versus placebo were -1.52 (P=.09) and -2.27 (P=.01), respectively, for LOCF, and -1.92 (P=.033) and -3.02 (P=.001), respectively, for Observed Cases (OC). On all secondary parameters, both active treatments were significantly superior to placebo on the LOCF and OC analyses. Discontinuation due to adverse events was not different for escitalopram versus placebo (7 versus 5%, P=.61), but was significantly greater for venlafaxine XR (13%) versus placebo (P=.03). Venlafaxine XR, but not escitalopram, separated from placebo on the primary efficacy measure, using the LOCF approach. However, overall efficacy analyses suggest that escitalopram and venlafaxine XR are both effective treatments for GAD. Escitalopram was better tolerated.
Borkovec, T. D.; And Others
Provided 30 volunteers with generalized anxiety disorder with training in progressive muscle relaxation. Clients were also given cognitive or nondirective therapy. All showed substantial reductions in anxiety measured by psychiatric assessor ratings, questionnaires, and daily self-monitoring. Relaxation plus cognitive therapy produced…
Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter
Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.
Demiryurek, Bekir Enes; Ertem, Devrimsel Harika; Tekin, Atilla; Ceylan, Mustafa; Aras, Yesim Guzey; Gungen, Belma Dogan
Chronic migraine causes a serious labour loss and disability in the society and increases the risk of depression and anxiety by negatively affecting the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) treatment on efficacy before and after treatment in our cases with chronic migraine as well as on depression, anxiety and disability caused by migraine. According to the International Headache Classification (ICHD-III beta version), 60 adult patients who were diagnosed with chronic migraine were included in the study. A total of 155 IU BoNT-A treatment from 31 regions was administered in accordance with the protocol of PREEMPT study. Information about the characteristics of patients' headaches, background and family history, drugs they used was recorded. At the baseline and in the first and third month after the BoNT-A injection, VAS scores, the number of both headache days and attacks, the headache duration, the frequency of application to emergency services and the intake of both analgesics and triptans during attacks were evaluated. MIDAS, BDI and BAI were evaluated at the baseline and in the third month after the BoNT-A injection. BoNT-A injection provided a significant decrease in the number of days and severity of headaches, MIDAS disability scores and psychiatric complaints in cases with chronic migraine who did not respond to prophylactic treatments in the third month of the treatment.
Benatti, Beatrice; Camuri, Giulia; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Cremaschi, Laura; Sembira, Ester; Palazzo, Carlotta; Oldani, Lucio; Dobrea, Cristina; Arici, Chiara; Primavera, Diego; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Castellano, Filippo; Carrà, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Baldwin, David S; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo
Anxiety disorders are common, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often underdiagnosed and under-treated, typically with an early onset, chronic course, and prolonged duration of untreated illness. The present study aimed to explore the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors in relation to onset and latency to treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 157 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of PD (n=49), GAD (n=68), and OCD (n=40) were recruited, and epidemiological and clinical variables were collected through a specific questionnaire. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare variables across diagnostic groups. PD, GAD, and OCD patients showed a duration of untreated illness of 53.9±81.5, 77.47±95.76, and 90.6±112.1 months, respectively. Significant differences between groups were found with respect to age, age of first diagnosis, age of first treatment, family history of psychiatric illness, onset-related stressful events, benzodiazepine prescription as first treatment, antidepressant prescription as first treatment, and help-seeking (self-initiated vs. initiated by others). Patients with GAD, PD, and OCD showed significant differences in factors influencing onset and latency to treatment, which may, in turn, affect condition-related outcome and overall prognosis. Further studies with larger samples are warranted in the field.
Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Smits, Jasper A J
Recent scholarly attention has focused on explicating the nature of tobacco use among anxiety-vulnerable smokers. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of aversive internal anxiety states) is a cognitive-affective individual difference factor related to the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms and disorders and various smoking processes. The present study examined the cross-sectional associations between anxiety sensitivity and a range of cognitive and behavioral smoking processes, and the mediating role of the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (i.e., avoidance and inflexibility to smoking [AIS]) in such relations. Participants (n = 466) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity, AIS, and 4 criterion variables: barriers to smoking cessation, quit attempt history, severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts, and mood-management smoking expectancies. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was indirectly related to greater barriers to cessation, greater number of prior quit attempts and greater mood-management smoking expectancies through the tendency to respond inflexibly/avoid to the presence of distressing smoking-related thoughts, feelings, and internal sensations; but not severity of problems experienced while quitting. The present findings suggest AIS may be an explanatory mechanism between anxiety sensitivity and certain smoking processes.
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Previous research has shown that early maladaptive schemas (EMS) play an important role in substance use, depression, and anxiety. However, few studies have examined the role of EMS within the context of all three concurrently. The goal of this study was to determine the role of EMS in predicting symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) among adults in residential treatment for substance dependence. We used pre-existing patient records of adults diagnosed with a substance use disorder from a residential substance use treatment facility (N=122). The EMS domains of disconnection and rejection and impaired limits were associated with symptoms of MDD and the domain of impaired autonomy and performance was associated with symptoms of GAD, even after controlling for age, gender, years of education, alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of MDD (when predicting GAD) and GAD (when predicting MDD). Findings suggest that EMS may play an important role in comorbid mental health problems among men and women in residential substance use treatment. Continued treatment outcome research is needed to examine whether modification of EMS results in improved mental health and substance use outcomes.
The efficacy of (cognitive) behavioral therapy ([C]BT) for generalized anxiety disorder was investigated and compared with the efficacy of pharmacological therapy using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 65 (C)BT studies and pharmacological studies were included. (C)BT was more effective than control conditions. The results of the comparison…
Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.
Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…
Forfylow, Andrea L.
This article addresses the empirical research on yoga as an effective, complementary, clinical intervention for anxiety and depression based on an examination of studies published from 2003 to 2010. There is a discussion of study findings and research limitations and suggestions for researchers and future research. Yoga appears to be an effective…
Bruch, Monroe A.; And Others
Assessed the degree to which components of test-taking strategies, covert self-statements, and subjective anxiety during an exam provide increments in prediction of test performance of undergraduates (N=72). Results showed that only test-taking strategies provided a significant increment to multiple-choice and essay test performance but not math…
Thyer, Bruce A.; And Others
Treated test-anxious college students with cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation training, and thermal biofeedback training. Experimental subjects also received in vivo distraction coping training. Overall program efficacy was demonstrated by reductions in anxiety and increases in rationality of personal belief systems. In vivo training did not…
Whitworth, Randolph H.; Cochran, Claudia
Tested public speaking anxiety of university students at the beginning and end of the semester. Treated one group with skills training, visualization, and Communication-Orientation therapy; another received skills training and visualization; another received only skills training; fourth group served as control. Found that the 2 groups receiving…
Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio
Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…
Compare, Angelo; Germani, Elena; Proietti, Riccardo; Janeway, David
The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions are pharmacological or psychological treatments. PMID:22016750
Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H
Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use.
Norton, Sam; Scott, David L.; Steer, Sophia; Hotopf, Matthew
Objective. The aim of this analysis is to examine the longitudinal impact of symptoms of depression/anxiety on treatment response, long-term disease activity and physical disability in RA. Methods. Secondary analysis of clinical trial data was performed. Data were collected at baseline and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. The EuroQoL (EQ-5DTM) indicated depression/anxiety symptom severity. Our primary outcomes of interest were (i) DAS-28 and (ii) physical disability measured via the HAQ. Secondary outcomes were: tender and swollen joint counts, patient global assessment, ESR and odds of reaching clinical remission. Multilevel models were used to assess the impact of baseline and persistent depression/anxiety on outcomes over 2 years. Results. Data from 379 patients were included. After adjusting for covariates, baseline depression/anxiety symptoms were associated with increased DAS-28 outcomes and increased tender joint counts. Persistent depression/anxiety symptoms were associated with increased DAS-28 scores, HAQ scores, tender joint counts and patient global assessment of disease activity, and reduced odds of reaching clinical remission. Patients with symptoms of depression/anxiety at baseline also showed a 50% reduction in prednisolone treatment effect, in comparison with patients with no symptoms of depression/anxiety at baseline. Conclusion. Baseline and persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety are associated with poorer health outcomes over time, as well as reduced treatment response. Mental health should be routinely measured both in clinical practice and in research, and managed alongside rheumatological disease to optimize health outcomes. Further research is required to examine whether treatment of mental disorders can improve rheumatological outcomes. PMID:26350486
Pineda, S; Anzola, B; Olivares, A; Ibáñez, M
The effectiveness of clorazepate dipotassium combined with fluoxetine and a behaviour modification programme for the treatment of anxiety disorders in dogs was investigated. Forty dogs with anxiety disorders were initially enrolled and 36 dogs completed the trial. Dogs were classified into two behavioural categories (anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression) according to their presenting complaints, and were also subdivided into males, females, juveniles and adults. The dog owners were provided with a behaviour modification plan for their dogs to be commenced in the first week of therapy. Clorazepate dipotassium was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 4 weeks, and fluoxetine was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 10 weeks. Therapy with both drugs was initiated simultaneously. Improvement was reported in 25/36 dogs. Significant differences in treatment effects were observed between anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression (P<0.05). Positive correlations between owner compliance with the treatment plan and reported improvement achieved during three periods of study were also noted.
Rapee, Ronald M; Peters, Lorna; Carpenter, Leigh; Gaston, Jonathan E
Support from social networks is generally considered to protect against mental disorder but in some circumstances support for negative behaviours (such as avoidance) may be counterproductive. Given the critical interplay between social anxiety disorder and social interactions, it is surprising that the relationship of support from significant others to this disorder has received so little attention. The current study evaluated the reciprocal relationships between perceived social support and perceived partner support for avoidance behaviours (avoidance support) among a sample of 131 participants with social anxiety disorder who were assessed three times within the context of a treatment outcome study. A new measure of partner support for avoidance behaviours was developed, called the Avoidance Support Measure, and showed adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Correlations at baseline showed significant negative relationships between perceived social support and social anxiety and significant positive relationships between avoidance support and social anxiety. Path analysis showed that perceived social support at Times 1 and 2 negatively predicted future social anxiety at Times 2 and 3. On the other hand, only a single predictive relationship involving avoidance support was significant and showed that social anxiety at Time 1 positively predicted avoidance support at Time 2. These early results point to the different ways that support from significant others might relate to social anxiety and suggest that further work in this area may be fruitful.
Ross, Stephen; Bossis, Anthony; Guss, Jeffrey; Agin-Liebes, Gabrielle; Malone, Tara; Cohen, Barry; Mennenga, Sarah E; Belser, Alexander; Kalliontzi, Krystallia; Babb, James; Su, Zhe; Corby, Patricia; Schmidt, Brian L
Background: Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin to treat cancer-related anxiety and depression. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned and received treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0.3 mg/kg) or niacin, both in conjunction with psychotherapy. The primary outcomes were anxiety and depression assessed between groups prior to the crossover at 7 weeks. Results: Prior to the crossover, psilocybin produced immediate, substantial, and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression and led to decreases in cancer-related demoralization and hopelessness, improved spiritual wellbeing, and increased quality of life. At the 6.5-month follow-up, psilocybin was associated with enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects (approximately 60–80% of participants continued with clinically significant reductions in depression or anxiety), sustained benefits in existential distress and quality of life, as well as improved attitudes towards death. The psilocybin-induced mystical experience mediated the therapeutic effect of psilocybin on anxiety and depression. Conclusions: In conjunction with psychotherapy, single moderate-dose psilocybin produced rapid, robust and enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological distress. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00957359 PMID:27909164
Tambaro, Simone; Bortolato, Marco
Rich evidence has shown that cannabis products exert a broad gamut of effects on emotional regulation. The main psychoactive ingredient of hemp, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its synthetic cannabinoid analogs have been reported to either attenuate or exacerbate anxiety and fear-related behaviors in humans and experimental animals. The heterogeneity of cannabis-induced psychological outcomes reflects a complex network of molecular interactions between the key neurobiological substrates of anxiety and fear and the endogenous cannabinoid system, mainly consisting of the arachidonic acid derivatives anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and two receptors, respectively termed CB1 and CB2. The high degree of interindividual variability in the responses to cannabis is contributed by a wide spectrum of factors, including genetic and environmental determinants, as well as differences in the relative concentrations of THC and other alkaloids (such as cannabidiol) within the plant itself. The present article reviews the currently available knowledge on the herbal, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids with respect to the modulation of anxiety responses, and highlights the challenges that should be overcome to harness the therapeutic potential of some of these compounds, all the while limiting the side effects associated with cannabis consumption. PMID:22280339
Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra
Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN
Bomyea, J; Ramsawh, H; Ball, T M; Taylor, C T; Paulus, M P; Lang, A J; Stein, M B
Growing evidence suggests that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a cognitive vulnerability that is a central feature across diverse anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce IU, it remains to be established whether or not reductions in IU mediate reductions in worry. This study examined the process of change in IU and worry in a sample of 28 individuals with GAD who completed CBT. Changes in IU and worry, assessed bi-weekly during treatment, were analyzed using multilevel mediation models. Results revealed that change in IU mediated change in worry (ab = -0.20; 95% CI [-.35, -.09]), but change in worry did not mediate change in IU (ab = -0.16; 95% CI [-.06, .12]). Findings indicated that reductions in IU accounted for 59% of the reductions in worry observed over the course of treatment, suggesting that changes in IU are not simply concomitants of changes in worry. Findings support the idea that IU is a critical construct underlying GAD.
Lalovic, Bojan; Hutmacher, Matt; Frame, Bill; Miller, Raymond
Dizziness represents a major determinant of dropout in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with pregabalin. Titration (dose escalation) regimens based on clinical judgment were implemented to mitigate this adverse event and reduce patient dropout across clinical trials. Dropout is an important treatment failure endpoint, which can be analyzed using time-to-event models that incorporate daily dosing or other time-varying information. A parametric discrete-time dropout model with daily dizziness severity score as a covariate afforded a systematic, model-based assessment of titration dosing strategies, with model predictions evaluated against corresponding nonparametric estimates. A Gompertz hazard function adequately described the decreasing dropout hazard over time for individuals with severe or moderate dizziness and a lower, constant hazard for individuals reporting no dizziness or mild dizziness. Predictive performance of the model was adequate based on external validation with an independent trial and other goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective simulations highlight the utility of this approach in reducing dropout based on examination of untested titration scenarios for future generalized anxiety disorder or other trials.
Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B
Anxiety sensitivity (AS)--fear of anxiety-related experiences--has been implicated in smoking motivation and maintenance. In a cross-sectional design, we examined AS facets (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in 473 treatment-seeking smokers. After controlling for sex, race, age, educational attainment, hypertension status, and neuroticism, linear regression models indicated that AS physical and cognitive concerns were associated with tobacco dependence severity (β=.13-.14, p<.01), particularly the severity of persistent smoking regardless of context or time of day (β=.14-.17, p<.01). All three AS facets were related to more severe problems during past quit attempts (β=.23-.27, p<.001). AS cognitive and social concerns were related to negative affect reduction smoking motives (β=.14, p<.01), but only the social concerns aspect of AS was related to pleasurable relaxation smoking motives and positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking outcome expectancies (β=.14-.17, p<.01). These data suggest that AS physical and cognitive concerns are associated with negative reinforcement-related smoking variables (e.g., abstinence-related problems), whereas the social concerns aspect of AS is associated with positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking variables. Together with past findings, current findings can usefully guide AS-oriented smoking cessation treatment development and refinement.
Fergus, Thomas A; Bardeen, Joseph R; Gratz, Kim L; Fulton, Jessica J; Tull, Matthew T
With the burden of emergency department (ED) use increasing, research examining the factors associated with ED visits among individuals who use the ED most frequently is needed. Given that substance use is strongly linked to ED visits, this study sought to examine the factors associated with greater ED visits among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). More precisely, we examined whether health anxiety incrementally contributes to the prediction of ED visits for medical care among adult patients (N = 118) in a residential substance abuse disorder treatment facility. As predicted, health anxiety was significantly positively correlated with ED visits during the past year. Furthermore, health anxiety remained a significant predictor of ED visits after accounting for sociodemographic variables, frequency of substance use, and physical health status. These results suggest that health anxiety may contribute to increased ED visits for medical care among individuals with SUD.
Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Arch, Joanna J.; Rosenfield, David; Craske, Michelle G.
Objective: Understanding for whom, and under what conditions, treatments exert their greatest effects is essential for developing personalized medicine. Research investigating moderators of outcome among evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders is lacking. The current study examined several theory-driven and atheoretical putative moderators…
Katzman, Martin A; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga; Reyes, Efren B; Olausson, Bengt; Liu, Sherry; Eriksson, Hans
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) as maintenance monotherapy for patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Time-to-event (anxiety symptom recurrence; maximum 52 weeks) multicenter, randomized-withdrawal, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine XR (50-300 mg/day) following open-label run-in (4-8 weeks) and open-label stabilization (≥ 12 weeks). Primary variable: time from randomization to anxiety event. Secondary variables included: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total, HAM-A psychic/somatic anxiety factors, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), and Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) scores; adverse events (AE) reporting. Four hundred and thirty-two patients, stabilized on quetiapine XR, were randomized to continue quetiapine XR (N=216) or switch to placebo (N=216). Risk of anxiety symptom recurrence was significantly reduced by 81% for quetiapine XR versus placebo: hazard ratio=0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.31; P<0.001). Fewer patients receiving quetiapine XR (N=22, 10.2%) than placebo (N=84, 38.9%) experienced anxiety symptom recurrence. Significant differences were observed between quetiapine XR and placebo in: HAM-A total, psychic/somatic, CGI-S (all P<0.001) and Q-LES-Q (P<0.05) scores. AEs (>10%) during open-label treatment were dry mouth, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, and constipation. During randomized treatment, the most common AEs for quetiapine XR were headache and nasopharyngitis. Quetiapine XR monotherapy reduced the risk of anxiety symptom recurrence in patients with GAD stabilized on quetiapine XR, with tolerability results consistent with the known profile of quetiapine.
Porcelli, Piero; De Carne, Massimo; Leandro, Gioacchino
In a previous investigation irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was associated more to alexithymia than gastrointestinal-specific anxiety (GSA). In this study their independent contribution in predicting treatment outcome was longitudinally investigated. Consecutive 150 IBS patients were evaluated for IBS symptoms, alexithymia, GSA, and psychological distress with validated scales after as-usual treatment for 6-12months. The primary treatment outcome was improvement measured with the IBS-Severity Scoring System that showed 111 patients who improved and 39 who did not improve. Improvement was associated to both alexithymia (d=1.27) and GSA (d=4.63) but only alexithymia showed overtime stability by hierarchical regression, controlled for co-variables. A series of logistic and linear regressions showed that baseline alexithymia, but not GSA, independently predicted both post-treatment improvement status (Cox & Snell R(2)=0.15; overall classification rate=74%) and symptom change (23% of explained variance). Although alexithymia and GSA were closely related IBS symptoms, only alexithymia was found to be a stable trait and a stronger predictor of treatment outcome than GSA. Since no treatment was established to be definitely effective for IBS, clinicians might improve treatment outcome by identifying patients with high alexithymia, attempting to improve their coping skills, emotional regulation, and affective awareness.
Schueller, Stephen M
Background Perinatal depression and anxiety are common and debilitating conditions. Novel, cost effective services could improve the uptake and the impact of mental health resources among women who suffer from these conditions. E-mental health products are one example of such services. Many publically available e-mental health products exist, but these products lack validation and are not designed to be integrated into existing health care settings. Objective The objective of the study was to present a program to use 7 Cups of Tea (7Cups), an available technological platform that provides online peer (ie, listener) based emotional support, to supplement treatment for women experiencing perinatal depression or anxiety and to summarize patient’s feedback on the resultant program. Methods This study consisted of two stages. First, five clinicians specializing in the treatment of perinatal mood disorders received an overview of 7Cups. They provided feedback on the 7Cups platform and ways it could complement the existing treatment efforts to inform further adjustments. In the second stage, nine women with perinatal depression or anxiety used the platform for a single session and provided feedback. Results In response to clinicians’ feedback, guidelines for referring patients to use 7Cups as a supplement for treatment were created, and a training program for listeners was developed. Patients found the platform usable and useful and their attitudes toward the trained listeners were positive. Overall, patients noted a need for support outside the scheduled therapy time and believed that freely available online emotional support could help meet this need. Most patients were interested in receiving support from first time mothers and those who suffered in the past from perinatal mood disorders. Conclusions The study results highlight the use of 7Cups as a tool to introduce accessible and available support into existing treatment for women who suffer from perinatal mood
Möller, H J; Volz, H P; Reimann, I W; Stoll, K D
Opipramol, a drug widely prescribed in Germany, is a tricyclic compound with no reuptake-inhibiting properties. However, it has pronounced D2-, 5-HT2-, and H1-blocking potential and high affinity to sigma receptors (sigma-1 and sigma-2). In early controlled trials, anxiolytic effects were revealed. However, those studies were performed before the concept of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was established. Because of the interesting receptor-binding profile and promising results of the early clinical trials, the authors performed a state-of-the-art placebo-controlled trial using alprazolam as an active control. Three hundred seven outpatients with GAD were included. After a 7-day single-blind placebo washout, patients were randomly assigned to receive either opipramol (final dose, 200 mg/day), alprazolam (2 mg/day), or placebo and were treated for 28 days. The efficacy of both active compounds was higher than the effects with placebo treatment. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05, according to the analysis of covariance) in the main outcome criterion (baseline-adjusted final means of an intent-to-treat analysis of the total scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety) and in secondary efficacy parameters, with global improvement of 47% for placebo and significantly more for opipramol (63%) and alprazolam (64%). Regarding safety and tolerability, no substantial differences in the number of adverse events observed between treatment groups were obvious. Sedation seemed more pronounced with alprazolam treatment than with opipramol or placebo. In this trial, it was demonstrated for the first time that opipramol, a strong but nonselective sigma site ligand, possesses anxiolytic efficacy superior to placebo in the treatment of GAD.
Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela
Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.
Flint, A. J.
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775
von der Embse, Nathaniel; Barterian, Justin; Segool, Natasha
High-stakes tests have played an increasingly important role in how student achievement and school effectiveness are measured. Test anxiety has risen with the use of tests in educational decision making. Students with high test anxiety perform poorly on tests when compared to students with low test anxiety. School psychologists can play an…
Farris, Samantha G.; Davis, Michelle L.; Rosenfield, David; Kauffman, Brooke Y.; Baird, Scarlett O.; Powers, Mark B.; Otto, Michael W.; Marcus, Bess H.; Church, Timothy S.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smokers. Smokers (n = 72; 50% female; Mcpd = 19.3, SD = 10.65) were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation treatment trial. During medical screen, we measured weight, height, and exercise tolerance (functional capacity) employing a standardized maximal exercise testing protocol. After adjusting for participant sex and cigarettes per day, exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI, such that the positive association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. The same pattern of results emerged for exercise tolerance. Exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance, such that the negative association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. Among smokers, anxiety sensitivity may be a risk variable that, directly and indirectly in the context of low self-efficacy for exercise, causes or maintains higher body weight and lower exercise tolerance. PMID:27725844
Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael
Workplace phobia is defined as a phobic anxiety reaction with symptoms of panic occurring when thinking of or approaching the workplace. People suffering from workplace phobia regularly avoid confrontation with the workplace and are often on sick leave. The specific characteristics of workplace phobia are investigated empirically in comparison to established anxiety disorders. Two hundred thirty patients from an inpatient psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital were interviewed concerning workplace phobia and established anxiety disorders. Additionally, the patients filled in self-rating questionnaires on general and workplace phobic symptom load. Subjectively perceived degree of work load, sick leave, and therapy participation were assessed. Participants with workplace phobia reached significantly higher scores in workplace phobia self-rating than did participants with established anxiety disorders. A similar significant difference was not found concerning the general psychosomatic symptom load. Workplace phobics were more often on sick leave than patients with established anxiety disorders. Workplace phobia can occur as an alonestanding anxiety disorder. It has an own clinical value due to its specific consequences for work participation. Workplace phobia requires special therapeutic attention and treatment instead of purely 'sick leave' certification.
Khalsa, Sahib S.; Shahabi, Leila; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam
We report here, for the first time, two cases demonstrating a synergistic application of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization and multimodal psychiatric treatment for the assessment and management of anxiety following recurrent Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) shocks. In a first case the combination of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization (BCSD), cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and anxiolytic medication was sufficient to attenuate the patient's symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, with a maintained benefit at 1 year. Among the more prominent subjective changes in the post-lesion state we observed a decrease in aversive interoceptive sensations, particularly of the heartbeat. The patient continued to experience cognitive threat appraisals on a frequent basis, although these were no longer incapacitating. In a second case, we report the effect of BCSD on autonomic tone and subjective state. In the post-lesion state we observed attenuated sympathetic responses to the valsalva maneuver, isometric handgrip and mental arithmetic stressor, including decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and, decreased skin conductance. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that an integrative, multidisciplinary approach to treating anxiety disorders in the setting of ventricular arrhythmias and recurrent ICD shocks can result in sustained improvements in physical, psychological, and functional status. These findings raise the possibility of a potential role for the stellate ganglion in the modulation of emotional experience and afferent transmission of interoceptive information to the central nervous system. PMID:24427121
Rapgay, Lobsang; Bystritsky, Alexander; Dafter, Roger E; Spearman, Michelle
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severely impacts social functioning, distress levels, and utilization of medical care compared with that of other major psychiatric disorders. Neither pharmacological nor psychotherapy interventions have adequately controlled cardinal symptoms of GAD: pervasive excessive anxiety and uncontrollable worry. Research has established cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the most effective psychotherapy for controlling GAD; however, outcomes remain at only 50% reduction, with high relapse rates. Mindfulness has been integrated with CBT to treat people suffering from numerous psychiatric disorders, with mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) being the most researched. Preliminary evidence supports MBSR's potential for controlling GAD symptoms and key researchers suggest mindfulness practices possess key elements for treating GAD. Classical mindfulness (CM) differs significantly from MBSR and possesses unique potentials for directly targeting process and state GAD symptoms inadequately treated by CBT. This article introduces the theory and practice of CM, its differences from MBSR, and a critical review of MBSR and CBT treatments for GAD. CM strategies designed to complement CBT targeting cardinal GAD symptoms are outlined with a case study illustrating its use.
Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Cygan, Beata; Wolański, Lukasz; Kozlovsky, Igor
TP-7 is a synthetic analogue of tuftsin. It has a structure of tuftsin, to which three natural L-amino-acids Pro-Gly-Pro are attached. This heptapeptide improves learning and memorization and causes antidepressant and anxiolytic effect. It is possible to use TP-7 in the future to optimize cognitive functions and as a potential new anxioselective, fast-acting and easy-dosed drug. Therefore, it was purposeful to study such properties of the heptapeptide as its influence on anxiety-fear and body weight under a long-term treatment regimen. The experiment was performed on 24 preselected Wistar rats with the use of Rodina's method. There were three experimental groups of animals with high initial emotional reactivity: passive control group (P), active control group (A, receiving distilled water) and group treated with TP-7 at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (T). The rats of A and T groups received intraperitoneal injections every day. The experiments were conducted 15 min after the administration of the drug, one and two days after initial testing day, then 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after that. The heptapeptide reduced the anxiety-phobic states significantly starting from the second day of drug application. The observed effects persisted throughout four weeks of the experiment, which confirmed effective long-term anxiolytic properties of the heptapeptide. TP-7 did not cause any changes in the body mass by itself.
Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang
The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD.
Lorian, Carolyn N; Titov, Nickolai; Grisham, Jessica R
It has been proposed that a persistent and pervasive tendency to avoid risks is involved in the development and maintenance of clinically significant anxiety. Few studies, however, have examined the clinical implications of risk-aversion, and particularly the association between risk-aversion and treatment outcome. The current study investigated how risk-aversion in specific domains (Social and Recreational) related to treatment outcome in a clinical sample of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) undergoing internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). We hypothesized that: (i) risk-taking would increase as a result of treatment and (ii) risk-taking would mediate changes in symptom severity and impairment as a result of treatment. Individuals recruited online (N=44) meeting diagnostic criteria for GAD were randomized to the treatment (n=24) or control group (n=20). Participants completed measures of symptom severity, impairment and risk-taking before and after treatment. Results partially confirmed our hypotheses, demonstrating that participants in the treatment group significantly increased social and recreational risk-taking scores relative to the control group and risk-taking mediated treatment outcome for depression, but not for anxiety symptoms. The results of this study suggest that social and recreational risk-avoidance decreases following CBT treatment, and this change may mediate treatment outcome for depression. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly
Anxiety disorders are among the most common emotional difficulties experienced by children and young people. They cause significant disturbance to the lives of young people and their families and present a risk for lifelong psychological disturbance. Effective psychological (ie, cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT)) and pharmacological interventions (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) have been established. However, the risk of adverse effects and unknown long-term effects of using SSRIs has led to recommendations that CBT is delivered as a first-line intervention. Recent innovations have included the development of low-intensity CBT programmes, delivered briefly via parents or online. These hold promise to increase access to psychological therapies for children and young people with these common and severe difficulties.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Demidenko, Natasha; Balfour, Louise; Krysanski, Valerie; Weekes, Kirsti; Barber, Ann; Keating, Leah; Bissada, Hany
We hypothesized that compared to therapy groups homogeneously composed of women with binge eating disorder (BED) and low attachment anxiety, groups with high attachment anxiety would have better outcomes and a greater alliance-outcome relationship. We assigned 102 women with BED to therapy groups homogeneously composed of low attachment anxiety (n =52) or high attachment anxiety participants (n=50) who received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). GPIP resulted in improved outcomes with large effects. Attachment anxiety condition did not moderate outcomes. However, attachment anxiety condition did moderate the alliance-outcome relationship: i.e., group alliance growth was associated with improved binge eating only in the high attachment anxiety condition. Clinicians should be attentive to and encourage the growth of group therapy alliance especially for anxiously attached individuals.
Shaw, A J; Niven, N
Dental fear and anxiety in children and adolescents is a common problem. Hypnosis has been shown to be useful in the treatment of these patients. This paper briefly reviews conventional management skills before considering the application of hypnosis. Following a definition of hypnosis, the concepts of relaxation, restricted awareness, blunting of critical faculties and the enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion are outlined. Consideration is given to the induction of hypnosis and its general application in an informal and formal manner. The application of more specific techniques, such as the use of hypnoanalgesia to reduce physical discomfort and the development of coping strategies to help children overcome their fears, are discussed. It has been widely shown that hypnosis is a useful adjunct in dentistry. However, it is unfortunate that hypnosis is not more widely used as it has the potential for making conventional dental management more acceptable and reducing the number of children requiring general anaesthesia.
Stanley, Melinda A; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Hopko, Derek R
At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project suggested the potential benefits of a new version of CBT for GAD among older patients in primary care. The manual developed and tested in this pilot project is presented here. Treatment components include motivation and education, relaxation skills, cognitive therapy, problem-solving-skills training, exposure exercises, and sleep-management-skills training. Procedures are designed to be administered flexibly to maximize attention to individual patient needs. Examples of session summaries, patient handouts, and homework forms are provided.
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Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I
Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed.
The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.
Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C
Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.
Ludot, Maude; Mouchabac, Stephane; Ferreri, Florian
Isotretinoin (Accutane) is a treatment for severe acne that is resistant to other forms of treatment, including antibiotics and topical treatments. The prescription of this drug has been controversial ever since its initial marketing in 1982. It is the only non-psychotropic drug in the Food and Drug Administration top 10 drugs found to be associated with depression. Recently, Bremner et al published an extensive review (until 2010) of the evidence for the association of retinoic acid (RA) with depression and suicide. Some patients who are admitted in psychiatric hospitals report a history of present or past treatment with isotretinoin. Then, the imputability of the molecule in the occurrence of disorders represents necessarily an important question for both professionals and their patients. This paper aims to specify the links between the drug and specific psychiatric disorders. A review of the literature related to isotretinoin, RA, vitamin A, depression, suicide, anxiety, bipolar disorder, psychosis, schizophrenia was performed. Many studies demonstrated an increased risk of depression, attempted suicide and suicide following isotretinoin treatment. However, isotretinoin may have an antidepressant impact, according to some dermatological papers. They consider treating acne with this efficient treatment could improve self-image and make the patient feel better. Several studies showed that patients with bipolar disorder had an increased risk for a clinical exacerbation of symptoms undergoing treatment with isotretinoin. A few studies also seem to suggest a possible link between isotretinoin and psychosis. Nonetheless, studies point out a link between retinoid dysregulation and schizophrenia through modulation of dopamine receptors. From this review, we propose guidelines for isotretinoin prescription to healthcare professionals. PMID:26110123
Storch, Eric A.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Lewin, Adam B.; Nadeau, Josh M.; Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Mutch, P. Jane; Selles, Robert R.; Ung, Danielle; Murphy, Tanya K.
Objective: To examine the efficacy of a modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol relative to treatment as usual (TAU) among children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and clinically significant anxiety. Method: A total of 45 children (7-11 years of age) with high-functioning ASD and clinically significant anxiety…
Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.
Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.
Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Like other anxiety reactions, test anxiety affects the body and the mind. When you're under stress, your body releases ...
... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). For a person with OCD , anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Social Phobia 5 Ways to Deal With Anxiety ...
Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G
Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p < 0.01), ameliorated anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% (p < 0.01) and lowered insomnia by 42% (p < 0.01). As much as 95% of subjects (19/20) responded to treatment, of which 70% (14/20) achieved full remission for anxiety, 85% (17/20) for insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers.
Hymen, S P; Warren, R
This study evaluated the efficacy of rational-emotive imagery as a component of rational-emotive therapy in reduction of college students' test anxiety. 11 volunteers met for 6 1-hr. group treatment sessions over a 3-wk. period. After 2 initial treatment sessions subjects were randomly assigned to groups given either rational-emotive therapy with rational-emotive imagery or rational-emotive therapy without imagery. Contrary to predictions, improvement between groups on self-report and performance measures was nonsignificant. Failure to obtain differences was attributed to similarities in content of treatment sessions and short treatment time. Combined groups reported significant improvement on all dependent measures. Although the study did not yield the predicted benefits of the imagery, results lend further support to the efficacy of rational-emotive therapy procedures in the reduction of test anxiety.
Fedotova, Julia; Soultanov, Vagif; Nikitina, Tamara; Roschin, Victor; Ordyan, Natalia; Hritcu, Lucian
Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8.6mg/kg, orally, once daily, for 28 days) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus using a β-amyloid (25-35) rat model of Alzheimer's disease following gonadectomy. Ropren(®) was administered to the gonadectomized (GDX) rats and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg, subcutaneous, once daily, for 28 days). Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark test (LDT), locomotor and grooming activities were assessed in the open field test (OFT). Ropren(®) alone or in combination with TP-induced anxiolytic effects as evidenced in the EPM and in the LDT and increased locomotor activity in the OFT. Additionally, it was observed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels increased while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratio in the hippocampus decreased. Our results indicate that Ropren(®) has a marked anxiolytic-like action due to an increase in the monoamines levels in the experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease with altered levels of androgens.
Roberts, Carly L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Oar, Ella L; Ollendick, Thomas H
This study aimed to examine parents' perceptions of established treatments, including cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), relative to novel treatments of D-cycloserine (DCS) and attention bias modification (ABM) augmented CBT to determine if novel treatments are perceived as more or less favorable than established treatments. Participants included parents of children with a specific phobia, enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials of either one-session augmented DCS (n = 38, Gold Coast) or ABM augmented one-session treatment (n = 34, Brisbane), as well as parents from a community sample (n = 38). Parents of children with a specific phobia perceived CBT most favorably. There was no difference between the sites on perceptions of ABM. However, parents of children enrolled in the DCS trial perceived DCS more favorably than parents of children enrolled in the ABM trial and the community sample. These results demonstrate parents' greater acceptance of psychological treatments over pharmacological treatments for the treatment of childhood phobias, highlighting the importance of educating parents to novel treatments.
Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Reyes, Darcel
Anxiety is one of the most frequent symptoms recognized by providers who care for persons living with HIV disease (PLWH). This evidence-based review of anxiety and HIV disease includes an overview of anxiety symptoms, their prevalence in PLWH, and co-existing mood and behavioral disorders. Harmful physiologic effects are also highlighted. Valid and reliable clinical measurement tools used for assessing anxiety include the Clinical Diagnostic Questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Profile of Mood States, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioral therapy as a recommended intervention for the treatment of anxiety symptoms and/or anxiety disorders in PLWH. Medications for use with more severe and disabling anxiety are discussed, as well as evidence based on expert opinion for anxiety self-management.
Klein, Rachel G.
Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…
Scattone, Dorothy; Mong, Michael
Important areas of treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have only begun to be explored empirically in the last decade. Fortunately, there has been growing interest in identifying how to best adapt treatments that have been demonstrated to be efficacious with broader populations to individuals with ASD. This article…
El-Nabarawi, Mohamed A.; Tayel, Saadia A.; Soliman, Nadia A.; Abo Enin, Hadel A.
Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH) as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl) as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time) and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min). Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug's absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6) tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH can be attributed
Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders.
Stevenson, Eleanor Lowndes; Sloane, Richard
Background: Research supports that in vitro fertilization causes anxiety and that anxiety can continue into the resulting pregnancy. Most women who have IVF will have a less invasive treatment for infertility prior to IVF; however, it is unclear if specific less invasive treatment cycles impact anxiety that is experienced in the pregnancy resulting from IVF. Methods: A prospective study was conducted for women who became pregnant via IVF, and data was collected about reported previous non-IVF treatment cycles as well as Pregnancy Related Anxiety Measure. Latent Class Analysis was conducted A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: 144 subjects participated and were highly educated, affluent, married, and primarily white. The LCA process yielded two groups that on average had similar levels on most items except for use of intra uterine insemination and/or ovarian stimulation. This information was used to generate four exhaustive and mutually exclusive groups: Stimulation Only (stim-only), Stimulation and Intra uterine Insemination (stim-IUI), Intra uterine Insemination only (IUI only), or No Treatment (No Tx). ANOVA found that those in the Stim Only group had statistically significantly higher PRAM scores than the Stim IUI (p=0.0036), the IUI only group (p=0.05), and the No Tx group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: Women who become pregnant via IVF and had a history of non-in vitro fertilization cycles that only involved ovarian stimulation experienced more pregnancy-specific anxiety in the pregnancy that results from in vitro fertilization. PMID:28377899
Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Cremaschi, Laura; Palazzo, Carlotta; Suardi, Neva; Spagnolin, Gregorio; Camuri, Giulia; Benatti, Beatrice; Oldani, Lucio; Dobrea, Cristina; Arici, Chiara; Pace, Giovanna; Tiseo, Alessandra; Nahum, Ester Sembira; Castellano, Filippo; D'Urso, Nazario; Clerici, Massimo; Primavera, Diego; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Altamura, A Carlo
Latency to first pharmacological treatment [duration of untreated illness (DUI)] in psychiatric disorders can be measured in years, with differences across diagnostic areas and relevant consequences in terms of socio-occupational functioning and outcome. Within the psychopathological onset of a specific disorder, many factors influence access and latency to first pharmacotherapy and the present study aimed to investigate such factors, through an ad-hoc developed questionnaire, in a sample of 538 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SZ), mood disorder (MD), and anxiety disorder (AD). Patients with SZs showed earlier ages at onset, first diagnosis and treatment, as well as shorter DUI compared with other patients (43.17 months vs. 58.64 and 80.43 months in MD and AD; F=3.813, P=0.02). Patients with MD and AD reported more frequently onset-related stressful events, benzodiazepines as first treatment, and autonomous help seeking compared with patients with SZs. In terms of first therapist, psychiatrist referral accounted for 43.6% of the cases, progressively decreasing from SZ to MD and AD (57.6, 41.8, and 38.3%, respectively). The opposite phenomenon was observed for nonpsychiatrist clinician referrals, whereas psychologist referrals remained constant. The present findings confirm the presence of a relevant DUI in a large sample of Italian patients with different psychiatric disorders (5 years, on average), pointing out specific differences, in terms of treatment access and latency, between psychotic and affective patients. Such aspects are relevant for detection of at-risk patients and implement early intervention programs.
Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Herrero, Ana Isabel; Nordström, Kristina; Manzano, Jimena; de Escobar, Gabriella Moreale; Bernal, Juan; Vennström, Björn
The transcriptional properties of unliganded thyroid hormone receptors are thought to cause the misdevelopment during hypothyroidism of several functions essential for adult life. To specifically determine the role of unliganded thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) in neuronal tissues, we introduced a mutation into the mouse TRα1 gene that lowers affinity to thyroid hormone (TH) 10-fold. The resulting heterozygous mice exhibit several distinct neurological abnormalities: extreme anxiety, reduced recognition memory, and locomotor dysfunction. The anxiety and memory deficiencies were relieved by treatment with high levels of TH in adulthood, an effect that correlated with a normalization of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. In contrast, a post-natal TH treatment was necessary and sufficient for ameliorating the adult locomotor dysfunction. Here, the hormone treatment normalized the otherwise delayed cerebellar development. The data thus identify two novel and distinct functions of an unliganded TRα1 during development and adulthood, respectively. PMID:16131613
Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael
This study investigates the effects of disruptions to different community environments, community resilience and cumulated felt earthquake intensities on yearly mood and anxiety symptom treatments from the New Zealand Ministry of Health's administrative databases between September 2009 and August 2012. The sample includes 172,284 long-term residents from different Christchurch communities. Living in a better physical environment was associated with lower mood and anxiety treatment rates after the beginning of the Canterbury earthquake sequence whereas an inverse effect could be found for social community environment and community resilience. These results may be confounded by pre-existing patterns, as well as intensified treatment-seeking behaviour and intervention programmes in severely affected areas. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that adverse mental health outcomes can be found in communities with worse physical but stronger social environments or community resilience post-disaster. Also, they do not necessarily follow felt intensities since cumulative earthquake intensity did not show a significant effect.
Motaghinejad, Majid; Fatima, Sulail; Banifazl, Sanaz; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Karimian, Morteza
Background: Morphine dependency usually results in undesired outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and cognitive alterations. In this study, morphine was used to manage morphine dependence-induced anxiety, depression, and learning and memory disturbances. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided equally into five groups. Group 1 received saline for 21 days. Groups 2–5 were dependent by increasing administration of morphine (15–45 mg/kg) for 7 days. For the next 14 days, morphine was administered as the following regimen: Group 2: once daily; 45 mg/kg (positive controls), Group 3: the same dose with an increasing interval (6 h longer than the previous intervals each time), Group 4: the same dose with an irregular intervals (12, 24, 36 h intervals interchangeably), and Group 5: decreasing doses once daily (every time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). On days 22–26, elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) were performed to investigate anxiety level and depression in animals. Between 17th and 21st days, Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory. Results: Chronic morphine administration caused depression and anxiety as observed by FST, EPM, and TST and decreased motor activity in OFT and caused impairment in learning and memory performance in MWM. Treatment with our protocol as increasing interval, irregular interval, and decreasing dosage of morphine caused marked reduction in depression, anxiety, and improved cognition performance compared with positive control group; and attenuated motor deficits in morphine-dependent rats, remarkably. Conclusions: Change in dosage regimens of morphine can reduce morphine-induced anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairments. PMID:28028518
Wampler, Larry D.; Amira, Stephen B.
Research indicates that transcendental meditation (TM) may provide relief from accumulated stress and render the meditator better able to cope with future stressful events. Single and combined TM and assertive training programs were compared for effectiveness in the treatment of socially anxious college students. A waiting-list group served as the…
Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the relative efficacy of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family CBT (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention control (FESA) condition were used to examine associations between in-session therapeutic techniques related to parent training (PT) and treatment outcomes. This…
Walker, Lilly Schubert; And Others
Assigned 100 college students classified as high or low anxiety subjects by scores on State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to relaxation training or to imagery treatment. Found that both treatments significantly reduced cognitive anxiety; there were no significant differences between treatments. High anxiety subjects significantly decreased trait and…
Jiang, Kaida; Li, Lingjiang; Wang, Xueyi; Fang, Maosheng; Shi, Jianfei; Cao, Qiuyun; He, Jincai; Wang, Jinan; Tan, Weihao; Hu, Cuili
Background Significant anxiety symptoms are associated with poor clinical course and outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). This single-arm, open-label study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram treatment in patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms. Methods Adult patients with MDD and anxiety symptoms (Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥22 and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A] ≥14) were enrolled and received escitalopram (10–20 mg/day) treatment for 24 weeks. Symptom status was assessed by MADRS, 17-item-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAM-A, and Clinical Global Impression Scale at baseline and the following visits. Quality of life was assessed by Short Form-12, and safety was evaluated by adverse events, laboratory investigations, vital signs, and physical findings. Results Overall, 200 of 318 (66.2%) enrolled patients completed the 24-week treatment. The remission (MADRS ≤10 and HAM-A ≤7) rate in the full analysis set (N=285) was 73.3% (95% confidence interval: 67.80, 78.38) at week 24. Mean (± standard deviation) MADRS total score was 33.4 (±7.13) and HAM-A score was 27.6 (±7.26) at baseline, which reduced to 6.6 (±10.18) and 6.0 (±8.39), respectively, at week 24. Patients with higher baseline depression and anxiety level took longer to achieve similar remission rates. Overall, 80 of the 302 (26.5%) patients included in the safety set reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). Most frequently reported TEAEs (>2%) were headache (4.0%), nasopharyngitis (3.6%), nausea (3.0%), and dizziness (2.6%). Serious TEAEs were reported by 1.3% patients; no deaths were reported. Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day was effective and well-tolerated in the long-term treatment of MDD with anxiety symptoms in adult Chinese population. PMID:28255239
Pohl, Robert B; Feltner, Douglas E; Fieve, Ronald R; Pande, Atul C
Pregabalin is a new anxiolytic that acts as a presynaptic inhibitor of the release of excessive levels of excitatory neurotransmitters by selectively binding to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. The current study evaluated the anxiolytic efficacy of BID versus TID dosing of pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition generalized anxiety disorder and having baseline Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) total scores > or =20 were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with pregabalin 200 mg/d (BID; N = 78), 400 mg/d (BID; N = 89), or 450 mg/d (TID; N = 88) or placebo (N = 86). Mean improvement in HAM-A total score at last observation carried forward end point was significantly greater on pregabalin 200 (P = 0.006), 400 (P = 0.001), and 450 mg/d (P = 0.005) compared with placebo. Pairwise comparisons of BID versus TID dosing found no difference in HAM-A change score at end point. All 3 pregabalin dosage groups showed significantly greater efficacy versus placebo at end point on the HAM-A psychic and somatic anxiety factor scores. Improvement on both factors was rapid: significance versus placebo was achieved as early as the first assessment at week 1, with > or =30% reduction in HAM-A severity and equal or greater improvement for every subsequent visit in > or =38% of patients in all 3 pregabalin dosage groups (P < or = 0.001). Pregabalin was well tolerated, and despite the fixed-dose study design, discontinuations caused by adverse events ranged from 9% to 13%--comparable with that observed with placebo (8%). This study demonstrates that pregabalin is an effective treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, with BID dosing showing similar efficacy and comparable tolerability with TID dosing.
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Coleman, Jonathan R.I.; Breen, Gerome; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Hartman, Catharina; Heiervang, Einar R.; Hötzel, Katrin; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Marin, Carla E.; McKinnon, Anna; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Lester, Kathryn J.; Eley, Thalia C.
Objective The Genes for Treatment study is an international, multisite collaboration exploring the role of genetic, demographic, and clinical predictors in response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in pediatric anxiety disorders. The current article, the first from the study, examined demographic and clinical predictors of response to CBT. We hypothesized that the child’s gender, type of anxiety disorder, initial severity and comorbidity, and parents’ psychopathology would significantly predict outcome. Method A sample of 1,519 children 5 to 18 years of age with a primary anxiety diagnosis received CBT across 11 sites. Outcome was defined as response (change in diagnostic severity) and remission (absence of the primary diagnosis) at each time point (posttreatment, 3-, 6-, and/or 12-month follow-up) and analyzed using linear and logistic mixed models. Separate analyses were conducted using data from posttreatment and follow-up assessments to explore the relative importance of predictors at these time points. Results Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SoAD) had significantly poorer outcomes (poorer response and lower rates of remission) than those with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although individuals with specific phobia (SP) also had poorer outcomes than those with GAD at posttreatment, these differences were not maintained at follow-up. Both comorbid mood and externalizing disorders significantly predicted poorer outcomes at posttreatment and follow-up, whereas self-reported parental psychopathology had little effect on posttreatment outcomes but significantly predicted response (although not remission) at follow-up. Conclusion SoAD, nonanxiety comorbidity, and parental psychopathology were associated with poorer outcomes after CBT. The results highlight the need for enhanced treatments for children at risk for poorer outcomes. PMID:26004660
AYSAL, Fikret; KARAMUSTAFALIOĞLU, Oğuz; ÖZÇELİK, Başak; YILMAZ, Meltem; KARAMUSTAFALIOĞLU, Nesrin; YUMRUKÇAL, Hüseyin; TANKAYA, Onur
Introduction Findings about the relationship between psychopathology and severity of myasthenia gravis (MG) seem scarce and conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with disease severity and treatment modalities among a cohort of patients with MG. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who presented to the neuromuscular outpatient clinic, at a neuropsychiatry hospital in Istanbul, Turkey in a two-month period, were recruited consecutively. A total of 42 patients with MG were invited to participate in the study. None of the patients refused to participate. Severity of MG was assessed according to the Osserman and Genkins classification. The participants were evaluated by a sociodemographic form, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item version (HAM-D), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Results The patients with stage IIB MG had significantly higher scores on the BAI, HAM-D, HAM-A total and somatic anxiety than those with stage I and IIA MG (p<0.05). Likewise, the patients taking a combination of prednisolone+pyridostigmine/azathioprine had significantly higher scores on the BAI, HAM-D, HAM-A total and somatic anxiety than those taking only prednisolone (p<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that disease severity and stressful life events were the factors associated with the HAM-D scores. Disease severity, treatment modalities, and gender were the factors associated with the HAM-A scores. Conclusion The results of the present study may suggest that patients with relatively more severe MG or those taking a combination of immunosupressive and anticholinesterase medications need psychiatric/psychological evaluation. PMID:28360560
Rosenberg, Anthony; Lenze, Eric J
Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, causing high personal and economic burden. Psychosocial approaches, such as psychotherapy or mind-body instruction, along with self-help approaches, exercise, and proper sleep hygiene are effective solo or additive (to pharmacotherapy) strategies. Many physicians are less familiar with these methods for treating anxiety/depressive disorders. This article seeks to illuminate psychosocial approaches for depression and anxiety that act additively or independently of pharmacotherapy and explain how physicians can utilize them.
Grenier, Sébastien; Forget, Hélène; Bouchard, Stéphane; Isere, Sébastien; Belleville, Sylvie; Potvin, Olivier; Rioux, Marie-Ève; Talbot, Mélissa
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) using traditional exposure techniques (i.e. imaginal and in vivo) seems less effective to treat anxiety in older adults than in younger ones. This is particularly true when imaginal exposure is used to confront the older patient to inaccessible (e.g. fear of flying) or less tangible/controllable anxiety triggers (e.g. fear of illness). Indeed, imaginal exposure may become less effective as the person gets older since normal aging is characterized by the decline in cognitive functions involved in the creation of vivid/detailed mental images. One way to circumvent this difficulty is to expose the older patient to a virtual environment that does not require the ability to imagine the frightening situation. In virtuo exposure has proven to be efficient to treat anxiety in working-age people. In virtuo exposure could be employed to improve the efficacy of CBT with exposure sessions in the treatment of late-life anxiety? The current paper explores this question and suggests new research avenues.
Immediate-release (IR) benzodiazepines have a short duration of therapeutic effect and are generally less effective for anxiety than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in reducing concomitant depressive symptomatology. Common criticisms of benzodiazepines also include the patient's tendency to develop a tolerance to the anxiolytic effect and a dependence on the drug itself. The newer extended-release (XR) benzodiazepine formulation was designed to increase efficacy, duration of therapeutic effect, tolerance, compliance, and ease of discontinuation. The XR benzodiazepine alprazolam has shown efficacy in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder comparable to the older benzodiazepine formulations. Pharmacokinetic data show that the XR formulation has a longer therapeutic effect compared with IR formulations, which reduces the potential for breakthrough anxiety symptoms. Data also indicate that the XR formulation has less abuse liability than the IR formulation. This article reviews the efficacy, safety, and discontinuation data from clinical trials of IR and XR benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety disorders and provides guidelines to minimize the risk of withdrawal syndrome during benzodiazepine discontinuation.
Hassel, Alexander J; Danner, Daniel; Freier, Kolja; Hofele, Christof; Becker-Bikowski, Kirsten; Engel, Michael
This report focuses on the association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and depression/anxiety of a homogeneous group of cancer patients who were recurrence-free for 8 years after treatment for advanced oral squamous cell. Participants were 24 patients (mean age 55 years, 75% men) treated with neoadjuvant concurrent radiochemotherapy followed by surgery with a mean recurrence-free period of 95 months (from 39 to 164 months). The OHRQoL (OHIP) and the anxiety/depression (HADS) were assessed twice (1 year between t1 and t2). OHRQoL was impaired in this group (mean OHIP score 65 units). In cross-lagged correlation analysis, the correlation between OHRQoL to t1 and depression to t2 was significant and greater than the non-significant correlation for depression to t1 and OHRQoL to t2 indicating that OHRQoL predicts depression better than vice versa. However, the difference in the correlation coefficients was not significant (ZPF-test). The same was true for OHRQoL and anxiety. The OHRQoL measured with the OHIP was impaired in comparison to the normal population. In the limitations of the study design and bearing the small sample size in mind, the results give evidence that OHRQoL predicts psychological outcomes, namely depression and anxiety, better than vice versa.
Polat, Ulku; Arpacı, Afey; Demir, Satı; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Şuayib
Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300
Carlbring, Per; Linna, Emma; Andersson, Gerhard
Background Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly. Objectives The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. Methods Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27). Results Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27). Conclusions These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT. PMID:23612437
Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect the treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) versus a SSRI.
Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
To assess whether early changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depressive disorder. The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (National Institute of Mental Health) randomized 340 patients to Hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks, whereas the Massachusetts General Hospital study randomized 135 patients to Hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. The investigators examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. In the National Institute of Mental Health study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety (psychic) item (sertraline arm), somatic (gastrointestinal item; Hypericum arm), and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the Massachusetts General Hospital study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety (psychic; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors arm), somatic (gastrointestinal), and hypochondriasis (Hypericum arm), and anxiety (psychic) and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with the improvement in the anxiety (psychic), somatic (gastrointestinal), and somatic (general) items. The number and the type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items may help to predict remission of major depressive disorder.
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Brown, Nicole V.; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K.; Aman, Michael G.
Abstract Objective: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). Methods: A total of 168 children ages 6–12 with severe aggression (physical harm), DBD, and ADHD were randomized to parent training plus stimulant plus placebo (basic treatment) or parent training plus stimulant plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for 9 weeks. All received only parent training plus stimulant for the first 3 weeks, then those with room for improvement received a second drug (placebo or risperidone) for 6 weeks. CASI-4R category item means at baseline and week 9 were entered into linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures to evaluate group differences in changes. Mediation of the primary DBD outcome was explored. Results: Parent ratings were nonsignificant with small/negligible effects, but teacher ratings (n=46 with complete data) showed significant augmented treatment advantage for symptoms of anxiety (p=0.013, d=0.71), schizophrenia spectrum (p=0.017, d=0.45), and impairment in these domains (p=0.02, d=0.26), all remaining significant after false discovery rate correction for multiple tests. Improvement in teacher-rated anxiety significantly (p=0.001) mediated the effect of risperidone augmentation on the primary outcome, the Disruptive-total of the parent-rated Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. Conclusions: Addition of risperidone to parent training plus stimulant improves not only parent-rated DBD as previously reported, but also teacher-rated anxiety–social avoidance. Improvement in anxiety mediates improvement in DBD, suggesting anxiety-driven fight-or-flight disruptive behavior with aggression, with implications for potential
Michelson, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Alexander, Robert; Ceesay, Paulette; Hietala, Jarmo; Lines, Christopher; Reines, Scott
Preclinical studies suggest that substance P acting at neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors may be involved in stress responses and NK1 receptor antagonists show activity in tests of anxiety. These data raise the possibility that NK1 receptor antagonists could be potential anxiolytic treatments in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis clinically using the NK1 antagonist L-759274. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, multicentre, proof-of-concept trial. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder were randomized 1:1:1 to 6 wk of treatment with 40 mg L-759274 (n = 73), 1-6 mg lorazepam (n = 69) or placebo (n = 71). Efficacy was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). A positron emission tomography (PET) study was also performed in 16 healthy subjects to determine the relationship between NK1 receptor occupancy and plasma levels of L-759274 to verify adequate target engagement by the doses tested during the clinical trial. No statistically significant difference in mean change from baseline HAMA score at 6 wk was seen for L-759274 vs. placebo [difference = 1.0 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.2 to 3.2), p = 0.359] whereas the lorazepam group did show a significant improvement vs. placebo (difference = -2.7, 95% CI -5.0 to -0.4, p = 0.020) and L-759274 (difference = 3.7, 95% CI 1.5-6.0, p = 0.001]. Results from the PET study indicated that the L-759274 dosing regimen used in the clinical trial likely provided high levels of NK1 receptor occupancy (>90%), supporting the view that it was an adequate proof-of-concept trial. The NK1 receptor antagonist L-759274 does not appear to be efficacious for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.
Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of…
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.
The articles in this journal issue examine the characteristics of student writing apprehension, and teaching methods to alleviate it. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing Anxiety: Reasons and Reduction Techniques" (Helen R. Heaton and Pauline M. Pray); (2) "Writing Anxiety and the Gifted Student…
Bandelow, Borwin; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Bandelow, Borwin; Allgulander, Christer; Ayuso-Gutierrez, José; Baldwin, David S; Buenvicius, Robertas; Cassano, Giovanni; Fineberg, Naomi; Gabriels, Loes; Hindmarch, Ian; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Klein, Donald F; Lader, Malcolm; Lecrubier, Yves; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Liebowitz, Michael R; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Marazziti, Donatella; Miguel, Euripedes C; Oh, Kang Seob; Preter, Maurice; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sato, Mitsumoto; Starcevic, Vladan; Stein, Dan J; van Ameringen, Michael; Vega, Johann
In this report, which is an update of a guideline published in 2002 (Bandelow et al. 2002, World J Biol Psychiatry 3:171), recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are presented. Since the publication of the first version of this guideline, a substantial number of new randomized controlled studies of anxiolytics have been published. In particular, more relapse prevention studies are now available that show sustained efficacy of anxiolytic drugs. The recommendations, developed by the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Task Force for the Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive and Post-traumatic Stress Disorders, a consensus panel of 30 international experts, are now based on 510 published randomized, placebo- or comparator-controlled clinical studies (RCTs) and 130 open studies and case reports. First-line treatments for these disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and the calcium channel modulator pregabalin. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are equally effective for some disorders, but many are less well tolerated than the SSRIs/SNRIs. In treatment-resistant cases, benzodiazepines may be used when the patient does not have a history of substance abuse disorders. Potential treatment options for patients unresponsive to standard treatments are described in this overview. Although these guidelines focus on medications, non-pharmacological were also considered. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and other variants of behaviour therapy have been sufficiently investigated in controlled studies in patients with anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD to support them being recommended either alone or in combination with the above medicines.
Pollack, Mark H
Anxiety and depressive disorders often occur as comorbid illnesses and share many common symptoms. Risk factors for these disorders most likely include interactions of environmental and genetic factors. The presence of comorbid anxiety and depression adversely affects clinical and treatment outcomes. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are usually considered first-line treatment for patients with these disorders, although alternative antidepressants or additional therapies are often necessary. Studies suggest that benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics may be effective as augmentation therapy to optimize outcome, with buspirone and beta-blockers useful in some patients as well. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is also an effective therapeutic alternative for affected patients.
Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Huss, Ephrat
This paper presents an overview of a combined, evaluated protocol, cognitive behavioural and art therapy treatment (CB-ART), for the treatment of women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs). The protocol integrates cognitive behavioural interventions and art therapy. CB-ART focuses on changing distressing image, symptom or memory (ISM) that interferes with functioning. The method directs clients to identify compositional elements that characterize their stressful ISM and to alter the element in their imagination, in bodily sensations and on the page. Examples are provided to illustrate the therapeutic process.
Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C
Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.
Majidi, Jafar; Kosari-Nasab, Morteza; Salari, Ali-Akbar
Neonatal infection is associated with increased lifetime risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression, with evidence showing that dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA)-axis system may be partly responsible. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that minocycline exhibits antidepressant effects through inhibition of microglial activation and anti-inflammatory actions, and of interest is that recent studies suggest that minocycline alleviates the behavioral abnormalities induced by early-life insults. The current study was designed to determine if developmental minocycline treatment attenuates the neonatal immune activation-induced anxiety- and depression-like symptoms and HPA-axis-dysregulation later in life. To this end, neonatal mice were treated to either lipopolysaccharide or saline on postnatal days (PND) 3-5, then dams during lactation (PND 6-20) and male offspring during adolescence (PND 21-40) received oral administration of minocycline or water via regular drinking bottles. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, HPA-axis-reactivity (corticosterone), and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β) after exposure to stress were evaluated. The results indicated that neonatal immune activation resulted in increased anxiety and depression-like symptoms, HPA-axis-hyperactivity, and elevated the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus in response to stress in adulthood. Interestingly, developmental minocycline treatment significantly reduced the abnormalities induced by neonatal inflammation in adult mice. In addition, minocycline, regardless of postnatal inflammation, did not have any detrimental effects on the above measured parameters. Considering that minocycline is currently under exploration as an alternative or adjunctive therapy for reducing the symptoms of neurological disorders, our findings suggest that minocycline during development can decrease the behavioral abnormalities induced by early
Foster, Dawn W.; Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Objective This study examined the impact of coping motives for cannabis and alcohol use on the relation between social anxiety/depressive symptoms and severity of substance use for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis among treatment-seeking smokers who also use cannabis and alcohol. Methods The sample included 197 daily cigarette smokers (MAge 34.81 yrs, SD = 13.43) who reported using cannabis and alcohol. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted wherein separate models were constructed for each dependent variable. Among individuals with higher social anxiety, alcohol coping motives were associated with heavier drinking, and this was more pronounced among those low in depressive symptoms. Similarly, those at greater risk for nicotine dependence were anxious individuals with lower depressive symptoms who endorse coping-oriented motives for using cannabis. Further, among those with higher social anxiety, cannabis coping motives were associated with marginally greater drinking, particularly for those high in depressive symptoms. Conclusions The present findings support the perspective that among multi-substance users, the interplay between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping-oriented motives for using one substance (e.g., cannabis or alcohol) may pose difficulties in refraining from other substances (e.g., tobacco). This observation highlights the importance of tailoring multi-substance treatments to specific needs of multi-users for whom single-substance interventions may be less effective. Findings also support previous work exploring the benefits of concurrently treating co-occurring substance use and lend credence to the perspective that motivation to use substances for coping reasons is of central theoretical and clinical relevance. PMID:26846421
Yatham, L N; Beaulieu, S; Schaffer, A; Kauer-Sant'Anna, M; Kapczinski, F; Lafer, B; Sharma, V; Parikh, S V; Daigneault, A; Qian, H; Bond, D J; Silverstone, P H; Walji, N; Milev, R; Baruch, P; da Cunha, A; Quevedo, J; Dias, R; Kunz, M; Young, L T; Lam, R W; Wong, H
Atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate is effective in treating acute mania. Although continuation of atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy after mania remission reduces relapse of mood episodes, the optimal duration is unknown. As many atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome, they should not be continued unless the benefits outweigh the risks. This 52-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial recruited patients with bipolar I disorder (n=159) who recently remitted from a manic episode during treatment with risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate. Patients were randomized to one of three conditions: discontinuation of risperidone or olanzapine and substitution with placebo at (i) entry (‘0-weeks' group) or (ii) at 24 weeks after entry (‘24-weeks' group) or (iii) continuation of risperidone or olanzapine for the full duration of the study (‘52-weeks' group). The primary outcome measure was time to relapse of any mood episode. Compared with the 0-weeks group, the time to any mood episode was significantly longer in the 24-weeks group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.86) and nearly so in the 52-weeks group (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). The relapse rate was similar in the 52-weeks group compared with the 24-weeks group (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.99); however, sub-group analysis showed discordant results between the two antipsychotics (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.17; 1.32 olanzapine patients; HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.41 risperidone patients). Average weight gain was 3.2 kg in the 52-weeks group compared with a weight loss of 0.2 kg in the 0-weeks and 0.1 kg in the 24-weeks groups. These findings suggest that risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks is beneficial but continuation of risperidone beyond this period does not reduce the risk of relapse. Whether continuation of olanzapine beyond this period reduces relapse risk remains
Chaiklin, Harris; Mosher, Barbara
There is a relationship between maternal anxiety and lead levels in children. Data were collected from the mothers of 15 children with "normal" lead levels and 15 children with elevated blood levels. Anxiety was measured by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. All families lived in areas with poor housing. Treatment of lead poisoning tends…
Stein, Dan J; Westenberg, Herman G M; Yang, Haichen; Li, David; Barbato, Luigi M
Fluvoxamine CR has been reported effective in the short-term (12-wk) treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is, however, a chronic disorder thought to require maintenance treatment. We report on data from the extension phase of a short-term study, in order to explore the efficacy and safety profile of fluvoxamine CR (100-300 mg/d) in the longer-term treatment of this disorder. Adult outpatients with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) at 35 centres in Europe, South Africa, and USA were included in an acute phase study (12 wk). Subjects who demonstrated at least minimal improvement by endpoint (n=112), were offered participation in an extension phase, in which medication was continued for a further 12 wk under double-blind conditions. Efficacy was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Disorder Scale (LSAS), the Clinical Global Impression Global Improvement score (CGI-I), the Clinical Global Impressions Severity of Illness score (CGI-S), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Safety and tolerability assessments were also performed at regular intervals. Subjects treated with fluvoxamine CR had a numerically greater decrease in LSAS total scores than subjects treated with placebo at endpoint. Analysis of data from baseline (day 1) to endpoint (last observation carried forward) demonstrated that this difference tended towards significance, while severity of illness on the CGI-S and disability on the SDS were significantly lower in the fluvoxamine CR group than in the placebo group. The same trends were observed when only data from weeks 12-24 were included in the analysis; although the magnitude of changes was smaller in the extension phase than in the acute phase, fluvoxamine CR-treated subjects continued to show improvement compared to placebo-treated subjects. Most treatment-emergent signs and symptoms (TESS) were mild to moderate in severity. No unexpected abnormalities were reported on vital
... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...
Otto, M W; Pollack, M H; Rosenbaum, J F; Sachs, G S; Asher, R H
Converging lines of evidence indicate a nonspecific link between childhood anxiety disorders and adult panic disorder. Anxiety sensitivity, defined as the fear of anxiety symptoms, was hypothesized to be a potential mediating variable in this link. This study examined the association among childhood history of anxiety disorders, current anxiety symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 100 patients with panic disorder undergoing treatment. Fifty-five percent of the patients had histories of one or more childhood anxiety disorders. Despite the heterogeneity of symptoms and treatment interventions among these patients, a childhood history of anxiety was associated with comorbid anxiety conditions, agoraphobic avoidance, and anxiety sensitivity scores. Anxiety sensitivity was itself a significant predictor of current severity of illness, but a childhood history of anxiety was not. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that having an anxiety disorder during childhood is linked with patterns of anxiety and phobic avoidance in adulthood, including the level of anxiety sensitivity in patients with panic disorder.
Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael
Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness.
... fearful to talk at all in certain situations. Panic attacks. These episodes of anxiety can occur for no apparent reason. During a panic attack, a child typically has sudden and intense physical ...
... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) . For a person with OCD, anxiety takes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Taking Your Child to a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress ...
Steinert, Christiane; Stadter, Katja; Stark, Rudolf; Leichsenring, Falk
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder. However, little is known about how SAD changes in subjects who do not receive treatment. Waitlist control groups (WLCGs) are frequently included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of mental disorders. Data from WLCGs are of value as they provide information on the untreated short-term course of a disorder and may serve as disorder-specific norms of change (benchmarks) against which treatment outcomes of SAD can be compared. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis focusing on the effects occurring in WLCGs of RCTs for SAD. Our study was conducted along the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty RCTs (total n = 2460) comprising 30 WLCGs and 47 treatment groups were included. Mean waiting time was 10.6 weeks. The pooled effect of waiting on SAD measures was g = 0.128 (95% CI: 0.057-0.199). Effects regarding other forms of anxiety, depression and functioning were of similarly small size. In contrast, change in the treatment groups was large, both within (g = 0.887) and between groups (g = 0.860). Our results show that for SAD, changes occurring in WLCGs of RCTs are small. The findings may serve as benchmarks in pilot studies of a new treatment or as an additional comparison in studies comparing two active treatments. For psychotherapy research in general, the small effect sizes found in WLCGs confirm that testing a treatment against a waiting list is not a very strict test. Further research on WLCGs in specific mental disorders is required, for example examining the expectancies of patients randomized to waiting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message In clinical practice, patients suffering from a mental disorder often have to wait for treatment. By analyzing data from waitlist control groups we can gain estimates of symptom change that occur during waiting. It could be seen that waiting for treatment only results in a negligible effect. Thus, in the
Montgomery, Stuart A; Mahé, Vincent; Haudiquet, Vincent; Hackett, David
A survival analysis of data from two placebo-controlled, randomized, long-term (6-month) studies was used to examine the effectiveness of venlafaxine, extended release (XR) formulation, in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Patients in a placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study received 75 to 225 mg/day venlafaxine XR, while patients in a placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study received once-daily venlafaxine XR doses of 37.5 mg, 75 mg, or 150 mg. The survival analysis was based on the clinician's decision to discontinue treatment in a placebo-controlled study and incorporated data from all patients who were randomized. In each study, placebo-treated patients discontinued treatment due to lack of efficacy more frequently and earlier than those receiving venlafaxine XR (p < 0.001, log-rank test). A dose-response relationship was apparent, with the lowest rate of withdrawal seen at the highest venlafaxine XR dose. Survival curves for discontinuations due to adverse events did not differ significantly in either study. These results were consistent with the conventional intent-to-treat efficacy assessments of changes in anxiety severity, highlighting the superiority of venlafaxine XR over placebo in the long-term treatment of GAD. Overall, these results demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of venlafaxine XR in the short-term and long-term treatment of GAD.
Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.
In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection.…
Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.
Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…
Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.
Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…
Smits, Jasper A. J.; Julian, Kristin; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B.
Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically reviewed the evidence for the threat reappraisal…
Stanley, Melinda A.; Diefenbach, Gretchen J.; Hopko, Derek R.
At least four academic clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). These data may not generalize, however, to more heterogeneous and functionally impaired patients and the medical settings in which they typically receive care. A recent pilot project…
Reduced Anterior Temporal and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity During Face Processing Discriminates Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder from Healthy Controls and Panic Disorder, and Increases Following Treatment
Pantazatos, Spiro P; Talati, Ardesheer; Schneier, Franklin R; Hirsch, Joy
Group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with anomalous brain activation and functional connectivity (FC). However, brain-based features sensitive enough to discriminate individual subjects with a specific anxiety disorder and that track symptom severity longitudinally, desirable qualities for putative disorder-specific biomarkers, remain to be identified. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during emotional face perceptual tasks and a new, large-scale and condition-dependent FC and machine learning approach were used to identify features (pair-wise correlations) that discriminated patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD, N=16) from controls (N=19). We assessed whether these features discriminated SAD from panic disorder (PD, N=16), and SAD from controls in an independent replication sample that performed a similar task at baseline (N: SAD=15, controls=17) and following 8-weeks paroxetine treatment (N: SAD=12, untreated controls=7). High SAD vs HCs discrimination (area under the ROC curve, AUC, arithmetic mean of sensitivity and specificity) was achieved with two FC features during unattended neutral face perception (AUC=0.88, P<0.05 corrected). These features also discriminated SAD vs PD (AUC=0.82, P=0.0001) and SAD vs HCs in the independent replication sample (FC during unattended angry face perception, AUC=0.71, P=0.01). The most informative FC was left hippocampus-left temporal pole, which was reduced in both SAD samples (replication sample P=0.027), and this FC increased following the treatment (post>pre, t(11)=2.9, P=0.007). In conclusion, SAD is associated with reduced FC between left temporal pole and left hippocampus during face perception, and results suggest promise for emerging FC-based biomarkers for SAD diagnosis and treatment effects. PMID:24084831
Farajdokht, Fereshteh; Babri, Shirin; Karimi, Pouran; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Bughchechi, Ramin; Mohaddes, Gisou
Chronic migraine is a debilitating disorder that has a significant impact on patients and society. Nearly all migraineurs frequently reported light sensitivity during a headache attack. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in the activation of trigeminal system and migraine pain. To identify the effect of chronic ghrelin treatment on endogenous PACAP and associated symptoms of migraine, an experimental chronic migraine model was induced by intermittent intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of nitroglycerin (NTG). Photophobia and anxiety-like behaviors were determined in the modified elevated plus maze on days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 and in the light/dark box on days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Blood levels of PACAP and cortisol were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kits. Chronic injection of NTG evoked photophobia and anxiety-like behaviors and treatment with ghrelin (150 μg/kg) for 11 days effectively attenuated photophobia and anxiety-like behaviors in the both paradigms. We further found that NTG increased the blood levels of PACAP and cortisol, which was significantly reduced by ghrelin treatment. Additionally, staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) revealed that ghrelin reduced NTG-induced increase in the number of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion. Furthermore, for the first time we showed that repeated administrations of NTG increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and mean platelet volume (MPV), and decreased platelet counts. These results indicated that ghrelin decreased migraine associated symptoms possibly through attenuating endogenous PACAP and cortisol levels. Therefore, ghrelin may hold therapeutic potentialities in managing the chronic migraine.
Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphanie; Robillard, Geneviève; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Évelyne; Forget, Hélène; Loranger, Claudie; Roucaut, François Xavier
BackgroundPeople with social anxiety disorder (SAD) fear social interactions and may be reluctant to seek treatments involving exposure to social situations. Social exposure conducted in virtual reality (VR), embedded in individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), could be an answer.AimsTo show that conducting VR exposure in CBT for SAD is effective and is more practical for therapists than conducting exposure in vivoMethodParticipants were randomly assigned to either VR exposure (n = 17), in vivo exposure (n = 22) or waiting list (n = 20). Participants in the active arms received individual CBT for 14 weekly sessions and outcome was assessed with questionnaires and a behaviour avoidance test. (Trial registration number ISRCTN99747069)ResultsImprovements were found on the primary (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and all five secondary outcome measures in both CBT groups compared with the waiting list. Conducting exposure in VR was more effective at post-treatment than in vivo on the primary outcome measure and on one secondary measure. Improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. VR was significantly more practical for therapists than in vivo exposure.ConclusionsUsing VR can be advantageous over standard CBT as a potential solution for treatment avoidance and as an efficient, cost-effective and practical medium of exposure.
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy A.; Otto, Michael W.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders. However, a significant number of people do not respond or only show partial response even after an adequate course of the treatment. Recent research has shown that the efficacy of the intervention can be improved by the use of cognitive enhancers that augment the core learning processes of cognitive-behavior therapy. This manuscript provides a review of the current state of cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:21134394
Nordahl, Henrik; Nordahl, Hans M; Hjemdal, Odin; Wells, Adrian
Cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) based on the Clark and Wells model emphasizes negative beliefs about the social self and self-consciousness as central causal factors. However, Wells' metacognitive model proposes that metacognitive beliefs are central to pathology universally. The relative importance of cognitive and metacognitive beliefs in the treatment of SAD is therefore an important research question. This study examined change in negative cognitive and negative metacognitive beliefs as independent correlates of symptom improvement in 46 SAD patients undergoing evidence-based treatments. Both types of beliefs decreased during treatment. However, change in metacognitive belief was the only consistent independent predictor across all outcomes and change in cognitive beliefs did not significantly predict outcomes when change in self-consciousness was controlled. The implication of this finding is that metacognitive change might be more important than cognitive belief change in symptom outcome and recovery in SAD.
Assayag, Yaara; Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J; Steeves, Dan; Stewart, Sherry S
This study evaluated the associations between change in anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of the negative consequences of anxiety and related sensations) and lapse and relapse during a 4-week group NRT-aided cognitive-behavioral Tobacco Intervention Program. Participants were 67 (44 women; M (age) = 46.2 years, SD = 10.4) adult daily smokers. Results indicated that participants who maintained high levels of AS from pretreatment to 1 month posttreatment, compared to those who demonstrated a significant reduction in AS levels during this time period, showed a significantly increased risk for lapse and relapse. Further inspection indicated that higher continuous levels of AS physical and psychological concerns, specifically among those participants who maintained elevated levels of AS from pre- to posttreatment, predicted significantly greater risk for relapse. Findings are discussed with respect to better understanding change in AS, grounded in an emergent taxonic-dimensional factor mixture model of the construct, with respect to lapse and relapse during smoking cessation.
Moore, Michael T; Anderson, Nicholas L; Barnes, Jill M; Haigh, Emily A P; Fresco, David M
The fourth edition of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report measure that is commonly used to screen for the presence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The current investigation attempted to identify an optimal cut score using samples obtained from an outpatient psychiatric (n=163) and primary care clinic (n=99). Results indicated that a cut score of 7.67 provided an optimal balance of sensitivity (.85) and specificity (.74) comparable to a previously identified cut score (5.7) across both samples (sensitivity=.90, specificity=.66). However, both cut scores were consistently outperformed by a score representing the criteria for GAD described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (sensitivity=.89, specificity=.82).
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Context Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. Objectives This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Methods Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n = 103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n = 91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Results Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n = 36) and 12.4% (n = 24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusion Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. PMID:21565460