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  1. Retinal AO OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Miller, Donald T.

    The last two decades have witnessed extraordinary advances in optical technology to image noninvasively and at high resolution the posterior segment of the eye. Two of the most impactful technological advancements over this period have arguably been optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO). The strengths of these technologies complement each other and when combined have been shown to provide unprecedented, micron-scale resolution (<3 μm) in all three dimensions and sensitivity to image the cellular retina in the living eye. This powerful extension of OCT, that is AO-OCT, is the focus of this chapter. It presents key aspects of designing and implementing AO-OCT systems. Particular attention is devoted to the relevant optical properties of the eye that ultimately define these systems, AO componentry and operation tailored for ophthalmic use, and of course use of the latest technologies and methods in OCT for ocular imaging. It surveys the wide range of AO-OCT designs that have been developed for retinal imaging, with AO integrated into every major OCT design configuration. Finally, it reviews the scientific and clinical studies reported to date that show the exciting potential of AO-OCT to image the microscopic retina and fundus in ways not previously possible with other noninvasive methods and a look to future developments in this rapidly growing field.

  2. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  3. Effect of Antipsychotic Type and Dose Changes on Tardive Dyskinesia and Parkinsonism Severity in Patients With a Serious Mental Illness: The Curaçao Extrapyramidal Syndromes Study XII.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Charlotte L; Bakker, P Roberto; van Os, Jim; Drukker, Marjan; Matroos, Glenn E; Hoek, Hans W; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Harten, Peter N

    2017-03-01

    To test the efficacy of current treatment recommendations for parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia (TD) severity in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). We present an 18-year prospective study including all 223 patients with SMI (as defined by the 1987 US National Institute of Mental Health, which were based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria) receiving care from the only psychiatric hospital of the former Netherlands Antilles. Eight clinical assessments (1992-2009) focused on movement disorders and medication use. Tardive dyskinesia was measured by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and parkinsonism by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Antipsychotics were classified into first-generation antipsychotic (FGA) versus second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) and high versus low dopamine 2 (D₂) affinity categories. The effect that switching has within each category on subsequent movement scores was calculated separately by using time-lagged multilevel logistic regression models. There was a significant association between reduction in TD severity and starting/switching to an FGA (B = -3.54, P < .001) and starting/switching to a high D₂ affinity antipsychotic (B = -2.49, P < .01). Adding an SGA to existing FGA treatment was associated with reduction in TD severity (B = -2.43, P < .01). For parkinsonism, stopping antipsychotics predicted symptom reduction (B = -7.76, P < .01 in FGA/SGA-switch model; B = -7.74, P < .01 in D₂ affinity switch model), while starting a high D₂ affinity antipsychotic predicted an increase in symptoms (B = 3.29, P < .05 in D₂ affinity switch model). The results show that switching from an FGA to an SGA does not necessarily result in a reduction of TD or parkinsonism. Only stopping all antipsychotics reduces the severity of parkinsonism, and starting an FGA or a high D₂ affinity antipsychotic may reduce the severity of TD.

  4. Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... questionnaire to help answer these questions. Determining which mental illness you have Sometimes it's difficult to find out ... insurance companies to reimburse for treatment. Classes of mental illness The main classes of mental illness are: Neurodevelopmental ...

  5. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  6. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  7. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  8. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  9. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  10. MagAO: status and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Briguglio, Runa; Follette, Katherine B.; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Vezilj, Jennifer; Xompero, Marco; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2016-07-01

    "MagAO" is the adaptive optics instrument at the Magellan Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. MagAO has a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror and 1000-Hz pyramid wavefront sensor, operating on natural guide stars from R-magnitudes of -1 to 15. MagAO has been in on-sky operation for 166 nights since installation in 2012. MagAO's unique capabilities are simultaneous imaging in the visible and infrared with VisAO and Clio, excellent performance at an excellent site, and a lean operations model. Science results from MagAO include the first ground-based CCD image of an exoplanet, demonstration of the first accreting protoplanets, discovery of a new wide-orbit exoplanet, and the first empirical bolometric luminosity of an exoplanet. We describe the status, report the AO performance, and summarize the science results. New developments reported here include color corrections on red guide stars for the wavefront sensor; a new field stop stage to facilitate VisAO imaging of extended sources; and eyepiece observing at the visible-light diffraction limit of a 6.5-m telescope. We also discuss a recent hose failure that led to a glycol coolant leak, and the recovery of the adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) after this recent (Feb. 2016) incident.

  11. What Is Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  12. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  13. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  14. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  15. Mental Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

  16. PSF reconstruction for AO photometry and astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso, J.; Neichel, B.; Silva, M.; Fusco, T.; Garcia, P.

    2015-12-01

    Extracting accurate photometry (and astrometry) from images taken with adaptive optics assisted instruments is particularly challenging. Current post-processing tools are not prepared to achieve high accuracy from AO data, especially in limiting cases of crowded fields and marginally resolved sources. We quantify the limitations of these tools with synthetic images, and present a proof-of-concept study showing the potential of using reconstructed PSFs from the (GL)AO system telemetry to increase the measured photometric accuracy. We show that the photometric accuracy is significantly improved with a good PSF reconstruction in considerably crowded regions. We demonstrate the need for a dedicated post-processing tool that incorporates available information about the PSF, as well as the ability to adjust to the spatial variations of the PSF characteristic of AO data.

  17. Twelve thousand laser-AO observations: first results from the Robo-AO large surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed L.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first AO system which can feasibly perform surveys of thousands of targets. The system has been operating in a fully robotic mode on the Palomar 1.5m telescope for almost two years. Robo-AO has completed nearly 12,000 high-angular-resolution observations in almost 20 separate science programs including exoplanet characterization, field star binarity, young star binarity and solar system observations. We summarize the Robo-AO surveys and the observations completed to date. We also describe the data-reduction pipeline we developed for Robo-AO—the first fully-automated AO data-reduction, point-spread-function subtraction and companion-search pipeline.

  18. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  19. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  20. Characterization of an AO-OCT system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2007-07-26

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be measured by an external system. Typically this

  1. AoB PLANTS: origins and features.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    AoB PLANTS is a peer reviewed, Open Access (OA) journal owned and run by plant biologists and published by Oxford University Press. The journal publishes research papers, reviews and opinion papers on all aspects of land based plant biology. They are made available rapidly online and can be accessed without the need for subscriptions or payment. Several difficulties in conventional publishing of peer-reviewed manuscripts encouraged AoB PLANTS to adopt OA. Open Access helps sidestep library budgets which are struggling to purchase the increasing numbers of journals. Open Access makes research freely available both to the academic community and beyond while publishing online only eliminates the need to reject good manuscripts simply to control the size of the printed journal. Finally, the journal chose to go OA to ensure the widest possible international readership for the growing amount of high-quality plant science research being carried out worldwide in response to problems such as climate change and food shortages. Responses to a wide-ranging online questionnaire indicated strong international support for a journal such as AoB PLANTS. AoB PLANTS strives for fair and rapid peer review followed by fast publication of accepted papers. For an initial period, there will be no OA fees, and fees will remain modest once introduced. AoB PLANTS adopts double-blind peer review using published criteria for acceptability as a basis for decision-making. Accepted papers are published shortly after acceptance together with referees' analyses using Stanford University Libraries High Wire Press H2O platform. Authors retain ownership of the copyright in their papers.

  2. Mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-02-03

    Three short videos exploring some of the different principles in the Mental Capacity Act 2009 are available on Social Care TV, an online channel intended mainly for the social care sector, although the films are relevant to any professionals whose work is affected by the act. The dramas, which are set in a residential home, a person's own home and a residential school for young people with learning difficulties, concern thedecision-making process and can be viewed at www.scie.org.uk/socialcaretv/topic.asp?guid=377dbe1b-de0c-4d66-bb87-22a243542db2.

  3. Recent enhancements to the NAOMI AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Paul D.; Goodsell, Stephen; Benn, Chris R.; Gregory, Thomas; Rees, Simon; van der Hoeven, Michiel; Blanken, Maarten; Pit, Renee

    2004-10-01

    The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics Multipurpose Instrument (NAOMI) is the adaptive optics (AO) platform on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING). Until recently NAOMI has been concentrating on near infrared observations using the Isaac Newton Group Red Imaging Device (INGRID). Recent developments have added an extra optical port to NAOMI. The observer can now rapidly switch between infrared and optical instrumentation during AO observing, making the system more appealing for visiting instruments. To allow for the operation of the common user optical spectrograph OASIS, a new optical path was created around the existing NAOMI optics. Various mechanisms were also added to the whole optical system. The OASIS beam was reshaped to f/20. The original optical/IR beam remains unchanged at f/16, and forms a new universal science port (USP). The existing Nasmyth Calibration Unit (NCU) has been replaced with a new design. This new NCU has multiple fibre-fed light sources that include continuum and arc lamps. The intensity of light can be individually adjusted via computer control. A new acquisition camera is mounted such that it can be used simultaneously with the spectral lamps. Software upgrades now allow faster deformable mirror calibration. A moveable mirror is used to select which science port will receive the light. Enhancements to the NAOMI AO system are discussed in this paper and suggestions for possible future upgrades.

  4. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  5. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  6. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you or someone you know has a mental illness, there are ways to get help. Use these ... Support Alliance Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer ...

  7. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  8. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  9. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  10. Children's Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... health Articles Scientific articles and key findings Children’s Mental Health: What's New Policy Brief: Access to Mental Health ...

  11. Common Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  12. Deformable mirror designs for extreme AO (XAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaco, Jeffrey; Wirth, Allan

    2014-08-01

    One of the science missions for the next generation of extremely large ground based telescopes (30-42m apertures) is the imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets. To achieve that goal an Adaptive Optics (AO) subsystem with a very large number of corrected modes is required. To provide contrast ratios in the range of 10-9 or better for a 42m telescope an AO system with 25,000 to 60,000 channels will be needed. This is approximately an order of magnitude beyond the current state of the art. Adaptive Optics Associates Xinetics has developed the Photonex Module Deformable Mirror (DM) technology specifically to address the needs of extreme AO for high contrast applications. A Photonex Module is a monolithic block of electrostrictive ceramic in which a high density of individually addressable actuators are formed by screen printing of electrodes and partial wire saw cutting of the ceramic. The printed electrode structures also allow all electrical connections to be made at the back surface of the module via flex circuits. Actuator spacings of 1mm or less have been achieved using this approach. The individual modules can be edge butted and bonded to achieve high actuator count. The largest DMs fabricated to date have 4096 actuators in a 64X64mm array. In this paper the engineering challenges in extending this technology by a factor of ten or more in actuator count will be discussed. A conceptual design for a DM suitable for XAO will be presented. Approaches for a support structure that will maintain the low spatial frequency surface figure of this large (~0.6m) DM and for the electrical interface to the tens of thousands of actuators will be discussed. Finally, performance estimates will be presented.

  13. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  14. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A

    2002-08-01

    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  15. Results of AO simulations for ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Rodolphe; Le Louarn, Miska; Braud, J.; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.

    2003-01-01

    The design and elaboration of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) with primary mirror from 20m to 100m face with many challenges: mechanical, optical, computational, etc. To benefit completely of the full potentiality of such facilities, an Adaptive Optics System (AOS) have also to be designed for these telescopes. For whole field--of--view compensation and full sky coverage, the new but promising Multi--Conjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) technique has to be envisaged. The first step towards the design of an MCAO system is the numerical simulation. This is the first challenge we have to face. The scale of AO simulations being imposed by the ratio (D/r0), the simulation requirements of a MCAOS for an ELT, in terms of computing power and memory available to store the data, reach and sometimes overcome the capacity of actual computers. In ESO, we have evaluated different hardware and software strategies to achieve MCAO simulations goals. Two codes have been developed to simulate MCAOS using an analytical and an end-to-end model. The goals and advantages/limitations of both approaches is shown. The hardware requirements for both methods is also given through the size of their largest matrices. And finally, results of hardware and software tests for MCAO simulations with PC--cluster and paralleled code are presented.

  16. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. But it's not always easy to ... diagnose mental health problems, the doctor or mental health specialist ...

  17. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  18. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  19. AO Infrared Imaging of M71 Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberg, Andres; Richer, H.; Brewer, J.; Davis, S.; Hickson, P.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Hurley, J.; Shara, M.; Hansen, B.; Gebhardt, K.; Fahlman, G.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster we present infrared H and K AO data taken with ALTAIR/NIRI on Gemini North of the globular cluster Messier 71. This data represents approximately 22ks of observations in H and 17ks in K, in a field 22x22 arcsec centered on the core of the cluster. These data were secured under superb conditions and will provide an excellent opportunity to pursue our scientific goals. These goals include the observation of the end of hydrogen-burning main sequence in a moderately metal-rich globular cluster and, by fitting the brightness profile and looking for deviations from a King model, we will search for evidence for a central black hole in this cluster.

  20. Review of AO calibrations, or how to best educate your AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Johann

    2016-07-01

    If the Real-Time Computer is the heart of an AO system, the Wavefront Sensor (WFS) its eyes, the Deformable Mirror (DM) its hands and the control strategy its nervous system, the sum of all those parts is made into a harmonious entity thanks to calibrations. This paper does not have the ambition to provide an overview of all the currently existing calibration strategies, but rather to focus on a few challenging problems and their recent evolution in the era of adaptive telescopes, mostly based on the experience of ESO's Adaptive Optics Instruments in general and the AO Facility in particular. Single most important calibration in post-focal AO system, the recording of the Interaction Matrix (IM) between WFS and DM has since long evolved to use fast modulation techniques, has shown to be feasible on-sky and is now almost free from measurements thanks to its pseudo-synthetic generation, quasi-mandatory solution in an adaptive telescope. Pseudo- because it requires an unprecedented knowledge of the components' characteristics, especially the WFS, DM and the optical registration between the two. Bigger telescopes and the use of Laser Guide Stars (LGS) also mean that the properties of the system will change in time and thus need to be constantly updated thanks to online diagnosis tools for spot size measurement, atmosphere monitoring, Wavefront Sensing and control optimization. New loops come into play like the one to minimize LGS Jitter and the one taking over the telescope active optics by means of offloading the DM low orders, and they all require calibration. More calibration means more time and one has to carefully balance the calibrations that require precious telescope night time, day time or for the best, no telescope time at all. Their importance sometimes underestimated, calibrations have repeatedly shown to be a vital part in the optimum functioning of present and future AO systems.

  1. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Nofi, Larissa; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-12-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets. We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo-AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for 3 years and a higher-contrast Robo-AO system is being developed for the 2.2-m UH telescope on Maunakea.

  2. Directly Imaging Planets with SCExAO: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Uyama, Taichi; Garcia, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    We present the first science results from the newly commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project, an experimental system dedicated to image faint jovian planets around nearby stars. SCExAO is now achieving true extreme AO capability. We describe the typical performance of SCExAO, the first images of benchmark exoplanets and planet-forming disks, and SCExAO’s first science results. Finally, we briefly chart the path forward for SCExAO to achieve its full scientific capability, including imaging mature planets in reflected light.

  3. Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Seizure Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…

  4. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  5. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  6. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental health services in rural America. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration 2015 data , 18.3% ... into primary care, and suicide prevention. Information regarding substance abuse is found in RHIhub's Substance Abuse Topic Guide . ...

  7. Burden of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... anxiety disorder, are the most common class of mental disorders present in the general population. 5 The estimated ...

  8. Mental Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP3 Healthy Roads Media Mental Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades mentales: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...

  9. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help us make DBSAlliance.org better! Go! Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  10. Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jill; Hoover, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Critically reviews data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders. Discusses possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research. (Author)

  11. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  12. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  13. Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

    New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ∅150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

  14. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  15. Inpatient Mental Health Recapture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-07

    Administration Graduate Management Project Proposal Inpatient Mental Health Recapture A Business Case Analysis at Evans Army Community Hospital Fort Carson...This report provides a basis for evaluating potential costs and savings associated with relocation of inpatient mental health services to Evans...Recommendations Evans Army Community Hospital is currently hemorrhaging money for inpatient mental health services within the Colorado Springs

  16. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  17. Nutrition and Mental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Zena; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 had no detectable effects on the adult mental performance of surviving male offspring; birth weight was not related to mental performance; and the association of social class with mental performance was strong. (AL)

  18. WIYN active optics: a platform for AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Code, Arthur D.; Claver, Charles F.; Goble, Larry W.; Jacoby, George H.; Sawyer, David G.

    1998-09-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope is situated on the southwest ridge of Kitt Peak yielding excellent atmosphere seeing conditions. As such, the telescope and enclosure design was directed towards exploiting this feature. The primary mirror was spun cast and figured by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory and the secondary mirror by Contraves. In both cases the performance exceeded the design specifications. The borosilicate primary is actively temperature controlled to within 0.2 C of the desired temperature, typically 0.5 degrees C below the ambient air. The telescope structure is also temperature controlled and the enclosure is opened to the outside ion all sides, which all heat sources are vented to ducts carrying air downwind of the facility. The primary mirror is actively controlled for low order aberrations by 66 axial actuators which are adjusted open loop via force matrix look-up tables and closed loop via real-time wavefront curvature sensing measurements. The active optics also included real-time collimation and focus control. The telescope drive and guider are capable of providing tracking to a few hundredths of a second of arc. By employing active telescope control at this level, it is possible to maintain telescope and local wavefront distortion to a level where atmospheric effects dominate the image quality. Since a significant fraction of the power in the atmospheric disturbances is contained in image motion the first step in adaptive optics control will be simple tip tilt. Studies of higher order AO system are being carried out, as well as additional test characterizing the telescope and site. It is intended to continue such studies in an attempt to establish long term variances.

  19. NFIRAOS Multiconjugate AO System for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Byrnes, Peter; Boyer, Corinne; Caputa, Kris; Correia, Carlos; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Gilles, Luc; Hickson, Paul; Hill, Alexis; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vlad; Smith, Malcolm; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wevers, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    NFIRAOS, the Adaptive Optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, is a Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics System of order 60x60 with two deformable mirrors and six laser guide star wavefront sensors. NFIRAOS is 8 x 10 x 5 m (L x W x H) on a Nasmyth Platform and supports three client instruments operating over 0.8 - 2.5 μm wavelength range. In this paper we discuss: NFIRAOS' requirements and architecture; changes to NFIRAOS since the last AO4ELT conference; interior details of NFIRAOS; interfaces to instruments; integration and verification plans. Top-level science requirements include 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole with <187 nm wavefront error. Astrometry is an important science driver - to minimize image distortion, we have recently revised the optical design to use four off-axis paraboloidal mirrors. We have vastly simplified the laser WFS zoom optics and moved them inside the cold enclosure. To control image magnification, differential magnification and tip/tilt/focus, NFIRAOS' client instruments have three low-order warfront sensors monitoring near-infrared natural guide stars. These stars are sharpened by NFIRAOS, which assists sky coverage. NFIRAOS will have high throughput and low thermal background - it will be cooled to -30 °C. The insulated walls have a buried cold plate to intercept heat leakage and isothermalize the interior of NFIRAOS. Instruments have stringent requirements on heat leakage and must provide their own rotator and interface to NFIRAOS, including a rotating seal. For wavelength and flat field calibration of client instruments, a NFIRAOS Science Calibration Unit (NSCU) feeds light in the entrance window, through NFIRAOS, to instruments. Inside NFIRAOS are deployable light sources simulating natural and laser guide stars, a focal plane mask with pinholes illuminated by the NSCU, as well as a turbulence phase screen. A prototype screen has been manufactured by magneto-rheological machining. We are currently updating the NFIRAOS

  20. Robo-AO: Performance and Characterization at Palomar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Punnadi, S.; Chordia, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hosted at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, Robo-AO is the world's first completely autonomous, laser-beacon supported adaptive optics (AO) system, delivering diffraction-limited images in the visible and IR wavelengths. With simultaneous turbulence monitoring using a MASS-DIMM instrument, we have characterized the performance of Robo-AO as a function of local seeing, turbulence profile, laser return power and the brightness of the tip-tilt star. We shall present the various AO metrics: The full-width at half maxima of the point spread function, the Strehl ratio, the isoplanatic angle and their variations with the atmospheric and operating conditions. Strategies for optimizing robotic AO observations based on varying conditions will be discussed.

  1. The path to visible extreme adaptive optics with MagAO-2K and MagAO-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Guyon, Olivier; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Mazin, Ben; Ireland, Michael J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Conrad, Al; Kenworthy, Matthew; Snik, Frans; Otten, Gilles; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) have the potential to image habitable rocky planets, if suitably optimized. This will require the development of fast high order "extreme" adaptive optics systems for the ELTs. Located near the excellent site of the future GMT, the Magellan AO system (MagAO) is an ideal on-sky testbed for high contrast imaging development. Here we discuss planned upgrades to MagAO. These include improvements in WFS sampling (enabling correction of more modes) and an increase in speed to 2000 Hz, as well as an H2RG detector upgrade for the Clio infrared camera. This NSF funded project, MagAO-2K, is planned to be on-sky in November 2016 and will significantly improve the performance of MagAO at short wavelengths. Finally, we describe MagAO-X, a visible-wavelength extreme-AO "afterburner" system under development. MagAO-X will deliver Strehl ratios of over 80% in the optical and is optimized for visible light coronagraphy.

  2. First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 μm). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 μm (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (λ=1-5.3 μm) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (

  3. AO 0235+164 and Surrounding Field: Surprising HST Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope on the highly variable radio, x-ray, and gamma-ray emitting QSO (or BL Lac object) AO 0235 + 164 are presented and analyzed. WFPC2 images were obtained in 1994 June, when AO 0235 + 164 was bright (m approx. 17), and the results are described in Sec. 3. After subtraction of the PSF of the QSO, hereafter called AO following the nomenclature of Yanny et al. (1989), the companion object named A, 2 sec south of AO, is discovered not to be an elliptical galaxy as hypothesized earlier, but to be an AGN object, with a central UV-bright point-source nucleus and faint surrounding nebulosity extending to AO. The second companion object 1.3 sec east of AO discovered by Yanny et al. (1989) and named object Al, appears more like a normal spiral galaxy. We have measured the positions, luminosities, and colors of some 30 faint objects in the field around AO 0235 + 16; most are extended and may be star-forming galaxies in a loose group or cluster. Our most surprising result of the HST observations comes from FOS spectra obtained in 1995 July, discussed in Sec. 4. Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO's faintness at that time (m approx. 20), object A was observed instead of the intended target AO. Serendipitously, we discovered A to have broad deep BALQSO-type absorptions of C IV, Si IV, N V shortward of broad emissions. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. 5 the relationship of the objects in the central 10 sec X 1O sec region around AO, where redshifts z(sub e) = 0.94, z(sub a) = 0.524, 0.851 in AO, (sub e) = 0.524 and Z(sub BAL)=0.511 in A, are found. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. x 77 sec. field may be part of a large star-forming region at z approx. 0.5, as suggested for a few objects by Yanny et al. (1989). The proximity of two highly active extragalactic objects, AO 0235+164 and its AGN companion A, is remarkable and

  4. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project: Progress and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Garrel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 λ/D. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss two exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks.

  5. The Robo-AO automated intelligent queue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Hogstrom, Kristina; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first automated laser adaptive optics instrument. In just its second year of scientific operations, it has completed the largest adaptive optics surveys to date, each comprising thousands of targets. Robo-AO uses a fully automated queue scheduling system that selects targets based on criteria entered on a per observing program or per target basis, and includes the ability to coordinate with US Strategic Command automatically to avoid lasing space assets. This enables Robo-AO to select among thousands of targets at a time, and achieve an average observation rate of approximately 20 targets per hour.

  6. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  7. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control (``speckle nulling''). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield > 90% Strehl ratio and enable 106-107 contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  8. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency.

  9. Mental health parity legislation.

    PubMed

    Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary

    2010-09-01

    Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates.

  10. Mental Health Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Strength and Quality of Evidence 2-4 Table 2-3 Targeted Skills 2-6 Table 3-1 Fundamental Principles of Mental Health Training and Implementation 3...well-being, readiness and performance. 3.3.9 User Acceptability Mental health training must be perceived to be useful by those being trained in order...the training from helpful. However, while user acceptability is necessary, it is not sufficient for establishing good mental health training [5], [6

  11. Religion and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  12. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys.Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss several KOIs of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are ``coincident multiple'' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we will discuss and update the 98%-confidence evidence from our survey that third bodies in star/planet systems produce an excess of close-in giant planets.

  13. Real-time processing for the ATST AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K.; Rimmele, T.

    The real-time processing requirements for the four meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope extended source high order adaptive optics system will be approximately 15 times that of the Dunn Solar Telescope AO systems on which the ATST AO system is based. The ATST AO, with its approximately 1232 subapertures, will use massively parallel processing and is based on Analog Devices TigerSHARC DSPs as the central processing units. We will discuss the requirements for processing and data handling and the architecture of the correlating Shack-Hartmannn and reconstructor processing unit and present the results of bench-mark testing of the DSP hardware that was selected for the ATST AO system.

  14. Visible AO Observations at Halpha for Accreting Young Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Follette, K.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Wu, Y.-L.; Apai, D.; Najita, J.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Bailey, V.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Weinberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution science in the visible with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.5-0.7'') we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60s) r' (0.63μm) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl ~ 28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young (~ 1 Myr) Orion Trapezium θ1 Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary θ1 Ori C 1 C 2 was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. Relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with ~ 0.6-5 mas accuracy. In the second commissioning run we were able to correct 378 modes and achieved good contrasts (Strehl>20% on young transition disks at Hα). We discuss the contrasts achieved at Hα and the possibility of detecting low mass (~ 1-5 Mjup) planets (past 5AU) with our new SAPPHIRES survey with MagAO at Hα.

  15. Developing a Mental Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Argues that mental timelines for learning history are analogous to mental mapping for learning geography: both visually represent abstract concepts. Describes the construction of a classroom timeline and activities for fifth- and sixth-grade students that incorporate the use of timelines. Notes reasonable expectations for student progress at this…

  16. Mental health. Inside job.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Emma

    2005-11-17

    Four out of five prisoners suffer mental health problems. There are 139 liaison teams responsible for ensuring offenders are directed to hospitals where appropriate, but they are under-resourced and stretched to capacity. Mental health teams are working to reduce inappropriate referrals.

  17. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  18. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roads Media Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Salud mental: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Suicide (An Introduction) - English Suicide (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP3 ... MP3 Siloam Family Health ...

  19. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  20. [Genetics of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, A; Saugier-Veber, P

    2010-10-01

    Mental retardation affects nearly 3 % of the population. The causes of these disorders are various and are often not identified. Recent advances focused on the molecular basis of mental retardation. Nearly half of mental retardation syndromes have a genetic origin and the description of molecular, cytogenetic and metabolic alterations in these disorders led to the development of diagnostic tools. Indeed, identifying the precise origin of the mental retardation allows to improve patient care and to refine the prognosis. Moreover, these molecular tools will help the geneticist to evaluate the recurrence risk in the family in the genetic counseling step. On a fundamental point of view, the knowledge of molecular basis of mental retardation will help to understand the biological pathway which constitutes the first step before therapeutic strategies. Every patient with mental retardation should be investigated for causal origin of the disease. We will detail the diagnostic methods necessary to investigate a patient presenting with mental retardation. Then different examples of syndromes including a mental retardation will be chosen to illustrate different clinical situations. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  2. Rethinking Mental Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.

    Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…

  3. MENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOLLES, STANLEY F.; AND OTHERS

    THE DIRECTORY IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GUIDE TO MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMS AND SERVICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES. IT IS ORGANIZED INTO A FEDERAL SECTION AND A STATE AND COMMUNITY SECTION, EACH OF WHICH IS PRECEDED BY AN INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT CONCERNING THE LISTINGS IN THAT SECTION. ADDRESSES AND SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAJOR MENTAL HEALTH…

  4. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... of benign genes ID’s ASD suspects More Additional Mental Health Information from NIMH Medications Statistics Clinical Trials Coping ... Finder Publicaciones en Español The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...

  6. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Patients & Families Patients & Families ... OCD) Postpartum Depression Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) More Climate Change and Mental Health Connections Warning Signs of Mental ...

  7. Women Veterans and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...

  8. Neurodynamics of mental exploration.

    PubMed

    Hopfield, John J

    2010-01-26

    Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations.

  9. Neurodynamics of mental exploration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations. PMID:20080534

  10. Accessory mental foramen

    PubMed Central

    Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra

    2009-01-01

    Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist. PMID:22666714

  11. Mental Rotation, Mental Representation, and Flat Slopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale; Kubovy, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Mental rotation studies examine how subjects determine whether two stimuli differing in orientation have the same-handedness. Handedness recognition tasks require the subject to determine whether forms are identical, differing only in degree of angular displacement. Four experiments involving 160 undergraduates demonstrate that mental…

  12. Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

    Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1‧‧. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00

  13. Period Studies of Close Binaries, AO Cam and AW Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Han, Won-Yong; Nha, Il-Seong

    1992-06-01

    Photoelectric observations of close binary stars, AO Cam and AW Cam, were made during the 1984 observing season with the 61cm reflector at the Sobaeksan Observatory. One time of primary minimum for AO Cam and three primary epochs for AW Cam were derived from the observation of these two system. Times of minimum light of these two binaries collected from literature were analyzed with a least square fitting method. New improved light elements for AO Cam and AW Cam were determined. The orbital period of AO Cam had been constant from October, 1980(JD 2444520) to February, 1985(JD 2446107). However, one secondary time of minimum(JD 2447864.7879) of AO Cam published recently by Mullis and Faulkner(1991) shows large deviation of about 4.6 minutes (0.d0032) from the one predicted by our new light elements. Future observations of times of minima for this system are needed to test this period change. The orbital period of AW Cam has been constant as P = 0d77134645 for about sixty years from the early 1930's to the present.

  14. Characterizing and mitigating vibrations for SCExAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Goebel, Sean; Norris, Barnaby; Okita, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, under development for the Subaru Telescope, has currently the fastest on-sky wavefront control loop, with a pyramid wavefront sensor running at 3.5 kHz. But even at that speed, we are still limited by low-frequency vibrations. The current main limitation was found to be vibrations attributed mainly to the rotation of the telescope. Using the fast wavefront sensors, cameras and accelerometers, we managed to identify the origin of most of the vibrations degrading our performance. Low-frequency vibrations are coming from the telescope drive in azimuth and elevation, as well as the elevation encoders when the target is at transit. Other vibrations were found at higher frequency coming from the image rotator inside Subaru's adaptive optics facility AO188. Different approaches are being implemented to take care of these issues. The PID control of the image rotator has been tuned to reduce their high-frequency contribution. We are working with the telescope team to tune the motor drives and reduce the impact of the elevation encoder. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller (LQG, or Kalman filter) is also being implemented inside SCExAO to control these vibrations. These solutions will not only improve significantly SCExAOs performance, but will also help all the other instruments on the Subaru Telescope, especially the ones behind AO188. Ultimately, this study will also help the development of the TMT, as these two telescopes share very similar drives.

  15. [Genetic mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Revenga Bodi, L; Madrigal-Bajo, I; Milà-Racasens, M

    2006-10-10

    Mental retardation is a frequently occurring disorder with a major impact on the life of the affected person, the family and society, with an estimated incidence of 1-3% in developed countries. Among the etiologies that cause mental retardation it would appear that 30% have a genetic origin, 15% have an environmental origin, and the rest have an unknown origin. AIM. To report the genetic causes of mental retardation and the new molecular techniques used in order to reach a diagnosis. The identification of the causes of mental retardation is of great interest due to the consequences it has in the intervention, prognosis, estimation of risk of recurrence and its prevention. Causes of mental retardation are extremely heterogeneous. Genetic causes can be classified as chromosomal alterations (aneuploidies, subtelomeric rearrangements, microdeletion or microduplication syndrome), monogenic, metabolic, or multifactorial alterations. Thanks to the development of high-resolution new techniques -comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays, and multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA)- now we are able to detect microdeletions and microduplication all over the genome, which might be related with mental retardation. The genetic causes of mental retardation are highly heterogeneous and complex. Nowadays and thanks to the new molecular techniques we are able to perform several studies, even though almost half of cases remain undiagnosed. In those undiagnosed cases with positive familial history a genetic counseling can be provided. However, in order to perform a prenatal or a preimplantational study a genetic diagnosis is required.

  16. X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2009-05-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions. There are more than 900 genetic disorders associated with MR and it affects around 3% of the general population. Many MR conditions described are syndromic, fragile X syndrome being the most common clinical entity among them. X linked mental retardation (XLMR) is subdivided in two categories: syndromic XLMR (MRXS) when MR is associated with clinical features and non-syndromic XLMR (MRX) when MR is isolated. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to join together the results of several studies related to X linked mental retardation and to present various genes implicated in this disease. In this review, focus has been given on genes implicated in mental retardation, the clinical data and on phenotype-genotype correlations. An exhaustive electronic and library research of the recent literature was carried out on the Web sites "Science Direct" and "Interscience Wiley". The key words used were "mental retardation", "X chromosome", "gene", "syndromic mental retardation", "non-syndromic mental retardation". In this review a number of X linked genes, the clinical features associated with the gene abnormality, and the prevalence of the disease gene are discussed. We classified these genes by order of their first implication in MR. A table presented on the XLMR Update Web site who list the 82 known XLMR genes is available as XLMR Genes and corresponding proteins.

  17. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  18. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  19. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  20. Abandoning the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Barton, R

    1975-12-01

    Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.

  1. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  2. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  3. A pyramid sensor based AO system for Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Rabien, S.

    2011-09-01

    Since the introduction of the pyramid wavefront sensor in the mid 90s, various authors have shown both theoretically and with the aid of simulations that pyramid sensors can achieve a better performance than traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Recently the First-Light AO system (FLAO) at the Large Binocular Telescope has demonstrated excellent on sky performance achieved with a pyramid based system. Motivated by these results, we will present in this paper a first heuristic analysis scaling up the FLAO performance to the case of an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). We support our arguments with preliminary numerical simulations for the case of the European ELT using the M4 adaptive corrector and a properly matched pyramid sensor. Such a system could be used as a first-light natural guide-star AO system for the European ELT offering the advantages of a demonstrated AO system with practically off-the-shelf technology.

  4. Second generation Robo-AO instruments and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Chun, Mark R.; Lu, Jessica R.; Connelley, Michael S.; Hall, Donald; Atkinson, Dani; Jacobson, Shane

    2014-07-01

    The prototype Robo-AO system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope is the world's first fully automated laser adaptive optics instrument. Scientific operations commenced in June 2012 and more than 12,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. Two new infrared cameras providing high-speed tip-tilt sensing and a 2' field-of-view will be integrated in 2014. In addition to a Robo-AO clone for the 2-m IGO and the natural guide star variant KAPAO at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope, a second generation of facility-class Robo-AO systems are in development for the 2.2-m University of Hawai'i and 3-m IRTF telescopes which will provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to λ = 400 nm.

  5. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  6. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  7. Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Acton, D. Scott; An, Jong R.; Avicola, Kenneth; Beeman, Bart V.; Brase, James M.; Carrano, Carmen J.; Gathright, John; Gavel, Donald T.; Hurd, Randall L.; Lai, Olivier; Lupton, William; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Shelton, J. Christopher; Stomski, Paul J.; Tsubota, Kevin; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Watson, James A.; Wizinowich, Peter L.

    2000-07-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  8. Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

  9. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    2017-10-06

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Does 'mental kinesiophobia' exist?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anton J M

    2003-10-01

    In this study the relevance of the concept of mental kinesiophobia (respectively cogniphobia or fear of mental exertion) for clients with chronic stress problems was explored. It was hypothesized that cognitive, chronic stress complaints, such as concentration problems or decreased problem solving abilities, could be catastrophized as signs of heightened personal vulnerability, with a chance of becoming permanent. As a consequence, mental exertion is avoided. This line of reasoning comes from the existing concept of kinesiophobia. This concept describes the avoidance behavior in chronic benign pain patients and refers to their fear of inflicting irreversible bodily damage due to physical exertion.An illustrative case of cogniphobia is presented. In an explorative pilot-study it was demonstrated that chronically stressed clients scored significantly higher on an experimental questionnaire measuring avoidance tendencies for mental exertion, compared with actively working employees. Consequences for treatment and suggestions for further study are discussed.

  11. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  12. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  13. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  14. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  15. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  16. Mental workload and driving

    PubMed Central

    Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678

  17. A Prediction of the Damping Properties of Hindered Phenol AO-60/polyacrylate Rubber (AO-60/ACM) Composites through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Geng; Li, Qiang-Guo; Wu, Si-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Molecule dynamics (MD) simulation, a molecular-level method, was applied to predict the damping properties of AO-60/polyacrylate rubber (AO-60/ACM) composites before experimental measures were performed. MD simulation results revealed that two types of hydrogen bond, namely, type A (AO-60) -OH•••O=C- (ACM), type B (AO-60) - OH•••O=C- (AO-60) were formed. Then, the AO-60/ACM composites were fabricated and tested to verify the accuracy of the MD simulation through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DMTA results showed that the introduction of AO-60 could remarkably improve the damping properties of the composites, including the increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) alongside with the loss factor (tan δ), also indicating the AO-60/ACM(98/100) had the best damping performance amongst the composites which verified by the experimental.

  18. Mental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.

  19. Course Material Model in A&O Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levasma, Jarkko; Nykanen, Ossi

    One of the problematic issues in the content development for learning environments is the process of importing various types of course material into the environment. This paper describes a method for importing material into the A&O open learning environment by introducing a material model for metadata recognized by the environment. The first…

  20. Religiosity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pajević, Izet; Sinanović, Osman; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2005-06-01

    Mental health is not considered only as absence of mental disorders, but rather as the achievement of higher standards of available psychical potentials. True devotion and obedience to The God give the one a huge and incredible strength, constant source of spiritual emotional and moral energy, which is of help in resisting destructive and slavery attacks of the environment and its materialistic-consuming tendencies, as well as social and mental disruption. According to the opinion of numerous worldwide recognized mental health experts, humankind of today is confronted with a number of problems, which are the consequence of spiritual and moral-ethical degradation of human being. Therefore, religiosity became the field of interest of mental health researchers. The results of new studies undoubtedly indicate beneficial effects of religion on life and mental health in humans. Religiosity reduces tendencies for risky behaviour, impulsive reactions and aggression; it corrects tendencies towards psychopathic and paranoid behaviour, reduces converse, depressive and schizoid tendency, and provides successful overcome of emotional conflicts. In comparison to low-religious adolescents, the factors such as inner conflicts, frustration, fear, anxiety, psychological trauma, low self-esteem, unbalance of psychical homeostasis, emotional instability, and negative psychical energy are less present in highly religious adolescents and neutralized in a healthier and more efficient way. Beneficial impact of religion on mental health derives from precise cognitive-behavioural patterns, which provide a clear life orientation, solid basis and safe frames for personality development, assuring human to be continually on the way to achieve its own generic essence and reach its own maturity and self-actualization.

  1. Attitudes of Jordanian mental health nurses toward mental illness and patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.

  2. Atheism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  3. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  4. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  5. Mental disorders in prisons.

    PubMed

    Abdalla-Filho, Elias; De Souza, Patricia A; Tramontina, Juliana F; Taborda, José G V

    2010-09-01

    The existence of people with mental disorders in prisons is a reality found worldwide. The purpose of this article is not only to review the publications on this subject in 2009 but also to stimulate discussions that could contribute to its further scientific study. Most studies published in 2009 related to drug use among inmates and its consequences made it clear that this kind of disorder has a closer relationship with the crime than with mental illness. The existence of the mentally ill in prisons is a complex issue and the studies attempt to analyze aspects such as the type of disorder, sex of criminals, the opposition between incarceration and treatment, policy, harm reduction and stigma. A further study on the variables raised in this work is required, as well as examining others, to the extent that they are relevant to the various socio-economic and cultural realities.

  6. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  7. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  8. [Mental disorders in puberty].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Andreas

    2005-03-24

    Puberty is characterized by a complexity of different developmental tasks. During this period of sometimes dramatic changes, the adolescent must find a new balance between personal experiences and the demands made by the environment. In this period of development, some 18% of all adolescents experience a mental crisis, and 5% need specialist treatment. Such mental disorders in puberty as anorexia nervosa, depression or suicidality can be classified on the basis of their development and course. They must be taken seriously and treated as early as possible.

  9. Diffraction limited operation with ARGOS: a hybrid AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS, the Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system, using 3 low-altitude beacons, to improve the resolution over the 4'×4' FoV of the imager and Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) LUCIFER. In this paper we discuss the performance and the reconstruction scheme of an hybrid AO system using the ARGOS Rayleigh beacons complemented with a single faint high-altitude star (NGS or sodium beacon) to sense the turbulence of the upper atmosphere allowing an high degree of on-axis correction. With the ARGOS system, the NGS-upgrade can be immediately implemented at LBT using the already existing Pyramid WFS offering performance similar to the NGS AO system with the advantage of a larger sky coverage.

  10. Real-time control system verification for ELT AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Morris, Tim; Bharmal, Nazim; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Reeves, Andrew; Gendron, Eric; Rousset, Gérard; Hubert, Zoltan; Vidal, Fabrice; Matin, Olivier; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    ELT AO systems have demanding computational requirements for real-timecontrol. These systems are required to be fully tested and robustbefore commissioning so that valuable on-sky time is not wasted. Inthis talk I will report recent work at Durham on our ELT AO real-timecontrol system, algorithms that we use to improve robustness, anddevelopment of an end-to-end testing environment that will allow fulltesting of real-time control systems, including both Monte-Carlosimulation and hardware approaches. The talk will include experiencegained with CANARY, how the robustness of this system has beenimproved, and our experience operating with four laser guide stars. Workcarried out in this area on the DRAGON test-bench will also bedescribed.

  11. Intelligent vibration control of ELTs and large AO hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, J.-U.; Kürster, M.; Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Herbst, T.; Böhm, M.; Keck, A.; Ruppel, T.; Sawodny, O.

    2012-07-01

    MPIA leads the construction of the LINC-NIRVANA instrument, the MCAO-supported Fizeau imager for the LBT, serves as pathfinder for future ELT-AO imagers in terms of size and technology. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to 100nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT. MPIA also co-develops the E-ELT first-light NIR imager MICADO (both SCAO and MCAO assisted). Our experiences, made with LINC-NIRVANA, will be fed into the MICADO structural AO design to reach highest on-sky sensitivity.

  12. Mental Health: Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Mental illness False beliefs about mental illness can cause significant problems. Learn what you can do about stigma. By Mayo Clinic ... as someone making a negative remark about your mental illness or your treatment. Or it may be unintentional ...

  13. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  14. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  15. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  16. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  17. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  18. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  19. Latina Mothers' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Conner, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Latina mothers' perceptions of mental health and factors that promote/restore mental health were explored in this qualitative study. Participants discussed the importance of community, safety, and financial stability in addition to conventional factors that are related to mental health. Implications for working with urban Latinas and their…

  20. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) Process Improvement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC’s) AoA Primer and previous acquisition reviews (Decker- Wagner , etc.). (5...2009................................................................36 Figure E-7. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(1 of 2...37 Figure E-8. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(2 of 2).................38 Figure E-9. Goldwater Nichols

  1. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  2. Propeller Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo 12 Di -RSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kim, Ki-Han 1 3a TYPE OF REPORT 1,3b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year., Month. Day) us...3367 0441 09:11 .1507 .1604 .71 .0442 .1118 .1024 .0906 .0770 OsSO 00000 L3 I 93 S 417 3969 - 3452 -3069 -296 -. 299 to .: -. 039 -. 1612 -. 1424 -. 1304

  3. AO Distal Radius Fracture Classification: Global Perspective on Observer Agreement.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Teunis, Teun; Giménez, Beatriz Bravo; Verstreken, Frederik; Di Mascio, Livio; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-02-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to test interobserver reliability when classifying fractures by consensus by AO types and groups among a large international group of surgeons. Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. Methods A randomized set of radiographic and computed tomographic images from a consecutive series of 96 distal radius fractures (DRFs), treated between October 2010 and April 2013, was classified using an electronic web-based portal by an invited group of participants on two occasions. Results Interobserver reliability was substantial when classifying AO type A fractures but fair and moderate for type B and C fractures, respectively. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties. Intra-rater reproducibility was "substantial" for fracture types and "fair" for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. Conclusion Improved definition of reliability and reproducibility of this classification may be achieved using large international groups of raters, empowering decision making on which system to utilize. Level of Evidence Level III.

  4. Single-shot retinal imaging with AO spectral OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an adaptive optics (AO) spectral OCT retina camera that acquires with unprecedented 3D resolution (2.9 μm lateral; 5.5 μm axial) single shot B-scans of the living human retina. The camera centers on a Michelson interferometer that consists of a superluminescent diode for line illuminating the subject's retinal; voice coil translator for controlling the optical path length of the reference channel; and an imaging spectrometer that is cascaded with a 12-bit area CCD array. The imaging spectrometer was designed with negligible off-axis aberrations and was constructed from stock optical components. AO was integrated into the detector channel of the interferometer and dynamically compensated for most of the ocular aberration across a 6 mm pupil. Short bursts of B-scans, with 100 Ascans each, were successfully acquired at 1 msec intervals. Camera sensitivity was found sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. Individual outer segments of photoreceptors at different retinal eccentricities were observed in vivo. Periodicity of the outer segments matched cone spacing as measured from AO flood illuminated images of the same patches of retina.

  5. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  6. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  7. Substance Use and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... that addiction to drugs or alcohol is a mental illness? Substance use disorder changes normal desires and priorities. ... had both a substance use disorder and another mental illness. More than half of the people with both ...

  8. Mental Health and Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Mental Health and Heart Health Updated:Nov 10,2015 For years, doctors thought the connection between mental health and heart health was strictly behavioral – such as ...

  9. Deploying the Mental Eye

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their “pictorial relief” in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two “mental viewpoints.” The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such command. All three observers could redirect their “mental view direction” by up to 20°. These observers experience “paradoxical monocular” stereopsis, whereas a sizable fraction of the population does not. Moreover, they had some experience in assuming various “viewing modes.” Whereas one cannot generalize to the population at large, these findings at least prove that it is possible to direct the mental viewpoint actively. This is of importance to the visual arts. For instance, academic drawings require one to be simultaneously aware of a “viewing” (for the drawing) and an “illumination direction” (for the shading). Being able to mentally deploy various vantage points is a crucial step from the “visual field” to the “visual space.” PMID:27648221

  10. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  11. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  12. Mental Retardation Film List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A list of films on mental retardation includes titles, publication information, physical descriptions, language revisions when other than English, series reference, technical description of film content, sale source, and distributor. Films intended for the general public are grouped under the heading Nonprofessional; others are listed as…

  13. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198

  14. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  15. Models of Mental Functioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-14

    Mental Retardation. Detterman, D. K. (in press). Common challenges in understanding human and artificial intelligence. [Review of Creative Intelligences...Limited. Sternberg, R. J., & Detterman, D. K. (1988). Oue es la inteligencia ? Enfoque actual de su naturaleza y definicion. Translation of What is

  16. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  17. Nutrition and Mental Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Linda S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…

  18. Selected Mental Health Audiovisuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…

  19. Media and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David

    1983-01-01

    Outlines some of the main issues and areas of debate at the first international Congress on Audio-Visual Communication and Mental Health, which was held in Helsinki in June 1983. The issues discussed include the connection between violent actions and violence on television and censorship. The declared congress objectives are listed. (Author/MBR)

  20. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  1. Resocializing Aged Mental Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A special project for aged, hospitalized mental patients, drawing on home economics skills in a team approach to rehabilitation, provides skills training leading to patients' increased capacity for self-care, helps patients transfer from the hospital to some form of community life, and provides follow-up services. (Author/AJ)

  2. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  3. Appalachian Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Susan Emley, Ed.

    In this book, 17 psychologists, anthropologists, social workers and others explore important theoretical and applied issues concerning the mental health of Appalachian people. Rejecting the view of Appalachia as an area dominated by a culture of poverty, these papers portray a strong regional culture based on family, community, and religion. This…

  4. Mental Recreation in Wonderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendlebury, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that children's books are not, as commonly held, either didactic or entertaining and that successful juvenile literature teaches what Lewis Carroll, who wrote "Alice in Wonderland," termed "mental recreation." Pendlebury contends that learning and play, far from being opposites, can closely resemble one…

  5. Rhythms of Mental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

  6. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  7. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  8. Nutrition and Mental Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnic, Linda S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…

  9. Audiovisuals in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…

  10. Rhythms of Mental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…

  11. Depression and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Marie A.

    Mentally retarded people may be particularly vulnerable to depression and related emotional disturbances due to limited social skills, lack of friends, and negative self-esteem. A therapy group for depressed retarded clients provided an opportunity to collect information about depression in retarded individuals and to evaluate various treatment…

  12. Mental health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    I gained experience of psychiatric assessment in previous roles when working in a secure psychiatric ward and within the prison service. Although I have often performed mental state assessments and assessments of suicidal intent as part of my work, I read the CPD article to refresh my knowledge in this area.

  13. Discrimination, poor mental health, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination is a major public health issue. Discrimination is known and well recognized to be associated with poor physical and mental health, as well as creating social divisions and fear that undermines the success of society and economic progress. Policies to eradicate discrimination and prejudice in the public sphere, and in public life, need thoughtful and careful planning and engagement by all public institutions and in the way they conduct their business. This forms the basis of social justice. Employers, politicians, and public servants, as well as other stakeholders, irrespective of their professional status, all have ethical responsibilities to uphold such actions and policies, values, and supporting behaviours, as a core principle of successful societies.

  14. Mental health and housing.

    PubMed

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  15. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  16. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  17. School mental health resources and adolescent mental health service use.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E Jane; Gruber, Michael J; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-05-01

    Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This article examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources and policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Nearly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students to mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and may influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  19. SIMS chemical and isotopic analysis of impact features from LDEF experiments AO187-1 and AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO187-2 showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues. The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO187-1 in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces. SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

  20. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  1. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  2. Mental Health Program Reports - 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Julius, Ed.

    The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…

  3. Mental Health of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Malavika

    Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…

  4. Mental Health, United States, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…

  5. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  6. Mental Health Systems in Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, David J.

    The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…

  7. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  8. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  9. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  10. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  11. Mental health nurses' attitudes towards severe perinatal mental illness.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Susan; Whitford, Heather

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the experiences and attitudes of generic mental health nurses towards care of women with severe mental illness during the perinatal period. Severe mental disorder in the perinatal period is a global public health concern. However, there are concerns that mental health nurses other than dedicated perinatal mental health teams may lack knowledge, skills and experience in caring for such disorders, because of their low prevalence. Sixteen generic Registered Mental Nurses working in public adult mental health services participated in three focus groups during 2007. Participants did not perceive any difference between symptoms during perinatal and non-perinatal periods. There were mixed attitudes towards caring for women with severe mental illness in the perinatal period. Fear and anxiety was expressed by the nurses when caring or feeling responsible for the babies of clients. Lack of communication between professional groups and decreased clinical decision-making following the introduction of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale caused frustration. Confidence was displayed when working with known and trusted colleagues. Generic mental health nurses would benefit from more education on perinatal mental health and there may be a need for them to be supported by specialist perinatal mental health practitioners.

  12. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  13. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  14. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  15. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  16. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  17. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  18. [Seven views on mental disorder].

    PubMed

    Meynen, G; Ralston, A

    2011-01-01

    Anyone attempting to devise a system for classifying mental disorders, such as DSM-5, needs to know what is meant by a mental disorder. This matter is also highly relevant for doctors in their daily practice and for persons involved in scientific research. To present and discuss important views on the concept of mental disorder. Recent relevant literature is discussed, the main emphasis being on philosophical studies of the concept of mental disorder. None of the views discussed provides a satisfactory answer to the question of how mental disorder should be defined and demarcated. Each view, however, does contain valuable points and elements that may help to offer a meaningful perspective on mental disorder. Mental disorder is a complex concept. The way in which it is defined and applied has far-reaching consequences. Psychiatry has a duty to define this concept as clearly and accurately as possible.

  19. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  1. Expatriate mental health.

    PubMed

    Foyle, M F; Beer, M D; Watson, J P

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the historical aspects of expatriate mental health, and comments on the paucity of literature in the medical and psychiatric journals. Data obtained from 397 expatriate probands examined during overseas service are described. It was noted that there was a high incidence of affective and adjustment disorders. The results showed six areas significantly related to those with affective disorders at interview, namely a history of consultation for psychological problems in out-patient departments or with the patient's own doctor, a history of depressed mood, and a family history of suicide, psychosis or personality disorder. Subjects with adjustment disorders at interview showed a significant positive correlation with four stressors (occupational anxiety, home country anxieties, acculturation and physical ill-health), but showed a negative association with a past personal history of consultation for psychological problems at out-patient departments or with their own doctors. These findings are discussed and practical applications suggested for improving expatriate mental health.

  2. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  3. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  4. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  5. Stream-Field Interactions in the Magnetic Accretor AO Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel; van Zyl, Liza

    2005-06-01

    UV spectra of the magnetic accretor AO Psc show absorption features for half the binary orbit. The absorption is unlike the wind-formed features often seen in similar stars. Instead, we attribute it to a fraction of the stream that overflows the impact with the accretion disk. Rapid velocity variations can be explained by changes in the trajectory of the stream depending on the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic field. Hence, we are directly observing the interaction of an accretion stream with a rotating field. We compare this behavior to that seen in other intermediate polars and in SW Sex stars.

  6. Postpartum mental health.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, H; Rastas, S; Tukeva, L; Kuha, S; Niskanen, L; Saarikoski, S

    1994-09-01

    The mental health of parturients 1-2 months after delivery was assessed. The study was carried out using a questionnaire between September and November 1992 in connection with the postpartum visits of mothers to the maternity health care center. The need for psychological help was assessed using a 12-item questionnaire (General Health Questionnaire), according to which 28% of the subjects needed psychological help. These mothers did not differ from the others in terms of age, marital status, education, or financial situation. Nor was the need for psychological help associated with health habits, with traumatic life events or conflicts during childhood and adolescence, or with delivery-related factors. Mothers needing psychological help were more depressed and considered the social support they were receiving to be inadequate more often than the others. These women also more often reported marital problems during pregnancy and after delivery. None of the mothers had sought help because of mental health problems. It is concluded that antenatal and postnatal clinics should pay more attention to the mental health of mothers.

  7. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  8. [Mental retardation and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Hyperactivity syndromes and disorders (ADHD and HKD) include the symptoms of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, which occur in many other mental disorders as well, including mental retardation (MR). It is not surprising that symptoms of ADHD occur significantly higher in children with learning disabilities. Dekker and Koot (2003) found a prevalence of 14.8 % for ADHD in Dutch children attending special schools, and Emerson (2003) reported rates of 8.7 % for HKD in children with global learning disability, representing a 10-fold increased risk compared to the prevalence of hyperactivity (0.9 %) in the general population sample. Yet only very few studies have been published concerning ADHD in children with mental retardation. Several features distinguish the diagnoses of ADHD and MR. In contrast to the limited knowledge about the differences and similarities of ADHD and MR, many studies considered stimulant medication as a pharmacological management strategy for children suffering from ADHD, MR, or both. According to these studies, psychostimulants may improve the target symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, disinhibition, and inattention, albeit with caveats: ADHD symptoms in patients with MR may be less responsive to medical treatment than in patients without MR. Moreover, people with MR may be more susceptible to side effects.

  9. Characterization of Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Carotenoid Pigments in Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Lozito, Maria L.; Simeone, Rosanna; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) enzyme (EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final steps of carotenoid catabolism and it is a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AO isoforms are located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many plants, where induce the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyze the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. The goal of the present study was to characterize the AO genes involved in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in wheat grain, an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. The cDNAs corresponding to the four AO isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and five AO isoforms from Brachypodium distachyon were used as query in 454 sequence assemblies data for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (https://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/blast/blast.php) to obtain the partial or whole orthologous wheat AO sequences. Three wheat isoforms, designated AO1, AO2, and AO3 were located on the chromosome groups 2, 5, and 7, respectively, and mapped on two consensus wheat maps by SNP markers located within the AO gene sequences. To validate the possible relationships between AO3 genes and carotenoid accumulation in wheat, the expression levels of AO-A3 and AO-B3 gene were determined during the kernel maturation stage of two durum wheat cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by a low and high carotenoid content, respectively. Different AO-A3 gene expression values were observed between the two cultivars indicating that the AO-A3 allele present in Ciccio was more active in carotenoid degradation. A gene marker was developed and can be used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs. PMID:28596779

  10. Titanium alloys (AoN) and their involvement in osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration is essential for a long-term successful and inflammation-free dental implant. Such a result depends on osteoblastic cells growth and differentiation at the tissue-implant interface. The aim of this study was to compare two different AoN titanium layers (GR4 and GR5) to investigate which one had a greater osteoconductive power using human osteoblasts (HOb) culture at two different time-points. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of some bone-related (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analyzed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Results: Real-time RT-PCR data showed that after 3 days of treatment with TiA4GR, the genes up-regulated were COL3A1, ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was noticed 4 days later. On the other hand, the genes that overexpressed after 3 days of treatment with AoN5GR were ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. In both cases, the expression of COL1A1 and SPARC was negatively regulated. Conclusion: Our data showed that both titanium surfaces led to osteoblasts recruitment, maturation, and differentiation, thus promoting osseointegration at the tissue-implant interface. PMID:23814585

  11. Titanium alloys (AoN) and their involvement in osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Osseointegration is essential for a long-term successful and inflammation-free dental implant. Such a result depends on osteoblastic cells growth and differentiation at the tissue-implant interface. The aim of this study was to compare two different AoN titanium layers (GR4 and GR5) to investigate which one had a greater osteoconductive power using human osteoblasts (HOb) culture at two different time-points. The expression levels of some bone-related (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analyzed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Real-time RT-PCR data showed that after 3 days of treatment with TiA4GR, the genes up-regulated were COL3A1, ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was noticed 4 days later. On the other hand, the genes that overexpressed after 3 days of treatment with AoN5GR were ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. In both cases, the expression of COL1A1 and SPARC was negatively regulated. Our data showed that both titanium surfaces led to osteoblasts recruitment, maturation, and differentiation, thus promoting osseointegration at the tissue-implant interface.

  12. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  13. Studying binary asteroids with NGS and LGS AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Berthier, Jerome; Descamps, Pascal; Hestroffer, Daniel; Vachier, Frederic; Laver, Conor; de Pater, Imke; Gavel, Don T.

    2004-10-01

    Since the discovery of Dactyl orbiting around Ida by the Galileo spacecraft in 1993, over twenty-five binary asteroid systems have been discovered using radar, direct imaging and Adaptive Optics observations. Asteroidal moon discoveries dramatically increased with the advent of this last technique on ground based telescopes. Our group focuses on the search and study of double asteroids in the main-belt, in the Trojan population and beyond Neptune's orbit. We have been using several of the AO systems available (Lick-3m, Palomar-5m, VLT-8m, Keck-10m) and related techniques such as Appulse and Laser Guide Star observations to broaden the sample of asteroids observed from the main-belt out to the Kuiper Belt. We will present a quality comparison between various techniques and different AO systems with NGS and will detail our first successful observations with the Lick LGS system. Precise orbital elements of the secondary can be determined by multiple observations spanning large periods of time (several months). Our group developed a method to predict the ephemeris of a secondary companion. Without any assumptions, this method, tested successfully on 22 Kalliope and 121 Hermione binary systems, leads to the direct determination of important physical parameters of the targets, such as their mass and the interior structure, as well as gives direct insights on their formation processes that may be otherwise only be speculated on from spacecraft mission flybys.

  14. Robo-AO: autonomous and replicable laser-adaptive-optics and science system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Hildebrandt, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2012-07-01

    We have created a new autonomous laser-guide-star adaptive-optics (AO) instrument on the 60-inch (1.5-m) telescope at Palomar Observatory called Robo-AO. The instrument enables diffraction-limited resolution observing in the visible and near-infrared with the ability to observe well over one-hundred targets per night due to its fully robotic operation. Robo-AO is being used for AO surveys of targets numbering in the thousands, rapid AO imaging of transient events and long-term AO monitoring not feasible on large diameter telescope systems. We have taken advantage of cost-effective advances in deformable mirror and laser technology while engineering Robo-AO with the intention of cloning the system for other few-meter class telescopes around the world.

  15. Light Therapy in Mental Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Cormac, H. Dove

    1929-01-01

    The position of actinotherapy in Mental Hospitals in this country is reviewed. An investigation of the results of ultra-violet irradiation in mental disorders at Parkside Mental Hospital is described and it is shown that certain types of the psychoses appear to benefit. The physiological action of actinic rays in relation to mental disorders is discussed and their mode of action on the nervous system suggested. Reference is made to substances which sensitize the body tissues to sunlight and ultra-violet radiation. An allusion is made to glass, penetrable by a portion of the actinic rays, and its uses. The need for ultra-violet ray apparatus in every mental hospital is urged both for treatment of mental and physical conditions and for the study of its action. PMID:19986837

  16. European strategies for mental health.

    PubMed

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  17. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  19. Chile mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  20. Spirituality and mental health clients.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Mary Linda

    2004-07-01

    Spirituality is an important part of human existence but is often overlooked in the conceptualization of the person as a biopsychosocial entity. This article examines spirituality as a concept, relates it to the experience of mental health clients, proposes spiritual assessments and interventions within the role of advanced practice mental health nurses, and discusses the necessity of including spiritual interventions to support healing and wholeness for mental health clients.

  1. Electromagnetic Metrics of Mental Workload.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    D-AiBS 285 ELECTROMAGNETIC METRICS OF MENTAL AdORIKLOAD(U) PURDUE t/, UNIV LAFAYETTE IN EEG SIGNAL PROCESSING LRB RUNON ET AL SEP 87 AFOSR-TR-87-ib.3...ACCESSION NO 61102F 2313 A4 11 TITLE (Include Security Claiwfication) Electromagnetic Metrics of Mental Workload (U) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Aunon, J. I...sustained high level of workload can lead to mental exhaustion. Previous research has indicated that heart rate lariability and evoked potentials in

  2. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  3. Thailand mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Siriwanarangsan, Porntep; Liknapichitkul, Dusit; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2004-01-01

    Thailand, a constitutional monarchy, has undergone a rapid shift in its demography and economy in last two decades. This has put a great burden on the health services, including mental health care of the country. The current emphasis of the Ministry of Public Health is to change its role from health care provider to policymaker and regulator of standards, and to provide technical support to health facilities under its jurisdiction as well as in the private sector. The Department of Mental Health, established in 1994, has laid down a mental health policy that aims to promote mental health care within the community with the help of people's participation in health programmes. Focus has been placed on developing suitable and efficient technology by seeking cooperation both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health. Consequently, the Department of Mental Health has been receiving increasing budgetary allocations. Since there is a paucity of trained manpower, the emphasis is being laid on the utilization of general health care for mental health care. Some of the specific interventions are community services, prison services, psychiatric rehabilitation, and use of media in mental health operations. There have been active efforts towards international cooperation for developing technologies for specific programmes. Private and non-governmental organizations are supported and encouraged to provide mental health care to the marginalized sections of society. Efforts have also been made by the Department of Mental Health to inspect and raise the efficiency of its operations to result in quality service.

  4. Changing Roles of Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garai, Josef E.

    The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…

  5. Experience And Results With Preoperatively Shaped AO Mandibular Reconstruction Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuters, Ulrich; Prein, Joachim; Muller, Werner

    1989-04-01

    As a rule continuous bony defects of the mandible after tumour resection are temporarily bridged with the AO reconstruction plate. To precontour the plate, CT-scans of the mandible at a scale of 1:1 6 mm above and parallel to the inferior margin are needed. Corresponding layers further cranial show the anatomy of the chin. Using a lateral cephalograph, the mandibular angle and the length of the plate in the ascending ramus are measured. Of the 19 preshaped reconstruction plates implanted, 11 did not need any intraoperative adjustment of shape. The other 8 plates needed only slight modifications of contour. Preoperative bending of the reconstruction plate reduces the time taken for the operation, protects the material and the plate is precisely shaped.

  6. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  7. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11 The Interplanetary Dust Experiment hardware has a thin brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A deeper brown stain, probably from the material underneath the small electrical cover plate of the detector frame, can be seen in the upper right corner of some of the detectors. Stain that was seen on the solar sensor base plate in the flight photograph cannot be seen because of reflected light. The colors seen in the detector's mirror like surface are reflections of the surrounding area. A dark spot seen on a detector in the third row from the top in the flight photograph, was not found in a postflight inspection. A close inspection of this photograph does reveal several impact damage locations.

  8. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  9. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  10. A Bibliography for Schools on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…

  11. A Bibliography for Families on Mental Health/Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This bibliography for families lists 44 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1987 through 1994. The list is organized into the following categories: directories and bibliographies, other print resources, and information in Spanish. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of…

  12. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  13. Experiences in Rural Mental Health. VI; Programming School Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, William G.; And Others

    Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this guide deals with programming school mental health in Vance and Franklin counties. Detailing both successes and failures, this booklet presents the following program activities: (1)…

  14. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  15. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results More lower extremity fractures occurred in boys (62%, n = 341). Of 548 fractured long bones in the lower extremity, 25% involved the femur and 75% the lower leg. The older the patients, the more combined fractures of the tibia and fibula were sustained (adolescents: 50%, 61 of 123). Salter-Harris (SH) fracture patterns represented 66% of single epiphyseal fractures (83 of 126). Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Complete oblique spiral fractures accounted for 57% of diaphyseal fractures (120 of 211). Of all fractures, 7% (40 of 548) were classified in the category "other", including 29 fractures that were identified as toddler’s fractures. 5 combined lower leg fractures were reported in the proximal metaphysis, 40 in the diaphysis, 26 in the distal metaphysis, and 8 in the distal epiphysis. Interpretation The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler’s fractures in the PCCF should be considered. PMID:27882811

  16. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Slongo, Theddy; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Joeris, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF) describes the localization and morphology of fractures, and considers severity in 2 categories: (1) simple, and (2) multifragmentary. We evaluated simple and multifragmentary fractures in a large consecutive cohort of children diagnosed with long bone fractures in Switzerland. Patients and methods Children and adolescents treated for fractures between 2009 and 2011 at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Fractures were classified according to the AO PCCF. Severity classes were described according to fracture location, patient age and sex, BMI, and cause of trauma. Results Of all trauma events, 3% (84 of 2,730) were diagnosed with a multifragmentary fracture. This proportion was age-related: 2% of multifragmentary fractures occurred in school­children and 7% occurred in adolescents. In patients diagnosed with a single fracture only, the highest percentage of multifragmentation occurred in the femur (12%, 15 of 123). In fractured paired radius/ulna bones, multifragmentation occurred in 2% (11 of 687); in fractured paired tibia/fibula bones, it occurred in 21% (24 of 115), particularly in schoolchildren (5 of 18) and adolescents (16 of 40). In a multivariable regression model, age, cause of injury, and bone were found to be relevant prognostic factors of multifragmentation (odds ratio (OR) > 2). Interpretation Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. The femur was mostly affected in single fractures and the lower leg was mostly affected in paired-bone fractures. The clinical relevance of multifragmentation regarding growth and long-term functional recovery remains to be determined. PMID:27882814

  17. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods We included children and adolescents (0–17 years old) diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne (Switzerland). Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. Results Of 2,292 upper extremity fractures in 2,203 children and adolescents, 26% involved the humerus and 74% involved the forearm. In the humerus, 61%, and in the forearm, 80% of single distal fractures involved the metaphysis. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. 47% of combined forearm fractures were distal metaphyseal fractures. Only 0.7% of fractures could not be classified within 1 of the child-specific fracture patterns. Of the single epiphyseal fractures, 49% were Salter-Harris type-II (SH II) fractures; of these, 94% occurred in schoolchildren and adolescents. Of the metaphyseal fractures, 58% showed an incomplete fracture pattern. 89% of incomplete fractures affected the distal radius. Of the diaphyseal fractures, 32% were greenstick fractures. 24 Monteggia fractures occurred in pre-school children and schoolchildren, and 2 occurred in adolescents. Interpretation The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and prognostication

  18. HST and Keck AO Images of Vortices on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Wong, M.; Luszcz-Cook, S.; Adamkovics, M.; Marcus, P.; Asay-Davis, X.; Conrad, A.; Go, C.

    2009-09-01

    Observations of Jupiter were conducted in April 2006 and May 2008 with both HST (250-890 nm) and the 10-m Keck telescope. On Keck we used the near-infrared camera NIRC2, coupled to the AO system, at 1.2 to 5 micrometers. At 5 um we are sensitive to Jupiter's thermal emission in cloud-free regions of the atmosphere, while at 1.2 um we see reflected sunlight from hazes and clouds in the troposphere-stratosphere. All small ovals (i.e., all except for Oval BA and the GRS) appear to be surrounded by bright rings at 5 mu, with typical brightness temperatures of 225-250 K, and hence probing depths to 2.5-4 bar. We argue that the small vortices are columnar structures, extending down into the water cloud. Air is rising along the center of these vortices, and descending around the outer periphery; the storm systems are likely fueled by the latent heat released from the water cloud. The descending part of the vertical circulation in the larger ovals is within the ovals, likely at the location of the red ring in Oval BA, which may indicate the maximum radial distance where such return flows can take place. On 19 July 2009, amateur observer Anthony Wesley (Australia) reported a dark spot/streak on Jupiter, near a southern latitude of 56 deg, which he attributed to an impact (analogous to the SL9 impact on Jupiter). We are scheduled to observe Jupiter with the Keck AO system on 24 July 2009 UT; if observations are successful, we will report preliminary results.

  19. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included children and adolescents (0-17 years old) diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne (Switzerland). Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. Results - Of 2,292 upper extremity fractures in 2,203 children and adolescents, 26% involved the humerus and 74% involved the forearm. In the humerus, 61%, and in the forearm, 80% of single distal fractures involved the metaphysis. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. 47% of combined forearm fractures were distal metaphyseal fractures. Only 0.7% of fractures could not be classified within 1 of the child-specific fracture patterns. Of the single epiphyseal fractures, 49% were Salter-Harris type-II (SH II) fractures; of these, 94% occurred in schoolchildren and adolescents. Of the metaphyseal fractures, 58% showed an incomplete fracture pattern. 89% of incomplete fractures affected the distal radius. Of the diaphyseal fractures, 32% were greenstick fractures. 24 Monteggia fractures occurred in pre-school children and schoolchildren, and 2 occurred in adolescents. Interpretation - The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and

  20. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Audigé, Laurent; Slongo, Theddy; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Joeris, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF) describes the localization and morphology of fractures, and considers severity in 2 categories: (1) simple, and (2) multifragmentary. We evaluated simple and multifragmentary fractures in a large consecutive cohort of children diagnosed with long bone fractures in Switzerland. Patients and methods - Children and adolescents treated for fractures between 2009 and 2011 at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Fractures were classified according to the AO PCCF. Severity classes were described according to fracture location, patient age and sex, BMI, and cause of trauma. Results - Of all trauma events, 3% (84 of 2,730) were diagnosed with a multifragmentary fracture. This proportion was age-related: 2% of multifragmentary fractures occurred in school-children and 7% occurred in adolescents. In patients diagnosed with a single fracture only, the highest percentage of multifragmentation occurred in the femur (12%, 15 of 123). In fractured paired radius/ulna bones, multifragmentation occurred in 2% (11 of 687); in fractured paired tibia/fibula bones, it occurred in 21% (24 of 115), particularly in schoolchildren (5 of 18) and adolescents (16 of 40). In a multivariable regression model, age, cause of injury, and bone were found to be relevant prognostic factors of multifragmentation (odds ratio (OR) > 2). Interpretation - Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. The femur was mostly affected in single fractures and the lower leg was mostly affected in paired-bone fractures. The clinical relevance of multifragmentation regarding growth and long-term functional recovery remains to be determined.

  1. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results - More lower extremity fractures occurred in boys (62%, n = 341). Of 548 fractured long bones in the lower extremity, 25% involved the femur and 75% the lower leg. The older the patients, the more combined fractures of the tibia and fibula were sustained (adolescents: 50%, 61 of 123). Salter-Harris (SH) fracture patterns represented 66% of single epiphyseal fractures (83 of 126). Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Complete oblique spiral fractures accounted for 57% of diaphyseal fractures (120 of 211). Of all fractures, 7% (40 of 548) were classified in the category "other", including 29 fractures that were identified as toddler's fractures. 5 combined lower leg fractures were reported in the proximal metaphysis, 40 in the diaphysis, 26 in the distal metaphysis, and 8 in the distal epiphysis. Interpretation - The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler's fractures in the PCCF should be considered.

  2. No health without mental health.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar; Maj, Mario; Maselko, Joanna; Phillips, Michael R; Rahman, Atif

    2007-09-08

    About 14% of the global burden of disease has been attributed to neuropsychiatric disorders, mostly due to the chronically disabling nature of depression and other common mental disorders, alcohol-use and substance-use disorders, and psychoses. Such estimates have drawn attention to the importance of mental disorders for public health. However, because they stress the separate contributions of mental and physical disorders to disability and mortality, they might have entrenched the alienation of mental health from mainstream efforts to improve health and reduce poverty. The burden of mental disorders is likely to have been underestimated because of inadequate appreciation of the connectedness between mental illness and other health conditions. Because these interactions are protean, there can be no health without mental health. Mental disorders increase risk for communicable and non-communicable diseases, and contribute to unintentional and intentional injury. Conversely, many health conditions increase the risk for mental disorder, and comorbidity complicates help-seeking, diagnosis, and treatment, and influences prognosis. Health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, and the quality of care for both mental and physical health conditions for these people could be improved. We need to develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions that can be integrated into management of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; gender-based violence; antenatal care; integrated management of childhood illnesses and child nutrition; and innovative management of chronic disease. An explicit mental health budget might need to be allocated for such activities. Mental health affects progress towards the achievement of several

  3. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  4. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  5. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  6. Mental Health Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…

  7. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  8. Islamic Values and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassir, Balkis

    Mental well-being is as important as physical well-being for sound life of man, and perhaps even more important, since physical illnesses are related in varying degrees to psychological problems. Modern psychology emphasizes essential criteria for mental health and well-being. These include positive relationships with others, productivity and…

  9. Mental Health, United States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.

    In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…

  10. Mental Health & the Career Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Marty

    This supplement to ninth grade mental health units relates mental health to the following occupational clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, environment, health, marine science, communications and media, business and office, marketing and distribution, public service, transportation, personnel services, consumer and homemaking education,…

  11. Mental illness and Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Endrawes, Gihane; O'Brien, Louise; Wilkes, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    People from Egypt have cultural belief systems about mental illness and its causes that are at variance from Anglo-Saxon-derived understandings that predominate in Australian psychiatry. These differences in understanding can affect how mental health services are experienced and accepted by this cultural group. This paper is a review of the literature on Egyptians' beliefs about mental illness and how families in Egypt cope with a relative with mental illness. Because of limited literature on Egyptians' experience with mental illness in Australia, this paper will be used to shed some light on the way in which people experience mental illness and communicate this suffering in the Australian context, based on what has been known to occur in Egypt. The Zar cult and related practices focusing on belief in the evil eye, magic, and evil possession will be explored. Historical and contemporary mental health care systems in Egypt, and the influence of education and religion are discussed. In order to provide culturally sensitive care, nurses need to be aware of possible influences on belief systems about mental illness. This paper has the potential of helping nurses to gain a deeper understanding of cultures that differ from theirs and to provide care to clients and their families based on respect for the others' beliefs, values, and practices.

  12. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  13. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  14. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  15. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  16. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  17. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  18. Mental Health in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Health Association, Kansas City, MO.

    Recent national data suggests that there is a similarity between the prevalence of clinically defined mental health problems, as well as comorbidity including substance abuse, among rural and urban adult populations. However, due to the lack of a mental health and substance abuse infrastructure in rural areas, many times these disorders go…

  19. Facts About: College Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    Facts about college mental health are presented in response to frequently asked questions. Areas of concern include common conditions interfering with student effectiveness, why students seek help and where they can get it, the frequency of severe mental illness in college students, the suicide problem, the limitations of nonprofessional help, the…

  20. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  1. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  2. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  3. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  4. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  5. The Nevada mental health courts.

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B

    2010-01-01

    The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.

  6. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a guide published by the American Psychiatric ... mental health conditions. Mental health providers use the DSM to diagnose everything from anorexia to voyeurism and, ...

  7. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  8. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional health can still have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause. This could be ... problems with family, work, or school can trigger mental illness or make it worse.Counseling, support groups, and ...

  9. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  10. [Anomie and public mental health].

    PubMed

    Parales-Quenza, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.

  11. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Mental health of deaf people.

    PubMed

    Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Pollard, Robert

    2012-03-17

    Deafness is a heterogeneous condition with far-reaching effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Onset before language has been established happens in about seven per 10,000 people. Increased rates of mental health problems are reported in deaf people. Many regard themselves as members of a cultural minority who use sign language. In this Review, we describe discrepancies between a high burden of common mental health disorders and barriers to health care. About a quarter of deaf individuals have additional disabilities and a high probability of complex mental health needs. Research into factors affecting mental health of deaf children shows that early access to effective communication with family members and peers is desirable. Improved access to health and mental health care can be achieved by provision of specialist services with professionals trained to directly communicate with deaf people and with sign-language interpreters.

  13. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Anne; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a common form of cognitive impairment affecting approximately 3% of the population in industrialized countries. The mental retardation syndrome incorporates a highly diverse group of mental disorders characterized by the combination of cognitive impairment and defective adaptive behavior. The genetic basis of the disease is strongly supported by identification of the genetic lesions associated with impaired cognition, learning, and social adaptation in many mental retardation syndromes. Several of the impaired genes encode epigenetic regulators of gene expression. These regulators exert their function through genome-wide posttranslational modification of histones or by mediating and/or recognizing DNA methylation. In this chapter, we review the most recent advances in the field of epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation. In particular, we focus on animal models of the human diseases and the mechanism of transcriptional deregulation associated with changes in the cell epigenome.

  15. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  16. Computing machinery and mentality.

    PubMed

    McMullin, B

    1997-06-01

    I reconsider the status of computationalism (or, in a weak sense, functionalism): the claim that being a realization of some (as yet unspecified) class of abstract machine is both necessary and sufficient for having genuine, full-blooded, mentality. This doctrine is now quite widely (though by no means universally) seen as discredited. My position is that, though it is undoubtedly an unsatisfactory (perhaps even repugnant) thesis, the arguments against it are still rather weak. In particular, I critically reassess John Searle's infamous Chinese Room Argument and also some relevant aspects of Karl Popper's theory of the Open Universe. I conclude that the status of computationalism must still be regarded as undecided, and that it may still provide a satisfactory framework for research.

  17. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  18. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.

  19. 76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... acquisition by Regal Beloit Corporation (``RBC'') of the electric motor business of A.O. Smith Corporation... Corporation (``RBC'') and A.O. Smith Corporation (``AOS'') to enjoin RBC's proposed acquisition of the... proposed acquisition of the electric motor business from AOS likely would substantially lessen competition...

  20. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    PubMed

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  1. Mental health services for parents affected by mental illness.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Silvia; Becker, Thomas; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2013-07-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of support needs of families affected by parental mental illness, there is a lack of adequate mental healthcare provision for parents. As contemporary mental health services are both user-focused and evidence based, the present review focuses on knowledge regarding the subjective perspective on parenting issues among affected parents and the evidence base for parenting programs. There has been a shift in the research focus from adverse effects of parental mental illness on children toward inclusion and the subjective perspective in affected mothers and, more recently, fathers with mental health problems. Parents report on role conflicts, parenting difficulties, and stigma. Despite a broad spectrum of parental needs, many parents are reluctant to use services. There is an increasing evidence base for intervention programs. Adequate care for parents affected by mental illness requires sensitivity for parents' subjective perspective, interagency collaboration, standard intake practice, high level of professional knowledge and skills, provision of family-friendly environments, evidence-based parenting programs comprising both individual and group approaches and peer support. There is a lack of research on other parenting needs such as desire for children, coping with custody loss, and childlessness related to mental illness.

  2. Mental maze solving.

    PubMed

    Crowe, D A; Averbeck, B B; Chafee, M V; Anderson, J H; Georgopoulos, A P

    2000-09-01

    We sought to determine how a visual maze is mentally solved. Human subjects (N = 13) viewed mazes with orthogonal, unbranched paths; each subject solved 200-600 mazes in any specific experiment below. There were four to six openings at the perimeter of the maze, of which four were labeled: one was the entry point and the remainder were potential exits marked by Arabic numerals. Starting at the entry point, in some mazes the path exited, whereas in others it terminated within the maze. Subjects were required to type the number corresponding to the true exit (if the path exited) or type zero (if the path did not exit). In all cases, the only required hand movement was a key press, and thus the hand never physically traveled through the maze. Response times (RT) were recorded and analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. RT increased as a function of key parameters of the maze, namely the length of the main path, the number of turns in the path, the direct distance from entry to termination, and the presence of an exit. The dependence of RT on the number of turns was present even when the path length was fixed in a separate experiment (N = 10 subjects). In a different experiment, subjects solved large and small mazes (N = 3 subjects). The former was the same as the latter but was scaled up by 1.77 times. Thus both kinds of mazes contained the same number of squares but each square subtended 1.77 degrees of visual angle (DVA) in the large maze, as compared to 1 DVA in the small one. We found that the average RT was practically the same in both cases. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the processing coefficients related to maze distance (i.e., path length and direct distance) were reduced by approximately one-half when solving large mazes, as compared to solving small mazes. This means that the efficiency in processing distance-related information almost doubled for scaled-up mazes. In contrast, the processing coefficients for number of turns and

  3. Farming and mental health problems and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Fraser, C E; Smith, K B; Judd, F; Humphreys, J S; Fragar, L J; Henderson, A

    2005-12-01

    Farmers experience one of the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. This article provides an overview of the literature examining mental health issues experienced by farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States and identifies areas for further research. A literature review (Medline, Science Direct, Ingenta, Proquest and PsychINFO) was carried out using the words 'farmers', 'agriculture', 'depression', 'mental health', 'mental illness', 'stress', and 'suicide', as well as a review of relevant papers and publications known to the authors. (Papers not written in English and those published prior to 1985 were excluded.) Fifty-two papers were identified with the majority focusing on stress and coping styles in farmers (24). A number of studies also focused on neuropsychological functioning and agricultural chemical use (7), depression (7), suicide (9), general mental health (4) and injury and mental health (1). This body of research studied male farmers, female farmers, farm workers, farming families, and young people living on farms. Research to date indicates that farmers, farm workers and their respective families face an array of stressors related to the physical environment, structure of farming families and the economic difficulties and uncertainties associated with farming which may be detrimental to their mental health. Whilst suicide rates in some groups of farmers are higher than the general population, conclusive data do not exist to indicate whether farmers and farming families experience higher rates of mental health problems compared with the non-farming community. It is clear, however, that farming is associated with a unique set of characteristics that is potentially hazardous to mental health and requires further research.

  4. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  5. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  6. Development and neurophysiology of mentalizing.

    PubMed Central

    Frith, Uta; Frith, Christopher D

    2003-01-01

    The mentalizing (theory of mind) system of the brain is probably in operation from ca. 18 months of age, allowing implicit attribution of intentions and other mental states. Between the ages of 4 and 6 years explicit mentalizing becomes possible, and from this age children are able to explain the misleading reasons that have given rise to a false belief. Neuroimaging studies of mentalizing have so far only been carried out in adults. They reveal a system with three components consistently activated during both implicit and explicit mentalizing tasks: medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), temporal poles and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). The functions of these components can be elucidated, to some extent, from their role in other tasks used in neuroimaging studies. Thus, the MPFC region is probably the basis of the decoupling mechanism that distinguishes mental state representations from physical state representations; the STS region is probably the basis of the detection of agency, and the temporal poles might be involved in access to social knowledge in the form of scripts. The activation of these components in concert appears to be critical to mentalizing. PMID:12689373

  7. Employment equity and mental disability.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2007-09-01

    Recent research on the civil rights issue of employment equity for people with psychiatric disabilities is reviewed. Mental disorders, particularly depression, are the most frequent source of occupational disability worldwide and are expected to grow. Employers are increasingly aware of the productivity costs associated with mental disorders and the importance of fostering a mentally healthy workforce. Few firms, however, have explicit policies to include disabled people in their workforce, and many employers continue to express prejudicial views toward people with mental disabilities which would exclude them from competitive work. At the same time, disability legislation has not offered the hoped-for protection for people with mental disorders. Employers have expressed concerns over the costs of making workplace accommodations and have successfully battled for a legal definition of disability that excludes many individuals with mental disorders. In the absence of antistigma efforts directed toward the business community, one wonders if the growing awareness of the productivity costs associated with mental disability will foster greater employment equity, or fuel more subtle forms of employment discrimination. Low employment levels among people with disabilities remain a major determinant of the social disparities they face.

  8. Competencies for disaster mental health.

    PubMed

    King, Richard V; Burkle, Frederick M; Walsh, Lauren E; North, Carol S

    2015-03-01

    Competencies for disaster mental health are essential to domestic and international disaster response capabilities. Numerous consensus-based competency sets for disaster health workers exist, but no prior study identifies and discusses competency sets pertaining specifically to disaster mental health. Relevant competency sets were identified via MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches. Sixteen competency sets are discussed, some providing core competencies for all disaster responders and others for specific responder groups within particular professions or specialties. Competency sets specifically for disaster mental health professionals are lacking, with the exception of one set that focused only on cultural competence. The identified competency sets provide guidance for educators in developing disaster mental health curricula and for disaster health workers seeking education and training in disaster mental health. Valid, criterion-based competencies are required to guide selection and training of mental health professionals for the disaster mental health workforce. In developing these competencies, consideration should be given to the requirements of both domestic and international disaster response efforts.

  9. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The flight/on-orbit photograph of the G10 experi ment tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A light brown stain can be seen on the experiment tray flanges and to a lesser degree on the IDE Chemglaze Z tained their integrity. A light tan stain on the solar sensor base plate, located in the center of the tray, is more easily seen than that on the IDE mounting plate. Surface defects are highly visible due to the lighting conditions existing at the time the photograph was taken. The lighting angle is such that many impact craters can be seen. Two (2) detectors, located in the twenty (20) detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, seem to have defects. A triangular shaped discoloration appears on the second detector from the left and in the second row from the bottom. Another irregular shaped discoloration can be seen on the fourth detector from the left and in the third row from the bottom. These discolorations appear to be due to material and/or fabrication defects and not reflected light. The blue colors on the detector's mirror like surface are caused by reflections of the LDEF surroundings.

  10. LDEF (Flight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09 The flight photograph of the Interstellar Gas Experiment was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A very light contamination stain is present on the experiment tray flanges and on the most of the visible LDEF structure. The exception being a darker stain on the structure adjacent to thermal covers that provide venting for the LDEF interior. Both paint dots appear to be heavily coated with the brown contamination stain. The color of the white thermal control paint on the IGE has changed and now varies from off-white to a dark brown. The darker brown areas on the experiment baseplate, around the grid voltage cable connectors, appear to have come from contaminants flowing from inside the LDEF. A dark stain area can be seen on the lower half of the tray's right sidewall but a shadow hides most of the dark stain in the upper left corner of the tray. A lighter stain coats portions of the experiment baseplate and the outside of the canister housing. A beryllium copper collector foil is clearly visible in the lower left canister housing as are the baffles and reflected light from the fine wire mesh grid near the top of the canister housing. Due to an experi- ment system malfunction, the canister collector foils that are visible were exposed for the total mission.

  11. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1993-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment was designed, via the FRECOPA (FRench COoperative PAyload) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar irradiation. Samples were ruled and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the LDEF and was protected against Atomic Oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling was evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The samples (two batches of four pieces) were located on a dedicated plate, by a pair of equivalent gratings or mirrors; optical faces were located on the external side. The plate was inside a canister, which had been opened in space for ten months. When the satellite returned to Kennedy Space Center, the remaining vacuum in the canister was still correct. The analysis focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings (rules and holographic master or replica) loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or direct solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure had damaged the coating (aluminum and platinum) reflectivity in the Ultra-Violet region; the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  12. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  13. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The IDE experiment appears to be in excellent condition in the postflight photograph. All bond joints seem to have survived the space environment and the experiment hardware seems to be intact. The direction and intensity of the artificial light source has caused hot spots and reflections that tend to wash out the brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A close inspection of individual detectors reveal locations where impacts have occurred and damage is present. In the detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, two detectors continue to show the discolorations observed in the flight photograph. A triangular shape can be seen in the detector located in the second horizontal row from the bottom and the second vertical row from the left. The other detector, located in the third horizontal row from the bottom and the fourth vertical row from the left has an irregular shaped, very faint, discolora tion. The blue color in the detectors metallic surface is caused by reflections of the surrounding area.

  14. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  15. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  16. Mental illness and criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, J A; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    1998-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between criminal violence and mental illness. Our data suggest that mentally ill persons tend to have an increased risk for committing violent offenses, and that the violent offending by these individuals tends to be recidivistic. Our findings suggest that parents who have both committed violent offenses and experienced a psychiatric hospitalization increase the risk of violent offending among their offspring. We propose the hypothesis that mentally ill parents transmit a biological characteristic which may genetically predispose their child towards criminal violence. Prenatal disturbances during critical periods of fetal development may provide clues regarding the etiology of criminal violence.

  17. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ropers, H-Hilger; Hamel, Ben C J

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental retardation has focused almost entirely on the X-chromosome. Here, we review the remarkable recent progress in this field, its promise for understanding neural function, learning and memory, and the implications of this research for health care.

  18. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  19. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your ‘cluster’ of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development. PMID:28250821

  20. Are developments in mental scanning and mental rotation related?

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    The development and relation of mental scanning and mental rotation were examined in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-year old children and adults (N = 102). Based on previous findings from adults and ageing populations, the key question was whether they develop as a set of related abilities and become increasingly differentiated or are unrelated abilities per se. Findings revealed that both mental scanning and rotation abilities develop between 4- and 6 years of age. Specifically, 4-year-olds showed no difference in accuracy of mental scanning and no scanning trials whereas all older children and adults made more errors in scanning trials. Additionally, the minority of 4-year-olds showed a linear increase in response time with increasing rotation angle difference of two stimuli in contrast to all older participants. Despite similar developmental trajectories, mental scanning and rotation performances were unrelated. Thus, adding to research findings from adults, mental scanning and rotation appear to develop as a set of unrelated abilities from the outset. Different underlying abilities such as visual working memory and spatial coding versus representing past and future events are discussed. PMID:28207810

  1. The format of children's mental images: Evidence from mental scanning.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Marina C; Maras, Katie L; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Thomas, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the development and format of children's mental images. Children (4-, 5-, 6-7-, 8-9-, and 11-year-olds) and adults (N=282) viewed a map of a fictitious island containing various landmarks and two misleading signposts, indicating that some equidistant landmarks were different distances apart. Five-year-olds already revealed the linear time-distance scanning effect, previously shown in adults (Experiments 1 and 2): They took longer to mentally scan their image of the island with longer distances between corresponding landmarks, indicating the depictive format of children's mental images. Unlike adults, their scanning times were not affected by misleading top-down distance information on the signposts until age 8 (Experiment 1) unless they were prompted to the difference from the outset (Experiment 2). Findings provide novel insights into the format of children's mental images in a mental scanning paradigm and show that children's mental images can be susceptible to top-down influences as are adults'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion.

  3. Sufism and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  4. Sufism and mental health.

    PubMed

    Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.

  5. MagAO: Status and on-sky performance of the Magellan adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Bailey, Vanessa; Follette, Katherine B.; Rodigas, T. J.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Busoni, Lorenzo; Hare, Tyson; Uomoto, Alan; Weinberger, Alycia

    2014-07-01

    MagAO is the new adaptive optics system with visible-light and infrared science cameras, located on the 6.5-m Magellan "Clay" telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The instrument locks on natural guide stars (NGS) from 0th to 16th R-band magnitude, measures turbulence with a modulating pyramid wavefront sensor binnable from 28×28 to 7×7 subapertures, and uses a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) to provide at wavefronts to the two science cameras. MagAO is a mutated clone of the similar AO systems at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham, Arizona. The high-level AO loop controls up to 378 modes and operates at frame rates up to 1000 Hz. The instrument has two science cameras: VisAO operating from 0.5-1μm and Clio2 operating from 1-5 μm. MagAO was installed in 2012 and successfully completed two commissioning runs in 2012-2013. In April 2014 we had our first science run that was open to the general Magellan community. Observers from Arizona, Carnegie, Australia, Harvard, MIT, Michigan, and Chile took observations in collaboration with the MagAO instrument team. Here we describe the MagAO instrument, describe our on-sky performance, and report our status as of summer 2014.

  6. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  7. SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2013-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.

  8. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  9. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  10. Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...

  11. The mental health of veterans.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Iversen, A; Greenberg, N

    2008-06-01

    For the majority service in the Armed Forces is beneficial and, in the main, military veterans have successful lives. However, a minority have a bleaker outlook as a result of on-going ill health and social exclusion. Whilst the media focuses on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, in reality the most frequent mental health problems for veterans are alcohol problems, depression and anxiety disorders. These difficulties are difficult to manage as veterans, particularly those who are unwell, demonstrate a reticence to seek help for mental health problems. Another issue is that many veterans are now reserve personnel who have been found to be at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their regular counterparts. Steps to improve the knowledge and expertise of primary care services about veteran's mental health issues and increasing the availability of treatment options are important and are underway.

  12. FastStats: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Adult Day Services Centers Home Health Care Hospice Care Nursing Home Care Residential Care Communities Screenings Mammography ... outpatient and emergency departments) with mental disorders as primary diagnosis: 63.3 million Sources: Selected patient and ...

  13. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  14. Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Patricia

    Literature on deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded persons is reviewed. Cited are studies showing positive aspects, including improved communication abilities, increased adaptive behavior and personal satisfaction. Community adjustment findings focus on effects of involuntary relocation to another facility, age differences, and…

  15. Behavior Rhythms in Mental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melbin, Murray

    1969-01-01

    Research supported by a Russell Sage Foundation Residency Fellowship, National Science Foundation grant GL0919, National Institute of Mental Health grant M-5702(A), and National Institutes of Health grant RO2-NU-00251.

  16. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  17. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  19. A roadmap for mental health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-09-21

    The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home.

  20. Mental health aspects of disasters.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mental health aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mental health promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster.

  1. The Autonomy of Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is research which sought to prove the hypothesis that mental models tend to preserve their autonomy with regard to the originals they are meant to represent. The results of this investigation involving 200 Israeli students are presented. (CW)

  2. [Sleep disorders and mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Gude, Tore

    2002-08-20

    Recent research has revealed a lot of the secrets of sleep and how sleep influences our daily life and mental functioning. Current knowledge on the interaction between sleep disturbances and mental disorders is reviewed. The review is based on relevant literature identified by search in Medline and PsycInfo. Research shows that sleep as a psychobiological phenomenon interacts with the processes of mental disorders. The best evidence for interactions between sleep disturbances and mental problems is found in depression, and sleep disturbances over some weeks have been found to be a predictor for depressive disorders. Clinicians must distinguish between primary chronic sleep disorders of functional origin and secondary sleep disorders as part of a psychiatric condition. The former category should be treated by non-pharmacological interventions, while the latter should be adequately treated in a biopsychosocial model.

  3. Child Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Mental Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/childmentalhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  5. Adolescent offenders with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Thomas Grisso points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its consequences for the community. In this article, Grisso examines research and clinical evidence that may help in shaping a public policy that addresses that question. Clinical science, says Grisso, offers a perspective that explains why the symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence can increase the risk of impulsive and aggressive behaviors. Research on delinquent populations suggests that youth with mental disorders are, indeed, at increased risk for engaging in behaviors that bring them to the attention of the juvenile justice system. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that most youth arrested for delinquencies do not have serious mental disorders. Grisso explains that a number of social phenomena of the past decade, such as changes in juvenile law and deficiencies in the child mental health system, appear to have been responsible for bringing far more youth with mental disorders into the juvenile justice system. Research shows that almost two-thirds of youth in juvenile justice detention centers and correctional facilities today meet criteria for one or more mental disorders. Calls for a greater emphasis on mental health treatment services in juvenile justice, however, may not be the best answer. Increasing such services in juvenile justice could simply mean that youth would need to be arrested in order to get mental health services. Moreover, many of the most effective treatment methods work best when applied in the community, while youth are with their families rather than removed from them. A more promising approach, argues Grisso, could be to develop community systems of care that create a network of services cutting across public child

  6. Working with Mental Health Advocacy Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenety, Megan; Kiselica, Mark

    There are many factors behind the growing advocacy movement for mentally ill individuals. These factors include the prevalence of mental illness in society, deinstitutionalization, the restrictions of managed care, an increased awareness of the rights of the mentally ill, and empowerment of mentally ill clients. Despite the growing importance of…

  7. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  8. Relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance.

    PubMed

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the criterion validity of the inventory, Mental Toughness 48, by assessing the correlation between mental toughness and physical endurance for 41 male undergraduate sports students. A significant correlation of .34 was found between scores for overall mental toughness and the time a relative weight could be held suspended. Results support the criterion-related validity of the Mental Toughness 48.

  9. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  10. Relationship between Mental Computation and Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürbüz, Ramazan; Erdem, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    Mental computation and mathematical reasoning are two intertwined top-level mental activities. In deciding which strategy to use when doing mental computing, mathematical reasoning is essential. From this reciprocal influence, the current study aims at examining the relationship between mental computation and mathematical reasoning. The study was…

  11. Multi-conjugate AO for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Collados Vera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, optimized for studies of the magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. It will specialize in high spatial resolution observations and therefore it has been designed to incorporate an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO). It combines a narrow field high order sensor that will provide the information to correct the ground layer and a wide field low order sensor for the high altitude mirrors used in the MCAO mode. One of the challenging particularities of solar AO is that it has to be able to correct the turbulence for a wide range of observing elevations, from zenith to almost horizon. Also, seeing is usually worse at day-time, and most science is done at visible wavelengths. Therefore, the system has to include a large number of high altitude deformable mirrors. In the case of the EST, an arrangement of 4 high altitude DMs is used. Controlling such a number of mirrors makes it necessary to use fast reconstruction algorithms to deal with such large amount of degrees of freedom. For this reason, we have studied the performance of the Fractal Iterative Method (FriM) and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR), to the EST MCAO case. Using OCTOPUS, the end-to-end simulator of the European Southern Observatory, we have performed several simulations with both algorithms, being able to reach the science requirement of a homogeneous Strehl higher that 50% all over the 1 arcmin field of view.

  12. LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06 The post landing photograph was taken from the Orbiter's cargo bay access hatch during post landing operations to prepare the Orbiter for the ferry flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center to the Kennedy Space Center. A very light contamination stain is present on the experiment tray flanges and on the most of the visible LDEF structure. The exception being a much darker stain on the structure adjacent to thermal covers that provide venting for the LDEF interior. The paint dot adjacent to the thermal cover vent area is heavily coated with the brown contamination stain while the paint dot adjacent to the center end cover plate has a very light coating. The color of the white thermal control paint on the IGE has changed and now varies from offwhite to a dark brown. The darker brown areas on the experiment baseplate, around the grid voltage cable connectors, appear to have come from contaminants flowing from inside the LDEF. A dark stain area can be seen on the tray's lower sidewall and in the upper left corner of the tray. A lighter stain coats portions of the experiment baseplate and the outside of the canister housing. A beryllium copper collector foil is clearly visible within the canister housings as are the baffles and reflected light from the fine wire mesh grid near the top of the canister housing. Due to an experi- ment system malfunction, the canister collector foils that are visible were exposed for the total mission.

  13. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  14. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    PubMed

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  15. GLAS/NAOMI: ground-layer AO at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Chris; Abrams, Don; Agocs, Tibor; Cano, Diego; Gregory, Tom; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Martin, Olivier; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Rix, Samantha; Rutten, Rene; Skillen, Ian; Skvarč, Jure; Tulloch, Simon

    2008-07-01

    GLAS is an upgrade of the William Herschel Telescope's existing natural-guide-star (NGS) AO system NAOMI to incorporate a 20-W Rayleigh laser guide star (LGS) projected to an altitude of 15 km. It is currently being commissioned on-sky, and we review here the current status of the project. GLAS/NAOMI delivers dramatic improvements in PSF in both the near-IR (AO-corrected FWHM close to the diffraction limit, >~ 0.15 arcsec) and in the optical (factor of ~ 2 reduction in FWHM). The performance is similar to that with NGS, and is consistent with predictions from modelling. The main advantage over NGS AO is the large gain in sky coverage (from ~ 1% to ~ 100% at galactic latitude 40°). GLAS provides the first on-sky demonstration of closed-loop ground-layer AO (GLAO), and is the first Rayleigh LGS AO system to be offered for general use, at any telescope.

  16. Lick Observatory's Shane telescope adaptive optics system (ShaneAO): research directions and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald T.; Kupke, Renate; Rudy, Alexander R.; Srinath, Srikar; Dillon, Daren; Poyneer, Lisa A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a review of the ongoing research activity surrounding the adaptive optics system at the Shane telescope (ShaneAO) particularly the R&D efforts on the technology and algorithms for that will advance AO into wider application for astronomy. We are pursuing the AO challenges for whole sky coverage diffraction-limited correction down to visible science wavelengths. This demands high-order wavefront correction and bright artificial laser beacons. We present recent advancements in the development of MEMS based AO correction, woofer-tweeter architecture, wind-predictive wavefront control algorithms, atmospheric characterization, and a pulsed fiber amplifier guide star laser tuned for optical pumping of the sodium layer. We present the latest on-sky results from the new AO system and present status and experimental plans for the optical pumping guide star laser.

  17. AO-308: the high-order adaptive optics system at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumko, Sergey; Gorceix, Nicolas; Choi, Seonghwan; Kellerer, Aglaé; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Abramenko, Volodymyr; Richards, Kit; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Marino, Jose

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present Big Bear Solar Observatory's (BBSO) newest adaptive optics system - AO-308. AO-308 is a result of collaboration between BBSO and National Solar Observatory (NSO). AO-308 uses a 357 actuators deformable mirror (DM) from Xinetics and its wave front sensor (WFS) has 308 sub-apertures. The WFS uses a Phantom V7.3 camera which runs at 2000 Hz with the region of interest of 416×400 pixels. AO-308 utilizes digital signal processors (DSPs) for image processing. AO-308 has been successfully used during the 2013 observing season. The system can correct up to 310 modes providing diffraction limited images at all wavelengths of interest.

  18. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R. L.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large surveys are discovering thousands of objects which require further characterization at high angular resolution. The demands on space-based observatories and large telescopes with AO systems leave them generally unavailable for large high angular resolution surveys. To address this gap, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for 1-3 m class telescopes. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs of several thousands of targets can be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  19. Making mental health a priority in Belize.

    PubMed

    Killion, Cheryl; Cayetano, Claudina

    2009-04-01

    Belize, Central America, the most sparsely populated country in Central America, has taken gigantic steps to improve the mental health of its citizens. This article profiles mental health in this country and explicates contextual factors circumscribing manifestations, treatment, and care of mental illness. An overview of mental health services is provided, with particular focus on the role of psychiatric nurse practitioners. Other innovative approaches in promoting mental health and providing care to the those who are mentally ill are highlighted. Current and future challenges for nursing care and mental health services are presented. Recommendations for future action are offered.

  20. Gender-sensitive mental health care.

    PubMed

    Judd, Fiona; Armstrong, Sue; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine aspects of mental health and mental health care through a gender lens. Gender differences have an impact on mental health and the experience and course of women's mental illness. Comprehensive gender-sensitive mental health care requires the planning, delivery, monitoring and quality improvement initiatives of mental health care to be informed by a knowledge and understanding of gender differences in women and men and their inter-relationship with respect to childhood and adult life experiences (e.g. violence and abuse); day-to-day social, cultural, and family realities; expression and experience of mental ill health and treatment needs and responses.

  1. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  2. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lisik, Małgorzata Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2008-11-01

    Mental retardation is a serious medical and social problem. The prevalence of mental retardation in Western countries is estimated to be between 2 and 3%. Establishing the cause of mental retardation is essential for prognosis, management, and genetic counseling. It is estimated that 25-35% of mental retardation might have a genetic background. Of these genetic causes, 25-30% are probably due to mutations on the X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation, XLMR). XLMR is a heterogeneous set of conditions involved in a large proportion of inherited mental retardation. More than 200 XLMR conditions have been reported and 76 genes has been linked to them. XLMR conditions are commonly subdivided into syndromic and nonsyndromic forms on the basis of clinical presentation. The distinction between these forms of XLMR is gradually becoming less clear as phenotypes are described for several of the genes. The spectrum of phenotypic variability in XLMR is so large that mutations in several XLMR genes have been found in both syndromic and nonsyndromic (XLMR) pedigrees. About 42% of patients from families with an XLMR history might have mutations in one of the known genes implicated in XLMR. However, in genetic counseling we have to use empiric recurrence risk.

  3. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred W.; Tartaglia, Elisa M.; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not “really” new but just new “interpretations.” In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within “known” models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  4. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  5. Mental well-being: an important outcome for mental health services?

    PubMed

    de Cates, Angharad; Stranges, Saverio; Blake, Amy; Weich, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Mental well-being is being used as an outcome measure in mental health services. The recent Chief Medical Officer's (CMO's) report raised questions about mental well-being in people with mental illness, including how to measure it. We discuss whether mental well-being has prognostic significance or other utility in this context. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  7. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  8. Mentalization, insightfulness, and therapeutic action. The importance of mental organization.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Alan

    2006-08-01

    Continuing debates over the relative importance of the role of interpretation leading to insight versus the relationship with the analyst as contributing to structural change are based on traditional definitions of insight as gaining knowledge of unconscious content. This definition inevitably privileges verbal interpretation as self-knowledge becomes equated with understanding the contents of the mind. It is suggested that a way out of this debate is to redefine insight as a process, one that is called insightfulness. This term builds on concepts such as mentalization, or theory of mind, and suggests that patients present with difficulties being able to fully mentalize. Awareness of repudiated content will usually accompany the attainment of insightfulness. But the point of insightfulness is to regain access to inhibited or repudiated mentalization, not to specific content, per se. Emphasizing the process of insightfulness integrates the importance of the relationship with the analyst with the facilitation of insightfulness. A variety of interventions help patients gain the capacity to reflect upon and become aware of the intricate workings of their minds, of which verbal interpretation is only one. For example, often it seems less important to focus on a particular conflict than to show interest in our patients' minds. Furthermore, analysands develop insightfulness by becoming interested in and observing our minds in action. Because the mind originates in bodily experience, mental functioning will always fluctuate between action modes of experiencing and expressing and verbal, symbolic modes. The analyst's role becomes making the patient aware of regressions to action modes, understanding the reasons for doing so, and subordinating this tendency to the verbal, symbolic mode. All mental functions work better and facilitate greater self-regulation when they work in abstract, symbolic ways. Psychopathology can be understood as failing to develop or losing the

  9. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast

  10. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-02-01

    focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

  11. Bringing the visible universe into focus with Robo-AO.

    PubMed

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Morton, Timothy D; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-02-12

    a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system, employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

  12. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    PubMed Central

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A.N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T.C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system2,3 employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope. PMID:23426078

  13. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1993-04-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast

  14. Autism and mental health: your guide to today's mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Gould, Judith

    Autism is not a mental health disorder, but it sometimes is misdiagnosed as one--and can bring its own mental health issues. Dr Judith Gould explains how a mental health problem may mask an undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorder.

  15. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  16. Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Pregnant Women’s Mental Health: Mental Distress and Mental Strength

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  17. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  18. The Mental Health Status of California Veterans.

    PubMed

    Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May

    2016-04-01

    Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.

  19. Differences between Spatial and Visual Mental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Jan Frederik; Schultheis, Holger; Barkowsky, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing – mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery – we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific, and (2) what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery. PMID:23761768

  20. Linkages between community mental health centers and public mental hospitals.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Lowery, B J

    1991-01-01

    Directors of community mental health centers and superintendents of public mental health hospitals in one state were surveyed to gather data on interagency linkages. Implementation of affiliation agreements, exchange of staff training, and exchange of patient information were investigated. Affiliation agreements tended to be implemented with little difficulty and there was more interagency cooperation than that reported in earlier research. However, exchange of training and staff were still areas of minimal interaction. Geographic proximity was found to have a positive influence and competition a negative influence on cooperation. Further attempts at interagency linkages in the interest of continuity of patient care are recommended.

  1. Robo-AO: The First Autonomous Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, C.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kasliwal, M.; Ofek, E.; Zolkower, J.

    2011-01-01

    Robo-AO will be the first fully autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics and science system. Specifically designed to take advantage of small (1 to 3 meter) telescopes, Robo-AO will deliver high angular resolution science in the visible and near infrared for up to hundreds of targets per night. This will enable the exploration of science programs not practical for larger aperture adaptive optics systems. This presentation discusses the current status of the Robo-AO project, including the laboratory testbed, laser guide star facility and plans for a demonstration of the fully autonomous system next year.

  2. Vibrations in MagAO: resonance sources identification and first approaches for modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Javier; Zúñiga, Sebastián.; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Escárate, Pedro; Castro, Mario; Marchioni, José; Rojas, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Magellan Telescope Adaptive Optics System (MagAO) is subject to resonance effects induced by elements within the system instrumentation, such as fans and cooling pumps. Normalized PSDs are obtained through frequency-based analysis of closed-loop on-sky data, detecting and measuring vibration effects. Subsequently, a space-state model for the AO loop is obtained, using a standard AO loop scheme with an integrator-based controller and including the vibration effects as disturbances. Finally, a new control alternative is proposed, focusing on residual phase variance minimization through the design and simulation of an optimal LQG control approach.

  3. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  4. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    PubMed

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness.

  5. Mental disorders in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mühlig, Stephan; Beesdo, Katja

    2003-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 50% of the population experience at least one mental disorder in their lifetime and that at least 25% have suffered a mental disorder in the past year. recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and referral depend overwhelmingly on general practitioners, at least one third of whose consultations have a direct and explicit psychological component. Yet despite this intensive familiarization with the presentation of mental pathology, and the appropriateness of the primary care setting to its management, even the most recent surveys indicate that performance is best described by the rule of diminishing halves: only half the patients with a thresh-old disorder are recognized; only half of those recognized are treated; and only half of those treated are effectively treated. There is no single solution to this problem, only multiple solutions, which must be aimed, consistently and simultaneously, at the patient, practitioner, practice, and research levels. PMID:22034245

  6. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  7. Schizotypy and mental time travel.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Hannah; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Mental time travel is the capacity to imagine the autobiographical past and future. Schizotypy is a dimensional measure of psychosis-like traits found to be associated with creativity and imagination. Here, we examine the phenomenological qualities of mental time travel in highly schizotypal individuals. After recollecting past episodes (autobiographical memory) and imagining future events (episodic future thinking), those scoring highly on positive schizotypy reported a greater sense of 'autonoetic awareness,' defined as a greater feeling of mental time travel and re-living/'pre-living' imagined events. Furthermore, in contrast to other sensory domains, imagery of the past and future episodes contained more olfactory detail in these high scorers. The results are discussed in relation to previous reports of anomalous olfactory experiences in schizotypy and heightened vividness of olfactory imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder, for which schizotypy is a risk factor.

  8. Mental toughness: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    Mental toughness (MT) has become a popular area of investigation and practice within sport and exercise psychology over the past two decades. Since the turn of the twenty first century, there have been hundreds of studies published on mental toughness, yet concerns remain about the conceptualisation and measurement of mental toughness. In this paper, I take stock of past work with the goal of clarifying and elaborating the most fundamental and common aspects of MT. I also look to the future and outline key substantive and methodological issues that may offer the greatest potential for refining the conceptualisation of MT and contributing to theory building on this concept. My hope is that this information will provide a platform from which to foster coherent and systematic scholarly work on MT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical reasoning by mental simulation.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Mary

    2004-06-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for mental simulation as a strategy in mechanical reasoning. This type of reasoning can be dissociated from reasoning based on descriptive knowledge in that it depends on different abilities and memory stores, is expressed more easily in gesture than in language, exhibits analog properties, and can result in correct inferences in situations where people do not have correct descriptive knowledge. Although it is frequently accompanied by imagery, mental simulation is not a process of inspecting a holistic visual image in the 'mind's eye'. Mental simulations are constructed piecemeal, include representations of non-visible properties and can be used in conjunction with non-imagery processes, such as task decomposition and rule-based reasoning.

  10. [Occupational stress and mental health].

    PubMed

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Lega, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    One fifth of workers reports experiencing stress in the work environment in Europe. A number of studies show that psychosocial stressors in the workplace are associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. The present paper: briefly describes the characteristics of occupational stress and the main psychosocial stressful risk factors in the work environment; reports the main results of studies on psychosocial risk factors in the work environment as risk factor for common mental disorders; presents findings from an Italian study aimed at assessing prevalence of common mental disorders and workplace psychosocial stressors in a sample of hospital employees; provides the "Working conditions Questionnaire", a validated self-administered instrument to assess perceived stress in the workplace; this questionnaire includes the assessment of organizational justice.

  11. Common mental disorders and associated factors: a study of women from a rural area.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo

    2017-05-25

    Identifying the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and analyzing the influence of sociodemographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health variables on Common Mental Disorders in women of childbearing age living in the rural area of Uberaba-MG, Brazil. An observational and cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health instruments were used, along with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to identify common mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression was used for multivariate data analysis. 280 women participated in the study. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 35.7%. In the logistic regression analysis, the variables of living with a partner and education level were associated with Common Mental Disorders, even after adjusting for the other variables. Our findings evidenced an association of social and behavioral factors with Common Mental Disorders among rural women. Identification and individualized care in primary health care are essential for the quality of life of these women. Identificar a prevalência do transtorno mental comum e analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, econômicas, comportamentais e de saúde reprodutiva sobre o transtorno mental comum em mulheres em idade fértil, residentes na zona rural do município de Uberaba-MG, Brasil. Estudo observacional e transversal. Foram utilizados instrumentos de caracterização sociodemográfica, econômica, comportamental e de saúde reprodutiva, e o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) para identificar os transtornos mentais comuns. Na análise multivariada dos dados, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla. Participaram do estudo 280 mulheres. A prevalência do transtorno mental comum foi de 35,7%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis convivência com o companheiro e escolaridade, associaram-se ao transtorno mental comum, mesmo após o ajuste para as demais variáveis. Os achados evidenciaram a

  12. The genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F Lucy; Tarpey, Patrick

    2006-10-15

    Genetic abnormalities frequently give rise to a mental retardation phenotype. Recent advances in resolution of comparative genomic hybridization and genomic sequence annotation has identified new syndromes at chromosome 3q29 and 9q34. The finding of a significant number of copy number polymorphisms in the genome in the normal population, means that assigning pathogenicity to deletions and duplications in patients with mental retardation can be difficult but has been identified for duplications of MECP2 and L1CAM. Novel autosomal genes that cause mental retardation have been identified recently including CC2D1A identified by homozygosity mapping. Several new genes and pathways have been identified in the field of X-linked mental retardation but many more still await identification. Analysis of families where only a single male is affected reveals that the chance of this being due to a single X-linked gene abnormality is significantly less than would be expected if the excess of males in the population is entirely due to X-linked disease. Recent identification of novel X-linked mental retardation genes has identified components of the post-synaptic density and multiple zinc finger transcription factors as disease causing suggesting new mechanisms of disease causation. The first therapeutic treatments of animal models of mental retardation have been reported, a Drosophila model of Fragile X syndrome has been treated with lithium or metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists and a mouse model of NF1 has been treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lavastatin, which improves the learning and memory skills in these models.

  13. Mental Illness Disclosure Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rohini; Fulginiti, Anthony; Brekke, John S; Rice, Eric

    2017-04-10

    Disclosure related to mental illness has been linked to various positive outcomes, including better mental health. However, many individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to practice non-disclosure. Even though disclosure inherently occurs within the context of one's social relationships, research has generally conceptualized mental illness disclosure as an individual level phenomenon and neglected to consider preferences concerning to whom an individual discloses and the factors that influence this decision. The current study uses the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) by Greene (2009) to better understand the processes of mental illness disclosure preference and selective disclosure for individuals with SMI (n = 60) using multivariate random intercept logistic regression with an emphasis on the constituent factors of disclosure preference at both individual and relational levels. The majority of participants were found to practice selective disclosure, with 68% of the participants identifying at least 1 network member to whom they could disclose. Family members and friends were central to the selective disclosure process, comprising the greatest proportion of network members who, both were and were not identified as preferred confidants. Women were found to show higher odds of preference for mental illness disclosure than men. Having lower perceived social support was associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Among relational factors, greater relationship availability and lower dyadic tangible social support were associated with lower odds of disclosure preference. Practice and research implications of using social network analysis to get a deeper understanding of disclosure and disclosure preference are discussed, including implications for future interventions targeting stigma reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  15. Mental depression and kundalini yoga.

    PubMed

    Devi, S K; Chansauria, J P; Udupa, K N

    1986-10-01

    In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary - 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and it can be used as a non - medical measure in treating patients with mental depression.

  16. Medicines management in mental health.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Austyn; Barron, Derek

    This article provides evidence to suggest that mental health nurses may not be as competent in medicines management as they believe themselves to be. A psychological model of skills awareness is used throughout the article to offer a theoretical explanation of this putative deficit and provide discussion of the possible causes. Training directed towards improving medicines management skills will be introduced. Training such as this is essential if mental health nurses are to offer the best care to those in receipt of their services and make best use of the opportunities provided by prescribing legislation.

  17. Malayalam cinema and mental health.

    PubMed

    Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath

    2009-06-01

    There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health.

  18. Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…

  19. Closeup of CO172AO8, showing section of building 211 closest to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of CO-172-AO-8, showing section of building 211 closest to building 206. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. Robo-AO: An Autonomous Laser Adaptive Optics and Science System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, Nicholas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Dekany, Richard; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack; Zolkower, Jeff; Fucik, Jason; Burse, Mahesh; Das, Hillol; Chordia, Pravin; Kasliwal, Mansi; Ofek, Eran; Morton, Timothy; Johnson, John

    2011-07-01

    Robo-AO, a fully autonomous, laser guide star adaptive optics and science system, is being commissioned at Palomar Observatory's 60-inch telescope. Here we discuss the instrument, scientific goals and results of initial on-sky operation.

  1. Te Ao Kori as Expressive Movement in Aotearoa New Zealand Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE): A Narrative Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legge, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    A unique aspect of Aotearoa/New Zealand physical education is the inclusion of Maori culture in the form of te ao kori. Te ao kori translates to mean the world of movement and is represented by the interpretation of indigenous movement, games and pastimes. Participation in te ao kori means the sports-based normative frame of reference for physical…

  2. European comparisons between mental health services.

    PubMed

    Wahlbeck, K

    2011-03-01

    When developing accessible, affordable and effective mental health systems, exchange of data between countries is an important moving force towards better mental health care. Unfortunately, health information systems in most countries are weak in the field of mental health, and comparability of data is low. Special international data collection exercises, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas Project and the WHO Baseline Project have provided valuable insights in the state of mental health systems in countries, but such single-standing data collections are not sustainable solutions. Improvements in routine data collection are urgently needed. The European Commission has initiated major improvements to ensure harmonized and comprehensive health data collection, by introducing the European Community Health Indicators set and the European Health Interview Survey. However, both of these initiatives lack strength in the field of mental health. The neglect of the need for relevant and valid comparable data on mental health systems is in conflict with the importance of mental health for European countries and the objectives of the 'Europe 2020' strategy. The need for valid and comparable mental health services data is today addressed only by single initiatives, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development work to establish quality indicators for mental health care. Real leadership in developing harmonized mental health data across Europe is lacking. A European Mental Health Observatory is urgently needed to lead development and implementation of monitoring of mental health and mental health service provision in Europe.

  3. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey. II. (Baranec+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Ziegler, C.; Law, N. M.; Morton, T.; Riddle, R.; Atkinson, D.; Schonhut, J.; Crepp, J.

    2016-10-01

    We selected targets that we had not previously observed from the KOI Catalog based on the Q1-Q12 Kepler data (Rowe et al. 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/217/16). These targets were added to the Robo-AO intelligent observing queue and observed during the summer of 2013. We obtained high angular resolution images of 956 Kepler planet candidate host stars with the Robo-AO robotic laser AOs system over the course of 19 nights between 2013 July 21 and 2013 October 25, detailed in Table5. We also include 13 images from 2012 (2012 July 16-September 13) that required additional confirmation of the KOI position in the Robo-AO field of view. All the observations were performed in a queue-scheduled mode in combination with other science programs using the Robo-AO autonomous laser AO system mounted on the robotic 1.5m telescope at Palomar Observatory (exposure time: 90s; observation wavelengths: 600-950nm; FWHM resolution: 0.12''-0.15''; field of view: 44''*44''; pixel scale: 43.1mas/pix; detector format: 10242 pixels; targets observed/hour: 20). We obtained images of 50 KOIs with the NIRC2 instrument behind the Keck II AO system that were previously observed with Robo-AO and had evidence of a companion. Observations were conducted on 2013 June 25, 2013 August 24 and 25, 2014 August 17, and 2015 July 25 in the K, Ks, or Kp filters, and in the narrow mode of NIRC2 (9.952mas/pixel). (4 data files).

  5. Thin glass shells for AO: from plano to off-axis aspherics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Emmanuelle; Anretar, Alain; Antelme, Jean-Pierre; Caillon, Stéphane; Dussourd, Adrien; Foucaud, Guillaume; Jaury, Hervé; Roure, Océane; William, Jean-Philippe; Wuillaume, Philippe; Ruch, Eric; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Reosc has been working on thin glass shells for many years and was recently selected by ESO for the production of the E-ELT M4 mirror thin glass shells. Previously Reosc also produced the aspheric thin shell for the VLT-M2 AO Facility. Based on this experience we will discuss how off axis thin glass shells can be made for the next generation AO systems like the GMT one.

  6. East Asian winter temperature variation associated with the combined effects of AO and WP pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.

  7. OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolissaint, Laurent; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Marino, Jose

    2004-10-01

    When doing high angular resolution imaging with adaptive optics (AO), it is of crucial importance to have an accurate knowledge of the point spread function associated with each observation. Applications are numerous: image contrast enhancement by deconvolution, improved photometry and astrometry, as well as real time AO performance evaluation. In this paper, we present our work on automatic PSF reconstruction based on control loop data, acquired simultaneously with the observation. This problem has already been solved for curvature AO systems. To adapt this method to another type of WFS, a specific analytical noise propagation model must be established. For the Shack-Hartmann WFS, we are able to derive a very accurate estimate of the noise on each slope measurement, based on the covariances of the WFS CCD pixel values in the corresponding sub-aperture. These covariances can be either derived off-line from telemetry data, or calculated by the AO computer during the acquisition. We present improved methods to determine 1) r0 from the DM drive commands, which includes an estimation of the outer scale L0 2) the contribution of the high spatial frequency component of the turbulent phase, which is not corrected by the AO system and is scaled by r0. This new method has been implemented in an IDL-based software called OPERA (Performance of Adaptive Optics). We have tested OPERA on Altair, the recently commissioned Gemini-North AO system, and present our preliminary results. We also summarize the AO data required to run OPERA on any other AO system.

  8. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  9. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  10. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-03-01

    Large surveys, such as the Kepler mission and Palomar Transient Factory, are discovering upwards of thousands of objects which require further characterization at angular resolutions significantly finer than normally allowed by atmospheric seeing. The demands on precious space-based observatories (i.e. Hubble Space Telescope) and large telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems (i.e. Keck, VLT, Gemini) leave them generally unavailable for high angular resolution surveys of more than a few hundred targets at a time. To address the gap between scientific objects and available telescopes, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for the more readily available 1-3 m class telescopes. The Robo-AO system system demonstrates angular resolutions approaching the visible diffraction limit of the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs requiring high-resolution follow-up characterization of several thousands of targets can thus be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  11. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance abuse problem simultaneously. Dual diagnosis is a very broad ... person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person ...

  12. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    MedlinePlus

    ... others and how to recognize the symptoms of mental illness in yourself or someone else. Who Should I ... emotional conditions. The Dangers of Not Disclosing Untreated mental illness can, however, damage your career. If the symptoms ...

  13. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  14. Violence and mental illness: an overview.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-06-01

    THIS PAPER EVALUATES THE RELATIONSHIP OF MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENCE BY ASKING THREE QUESTIONS: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not. Therefore, early identification and treatment of substance abuse problems, and greater attention to the diagnosis and management of concurrent substance abuse disorders among seriously mentally ill, may be potential violence prevention strategies. Members of the public exaggerate both the strength of the association between mental illness and violence and their own personal risk. Finally, too little is known about the social contextual determinants of violence, but research supports the view the mentally ill are more often victims than perpetrators of violence.

  15. Stigma and mental disorder: phenomena and terminology.

    PubMed

    Clausen, J A

    1981-11-01

    My aim in this paper is to examine the application of the concept stigma to mental disorder and to the mentally ill. I believe that the loose use of this term serves to obscure the real issues that must be confronted in attempting to change public response to mental disorder. I shall examine recent, and in my opinion ill-advised, use of the concept stigma and then present some data that bear upon social responses to mentally ill patients and former patients in contemporary America. My data are derived from a long-term study of mental patients and their families, and I shall document that their feelings of stigmatization are not so much a consequence of the response of others to their having been hospitalized for mental illness or labeled mentally ill as of self-doubts or chronic manifestations of mental illness.

  16. Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163120.html Plastic Surgeons Often Miss Patients' Mental Disorders 10 percent ... News) -- Nearly one in 10 patients seeking facial plastic surgery suffers from a mental illness that distorts ...

  17. Priming the Mental Time Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

  18. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  19. Mental Space Theory and Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Yueqin

    2010-01-01

    This essay attempts to conduct an explanatory research on MIS within the framework of mental space theory to demonstrate the cognitive operating process of MIS in people's social interaction and explore the deep causes lying behind the phenomenon. By text analysis, the author elaborates on the generating process of MIS, thus tracing cognitive…

  20. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  1. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  2. Scholarly Productivity in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)

  3. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  4. Mental Health and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  5. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

  6. Mental Health and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferman, Louis A., Ed.; Gordus, Jeanne P., Ed.

    This volume offers a collection of papers which explores the relationships between major economic changes and individual and collective mental and physical well-being, including individual distress, deviant behavior, and other symptoms of underlying pathology. The contributors examine the processes leading from macroeconomic change to social and…

  7. Priming the Mental Time Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

  8. Children's Mental Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…

  9. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  10. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  11. Scouting for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.

    The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…

  12. A Mental Disabilities Curriculum Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonwa, Jim; Clary, Joan Turner

    The framework is intended to help staff develop curricula for mildly mentally retarded students in special and regular education and assist both educators and parents in evaluating the curricula. Distinctions between a curriculum and a framework are made. The proposed framework describes essential skills, competencies, and concepts necessary for…

  13. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  14. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  15. Mental Models in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

  16. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  18. The Paradigmatic Mentality: A Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley, Martyn

    The major features of the paradigm argument are outlined and the disastrous effect that the paradigmatic mentality has had on the development of the new sociology of education is examined. The paradigm argument states that all knowledge is founded upon epistemological, theoretical, and political assumptions, and that, therefore, knowledge must be…

  19. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  20. Philosophy, biology and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P J

    1994-10-01

    The biological model has become the touchstone for our thinking on mental disorder. The success of this model has relegated opposing views to the sidelines. Philosophers have been considering the nature of mind for well over 2500 years, and their speculations may provide a useful antidote to the creeping reductionism and materialism inherent in simple biology. The emphasis in philosophical theories is on the nature of the mental and the structuring role of the mind in our construction of reality. This paper focuses on three philosophers, Kant, Heidegger and Husserl, and their contribution to our understanding of the nature of psychopathology. The biological theory is re-examined from the differing perspectives offered, and some of the assumptions on which it is based are subjected to criticism. The emphasis, found in the philosophical theories, on the mental as opposed to the physiological aspects of the mind, is considered to be more germane to the practical and therapeutic concerns of those who must deal with the dis-ease of mental disorder.

  1. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  2. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed.

  3. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  4. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  5. Poverty and Women's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)

  6. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

  7. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  8. Neighborhood Characteristics and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Harold F.; Manderscheid, Ronald W.; Holzer, Charles E., III

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of incorporating both individual and neighborhood risk factors into predictive mental health needs assessment models. Data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey and the 1980 Census suggest that, with the exception of neighborhood social rank, neighborhood social area dimensions rarely make substantive contributions…

  9. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  10. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  11. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation.

  12. Mental Computation and Conceptual Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Klein, Anton S.; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the strategic flexibility of students in mental arithmetic up to the number 100. Results from 60 Dutch second graders show that students' preference for certain mathematical procedures depend on the number characteristics of the problems, indicating that the students had a good conceptual understanding of numbers and procedures. Actual…

  13. Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisso, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author points out that youth with mental disorders make up a significant subgroup of youth who appear in U.S. juvenile courts. And he notes that juvenile justice systems today are struggling to determine how best to respond to those youths' needs, both to safeguard their own welfare and to reduce re-offending and its…

  14. Toward Explaining Mental Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Mental health disparities refer to the disproportionate amount of psychopathology found among persons of disadvantageous social standing, such as persons of low socioeconomic status (SES). Although social and self selection cannot entirely be ruled out as explanations for these differences, the accumulation of evidence supports a social causation…

  15. Social inclusion and mental health.

    PubMed

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  16. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  17. Barometer. Mental health January 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-02-24

    Mental health trust chief executives are increasingly confident about recruiting crisis resolution and early intervention teams, according to the new HSJ Barometer survey. However, very few expect to gain foundation status in the next two years. The survey also shows that bed occupancy rates are increasing, with about a fifth of trusts showing rates above 100 per cent.

  18. Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  19. Learning disability and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-03-01

    Essential facts [Figure: see text] Learning disabilities affect about 1.5 million people in the UK. The prevalence of mental health problems is considerably higher for those with learning disabilities than for the general population; estimates suggest 30-50% of adults are affected.

  20. Grammatical Aspect and Mental Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Benjamin; Wheeler, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    When processing sentences about perceptible scenes and performable actions, language understanders activate perceptual and motor systems to perform mental simulations of those events. But little is known about exactly what linguistic elements activate modality-specific systems during language processing. While it is known that content words, like…

  1. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  2. Educable Mentally Handicapped: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The curriculum guide outlines objectives, strategies, and materials for developing academic, daily living, and vocational skills in educable mentally retarded students. An introductory section explains that the curriculum incorporates a community focus, parental involvement, developmental sequencing, and prescriptive teaching. Guidelines to…

  3. A Mental Disabilities Curriculum Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonwa, Jim; Clary, Joan Turner

    The framework is intended to help staff develop curricula for mildly mentally retarded students in special and regular education and assist both educators and parents in evaluating the curricula. Distinctions between a curriculum and a framework are made. The proposed framework describes essential skills, competencies, and concepts necessary for…

  4. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  5. Disaster mental health services: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Weeks, S M

    1999-02-01

    1. Services that may be provided by psychiatric-mental health nurses following a disaster include education, intervention, problem solving, advocacy, and referral. 2. Nurses providing disaster mental health services must be flexible and creative. Strong observational skills and teamwork are also essential characteristics in disaster settings. 3. Psychiatric-mental health nurses who wish to receive training for disaster mental health volunteer opportunities should contact their local chapter of the American Red Cross.

  6. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  7. The Role of Bilingual Workers without Professional Mental Health Training in Mental Health Services for Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Eric

    This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…

  8. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  9. Factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with mental illness. A descriptive correlation design was used. A sample of 180 Taiwanese mental health nurses was recruited from mental health-care settings. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, Student's t-test, one-way anova, and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Negative attitudes were found among mental health nurses, especially with respect to individuals with substance abuse compared with those with schizophrenia and major depression. Mental health nurses who were older, had more clinical experiences in mental health care, and demonstrated greater empathy expressed more positive attitudes towards people with mental illness. Mental health nurses working at acute psychiatric units demonstrated more negative attitudes towards mental illness compared with those working in psychiatric rehabilitation units and outpatient clinics or community psychiatric rehabilitation centres. Particularly, length of mental health nursing practice and empathy significantly accounted for mental health nurses' attitudes towards mental illness. Understanding nurses' attitudes and their correlates towards people with mental illness is critical to deliver effective mental health nursing care. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  11. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  12. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  13. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  14. Indian Adolescent Mental Health. OTA Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among…

  15. Prejudice, Mental Health and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Nathan W.

    This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…

  16. Student Mental Health Services in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Facts about mental and emotional illness and implications for student mental health services in higher education are reviewed. Psychoses, which are types of mental illness that are usually quite severe, are discussed in terms of symptoms, as are neuroses, which cause severe distress and impair coping with living conditions but are not as…

  17. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  18. Mental rehearsal in table tennis performance.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, M; Decker, C; Sanchez, X

    1994-08-01

    Effects of mental rehearsal were assessed on two measures of table tennis performance, counterattack forehand and counterattack backhand. Mental rehearsal combined with observational and physical techniques (N = 40) appeared to improve table tennis performance both qualitatively and quantitatively. Correlations suggested mental training effects cannot be explained only in terms of visual imagery.

  19. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  20. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  1. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  2. Vision and Mental Function of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lorraine Hiatt; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between vision and mental functioning was investigated in a study of 295 elderly residents from three levels of care. Visual acuity and mental status were assessed. Findings indicate that there was indeed a relationship between vision and mental status. (Author)

  3. Young People's Experiences of Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…

  4. Early Intervention Services in Youth Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…

  5. Controversies in the Mental Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L.; Cramer, Stanley H.

    This book discusses elements of six major areas of controversy which occur between different types of helping professionals. Theme 1 involves identity for the mental health professions. Questions are addressed related to the professional status of various mental health occupations, and who among them shall provide mental health services. Theme 2…

  6. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  7. Families, Managed Care, & Children's Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…

  8. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  9. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  10. Mental Health Is Served by Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris

    For more than 35 years the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has been the nation's major instrument of support for research in mental health. The yield from this ongoing research effort has been substantial, with a substantive increase of information about the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental illness as well as the factors that…

  11. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  12. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  13. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  14. Young People's Experiences of Mental Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…

  15. Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.

    This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…

  16. Student Mental Health Services in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Facts about mental and emotional illness and implications for student mental health services in higher education are reviewed. Psychoses, which are types of mental illness that are usually quite severe, are discussed in terms of symptoms, as are neuroses, which cause severe distress and impair coping with living conditions but are not as…

  17. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  18. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness; an innovative framework, which considers family members' experiences and responses to mental illness. There is an acknowledged discourse noting parental experiences of mental illness alongside a growing body of knowledge acknowledging children's needs while living with parental mental illness. However, there is a paucity of literature that makes reference to the concept of familial mental illness and the cyclic interface of parental and child distress and symptoms. The model is supported by published research studies from several differing disciplines to demonstrate the relationship between parent and child experiences and to synthesise the published short- and longer-term possible impact of familial mental illness. An extensive search of the literature using recognised search engines, keywords and phrases has been undertaken, to generate an appropriate literature base for this work. This literature demonstrates how a child's possible emotional distancing as a response to parental mental illness could increase parental distress. A Dynamic Cycle of Familial Mental Illness adopts the underpinning philosophy of a Stress Vulnerability Model of Mental Illness, which assumes that predisposing factors and increased stress for a parent may have possible links to exacerbation of parental mental distress and symptomology. We advocate for further research of familial mental illness, and argue for a family approach to mental health assessment and treatment in mainstream health and social care sectors.

  19. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Assistance Center in Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  20. Mental Health Issues in Rural Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Karen S., Comp.

    Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health…

  1. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  2. Issues in Children's Mental Health. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Margaret L.

    This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…

  3. Hispanics and Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic…

  4. Client Outcome Evaluation in Mental Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Outcome evaluation assesses the results or benefits of mental health services received by clients or communities by comparing descriptive data on the mental health status of clients at different points in time. It aids clinicians and managers in planning programs and managing clinical services. A mental health center should establish goal-oriented…

  5. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  6. The Development of Mental Abilities in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study investigates the nature and the factor structure of infant intelligence. The Bayley Mental Scale items were administered. According to the analysis, intelligence at any age is a set of separate mental abilities at each age, and there are a variety of paths through which mental development occurs. (JAZ)

  7. Mental Images towards the Concept of Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mental images of preschool teacher candidates related to the concept of drama via metaphors. We questioned these questions; "What are the metaphors or mental images of teacher candidates?," "Under which conceptual categories are these metaphors or mental images can be collected?" and…

  8. Media and mental health in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, F; Ssebunnya, J; Kizza, D; Ndyanabangi, S

    2010-05-01

    The media is largely regarded as an important stakeholder in health service delivery, with a great influence on public attitudes. However, little is known about its interest in mental health and the guiding factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues. This article describes the importance accorded to mental health by the media and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from six prominent media houses as part of the situational analysis of the mental health system in Uganda. Data was analyzed using Nvivo 7 qualitative data analysis software. The media was found to be interested and actively involved in health initiatives, but with little attention devoted to mental health. Coverage and interest in mental health was noted to be mainly dependent on the individual journalists' interests, and mostly for personal reasons. Low interest was largely attributed to mental health being perceived as a non-priority area, and the fact that mental illness is not a major contributor to mortality. Media coverage and reporting is guided by prioritization of the Health Department. The media in Uganda is an important stakeholder in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  9. Traditional healing practices originating in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao: A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Poulina, Igmar T; van Gellecum, Trevor L; Hoek, Hans W

    2015-12-01

    Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition from the southern part of the former Netherlands Antilles. Like other Caribbean healing traditions, it plays a significant role in shaping how individuals experience and express disorders which Western health professionals consider to require psychiatric care. Because little has been published on Brua, and because patients from Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are often reluctant to discuss their commitment to this tradition, they are often misdiagnosed and either over- or undertreated by biomedically trained health professionals. The present paper provides a review of the literature on Brua and its relation to psychiatry. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Ovid database, Google Scholar, and the historical literature. Our search yielded 35 texts on Brua, including three peer-reviewed scientific papers and eight academic theses. From those texts Brua emerges as a holistic patchwork of creolized beliefs and practices which are considered to be both cause and remedy for a wide variety of ailments. Despite the fact that tension between the Brua discourse and Western-oriented psychiatric practice is significant, adherence to Brua does not seem to cause much patient delay in help-seeking. However, belief in Brua as a possible source of mental and physical complaints, as well as patients' frequent recourse to Brua practices, including the use of hallucinogens, may affect the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

  10. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered. PMID:28663890

  11. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited].

    PubMed

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered.

  12. Improving mental health through primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The government white paper Health of the nation has highlighted mental health as a key issue for the next decade. Primary care is being encouraged to take a leading role in developing effective services for people with mental health problems. This paper reviews current research on key aspects of mental health in adults: the prevalence of mental health problems, improving detection and management of mental health problems, the role of counselling, and communication between primary and secondary care. Recommendations are made for initiatives in both research and service development. PMID:1457175

  13. Striving for better maternal mental health.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary; Steen, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Mental health is an integral part of health and a state of wellbeing. The concept of 'parity of esteem' increases awareness that mental health needs to be treated as seriously as physical health. During the childbirth continuum, women and their partners can be at increased risk of mental health problems; therefore it is important to embrace the 'parity of esteem' concept. This article highlights links between mental and physical health problems and discusses the vital role that midwives can play in promoting better maternal mental health. It considers the challenges this can present to midwives and maternity services.

  14. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  15. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    PubMed

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.

  16. Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly.

  17. Mental illness: media perpetuation of stigma.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Taylor, J

    1995-03-01

    Content analysis of 83 newspaper articles from February 1991 to January 1993 was the chosen method to determine the role of newspapers in the portrayal of the mentally ill. Two emergent themes arose: the closure of a mental health hospital was viewed negatively; and the stereotypical perception of the mentally ill as violent and unpredictable was reinforced. Over the two year period of the study the shift in focus from the ideology of de-institutionalisation, funding issues, crisis and chaos in the mental health hospital eventuated in an emphasis on the negativity associated with mental illness.

  18. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.

  19. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  20. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    PubMed

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.