Science.gov

Sample records for ao lenho mole

  1. Hydatidiform mole

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands , or unexplained weight loss Symptoms similar to preeclampsia that occur in the first trimester or early ... always a sign of a hydatidiform mole, because preeclampsia is extremely rare this early in a normal ...

  2. The Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, I. M.; Johnstone, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a study of difficulties encountered by 14.5- to 15.0- year-old children in learning the mole concept with a programed instruction. Concludes that three respective disturbing factors were embedded in manipulation of molarity of solutions, balancing equations, and misapprehension that one mole of a compound always reacts with one mole of…

  3. Chemical Principles Revisited: The Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1978-01-01

    Discusses ways of teaching the mole concept in high school chemistry classes. Provides resource information on the mole and Avogadro's Number. Includes an explanation of four methods for measuring Avogadro's Number and instructions on how to use the mole. (MA)

  4. Mosaics and moles

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Lone; Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid Staehr; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Degn, Birte; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy, where the placenta presents with vesicular swelling of the chorionic villi. A fetus is either not present, or malformed and not viable. Most moles are diploid androgenetic as if one spermatozoon fertilized an empty oocyte, or triploid with one maternal and two paternal chromosome sets as if two spermatozoa fertilized a normal oocyte. However, diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers of the nuclear genome have been reported. Among 162 consecutively collected diploid moles, we have earlier found indications of both maternal and paternal genomes in 11. In the present study, we have performed detailed analysis of DNA-markers in tissue and single cells from these 11 HMs. In 3/11, we identified one biparental cell population only, whereas in 8/11, we demonstrated mosaicism: one biparental cell population and one androgenetic cell population. One mosaic mole was followed by persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). In seven of the mosaics, one spermatozoon appeared to have contributed to the genomes of both cell types. Our observations make it likely that mosaic conceptuses, encompassing an androgenetic cell population, result from various postzygotic abnormalities, including paternal pronuclear duplication, asymmetric cytokinesis, and postzygotic diploidization. This corroborates the suggestion that fertilization of an empty egg is not mandatory for the creation of an androgenetic cell population. Future studies of mosaic conceptuses may disclose details about fertilization, early cell divisions and differentiation. Apparently, only a minority of diploid moles with both paternal and maternal markers are ‘genuine' diploid biparental moles (DiBiparHMs). PMID:21654731

  5. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MOLE-NOTS KILLS MOLES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ' . I' \\ ~,I' !/~'k .' j /' ,I, ~~:, 11), Kills Moles & Gophers - -- -. J. ... r . • :: I \\ .• ~_. P G r""' l- i • ... • r I , -' .. j . , , . ' I , , "'. Is Mole ~ .s. (iuptle r

  7. MOLES Information Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, Spiros; Lawrence, Bryan; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES) model has been developed within the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) DataGrid project [NERC DataGrid] to fill a missing part of the ‘metadata spectrum'. It is a framework within which to encode the relationships between the tools used to obtain data, the activities which organised their use, and the datasets produced. MOLES is primarily of use to consumers of data, especially in an interdisciplinary context, to allow them to establish details of provenance, and to compare and contrast such information without recourse to discipline-specific metadata or private communications with the original investigators [Lawrence et al 2009]. MOLES is also of use to the custodians of data, providing an organising paradigm for the data and metadata. The work described in this paper is a high-level view of the structure and content of a recent major revision of MOLES (v3.3) carried out as part of a NERC DataGrid extension project. The concepts of MOLES v3.3 are rooted in the harmonised ISO model [Harmonised ISO model] - particularly in metadata standards (ISO 19115, ISO 19115-2) and the ‘Observations and Measurements' conceptual model (ISO 19156). MOLES exploits existing concepts and relationships, and specialises information in these standards. A typical sequence of data capturing involves one or more projects under which a number of activities are undertaken, using appropriate tools and methods to produce the datasets. Following this typical sequence, the relevant metadata can be partitioned into the following main sections - helpful in mapping onto the most suitable standards from the ISO 19100 series. • Project section • Activity section (including both observation acquisition and numerical computation) • Observation section (metadata regarding the methods used to obtained the data, the spatial and temporal sampling regime, quality etc.) • Observation collection section The key concepts in

  8. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysplastic nevus Having more than 50 common moles Sunlight : Sunlight is a source of UV radiation , which causes ... by spending time in the sun without protection. Sunlight can be reflected by sand, water, snow, ice, ...

  9. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  10. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  11. Of Bushwahckers, Termites and Moles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Retired school administrator describes five types of school personnel that make an administrator's job difficult: Bushwackers, termites, CIA moles, rumor-mill addicts, and sartorial slobs. For example, termites are staff members who purposely volunteer for committees so they can sabotage the group's efforts from within. (PKP)

  12. Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Medicine Disease Database Contributors Doctor Derm App Skin Facts Aging and Sun Damage Beauty Myths Preventing Sun Damage Skin Cancer Detection Skin Disease Links Sun Safety Document ...

  13. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  14. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  15. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  16. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  17. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  18. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  19. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  20. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Moles are burrowing mammals that are regarded as pests in Britain, and until 2006 they could legally be killed using strychnine poison. When strychnine was withdrawn there were fears that mole populations would increase. We surveyed farmers, amenity managers and householders about moles and mole control on their land in 2007, post strychnine withdrawal. Kill-trapping was by far the preferred control method used and control may be used more than can be justified by damage levels or the effect of control on damage. Mole traps are unregulated, unlike most other spring traps, and some might not meet current welfare standards. We found no evidence that mole activity had increased since a 1992 survey of farms. Abstract Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill

  1. Transient uterine myometrial contraction associated with moles.

    PubMed

    Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Adachi, Toshisada; Matsuda, Takao; Wake, Norio; Honda, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    To examine the incidence of transient distortion of uterine central tissue and myometrial hypointense areas observed on MR images in women with clinically suspicious moles. The study population consisted of six women aged 15-47 years with clinically suspicious moles (hydatidiform mole in four, invasive mole in one, and microscopic mole in one). The control study population was 105 reproductive-age women (18-52 years) without uterine malignancy, gestational trophoblastic disease, or pregnancy. MR images were analyzed to check for discrepancies of the uterine central tissue configuration. If a discrepancy was observed, the myometrial hypointense area, its diameter, and changes in its shape and location were analyzed. Differences in uterine central tissue configuration and hypointense areas were observed in all six patients. In the control study, only seven cases showed uterine endometrial distortion, and five exhibited hypointense areas. These areas disappeared, changed in shape, or other hypointense areas appeared on subsequent MR images. Significant differences (P < 0.01) in the incidence of uterine central tissue distortion and hypointense areas, and in their maximum diameter between the study and the control groups were observed. Uterine myometrial hypointense areas with central tissue distortion, most likely due to transient myometrial contraction, are frequently seen in women with clinically suspicious moles. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Ellwood, Stephen A; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W

    2016-06-08

    Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate) and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  3. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  4. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  5. Relating the Mole Concept and Fundamental Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth L.

    The high percentage of students who have difficulty in solving free-response problems related to the mole concept was addressed by implementation of reading skill strategies and computer assisted instruction. Frayer models, semantic mapping, and graphic organizers from Reading in the Content Area (RICA) were used to increase student understanding…

  6. Talpid Mole Phylogeny Unites Shrew Moles and Illuminates Overlooked Cryptic Species Diversity.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Shinohara, Akio; Helgen, Kristofer M; Springer, Mark S; Jiang, Xue-Long; Campbell, Kevin L

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian family Talpidae (moles, shrew moles, desmans) is characterized by diverse ecomorphologies associated with terrestrial, semi-aquatic, semi-fossorial, fossorial, and aquatic-fossorial lifestyles. Prominent specializations involved with these different lifestyles, and the transitions between them, pose outstanding questions regarding the evolutionary history within the family, not only for living but also for fossil taxa. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic history of the family using 19 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial genes (∼16 kb) from ∼60% of described species representing all 17 genera. Our phylogenetic analyses help settle classical questions in the evolution of moles, identify an ancient (mid-Miocene) split within the monotypic genus Scaptonyx, and indicate that talpid species richness may be nearly 30% higher than previously recognized. Our results also uniformly support the monophyly of long-tailed moles with the two shrew mole tribes and confirm that the Gansu mole is the sole living Asian member of an otherwise North American radiation. Finally, we provide evidence that aquatic specializations within the tribes Condylurini and Desmanini evolved along different morphological trajectories, though we were unable to statistically reject monophyly of the strictly fossorial tribes Talpini and Scalopini. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Social Structure Predicts Genital Morphology in African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Kelly, Diane A.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Šumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. Conclusions/Significance The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology. PMID:19829697

  8. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  9. Insights: A LAP on Moles: Teaching an Important Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihde, John

    1985-01-01

    Describes a learning activity packet (LAP) designed to help students understand the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit; know relationships between the mole and atomic weights in the periodic table; and solve basic conversion problems involving moles, atoms, and molecules. (JN)

  10. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  11. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  12. Entomopathogenic fungi detection and avoidance by mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah R; Brandenburg, Rick L; Roberson, Gary T

    2007-02-01

    A chamber to monitor mole cricket behavior was designed using two different soil-filled containers and photosensors constructed from infrared emitters and detectors. Mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.) were introduced into a center tube that allowed them to choose whether to enter and tunnel in untreated soil or soil treated with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. Each time the cricket passed through the photosensor located near the entrance of soil-filled containers, the infrared light was blocked and the exact moment that this occurred was logged onto a computer using custom-written software. Data examined included the first photosensor trigger, total number of sensor triggers, presence of tunneling, and final location of the cricket after 18 h. These behaviors were analyzed to discern differences in mole cricket behavior in the presence of different treatments and to elucidate the mechanism that mole crickets use to detect fungal pathogens. The first study examined substrate selection and tunneling behavior of the southern mole cricket, Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos, to the presence of five strains of B. bassiana relative to a control. There were no differences between the first sensor trigger and total number of triggers, indicating the mole crickets are not capable of detecting B. bassiana at a distance of 8 cm. Changes in mole cricket tunneling and residence time in treated soil occurred for some strains of B. bassiana but not others. One of the strains associated with behavioral changes in the southern mole cricket was used in a second experiment testing behavioral responses of the tawny mole cricket, S. vicinus Scudder. In addition to the formulated product of this strain, the two separate components of that product (conidia and carrier) and bifenthrin, an insecticide commonly used to control mole crickets, were tested. There were no differences in mole cricket behavior between treatments in this study. The differences in behavioral responses between

  13. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes techniques to help introductory students become familiar with Avogadro's number and mole calculations. Techniques involve estimating numbers of common objects then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second…

  14. Hydatidiform mole resulting from sexual violence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydatidiform mole (HM) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition. PMID:22353179

  15. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution: inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms: and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer; inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  16. Deaths caused by mole guns: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin

    2008-07-01

    Possession of firearms is limited because of the technological requirements in production and strict laws. However, anyone can manufacture a handmade firearm by following simple instructions and has no legal liability. A mole gun is an unusual weapon used to kill moles in agricultural areas. It propels pellets in a similar way as a shotgun. This study presents three cases of death caused by mole guns. Two of the cases were accidental, and the other case was suicidal. The first case involved a 51-year-old man who was checking the mole gun when it fired, injuring his left eye and the left region of his face. He died in the hospital after 3 days of medical treatment. The second case was a 78-year-old man, who had been intermittently treated for depression over the last 15 years. He died instantly after placing the mole gun vertically against his head and firing it. The third case was a 43-year-old man who had been trying to set up a mole gun device in his potato field when the weapon accidentally discharged. The victim was injured seriously and died in the hospital a short time later. In conclusion, because the mole gun may cause lethal wounds in humans when fired from a short distance, the researchers believe that its production and use should be in accordance with firearms laws.

  17. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng

    2010-05-01

    Mole devices are low velocity, medium to high energy, self-driven penetrators, designed as a carrier of different sensors for in situ investigations of subsurface layers of planetary bodies. The maximum insertion depth of such devices is limited by energy of single mole's stroke and soil resistance for the dynamic penetration. A mole penetrator ‘KRET' has been designed, developed, and successfully tested at Space Research Centre PAS in Poland. The principle of operation of the mole bases on the interaction between three masses: the cylindrical casing, the hammer, and the rest of the mass, acting as a support mass. This approach takes advantage of the MUPUS penetrator (a payload of Philae lander on Rosetta mission) insertion tests knowledge. Main parameters of the mole KRET are listed below: - outer diameter: 20.4mm, - length: 330mm, - total mass: 488g, - energy of the driving spring: 2.2J, - average power consumption: 0.28W, - average insertion progress/stroke: 8.5mm, The present works of Space Research Center PAS team are focused on three different activities. First one includes investigations of the mole penetration effectiveness in the lunar analogues (supported by ESA PECS project). Second activity, supported by Polish national fund, is connected with numerical calculation of the heat flow investigations and designing and developing the Heat Flow Probe Hardware Component (HPHC) for L-GIP NASA project. It's worth noting that L-GIP project refers to ILN activity. Last activity focuses on preparing the second version of the mole ready to work in low thermal and pressure conditions. Progress of a mole penetrator in granular medium depends on the mechanical properties of this medium. The mole penetrator ‘KRET' was tested in different materials: dry quartz sand (0.3 - 0.8 grain size), wet quartz sand, wheat flour and lunar regolith mechanical simulant - Chemically Enhanced OB-1 (CHENOBI). Wheat flour was selected due to its high cohesion rate and small grain size

  18. Amount of substance and the proposed redefinition of the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Mills, I. M.

    2009-06-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the merits of redefining four of the base units of the SI, including the mole. In this paper, the options for implementing a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant are discussed. They are placed in the context of the macroscopic nature of the quantity amount of substance and the opportunity to introduce a system for molar and atomic masses with unchanged values and consistent relative uncertainties.

  19. Mole modifications following controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction technologies.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, M; Di Nicola, M; Varrati, S; Carbone, A; Pamio, A; Capo, A; Tracanna, M; Castigliego, A P; Tiboni, G M; Amerio, P

    2015-10-01

    The role of estrogens on moles biology remains undefined although estrogenic receptors have been found on melanocytes. It has been postulated that supraphysiological estrogen levels could promote the progression of moles to melanoma. Women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are exposed to high levels of estrogens, produced by the ovary in response to exogenous gonadotropin administration. The aim of this study is to assess whether COS for ART may have an impact on mole structure and/or characteristics. Women undergoing to ART for various infertility conditions were included in the study. Personal and clinical data were collected. Dermatoscopic features and scores (total dermoscopy score--TDS) were statistically compared before COS and after a 6-month follow-up period. Statistical correlation was performed between estradiol, FSH blood levels and relative variation in moles dimensions. A total of 46 patients were included in the study. One hundred and seventy-five melanocytic lesions from 31 patients were evaluated at both time points. Although statistically significant differences were found in mole dimension and TDS between the two time points, these differences had no relevance in the clinical setting not suggesting the need for mole excision. Moreover, the only statistically significant correlation with estradiol blood concentration on hCG administration day was found with one-axis dimensional variation. To our knowledge this is the first work to evaluate the effect of COS on moles. The obtained results do not support a causal relation between the supraphysiological hormone levels stimulation and worsening of clinical and dermoscopical features of moles. Further study is needed to clarify whether estrogens plays a role in melanoma. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen E; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-03-01

    Anatomy of male and female external genitalia of adult mice (Mus musculus) and broad-footed moles (Scapanus latimanus) was re-examined to provide more meaningful anatomical terminology. In the past the perineal appendage of male broad-footed moles has been called the penis, while the female perineal appendage has been given several terms (e.g. clitoris, penile clitoris, peniform clitoris and others). Histological examination demonstrates that perineal appendages of male and female broad-footed moles are the prepuce, which in both sexes are covered externally with a hair-bearing epidermis and lacks erectile bodies. The inner preputial epithelium is non-hair-bearing and defines the preputial space in both sexes. The penis of broad-footed moles lies deep within the preputial space, is an "internal organ" in the resting state and contains the penile urethra, os penis, and erectile bodies. The clitoris of broad-footed moles is defined by a U-shaped clitoral epithelial lamina. Residing within clitoral stroma encompassed by the clitoral epithelial lamina is the corpus cavernosum, blood-filled spaces and the urethra. External genitalia of male and female mice are anatomically similar to that of broad-footed moles with the exception that in female mice the clitoris contains a small os clitoridis and lacks defined erectile bodies, while male mice have an os penis and a prominent distal cartilaginous structure within the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP). Clitori of female broad-footed moles lack an os clitoridis but contain defined erectile bodies, while male moles have an os penis similar to the mouse but lack the distal cartilaginous structure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy of male and female external genitalia of adult mice (Mus musculus) and broad-footed moles (Scapanus latimanus) was re-examined to provide more meaningful anatomical terminology. In the past the perineal appendage of male broad-footed moles has been called the penis, while the female perineal appendage has been given several terms (e.g. clitoris, penile clitoris, peniform clitoris and others). Histological examination demonstrates that perineal appendages of male and female broad-footed moles are the prepuce, which in both sexes are covered externally with a hair-bearing epidermis and lacks erectile bodies. The inner preputial epithelium is non-hair-bearing and defines the preputial space in both sexes. The penis of broad-footed moles lies deep within the preputial space, is an “internal organ” in the resting state and contains the penile urethra, os penis, and erectile bodies. The clitoris of broad-footed moles is defined by a U-shaped clitoral epithelial lamina. Residing within clitoral stroma encompassed by the clitoral epithelial lamina is the corpus cavernosum, blood-filled spaces and the urethra. External genitalia of male and female mice are anatomically similar to that of broad-footed moles with the exception that in female mice the clitoris contains a small os clitoridis and lacks defined erectile bodies, while male mice have an os penis and a prominent distal cartilaginous structure within the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP). Clitori of female broad-footed moles lack an os clitoridis but contain defined erectile bodies, while male moles have an os penis similar to the mouse but lack the distal cartilaginous structure. PMID:26694958

  2. Unusual Presentation of Invasive Mole: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Maghsoudnia, Andisheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive mole is responsible for most cases of localized gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a number of gynecologic tumors that originate in trophoblastic layer including hydatidiform mole (complete or partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and epitheloid trophoblastic tumor. Invasive mole may arise from any pregnancy event although in most cases is diagnosed after molar pregnancy. Overall cure rate in low risk patients is nearly 100% and in high-risk patient 90%. In rare cases, molar tissue traverses thickness of myometrium and leads to perforation and acute abdomen and invasive mole infrequently metastasis. The best treatment option is chemotherapy (according to stage and score with single or multiple agent) and in patients that fertility is not the matter, hysterectomy can be done. Case Presentation: A 41 years old G3P2ab1 woman referred to Firouzgar hospital 2 months after curettage of molar pregnancy with vaginal bleeding and acute abdomen. In workup, HCG 224000 mIU/ml and evidence of metastasis was detected. Chemotherapy due to stage 3 and score 9 and surgery due to acute abdomen was done. This case was reported for its rarity. Discussion: This case reported about ovarian metastasis and uterine rupture with acute abdomen and involvement of omentum in metastatic invasive mole. Lack of surveillance led to extensive morbidity. Management of this patient was successful. In follow up, she was free of disease without sequel of any kind for five years now. PMID:28377901

  3. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV.

  4. A case of true tubal hydatidiform mole and literature review.

    PubMed

    Siozos, A; Sriemevan, A

    2010-08-09

    Tubal hydatidiform mole is an uncommon condition with about 40 confirmed cases in the accessible literature. The patient usually presents with symptoms and signs of a classical ectopic pregnancy and it is only after histological examination and DNA ploidy analysis of the conceptus that a hydatidiform mole is diagnosed. Management requires complete removal of the conceptus and follow-up needs to be arranged with an appropriate supraregional centre. The authors present a case of complete molar tubal pregnancy and a review of the literature.

  5. Magnetic compass orientation in the blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, T; Terkel, J

    2001-02-01

    The blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi is a solitary, subterranean rodent that digs and inhabits a system of branching tunnels, with no above-ground exits, which it never leaves unless forced to. To survive, the mole rat must be able to orient efficiently in its tunnel system. The sensory channels available for spatial orientation in the subterranean environment are restricted in comparison with those existing above ground. This study examined the possibility that the mole rat is able to perceive and use the earth's magnetic field to orient in space. Experiments were performed using a device constructed from a pair of electromagnetic 'Helmholtz coils', which create a magnetic field whose direction and strength can be altered. In the first experiment, we tested a group of mole rats (N=33) in an eight-armed maze under the earth's natural magnetic field to determine whether they have directional preferences for the location of their sleeping nest, food chamber and toilet site. A second group of mole rats (N=30) was tested for their directional preference after the earth's magnetic field had been experimentally shifted by 180 degrees. We found that the first group exhibited a significant preference (P<0.001) to build both their sleeping nest and their food store in the southern sector of the maze, whereas the second group shifted the location of their nests (P<0.01) and food store (P<0.05), to the northern sector of the maze, corresponding to the shift in the magnetic field. In the second experiment, we tested whether the magnetic compass orientation found in the first experiment depends on a light stimulus by testing a group of mole rats in the eight-armed maze under total darkness. No significant difference in directional preference between light and dark test conditions was observed. It can be concluded, therefore, that, in contrast to some amphibians and birds, magnetic compass orientation in the mole rat is independent of light stimulation. In the third experiment

  6. Hydatidiform mole presentation as a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakeer, Tabassum; Shahid, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Asad; Nakeer, Rooham

    2014-05-01

    Presentation of hydatidiform mole as tubal ectopic pregnancy is very rare. These patients usually present with ectopic pregnancy and are later diagnosed with hydatidiform mole on the basis of histological examination following surgery. We present the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleed since 2 days of presentation. She was vitally stable. There was mild tenderness in hypogastrium and left iliac fossa. Pelvic examination showed mild bleeding per vaginum and fullness in both fornices. The patient was suspected of having an ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography of pelvis revealed fluid in cul-de-sac and a sac like mass of 1.8 cm attached to the left ovary. On laparotomy, there was a left sided tubal ectopic pregnancy and subsequently left salpingectomy was done. Histopathology of the tissue sample showed features of partial hydatidiform mole. Ectopic pregnancy can present as hydatidiform mole in rare cases for which histological examination of the tissue is required to establish the diagnosis.

  7. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martin J. T.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to the principles developed for the application of metrology to the field of chemistry and particularly to analytical chemistry. It starts with a discussion of the mole, the base unit of the SI that is most relevant to analytical chemistry. The mole has become the subject of particular discussion recently, since the publication of proposals to re-define it along with three other base units of the SI. This discussion has also generated interest in the origin of the term ‘amount of substance’ used as the quantity for which the mole is the unit. This paper reviews the origin of this term and explains why it is not sufficient to replace it with an alternative such as a ‘number of entities’. The paper concludes with some discussion of how the mole is realized through the use of primary methods of measurement. This paper is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants,held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  8. Temperature preferences of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Begall, Sabine; Berendes, Meike; Schielke, Charlotte K M; Henning, Yoshiyuki; Laghanke, Marzena; Scharff, Andreas; van Daele, Paul; Burda, Hynek

    2015-10-01

    Many animals are able to detect small temperature differences and show strong temperature preferences during periods of rest and activity. Mammals inhabiting the subterranean ecotope can adapt their digging and foraging activity in shallow tunnels temporarily to periods with favourable ambient air and soil temperatures. Moreover, subterranean mammals have the unique opportunity to select for their nests in soil depths with certain, daily and seasonally constant temperatures. Our knowledge on nest temperatures in several species of subterranean mammals is based on measurements of temperatures in empty nests. We can expect, however, that the temperature in an occupied nest is higher (due to the "igloo effect"). We performed two experiments regarding the temperature preference in five species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia: Fukomys anselli, F. mechowii, F. micklemi, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, and Heterocephalus glaber). In a first experiment, the animals were tested pairwise (except for the solitary silvery mole-rats, H. argenteocinereus, that were tested singly) in an apparatus consisting of seven chambers with a temperature gradient ranging between 16 and 37°C (air temperature). While the smaller species (<110g; F. anselli, F. micklemi, H. glaber) chose chambers with average air temperatures around 29°C, the larger mole-rats rested preferably at lower temperatures of approximately 25.6°C (F. mechowii) and 27.7°C (H. argenteocinereus). A strong negative correlation between body mass and preferred air temperature was detected across species. Thus, the results comply with the surface-volume-rule. Contrary to expectations, temperature preference of naked mole-rats (H. glaber) did not deviate from those of furred small mole-rats, but followed the general trend with smaller species preferring higher temperatures. In a second experiment, Ansell's mole-rats (F. anselli) were tested in groups of four, six and nine animals and the preferred temperatures

  9. Retinal AO OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Miller, Donald T.

    The last two decades have witnessed extraordinary advances in optical technology to image noninvasively and at high resolution the posterior segment of the eye. Two of the most impactful technological advancements over this period have arguably been optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO). The strengths of these technologies complement each other and when combined have been shown to provide unprecedented, micron-scale resolution (<3 μm) in all three dimensions and sensitivity to image the cellular retina in the living eye. This powerful extension of OCT, that is AO-OCT, is the focus of this chapter. It presents key aspects of designing and implementing AO-OCT systems. Particular attention is devoted to the relevant optical properties of the eye that ultimately define these systems, AO componentry and operation tailored for ophthalmic use, and of course use of the latest technologies and methods in OCT for ocular imaging. It surveys the wide range of AO-OCT designs that have been developed for retinal imaging, with AO integrated into every major OCT design configuration. Finally, it reviews the scientific and clinical studies reported to date that show the exciting potential of AO-OCT to image the microscopic retina and fundus in ways not previously possible with other noninvasive methods and a look to future developments in this rapidly growing field.

  10. The complete mitogenome of Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes (Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Wang, Qiong; Chen, Guiying; Fu, Changkun; Chen, Shunde

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Mole Shrew, Anourosorex squamipes belongs to the family Soricidae, and widely distributes in central and southern China, northern and south Burma, east India, northern Vietnam and Thailand. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anourosorex squamipes was determined. The mitogenome is 17,121 base pairs in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region, with base composition of 34.0% A, 31.3% T, 22.0% C, and 12.7% G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other shrews. The study contributes to illuminating taxonomic status of Chinese Mole Shrew Anourosorex squamipes.

  11. Use of an Upland Pine Forest by the Star-Nosed Mole, Condylura Cristata

    Treesearch

    Timothy S. McCay; Mark J. Komoraoski; William M. Ford

    1999-01-01

    The star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a semi-aquatic insectivore, commonly found near marshy areas and streams. We report two captures of star-nosed moles from a xeric, upland pine forest more than 500 m from the nearest persistent source of water. Both captures occurred during rainy nights, suggesting that star-nosed moles use rain events as...

  12. Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, George

    1994-01-01

    Teachers and students alike report difficulties with the measurement unit called mole. This article tries to demonstrate that mole and the corresponding quantity are not exceptional. Mole lacks the context of a given amount because the unit measures the relative number of atoms compared with those present in a standard. Discusses history of…

  13. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  14. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  15. Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, George

    1994-01-01

    Teachers and students alike report difficulties with the measurement unit called mole. This article tries to demonstrate that mole and the corresponding quantity are not exceptional. Mole lacks the context of a given amount because the unit measures the relative number of atoms compared with those present in a standard. Discusses history of…

  16. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  17. Teaching the Mole Concept Using a Conceptual Change Method at College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uce, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry is a subject area that is difficult to understand for some students as it contains abstract concepts, such as mole, molecule and particle. The mole concept is one of the most important topics in which students have difficulty in understanding. There are many studies in the literature on the mole concept. Students who do not fully…

  18. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  19. A content analysis of the presentation of the mole concept in chemistry textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew T.

    The goal of this study was to examine the means used by textbook authors to introduce, define, and explain the mole concept in high school and introductory college chemistry textbooks. The analysis was framed by four questions:1How is the mole defined?2What concepts about the atom are introduced prior to the mole?3Is Avogadro's constant presented as an experimentally determined value?4What is the context for introducing the mole?Twenty-nine high school and introductory college level chemistry texts were examined. After independent reading of appropriate sections of each text, discussion of differences, second or third readings of texts, and subsequent discussions, both authors reach 100% agreement concerning the results. Major conclusions were: Two ways of defining the mole dominate the texts. One way defines the mole as Avogadro's number (6.02 × 1023) particles; the other method defines the mole in terms of carbon-12. All texts that present a definition in terms of C-12 introduce and define concepts about the atom prior to introducing the mole. Most texts at all levels point out that the value 6.02 × 1023 is an experimentally determined quantity. Nearly all texts discuss the mole in relation to die problem of finding a way to count particles that are too small to be directly weighed. Most texts also use a familiar counting unit, such as the dozen, to introduce the mole by analogy. Four issues were discussed: (a) the defining attributes of the mole concept itself and the cognitive requirements for comprehending the two most frequently used definitions; (b) the connection between the definition of the mole presented in the text and the concepts about atoms that are introduced before the mole concept is developed; (c) the experimental nature of Avogadro's number; and (d) the context or setting for developing the mole concept.

  20. Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Holly K; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J; Rowe, Karen M C; Rowe, Kevin C; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-06-23

    Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand.

  1. Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae)

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Holly K.; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J.; Rowe, Karen M. C.; Rowe, Kevin C.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand. PMID:22279154

  2. Description of the mitogenome of Gansu mole (Scapanulus oweni).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Huang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yunting; Tu, Feiyun

    2016-05-01

    The Gansu mole Scapanulus oweni belongs to family Talpidae, and is distributed in the Central and Southwest China. In this study, the total mitochondrial genome of S. oweni was firstly determined. The genome is 16,826 bases in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a displacement loop region, with a base composition of A 34.0%, G 13.5%, T 28.7% and C 23.9%. All of the protein-coding genes initiate with the orthodox ATG start codon execpt for Nd2 and Nd3 begin with ATT, Nd4 and Nd5, start with GTG and ATA, respectively. Four types of stop codons are used by the coding genes, including TAA for Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, Nd6, TAG for Nd2, AGA for Cytb, and an incomplete stop codon T for Cox3, Nd3 and Nd4. The mito-genomic data of Gansu mole, S. oweni will be useful in determining its taxonomic status within Talpidae.

  3. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    PubMed Central

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S.; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents. PMID

  4. [Poisoning with aluminum phospholipide used as a poison against moles].

    PubMed

    Andersen, T S; Holm, J W; Andersen, T S

    1996-09-16

    Aluminium phosphide (AIP) is a poison used in Denmark to combat moles and vermines e.g. in granaries. On contact with water AIP releases phosphine gas, which has a strong cytotoxic action. We describe a lethal poisoning in a healthy 83 year old man, caused by ingestion of pellets containing AIP. After ingestion the primary symptoms were burning retrosternal pain, severe vomiting and diarrhoea which progressed to cardiac failure, arrhythmias and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient and his excreta smelled of garlic, ammonium carbide and decaying fish, which is characteristic of this poisoning. In spite of intensive care support the patient died in cardiac and respiratory failure 17 hours after ingestion of the pellets. Treatment is supportive. Knowledge about the toxicity of AIP is described and discussed.

  5. MOLE: A new high-energy gamma-ray diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.J.; Chang, B.

    1992-01-21

    Continued interest in high-energy {gamma} rays associated with fusion reactions has motivated an ongoing search for simple, effective measurement techniques. Past experiments have measured 16.7-MeV {gamma} rays with Compton-magnetic spectrometers. Some measurements have been performed with threshold Cherenkov detectors with enhanced sensitivity to high-energy {gamma} rays. The Compton spectrometers work quite well, but they require extensive calibrations and tend to be expensive and cumbersome. The threshold Cherenkov detectors are simpler to calibrate and physically compact, but have poor spectral definition and are vulnerable to background signals. This report is to describe a new type of {gamma}-ray detector, the MOLE, that may retain the simplicity of a threshold Cherenkov detector while still having sufficient energy discrimination to be effective for measuring high-energy {gamma}-rays in the presence of lower-energy {gamma}-ray fluxes.

  6. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 ..mu..m particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed.

  7. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax)

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km2) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies. PMID:23359700

  8. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-03-09

    Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus) are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus) are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP) places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines), or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group; other changes in shape have

  9. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus) are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus) are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Results Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP) places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines), or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. Conclusions The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group

  10. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  11. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  12. Comparative Morphology of the Penis and Clitoris in Four Species of Moles (Talpidae).

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2017-03-02

    The penile and clitoral anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, three-dimensional reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined with regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia.

  13. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  14. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species.

  15. How mole ratio of UF resin affects formaldehyde emission and other properties : a literature critique

    Treesearch

    George E. Myers

    1984-01-01

    A critical review was made of the literature concerned with how the formaldehyde to urea mole ratio (F/U) affects formaldehyde emission from particleboard and plywood bonded with urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives, and how this ratio affects certain other adhesive and board properties. It is difficult to quantify the dependence of various properties on mole ratio or...

  16. What's the Diagnosis? An Inquiry-Based Activity Focusing on Mole-Mass Conversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2011-01-01

    An inquiry-based mole-to-mass activity is presented associated with the analysis of blood. Students working in groups choose between two medical cases to determine if the "patient" has higher or lower concentrations of minerals than normal. The data are presented such that students must convert moles to mass in order to compare the patient values…

  17. Two Investigations of Students' Understanding of the Mole Concept and Its Use in Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Lumpe, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Examines the following research questions and others: (1) How do students define the mole concept? and (2) Is there a connection between student's definition of the mole concept and their explanations of the numerical identity between the atomic or molecular mass and molar mass of a substance? Results are discussed in terms of research in chemical…

  18. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M.; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. Results: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat’s extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. Availability and implementation: The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource is freely available online at http://www.naked-mole-rat.org. This resource is open source and the source code is available at https://github.com/maglab/naked-mole-rat-portal. Contact: jp@senescence.info PMID:25172923

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of a Novel Hantavirus Isolated from the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a novel hantavirus isolated from a European mole (Talpa europaea) captured in central Poland, was determined. The availability of this sequence will facilitate the search for other mole-borne hantaviruses and will accelerate the acquisition of new knowledge about their phylogeography and evolutionary origin. PMID:26021917

  20. Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Abundance in Correlation with Waste Water Effluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Dangerfield, L.; Minor, D.; Subedar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pollutants such as ammonia and copper have had negative effects on marine invertebrate lifecycles. Along the Pacific Coast of California, a filter feeding invertebrate, the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, is exposed to such pollutants regularly. In San Francisco, habitats for populations of Pacific mole crabs are located near the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, which dumps waste water 4.5 miles off the coast. Due to this disturbance at the south end of Ocean Beach, we hypothesize that there is a negative correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and the levels of copper, zinc and ammonia in sewage released from the Oceanside plant each year. By analyzing four years of Pacific mole crab abundance data and utilizing yearly waste water discharge figures, we found that there is a slight negative correlation (-0.67057) between mole crab abundances and the total amount of waste water being released annually. The amount of copper released from 2007-2010 and the abundance of E. analoga also has a slight negative correlation (-0.6714). The correlation between Pacific mole crab abundance and the total amount of zinc is also a slightly negative (-0.48434). However, the correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and total amount of ammonia released is positive (0.4497). Further data are needed to ascertain the relationship between the abundance of the Pacific mole crab and the amount of pollutants released from nearby waste water treatment plants.

  1. Eye development in the Cape dune mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Natalya V; Kidson, Susan H

    2014-03-01

    Studies on mammalian species with naturally reduced eyes can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms underlying the reduction of the eye structures. Because few naturally microphthalmic animals have been studied and eye reduction must have evolved independently in many of the modern groups, novel evolutionary developmental models for eye research have to be sought. Here, we present a first report on embryonic eye development in the Cape dune mole rat, Bathyergus suillus. The eyes of these animals contain all the internal structures characteristic of the normal eye but exhibit abnormalities in the anterior chamber structures. The lens is small but develops normally and exhibits a normal expression of α- and γ-crystallins. One of the interesting features of these animals is an extremely enlarged and highly pigmented ciliary body. In order to understand the molecular basis of this unusual feature, the expression pattern of an early marker of the ciliary zone, Ptmb4, was investigated in this animal. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization results revealed that Ptmb4 expression was absent from the ciliary body zone of the developing Bathyergus eye.

  2. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  3. Making Mountains out of Molehills: Sediment Transport by the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Loveless, J. C.; Warburton, J.; Densmore, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite its widespread occurrence (across Europe and Eastern North America) the significance of the burrowing activity of the European Mole for sediment transport in the Northern Hemisphere has not been well quantified. In many areas this may have been the dominant mechanism of hillslope sediment transport over the last one to two millenia. The European Mole (Talpa europaea) is prevalent across the UK, particularly in fertile soils. It is highly fossorial, living almost its entire 3-6 year life in a network of tunnels that it maintains to catch prey. Moles can rapidly excavate large amounts of soil (~6 kg in 20 minutes) with waste soil generally pushed to the surface to form molehills. In this study we quantify sediment flux due to mole burrowing based on measured molehill sizes and geometries and estimates of mole hill production rates from time lapse photography. We examine the evolution of the molehills after production through repeat survey of in-situ molehills in the field and rainfall simulation experiments to accelerate degradation in the laboratory. Our initial findings suggest that: 1) molehill masses are generally log-normally distributed with a geometric mean ~1.4 kg; 2) moles move approximately 1.5 times as much soil as earthworms; and 3) the sediment flux due to moles is a non-linear function of the local slope.

  4. Teaching the mole concept with sub-micro level: Do the students perform better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyanti, Nurma Yunita; Barke, Hans-Dieter

    2017-08-01

    The concept of mole is an abstract concept of sub-micro level. The main problem in chemistry that should be encounter by educators is students' inability to transfer understanding between macro level and sub-micro level. Particle-oriented approach is created due to improper expression in the term of mole on books and classroom learning. A mole is the amount of substance of a system, which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0,012 kg of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. The study presented here focuses on students' activity and response taught by mole triangle implemented in German and Indonesian classroom. Two classes of grade-10 were involved in each country. The way of students perform in the test was analyzed. Hands-on activities were used as an entrance and followed by particle-oriented expression. In worksheets of each hands-on experience, students should write the correct expression of mole concept. The results of the study indicated that there is different level of understanding in representing knowledge in learning the mole. The use of correct expression will ensure that students see meaningful relationships and can easily go back and forth between macro, sub-micro and symbolic level.

  5. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  6. Selective Inflammatory Pain Insensitivity in the African Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Thomas J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes “normal” mammalian nociception. PMID:18232734

  7. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Lurain, John R

    2010-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). The epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of each of these trophoblastic disease variants are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to management of hydatidiform mole, including evacuation, twin mole/normal fetus pregnancy, prophylactic chemotherapy, and follow-up. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy outcome with coexisting mole after intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Asha R.; Dafle, Karishma; Padmashri, G.; Rao, Damodar R.; Sivakumar, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Partial/complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting fetus is a rare condition. Optimal management is a challenge that remains a dilemma since these pregnancies are associated with maternal as well as fetal complications including hemorrhage, preeclampsia, thromboembolic disease, intra uterine demise and increased risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Here we report 2 cases of partial mole with live fetus after ICSI and a case of complete mole with coexisting fetus after ICSI in a turner mosaic that resulted in a live birth. PMID:26538863

  9. What Are Students' Initial Ideas about "Amount of Substance"? "Is There a Specific Weight for a Mole?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Stacy, Angelica

    Analyzes the role of students' prior knowledge in their emerging understanding of the mole. The research question this study seeks to answer is what knowledge, if any, do student have regarding the mole and what prior knowledge do they access when presented problems regarding the nature of the mole. Data collection focuses on student knowledge…

  10. Alterations in thyroid hormone economy in patients with hydatidiform mole

    PubMed Central

    Galton, Valerie Anne; Ingbar, Sidney H.; Jimenez-Fonseca, Jesus; Hershman, Jerome M.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of several aspects of thyroid hormone economy have been conducted in 11 patients before and after removal of a molar pregnancy. Before evacuation of the mole, all patients demonstrated moderately to greatly elevated values for thyroidal 131I uptake, absolute iodine uptake, and serum protein-bound-131I. Values for serum PBI and serum thyroxine (T4) concentration were consistently and often greatly increased, averaging more than twice those found in normal pregnancy and three times those in normal controls. On the other hand, the maximum binding capacity of the T4-binding globulin (TBG) was variably affected, and ranged between the values found in normal controls and those found in normal pregnancy. Values for the absolute concentration of free T4 in serum were, on the average, only moderately elevated, since the proportion of free T4 was moderately low, although not as low as in normal pregnancy. Sera of patients with molar pregnancy contained high levels of thyroid stimulating activity, as assessed in the McKenzie mouse bioassay system. The stimulator displayed a more prolonged duration of action than that of TSH and did not reveal a major immunological cross-reactivity with either human or bovine TSH, differing in the latter respect from the chorionic thyrotropin of normal human placenta. Abnormalities in iodine metabolism were rapidly ameliorated after removal of the molar pregnancy, and this was associated with the disappearance from serum of the thyroid stimulator. Despite the foregoing evidence of thyroid hyperfunction and hypersecretion of T4, patients with molar pregnancy were neither goitrous nor overtly thyrotoxic. They did display, however, high values of the urinary pigment/creatinine ratio, a possible indication of the presence of a hypermetabolic state. It is concluded that in patients with molar pregnancy, thyroid function and T4 secretion are stimulated, often greatly so, by an unusual thyroid stimulator which is demonstrable in the blood and

  11. The Mole and Avogadro's Number: A Forced Fusion of Ideas for Teaching Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Reports a review of existing texts in which it was found that many textbooks exist which do not make any particular connection between Avogadro's number and the mole. Some books do not mention or use Avogadro's number at all. (DF)

  12. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A; Huang, Zhiyong; Lobanov, Alexei V; Han, Lijuan; Marino, Stefano M; Sun, Xiaoqing; Turanov, Anton A; Yang, Pengcheng; Yim, Sun Hee; Zhao, Xiang; Kasaikina, Marina V; Stoletzki, Nina; Peng, Chunfang; Polak, Paz; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Kiezun, Adam; Zhu, Yabing; Chen, Yuanxin; Kryukov, Gregory V; Zhang, Qiang; Peshkin, Leonid; Yang, Lan; Bronson, Roderick T; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Wang, Bo; Han, Changlei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Li; Zhao, Wei; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Park, Thomas J; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2011-10-12

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.

  14. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  15. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed “early contact inhibition.” Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27Kip1. In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16Ink4a. Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16Ink4a and p27Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16Ink4a, and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27Kip1. We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. PMID:19858485

  16. Atypical mole syndrome and dysplastic nevi: identification of populations at risk for developing melanoma - review article

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Juliana Hypólito; de Sá, Bianca Costa Soares; de Ávila, Alexandre Leon Ribeiro; Landman, Gilles; Neto, João Pedreira Duprat

    2011-01-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Because the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers is essential, as well as the creation of recommended preventative measures that must be taken by these patients. PMID:21552679

  17. Behavioral Responses of Pest Mole Crickets, Neoscapteriscus SPP. (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae), to Selected Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Kostromytska, Olga S; Scharf, Michael E; Buss, Eileen A

    2017-09-13

    Mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus spp.) consume turfgrasses and pasture grasses and uproot plants by their tunneling, which decreases turf aesthetics and decreases forage quantity and quality. Insecticides are frequently used to prevent damage. In typical field trials, damage symptoms, not percent of mortality or achieved level of control, are used to assess treatment efficacy. Here however, we evaluated the direct effect of key insecticides on Neoscapteriscus mole cricket behavior. Mole crickets, Neoscapteriscus spp. were able to detect and avoid areas treated with fipronil (FP) and imidacloprid (FP). They tunneled less in sand treated with fipronil; and avoided sand treated with fipronil and imidacloprid if given a choice. Mole crickets escaped areas treated with acephate, bifenthrin and fipronil. Bifenthrin and acephate caused increased tunneling during the first 90 min of observation. Fipronil and imidacloprid significantly reduced overall tunneling on treated areas. Tested insecticides elicited two types of behavioral changes in Neoscapteriscus mole crickets: increased locomotory activity and tunneling (acephate [organophosphate] and bifenthrin [pyrethroid]) and reduced spatial movement (fipronil [phenylpyrazole] and imidacloprid [neonicotinoid]). These behavioral responses resulted mainly from contact chemoreception and inherent neurotoxicity of the chemicals on Neoscapteriscus mole crickets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Comments on recent proposals for redefining the mole and kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2010-06-01

    The fundamental concept of the mole requires the number of entities comprising one mole, i.e. Avogadro's number, to be exactly equal to the gram-to-dalton mass ratio. If this compatibility condition is to be satisfied, the mole, the kilogram and the dalton cannot all be defined independently. This note concerns recent Metrologia publications that do, however, propose independent definitions of all three quantities: the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number and the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, while retaining the current carbon-12-based dalton. Adoption of these incompatible definitions would likely cause serious widespread confusion and might even result in a split in scholarly and technical communication between the quantum physics and chemistry communities. Other entirely compatible alternatives are possible: either retaining the current (inexact) carbon-12-based mole and dalton with an independently redefined kilogram or redefining the mole by fixing the value of Avogadro's number, with a compatible dalton that is exact in terms of the redefined kilogram.

  19. Australia's first fossil marsupial mole (Notoryctemorphia) resolves controversies about their evolution and palaeoenvironmental origins

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Michael; Beck, Robin; Gott, Miranda; Hand, Suzanne; Godthelp, Henk; Black, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Fossils of a marsupial mole (Marsupialia, Notoryctemorphia, Notoryctidae) are described from early Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland, Australia. These represent the first unequivocal fossil record of the order Notoryctemorphia, the two living species of which are among the world's most specialized and bizarre mammals, but which are also convergent on certain fossorial placental mammals (most notably chrysochlorid golden moles). The fossil remains are genuinely ‘transitional', documenting an intermediate stage in the acquisition of a number of specializations and showing that one of these—the dental morphology known as zalambdodonty—was acquired via a different evolutionary pathway than in placentals. They, thus, document a clear case of evolutionary convergence (rather than parallelism) between only distantly related and geographically isolated mammalian lineages—marsupial moles on the island continent of Australia and placental moles on most other, at least intermittently connected continents. In contrast to earlier presumptions about a relationship between the highly specialized body form of the blind, earless, burrowing marsupial moles and desert habitats, it is now clear that archaic burrowing marsupial moles were adapted to and probably originated in wet forest palaeoenvironments, preadapting them to movement through drier soils in the xeric environments of Australia that developed during the Neogene. PMID:21047857

  20. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  1. Reinterpreting the Anomalous Mole Fraction Effect: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Dirk; Giri, Janhavi; Fill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The origin of the anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) in calcium channels is explored with a model of the ryanodine receptor. This model predicted and experiments verified new AMFEs in the cardiac isoform. In mole fraction experiments, conductance is measured in mixtures of ion species X and Y as their relative amounts (mole fractions) vary. This curve can have a minimum (an AMFE). The traditional interpretation of the AMFE is that multiple interacting ions move through the pore in a single file. Mole fraction curves without minima (no AMFEs) are generally interpreted as X displacing Y from the pore in a proportion larger than its bath mole fraction (preferential selectivity). We find that the AMFE is also caused by preferential selectivity of X over Y, if X and Y have similar conductances. This is a prediction applicable to any channel and provides a fundamentally different explanation of the AMFE that does not require single filing or multiple occupancy: preferential selectivity causes the resistances to current flow in the baths, channel vestibules, and selectivity filter to change differently with mole fraction, and produce the AMFE. PMID:19843453

  2. Clinical features of early-stage nonhydropic mole for diagnosis of persistent trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Junya; Ohba, Takashi; Fukunaga, Masaharu; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2011-10-01

    To characterize the clinical features of "nonhydropic" hydatidiform mole and to investigate regression of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as an aid in detecting persistent trophoblastic disease after nonhydropic hydatidiform mole. Our study included women with histologically diagnosed nonhydropic molar pregnancies. Women did not exhibit macroscopic or characteristic ultrasonographic appearances specific to hydatidiform mole. Regression of serum hCG levels was compared with abortions of nonmolar pregnancies, which were histologically confirmed. Among 34 nonhydropic molar pregnancies, 32 complete hydatidiform moles were analyzed, excluding two partial hydatidiform moles. Compared with nonmolar aborted pregnancies, pre-evacuation hCG levels were significantly higher in the 32 complete hydatidiform moles. The 32 molar pregnancies progressed to 24 cases of spontaneous remission and eight cases of persistent trophoblastic disease. Among patients with spontaneous remission, the time at which serum hCG levels became undetectable and the onset of first postabortion menstruation were similar to those in patients who had nonmolar abortions. In all patients who experienced regression, serum hCG was undetectable after the third postabortion menstruation. In all patients with persistent trophoblastic disease, serum hCG levels exceeded 25 milli-international units/mL 4 weeks after evacuation. Without histological confirmation, it is difficult to diagnose nonhydropic molar pregnancy based solely on clinical presentation. Follow-up studies of serum hCG levels 4 weeks after abortion and after the third postabortion menstruation may aid in detecting impending persistent trophoblastic disease. II.

  3. Australia's first fossil marsupial mole (Notoryctemorphia) resolves controversies about their evolution and palaeoenvironmental origins.

    PubMed

    Archer, Michael; Beck, Robin; Gott, Miranda; Hand, Suzanne; Godthelp, Henk; Black, Karen

    2011-05-22

    Fossils of a marsupial mole (Marsupialia, Notoryctemorphia, Notoryctidae) are described from early Miocene deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland, Australia. These represent the first unequivocal fossil record of the order Notoryctemorphia, the two living species of which are among the world's most specialized and bizarre mammals, but which are also convergent on certain fossorial placental mammals (most notably chrysochlorid golden moles). The fossil remains are genuinely 'transitional', documenting an intermediate stage in the acquisition of a number of specializations and showing that one of these-the dental morphology known as zalambdodonty-was acquired via a different evolutionary pathway than in placentals. They, thus, document a clear case of evolutionary convergence (rather than parallelism) between only distantly related and geographically isolated mammalian lineages-marsupial moles on the island continent of Australia and placental moles on most other, at least intermittently connected continents. In contrast to earlier presumptions about a relationship between the highly specialized body form of the blind, earless, burrowing marsupial moles and desert habitats, it is now clear that archaic burrowing marsupial moles were adapted to and probably originated in wet forest palaeoenvironments, preadapting them to movement through drier soils in the xeric environments of Australia that developed during the Neogene.

  4. Blunted Neuronal Calcium Response to Hypoxia in Naked Mole-Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bethany L.; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals. PMID:22363676

  5. The Mole as an Explanatory Device: How Do You Know a Mole if You See One? A Manual for Chemistry Students. Sample Teaching Materials: The Explanatory Modes Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.

    This booklet is designed to supplement the study of introductory chemistry. It deals particularly with the mole concept but also includes ideas for analyzing the kinds of statements that appear in all science textbooks and scientific writing. The material in the booklet should be studied after the completion of an introductory textbook study of…

  6. Epidermal sensory organs of moles, shrew moles, and desmans: a study of the family talpidae with comments on the function and evolution of Eimer's organ.

    PubMed

    Catania, K C

    2000-09-01

    The epidermal sensory organs of members of the family Talpidae (moles, shrew-moles, and desmans) were investigated and compared to determine the range of sensory specializations and better understand how they evolved. Small domed mechanosensory organs called 'Eimer's organs' were present on the rhinarium of nearly all species of talpids, but not among the sister group of shrews (Soricidae) or other insectivore families. This suggests that the common ancestor to the talpids possessed Eimer's organs. Two species of moles from the driest habitats did not exhibit Eimer's organs - suggesting that their sensory organs degenerated in response to harsh, abrasive soil conditions. The semi-aquatic desmans uniquely possessed tiny sensory hairs interspersed with their Eimer's organs; these may act to sense water currents. Some species exhibited a subdivided, star-like, rhinarium - resembling an early embryonic stage of the star-nosed mole and providing clues to the evolution of the star. A single genera (Uropsilus) that branched off early in the evolution of the talpids had Eimer's organ-like structures but lacked some typical components. These findings fill a major gap in our knowledge of talpid sensory biology and suggest (1) how Eimer's organs evolved, (2) how the unusual appendages of the star-nosed mole evolved, (3) that the evolution of Eimer's organ is convergent with the mechanosensory push-rod of monotremes. The results also demonstrate the features that distinguish Eimer's organ from similar configurations of sensory receptors in other mammalian skin surfaces. Finally, a mechanism for Eimer's organ function in detecting object and prey specific surface features is proposed.

  7. In-situ Subsurface Science Addressed By The "mole" On The Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V. V.; Möhlmann, D.; Kochan, H.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolith- penetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam- ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with re- gard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science con- ducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displace- ment through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measure- ments of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith tem- perature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil in- trusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith

  8. In-situ subsurface science addressed by the Mole on the Beagle 2 Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Gromov, V.; Kochan, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Tokano, T.

    The payload of the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission includes a regolithpenetrating, tethered "Mole" intended for acquisition of several subsurface soil sam ples from depths between about 30 cm and some 1E1.5 m. These samples will then be analysed by the Gas Analysis Package instrument on the lander, primarily with regard to isotopic composition and to organic molecules. However, after giving a brief overview of the Mole experiment, this paper focuses on additional in-situ science conducted by the Beagle 2 Mole system, also referred to as the PLanetary Underground TOol (PLUTO): while it penetrates into the Martian regolith by way of soil displacement through the action of an internal hammering mechanism, the Mole will allow mechanical properties of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth - being a first on a Mars mission - and additionally, a temperature sensor mounted on the outside of the Mole will support investigations of soil thermophysical properties and measurements of the subsurface temperature profile, again as a first-time achievement. Using a Mole soil penetration theory calibrated by ground-based experiments, regolith bulk density, cohesion, and internal friction angle can be constrained as a function of depth using the Mole penetration path (and retrieval path) vs. time which is measured by a winch rotation sensor indicating the amount of tether extracted by the Mole. The obtained depth profiles of these quantities should provide insight into the depositional history and stratigraphy of the regolith at the site. Measurements of the regolith temperature will be conducted by the Mole both as a function of depth during soil intrusion, and as a function of time for constant depth, as the Mole can be left in the subsurface for periods of days or weeks before it is retrieved, especially during the later part of the Beagle 2 landed mission. Subsurface temperature measurements will support calibrations of Mars regolith thermophysical

  9. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris M G; Kerkmeijer, Linda G W; Ariaens, Henk J W; van der Steen, Rob C B M; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sweep, Fred C G J

    2010-04-01

    To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole pregnancy as compared to those patients for whom trophoblastic tissue will regress uneventfully. Pre-evacuation blood samples were collected from women with complete hydatidiform mole with uneventful spontaneous regression after molar evacuation (n=32), from women with complete hydatidiform mole who developed persistent trophoblastic disease after evacuation of their mole (n=28) and, as a control group, from women during the first trimester of normal pregnancy (n=22). The serum specimens were subjected to chromatofocusing, and hCG was determined in the fractions collected in the pH range 7.0-3.0. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that 36% of complete hydatidiform mole patients with post-molar persistent trophoblastic disease development had different hCG glycoform profiles at 97% specificity (pH interval 6.3-5.1, hCG cutoff 9.9%). There was a significant difference between complete hydatidiform mole with and without persistent trophoblastic disease for the cumulative percent amounts of hCG in the pH interval 6.3-5.1 (p<0.0003). In 36% of the patients with complete hydatidiform mole with subsequent development of persistent trophoblastic disease, typical glycoform profiles for hCG are observed in pre-evacuation serum samples. This result suggests that hCG glycoform profiles are of potential use in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Paternal Hemizygosity in 11p15 in Mole-like Conceptuses

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Lone; Lund, Helle; J Sebire, Neil; Grove, Anni; Fisher, Rosemary A.; Niemann, Isa; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Andreasen, Lotte; Hansen, Estrid Staehr; Bojesen, Anders; Bolund, Lars; Nyegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hydatidiform mole is an abnormal human pregnancy characterized by the fetus being absent or nonviable, and the chorionic villi being vesicular and with trophoblastic hyperplasia. Most often, the mole phenotype is seen in conceptuses with an excess of paternally inherited genome set(s) relative to maternally inherited genome set(s), suggesting that the phenotype is caused by an excess of genome with a paternal imprinting pattern. However, it is unknown if correct parental origin of every imprinted gene is crucial for normal early differentiation or if abnormal parental imprinting of only one, or some, gene(s) can cause the mole phenotype. Two conceptuses included in the Danish Mole Project stood out since they presented with vesicular chorionic villi and without signs of fetal differentiation, and had apparently biparental diploid genomes, and no mutations in NLRP7 or KHDC3L were detected in the mothers. These conceptuses were subjected to a centralized histopathological revision and their genetic complements were scrutinized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and DNA-marker and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses. Both conceptuses showed dysmorphic chorionic villi with some similarities to hydatidiform moles; however, no definite florid trophoblast hyperplasia was observed. Both conceptuses showed paternal hemizygosity of 11pter-11p15.4, most likely in nonmosaic state. Our findings suggest that the product of one (or a few) maternally expressed gene(s) on the tip of chromosome 11 is necessary for normal early embryonic differentiation. However, since the present two cases did not exhibit all features of hydatidiform moles, it is likely that abnormal parental imprinting of genes in other regions contribute to the phenotype of a hydatidiform mole. PMID:26554776

  11. The molecular basis of defective lens development in the Iberian mole

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, F David; Jiménez, Rafael; Collinson, J Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Fossorial mammals face natural selection pressures that differ from those acting on surface dwelling animals, and these may lead to reduced visual system development. We have studied eye development in a species of true mole, the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis, and present the molecular basis of abnormal lens development. This is the first embryological developmental study of the eyes of any fossorial mammal at the molecular level. Results Lens fibre differentiation is not completed in the Iberian mole. Although eye development starts normally (similar to other model species), defects are seen after closure of the lens vesicle. PAX6 is not down-regulated in developing lens fibre nuclei, as it is in other species, and there is ectopic expression of FOXE3, a putative downstream effector of PAX6, in some, but not all lens fibres. FOXE3-positive lens fibres continue to proliferate within the posterior compartment of the embryonic lens, but unlike in the mouse, no proliferation was detected anywhere in the postnatal mole lens. The undifferentiated status of the anterior epithelial cells was compromised, and most of them undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, β-crystallin and PROX1 expression patterns are abnormal and our data suggest that genes encoding β-crystallins are not directly regulated by PAX6, c-MAF and PROX1 in the Iberian mole, as they are in other model vertebrates. Conclusion In other model vertebrates, genetic pathways controlling lens development robustly compartmentalise the lens into a simple, undifferentiated, proliferative anterior epithelium, and quiescent, anuclear, terminally differentiated posterior lens fibres. These pathways are not as robust in the mole, and lead to loss of the anterior epithelial phenotype and only partial differentiation of the lens fibres, which continue to express 'epithelial' genes. Paradigms of genetic regulatory networks developed in other vertebrates appear not to hold true for the Iberian mole. PMID:18939978

  12. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyi; Fu, Jing; Hu, Lina; Fang, Fang; Xie, Lingxia; Chen, Hengxi; He, Fan; Wu, Taixiang; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2017-09-11

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012.Hydatidiform mole (HM), also called a molar pregnancy, is characterised by an overgrowth of foetal chorionic tissue within the uterus. HMs may be partial (PM) or complete (CM) depending on their gross appearance, histopathology and karyotype. PMs usually have a triploid karyotype, derived from maternal and paternal origins, whereas CMs are diploid and have paternal origins only. Most women with HM can be cured by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) and their fertility preserved. However, in some women the growth persists and develops into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a malignant form of the disease that requires treatment with chemotherapy. CMs have a higher rate of malignant transformation than PMs. It may be possible to reduce the risk of GTN in women with HM by administering prophylactic chemotherapy (P-Chem). However, P-Chem given before or after evacuation of HM to prevent malignant sequelae remains controversial, as the risks and benefits of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of P-Chem to prevent GTN in women with a molar pregnancy. To investigate whether any subgroup of women with HM may benefit more from P-Chem than others. For the original review we performed electronic searches in the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2012), MEDLINE (1946 to February week 4, 2012) and Embase (1980 to 2012, week 9). We developed the search strategy using free text and MeSH. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5, 2017), MEDLINE (February 2012 to June week 1, 2017) and Embase (February 2012 to 2017, week 23). We also handsearched reference lists of relevant literature to identify additional studies and searched trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials

  13. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism

    PubMed Central

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism. PMID:27588902

  14. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  15. Differences in cooperative behavior among Damaraland mole rats are consequences of an age-related polyethism.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Vullioud, Philippe; Mendonça, Rute; Torrents Ticó, Miquel; Gaynor, David; Mitchell, Adam; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2016-09-13

    In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects. Here we show that, in Damaraland mole rats, individual contributions to cooperative behavior increase with age and are higher in fast-growing individuals. Individual contributions to different cooperative tasks are intercorrelated and repeatability of cooperative behavior is similar to that found in other cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Our data provide no evidence that nonreproductive individuals show divergent developmental pathways or specialize in particular tasks. Instead of representing a caste system, variation in the behavior of nonreproductive individuals in Damaraland mole rats closely resembles that found in other cooperatively breeding mammals and appears to be a consequence of age-related polyethism.

  16. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  17. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2016-03-30

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase.

  18. Skin morphology and its role in thermoregulation in mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber and Cryptomys hottentotus

    PubMed Central

    DALY, T. JOSEPH M.; BUFFENSTEIN, ROCHELLE

    1998-01-01

    The skin structure of 2 Bathyergid rodents, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) is compared, to investigate whether thermoregulatory differences may be attributed to different skin features. Histological and ultrastructural studies of the dorsal skin of these closely related species show morphological and structural similarities but differences in the degree of skin folding, thickness of the integument and dermal infrastructure were evident. The skin of the common mole-rat conforms with expected morphological/histological arrangements that are commonly found in mammalian skin. Many features of the skin of the naked mole-rat, such as the lack of an insulating layer and the loosely folded morphological arrangement contribute to poikilothermic responses to changing temperatures of this mammal. Further evidence for poikilothermy in the naked mole-rat is indicated by the presence of pigment containing cells in the dermis, rather than the epidermis, as commonly occurs in homeotherms. Lack of fur is compensated by a thicker epidermal layer and a marked reduction in sweat glands. Differences in skin morphology thus contribute substantially to the different thermoregulatory abilities of the 2 Bathyergids. The skin morphology is related to the poor thermoinsulatory ability of the animals while simultaneously facilitating heat transfer from the environment to the animal by thigmothermy and/or other behavioural means. PMID:10029182

  19. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A.; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K.; Pamenter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8–10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase. PMID:27009224

  20. MOLE 2.0: advanced approach for analysis of biomacromolecular channels.

    PubMed

    Sehnal, David; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Berka, Karel; Pravda, Lukáš; Navrátilová, Veronika; Banáš, Pavel; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Otyepka, Michal; Koča, Jaroslav

    2013-08-16

    Channels and pores in biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes) play significant biological roles, e.g., in molecular recognition and enzyme substrate specificity. We present an advanced software tool entitled MOLE 2.0, which has been designed to analyze molecular channels and pores. Benchmark tests against other available software tools showed that MOLE 2.0 is by comparison quicker, more robust and more versatile. As a new feature, MOLE 2.0 estimates physicochemical properties of the identified channels, i.e., hydropathy, hydrophobicity, polarity, charge, and mutability. We also assessed the variability in physicochemical properties of eighty X-ray structures of two members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Estimated physicochemical properties of the identified channels in the selected biomacromolecules corresponded well with the known functions of the respective channels. Thus, the predicted physicochemical properties may provide useful information about the potential functions of identified channels. The MOLE 2.0 software is available at http://mole.chemi.muni.cz.

  1. iMole, a web based image retrieval system from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Manuela; Natale, Massimo; Cornaz, Moreno; Ruffino, Andrea; Bonino, Dario; Bucci, Enrico M

    2013-07-01

    iMole is a platform that automatically extracts images and captions from biomedical literature. Images are tagged with terms contained in figure captions by means of a sophisticate text-mining tool. Moreover, iMole allows the user to upload directly their own images within the database and manually tag images by curated dictionary. Using iMole the researchers can develop a proper biomedical image database, storing the images extracted from paper of interest, image found on the web repositories, and their own experimental images. In order to show the functioning of the platform, we used iMole to build a 2DE database. Briefly, tagged 2DE gel images were collected and stored in a searchable 2DE gel database, available to users through an interactive web interface. Images were obtained by automatically parsing 16,608 proteomic publications, which yielded more than 16,500 images. The database can be further expanded by users with images of interest trough a manual uploading process. iMole is available with a preloaded set of 2DE gel data at http://imole.biodigitalvalley.com.

  2. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  3. Twin Pregnancy with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole and a Coexisting Live Fetus: Rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Shahila; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Mathew, Namitha R; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Qureshi, Asim; Mathew, Mariam

    2015-11-01

    A hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus is a rare occurrence and the optimal management for this condition is not yet known. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 2) who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in March 2012 at 13 gestational weeks with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. An ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole pregnancy coexisting with a live fetus. After extensive counselling, the patient and her husband opted for a conservative management approach. Unfortunately, a hysterotomy had to be performed at 17 gestational weeks due to severe haemorrhage. The postoperative period was uneventful and histopathology results confirmed one complete mole with a coexisting fetus and normal placenta. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level remained normal for 18 months following her surgery.

  4. The Star-Nosed Mole Reveals Clues to the Molecular Basis of Mammalian Touch

    PubMed Central

    Tsunozaki, Makoto; Morita, Takeshi; Leitch, Duncan B.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Brem, Rachel B.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Bautista, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian touch transduction. To identify novel candidate transducers, we examined the molecular and cellular basis of touch in one of the most sensitive tactile organs in the animal kingdom, the star of the star-nosed mole. Our findings demonstrate that the trigeminal ganglia innervating the star are enriched in tactile-sensitive neurons, resulting in a higher proportion of light touch fibers and lower proportion of nociceptors compared to the dorsal root ganglia innervating the rest of the body. We exploit this difference using transcriptome analysis of the star-nosed mole sensory ganglia to identify novel candidate mammalian touch and pain transducers. The most enriched candidates are also expressed in mouse somatosesensory ganglia, suggesting they may mediate transduction in diverse species and are not unique to moles. These findings highlight the utility of examining diverse and specialized species to address fundamental questions in mammalian biology. PMID:23383028

  5. Early Detection by Ultrasound of Partial Hydatidiform Mole With a Coexistent Live Fetus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kanika; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Kumaresan, Meenakshisundaram; Chandra, Tushar

    2015-10-01

    Twin pregnancy with hydatidiform mole and coexistent live fetus is a rare condition with severe maternal and fetal complications such as preeclampsia, vaginal bleeding, persistent gestational trophoblastic tumor, and fetal death. We report a case of a twin pregnancy with histopathologically proven hydatidiform mole and a coexistent live fetus in a 30-year-old Indian woman diagnosed by first trimester ultrasound. Our case emphasizes the role of ultrasound in diagnosing this condition in early pregnancy. A succinct overview of etiological mechanisms, possible complications, and clinical management is provided. Ultrasound is an effective diagnostic tool to diagnose hydatidiform mole with coexistent live fetus. Early diagnosis of this condition is important for risk stratification and facilitates an informed decision by the patient whether to terminate the pregnancy or to continue until full term with close monitoring after delivery.

  6. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics. Methods Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated. Results When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium). When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2). Conclusions Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could

  7. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  8. Mechanical Performance of Rat, Mouse and Mole Spring Traps, and Possible Implications for Welfare Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Tagarielli, Vito L.; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit. PMID:22768073

  9. Moles of a Substance per Cell Is a Highly Informative Dosing Metric in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Doskey, Claire M; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Wagner, Brett A; Buettner, Garry R

    2015-01-01

    The biological consequences upon exposure of cells in culture to a dose of xenobiotic are not only dependent on biological variables, but also the physical aspects of experiments e.g. cell number and media volume. Dependence on physical aspects is often overlooked due to the unrecognized ambiguity in the dominant metric used to express exposure, i.e. initial concentration of xenobiotic delivered to the culture medium over the cells. We hypothesize that for many xenobiotics, specifying dose as moles per cell will reduce this ambiguity. Dose as moles per cell can also provide additional information not easily obtainable with traditional dosing metrics. Here, 1,4-benzoquinone and oligomycin A are used as model compounds to investigate moles per cell as an informative dosing metric. Mechanistic insight into reactions with intracellular molecules, differences between sequential and bolus addition of xenobiotic and the influence of cell volume and protein content on toxicity are also investigated. When the dose of 1,4-benzoquinone or oligomycin A was specified as moles per cell, toxicity was independent of the physical conditions used (number of cells, volume of medium). When using moles per cell as a dose-metric, direct quantitative comparisons can be made between biochemical or biological endpoints and the dose of xenobiotic applied. For example, the toxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone correlated inversely with intracellular volume for all five cell lines exposed (C6, MDA-MB231, A549, MIA PaCa-2, and HepG2). Moles per cell is a useful and informative dosing metric in cell culture. This dosing metric is a scalable parameter that: can reduce ambiguity between experiments having different physical conditions; provides additional mechanistic information; allows direct comparison between different cells; affords a more uniform platform for experimental design; addresses the important issue of repeatability of experimental results, and could increase the translatability of

  10. Extended Longevity of Reproductives Appears to be Common in Fukomys Mole-Rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dammann, Philip; Šumbera, Radim; Maßmann, Christina; Scherag, André; Burda, Hynek

    2011-01-01

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive “helpers” in their natal families, often for several years. This “reproductive subdivision” of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli), breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5–2.2fold depending on the sex), irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis) showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats. PMID:21533255

  11. Preliminary evidence for the use of microseismic cues for navigation by the Namib golden mole.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Edwin R; Narins, Peter M; Jarvis, Jennifer U M; Bronner, Gary; Mason, Matthew J

    2006-02-01

    Insect prey of the Namib golden mole congregate beneath clumps of grass scattered among the sand dunes of the Namib Desert. In the presence of the light winds that typically blow over the Namib Desert, these grass clumps emit low-amplitude vibrations that are transmitted through the sand. While foraging in the sand-swimming mode (a few centimeters below the surface of the sand), some moles apparently were attracted toward manmade sources emitting vibrations matching those recorded from the grass clumps. This is the first direct evidence that these desert mammals use seismic cues for navigation.

  12. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  13. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  14. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles.

  15. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult due to the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer’s organs. Eimer’s organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer’s organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer’s organs. We find that the density of Eimer’s organs increases from proximal to distal along the length of the star’s rays with a ratio of 1: 2.3: 3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported in the human hand, from the palm to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison to other sensory fovea. PMID:26659700

  16. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group.

  17. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  18. Neoteny, Prolongation of Youth: From Naked Mole Rats to "Naked Apes" (Humans).

    PubMed

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Holtze, Susanne; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Y; Bakeeva, Lora E; Skulachev, Maxim V; Markov, Alexander V; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Sadovnichii, Viktor A

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed. A high resistance of naked mole rats to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and brain diseases, and many infections explains why their mortality rate is very low and almost age-independent and why their lifespan is more than 30 years, versus 3 years in mice. In young humans, curves of mortality versus age start at extremely low values. However, in the elderly, human mortality strongly increases. High mortality rates in other primates are observed at much younger ages than in humans. The inhibition of the aging process in humans by specific drugs seems to be a promising approach to prolong our healthspan. This might be a way to retard aging, which is already partially accomplished via the natural physiological phenomenon neoteny.

  19. Somatosensory organ topography across the star of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata).

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Eva K; Catania, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying somatosensory receptor distribution in glabrous skin is usually difficult because of the diversity of skin receptor subtypes and their location within the dermis and epidermis. However, the glabrous noses of moles are an exception. In most species of moles, the skin on the nose is covered with domed mechanosensory units known as an Eimer's organs. Eimer's organs contain a stereotyped array of different mechanosensory neurons, meaning that the distribution of mechanosensitive nerve endings can be inferred by visual inspection of the skin surface. Here we detail the distribution of Eimer's organs on the highly derived somatosensory star on the rostrum of the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). The star consists of 22 fleshy appendages, or rays, that are covered in Eimer's organs. We find that the density of Eimer's organs increases from proximal to distal locations along the length of the star's rays with a ratio of 1:2.3:3.1 from the surface nearest to the nostril, to the middle part of ray, to the ray tip, respectively. This ratio is comparable to the increase in receptor unit density reported for the human hand, from the palm, to the middle of the digits, to the distal fingertips. We also note that the tactile fovea of the star-nosed mole, located on the medial ventral ray, does not have increased sensory organ density, and we describe these findings in comparison with other sensory fovea.

  20. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinalp, Serpil; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, and their attitudes toward chemistry and CAI. Reports that students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher and demonstrated significant improvement in attitudes compared to the control group…

  1. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2).

  2. Identifying the Critical Components for a Conceptual Understanding of the Mole in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David

    2016-01-01

    The amount of substance and its unit the mole is a basic concept in chemistry. However, previous research has shown that teaching and learning the concept are challenging tasks for both teachers and students. The purpose of this study was to pinpoint the problems which emerge in the teaching and learning process, and provide integrated suggestions…

  3. The sense of touch in the star-nosed mole: from mechanoreceptors to the brain.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2011-11-12

    Star-nosed moles are somatosensory specialists that explore their environment with 22 appendages that ring their nostrils. The appendages are covered with sensory domes called Eimer's organs. Each organ is associated with a Merkel cell-neurite complex, a lamellated corpuscle, and a series of 5-10 free nerve endings that form a circle of terminal swellings. Anatomy and electrophysiological recordings suggest that Eimer's organs detect small shapes and textures. There are parallels between the organization of the mole's somatosensory system and visual systems of other mammals. The centre of the star is a tactile fovea used for detailed exploration of objects and prey items. The tactile fovea is over-represented in the neocortex, and this is evident in the modular, anatomically visible representation of the star. Multiple maps of the star are visible in flattened cortical preparations processed for cytochrome oxidase or NADPH-diaphorase. Star-nosed moles are the fastest known foragers among mammals, able to identify and consume a small prey item in 120 ms. Together these behavioural and nervous system specializations have made star-nosed moles an intriguing model system for examining general and specialized aspects of mammalian touch.

  4. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa. PMID:23569295

  5. Microbial associates of the southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii) are highly pathogenic.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Sudarshan K; Carter-House, Derreck; Stajich, Jason E; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-09-12

    We report the isolation and identification of seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from dead and diseased Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets collected from a golf course in southern California. Using 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis we identified the microbes as Serratia marcescens (red), S. marcescens (white), S. marcescens (purple), Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Chryseobacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Tsukamurella tryosinosolvens, and Beauveria bassiana. We performed a dose response curve for each of these cricket-associated microbial strains (except T. tryosinosolvens) and two other strains of S. marcescens (DB1140 and ATCC 13880). We found that all of these microbes except O. anthropi were highly pathogenic to D. melanogaster compared to the other strains of S. marcescens. Injecting the mole cricket associated strains of Serratia into flies killed all infected flies in ≤24h. For all other strains, the median time to death of injected flies varied in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo growth assessments of these microbes suggested that the host immune system was quickly overcome. We used disease tolerance curves to better understand the host-microbe interactions. Further studies are necessary to understand in mechanistic detail the virulence mechanisms of these mole cricket associated microbes and how this association may have influenced the evolution of mole cricket immunity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  7. A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Gryllotalpinae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Kai; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-01-19

    A new species of Gryllotalpa mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. Acoustic analysis of the male calling songs were also provided for Gryllotalpa permai sp. n. and the morphologically similar Gryllotalpa fulvipes.

  8. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  9. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  10. Blunted Behavioral and C Fos Responses to Acidic Fumes in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    PubMed Central

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO2. PMID:23028761

  11. Difficulties in Teaching the Concepts of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, Carlos; Azcona, Rafael; Guisasola, Jenaro; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origin and evolution of the meanings of the concepts 'amount of substance' and 'mole'. Identifies serious disagreements about these concepts among chemistry teachers and the recommendations of the international scientific community. Also draws attention to the didactic implications that these epistemological difficulties may have for…

  12. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  13. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  14. The sense of touch in the star-nosed mole: from mechanoreceptors to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Star-nosed moles are somatosensory specialists that explore their environment with 22 appendages that ring their nostrils. The appendages are covered with sensory domes called Eimer's organs. Each organ is associated with a Merkel cell–neurite complex, a lamellated corpuscle, and a series of 5–10 free nerve endings that form a circle of terminal swellings. Anatomy and electrophysiological recordings suggest that Eimer's organs detect small shapes and textures. There are parallels between the organization of the mole's somatosensory system and visual systems of other mammals. The centre of the star is a tactile fovea used for detailed exploration of objects and prey items. The tactile fovea is over-represented in the neocortex, and this is evident in the modular, anatomically visible representation of the star. Multiple maps of the star are visible in flattened cortical preparations processed for cytochrome oxidase or NADPH-diaphorase. Star-nosed moles are the fastest known foragers among mammals, able to identify and consume a small prey item in 120 ms. Together these behavioural and nervous system specializations have made star-nosed moles an intriguing model system for examining general and specialized aspects of mammalian touch. PMID:21969683

  15. Unusual cone and rod properties in subterranean African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Peichl, Leo; Nemec, Pavel; Burda, Hynek

    2004-03-01

    We have determined the presence of spectral cone types, and the population densities of cones and rods, in subterranean mole-rats of the rodent family Bathyergidae, for which light and vision seems of little importance. Most mammals have two spectral cone types, a majority of middle- to long-wave-sensitive (L-) cones, and a minority of short-wave-sensitive (S-)cones. We were interested to see whether the subterranean bathyergids show the same pattern. In three species, Ansell's mole-rat Cryptomys anselli, the giant mole-rat Cryptomys mechowi and the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber, spectral cone types and rods were assessed immunocytochemically with opsin-specific antibodies. All three species had rod-dominated retinae but possessed significant cone populations. A quantitative assessment in C. anselli and C. mechowi revealed surprisingly low photoreceptor densities of 100 000-150 000/mm(2), and high cone proportions, approximately 10% (8000-15 000/mm(2)). In all three species, the vast majority of the cones were strongly S-opsin-immunoreactive; L-opsin immunoreactivity was much fainter. In C. anselli, approximately 20% of the cones showed exclusive S-opsin label, approximately 10% exclusive L-opsin label and approximately 70% strong S-opsin and faint L-opsin double label (potential dual-pigment cones). This is the first observation in any mammal of an S-opsin dominance and low levels of L-opsin across the entire retina. It contrasts starkly with the situation in the muroid blind mole-rat Spalax ehrenbergi, which has been reported to possess L-opsin but no S-opsin. Evidently, within rodents an adaptation to subterranean life is compatible with very different spectral cone properties.

  16. Clinical Presentation of Complete Hydatidiform Mole and Partial Hydatidiform Mole at a Regional Trophoblastic Disease Center in the United States Over the Past 2 Decades.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sue Yazaki; Melamed, Alexander; Joseph, Naima T; Gockley, Allison Ann; Goldstein, Donald Peter; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Horowitz, Neil S; Berkowitz, Ross Stuart

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical presentation and incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) among cases of complete mole (CM) and partial mole (PM) from 1994 to 2013. This study included all cases of patients with CM and PM from our trophoblastic disease center between 1994 and 2013. Their clinical and pathologic reports were reviewed. Gestational age at evacuation, features of clinical presentation, human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and the rate of progression to GTN were compared. The median gestational age at evacuation was 9 weeks for CM and 12 weeks for PM (P < 0.001). Patients with PM had lower pre-evacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels (P < 0.001), and they were also less likely to present with vaginal bleeding (P < 0.001), biochemical hyperthyroidism (P < 0.001), anemia (P < 0.001), uterine size greater than dates (P < 0.001), and hyperemesis (P = 0.002). Consequently, patients with PM were less likely to have been clinically diagnosed as moles compared with CM prior to uterine evacuation (P < 0.001). The development of GTN occurred in 17.7% (33/186) and 4.1% (7/169) of patients with CM and PM, respectively (P < 0.001). This study indicates that, at our center over the past 20 years, both CM and PM were usually evacuated in the first trimester of pregnancy. Because CM more commonly presents with the signs and symptoms of molar disease than PM, CM is more commonly diagnosed prior to evacuation.

  17. No evidence for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L in women with androgenetic hydatidiform moles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mutational spectrum of NLRP7 and KHDC3L (C6orf221) in women with sporadic and recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles (AnCHM) and biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) to address the hypothesis that autosomal recessive mutations in these gene...

  18. The Mole Mapper Study, mobile phone skin imaging and melanoma risk data collected using ResearchKit

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Dan E.; Suver, Christine; Doerr, Megan; Mounts, Erin; Domenico, Lisa; Petrie, Tracy; Leachman, Sancy A.; Trister, Andrew D.; Bot, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework. The Mole Mapper app was designed to collect participant-provided images and measurements of moles, together with demographic and behavioral information relating to melanoma risk. The study cohort includes 2,069 participants who contributed 1,920 demographic surveys, 3,274 mole measurements, and 2,422 curated mole images. Survey data recapitulates associations between melanoma and known demographic risks, with red hair as the most significant factor in this cohort. Participant-provided mole measurements indicate an average mole size of 3.95 mm. These data have been made available to engage researchers in a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to better understand and prevent melanoma. PMID:28195576

  19. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Treesearch

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  20. The Mole Mapper Study, mobile phone skin imaging and melanoma risk data collected using ResearchKit.

    PubMed

    Webster, Dan E; Suver, Christine; Doerr, Megan; Mounts, Erin; Domenico, Lisa; Petrie, Tracy; Leachman, Sancy A; Trister, Andrew D; Bot, Brian M

    2017-02-14

    Sensor-embedded phones are an emerging facilitator for participant-driven research studies. Skin cancer research is particularly amenable to this approach, as phone cameras enable self-examination and documentation of mole abnormalities that may signal a progression towards melanoma. Aggregation and open sharing of this participant-collected data can be foundational for research and the development of early cancer detection tools. Here we describe data from Mole Mapper, an iPhone-based observational study built using the Apple ResearchKit framework. The Mole Mapper app was designed to collect participant-provided images and measurements of moles, together with demographic and behavioral information relating to melanoma risk. The study cohort includes 2,069 participants who contributed 1,920 demographic surveys, 3,274 mole measurements, and 2,422 curated mole images. Survey data recapitulates associations between melanoma and known demographic risks, with red hair as the most significant factor in this cohort. Participant-provided mole measurements indicate an average mole size of 3.95 mm. These data have been made available to engage researchers in a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to better understand and prevent melanoma.

  1. Extreme Susceptibility of African Naked Mole Rats (Heterocephalus glaber) to Experimental Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Artwohl, James; Ball-Kell, Susan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Wilson, Steven P; Lu, Ying; Park, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is widely used as a gene delivery vector in a variety of laboratory animals. In a recent study, a thymidine-kinase–inactive (replication-conditional) HSV1 used as a delivery vector was lethal in naked mole rats, whereas mice infected with the identical virus showed no adverse effects. This result prompted us to undertake a controlled comparative histologic study of the effect of HSV1 infection on naked mole rats and mice. Replication-competent and replication-conditional HSV1 caused widespread inflammation and necrosis in multiple organ systems of naked mole rats but not mice; naked mole rats infected with replication-defective virus showed no adverse effects. We conclude that the lethality of HSV1 for naked mole rats is likely the result of overwhelming infection, possibly in part due to this species’ natural lack of proinflammatory neuropeptides at the initial site of infection. PMID:19295058

  2. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System.

    PubMed

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  3. Reproducible Large-Scale Neuroimaging Studies with the OpenMOLE Workflow Management System

    PubMed Central

    Passerat-Palmbach, Jonathan; Reuillon, Romain; Leclaire, Mathieu; Makropoulos, Antonios; Robinson, Emma C.; Parisot, Sarah; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    OpenMOLE is a scientific workflow engine with a strong emphasis on workload distribution. Workflows are designed using a high level Domain Specific Language (DSL) built on top of Scala. It exposes natural parallelism constructs to easily delegate the workload resulting from a workflow to a wide range of distributed computing environments. OpenMOLE hides the complexity of designing complex experiments thanks to its DSL. Users can embed their own applications and scale their pipelines from a small prototype running on their desktop computer to a large-scale study harnessing distributed computing infrastructures, simply by changing a single line in the pipeline definition. The construction of the pipeline itself is decoupled from the execution context. The high-level DSL abstracts the underlying execution environment, contrary to classic shell-script based pipelines. These two aspects allow pipelines to be shared and studies to be replicated across different computing environments. Workflows can be run as traditional batch pipelines or coupled with OpenMOLE's advanced exploration methods in order to study the behavior of an application, or perform automatic parameter tuning. In this work, we briefly present the strong assets of OpenMOLE and detail recent improvements targeting re-executability of workflows across various Linux platforms. We have tightly coupled OpenMOLE with CARE, a standalone containerization solution that allows re-executing on a Linux host any application that has been packaged on another Linux host previously. The solution is evaluated against a Python-based pipeline involving packages such as scikit-learn as well as binary dependencies. All were packaged and re-executed successfully on various HPC environments, with identical numerical results (here prediction scores) obtained on each environment. Our results show that the pair formed by OpenMOLE and CARE is a reliable solution to generate reproducible results and re-executable pipelines. A

  4. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior.

  5. Moles (Nevi)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  6. Atypical Moles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... About Tanning 4/24/2013 Sun Safety IQ Online Surveys ... Osteopathic Association. The AOCD now oversees 32 dermatology residency programs that are currently training 163 residents ...

  7. Injectant mole fraction measurements of transverse injection in constant area supersonic ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollo, Steven D.; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of the injectant mole fraction distribution in a nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor have been made using a nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence. The combustor geometry investigated in this work was staged, transverse sonic injection of air into Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 freestreams. Accurate three-dimensional surveys of the injectant mole fraction distribution for both freestream Mach numbers have been generated. These experimental measurements provide valuable insight into the fluid mechanics of the mixing process. The existence of streamwise vortices is shown to dominate the mixing in the injector nearfield while shock wave interactions with the injectant plume are seen to significantly enhance mixing downstream of the injectors. The effect of combustor Mach number on injectant mixing is found to be small for this geometry. These measurements provide an accurate data set for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes being developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional nonreacting supersonic combustor flow fields.

  8. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network.

  9. The effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the ultrastructure of the liver cells of mole rats.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Saban; Türker, Hüseyin; Güven, Turan; Yel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the ultrastructural changes in the liver cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon) exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Thirteen mole rats used in this study were caught from nature. They were divided into four groups. The first group was separated as a control and was not given any radiation. The rest were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The electron microscopic examinations revealed that significant ultrastructural changes occurred in the liver tissue. These changes were the reduction in cytoplasmic organelles, dilatation in rough endoplasmic reticulum, impairment of nucleus membrane, and broadened and vacuolated mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Also, UVC radiation caused significant changes in liver enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gama-glutamiltransferase values. After long-term exposure to radiation, some excessive ultrastructural changes occurred. These results indicated that longer exposure to UVR would cause more ultrastructural effects on the liver cells and liver enzymes.

  10. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  11. Uterine rupture in twin pregnancy with normal fetus and complete hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luisa; Hernández-Martínez, Florentina; Machado-Linde, Francisco; Ferri, Belén; Carbonel, Pablo; Nieto-Diaz, Anibal

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare case of complete hydatidiform mole with twin live fetus (CHMTF) confirmed by histopathology, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction techniques. No malformations were observed, fetal karyotype was normal and β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were high (>100,000 IU/ml). The patient was informed of the risks and decided to continue with the pregnancy, but at week 15, she had to undergo hysterectomy due to uterine rupture. She subsequently developed persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) with pulmonary metastases that required treatment with polychemotherapy. Patients with CHMTF should be informed of all known risks, including the considerable risk of PTD, which is similar to or, even higher than that associated with a singleton complete mole. The risk does not appear to be increased by continuing the pregnancy. Because so few series have been published, there is a lack of evidence-based clinical management guidelines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of uterine rupture in CHMTF.

  12. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  13. Learning of nature: The curious case of the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro; Chávez-Valencia, Venice

    2017-06-01

    Naked mole rats (NMRs) are the longest-living rodents known, living up to approximately 30 years and showing sustained good health. Nowadays, NMRs are considered excellent models for aging and, additionally, for cancer research, due to the evidence of a remarkable cancer resistance demonstrated through thousands of necropsies performed with very few cases that describe this pathology, which is believed to be a disease that unavoidably accompanies aging. Since some years ago, several studies have tried to explain the possible mechanisms underlying longevity and cancer resistance in NMRs through different perspectives and directions, creating new knowledge that subsequently could be used for cancer prevention and delaying aging in humans. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge on naked mole rats with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms associated with their longevity and cancer resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The number of cysteine residues per mole in apolipoprotein E affects systematically synchronous neural interactions in women's healthy brains.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Arthur C; Mahan, Margaret Y; Stanwyck, John J; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in lipid metabolism in the brain, but its effects on brain function are not understood. Three apoE isoforms (E4, E3, and E2) are the result of cysteine-arginine interchanges at two sites: there are zero interchanges in E4, one interchange in E3, and two interchanges in E2. The resulting six apoE genotypes (E4/4, E4/3, E4/2, E3/3, E3/2, E2/2) yield five groups with respect to the number of cysteine residues per mole (CysR/mole), as follows. ApoE4/4 has zero cysteine residues per mole (0-CysR/mole), E4/3 has one (1-CysR/mole), E4/2 and E3/3 each has two (2-CysR/mole), E3/2 has three (3-CysR/mole), and E2/2 has four (4-CysR/mole). The use of the number of CysR/mole to characterize the apoE molecule converts the categorical apoE genotype scale, consisting of 6 distinct genotypes above, to a 5-point continuous scale (0-4 CysR/mole). This allows the use of statistical analyses suitable for continuous variables (e.g. regression) to quantify the relations between various variables and apoE. Using such analyses, here, we show for the first time that apoE affects in a graded and orderly manner neural communication, as assessed by analyzing the relation between the number of CysR/mole and synchronous neural interactions (SNI) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 130 cognitively healthy women. At the one end of the CysR/mole range, the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution had the highest mean, lowest variance, lowest range, and lowest coefficient of variation, whereas at the other end, 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) SNI distribution had the lowest mean, highest variance, highest range, and highest coefficient of variation. The special status of the 4-CysR/mole distribution was reinforced by the results of a hierarchical tree analysis where the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution occupied a separate branch by itself and the remaining CysR/mole SNI distributions were placed at increasing distances from the 4-CysR/mole distribution, according to

  15. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Faulkes, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors. PMID:25024917

  16. Compartmentation of the cerebellar cortex: adaptation to lifestyle in the star-nosed mole Condylura cristata.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Hassan; Hoy, Nathan; Buchok, Matthew; Catania, Kenneth C; Hawkes, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The adult mammalian cerebellum is histologically uniform. However, concealed beneath the simple laminar architecture, it is organized rostrocaudally and mediolaterally into complex arrays of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes that is both highly reproducible between individuals and generally conserved across mammals and birds. Beyond this conservation, the general architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's way of life. To test this hypothesis, we have examined cerebellar compartmentation in the talpid star-nosed mole Condylura cristata. The star-nosed mole leads a subterranean life. It is largely blind and instead uses an array of fleshy appendages (the "star") to navigate and locate its prey. The hypothesis suggests that cerebellar architecture would be modified to reduce regions receiving visual input and expand those that receive trigeminal afferents from the star. Zebrin II and phospholipase Cß4 (PLCß4) immunocytochemistry was used to map the zone-and-stripe architecture of the cerebellum of the adult star-nosed mole. The general zone-and-stripe architecture characteristic of all mammals is present in the star-nosed mole. In the vermis, the four typical transverse zones are present, two with alternating zebrin II/PLCß4 stripes, two wholly zebrin II+/PLCß4-. However, the central and nodular zones (prominent visual receiving areas) are proportionally reduced in size and conversely, the trigeminal-receiving areas (the posterior zone of the vermis and crus I/II of the hemispheres) are uncharacteristically large. We therefore conclude that cerebellar architecture is generally conserved across the Mammalia but adapted to the specific lifestyle of the species.

  17. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalina T.J.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Faulkes, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein–protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. PMID:26318402

  18. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Cox, Philip G; Faulkes, Chris G

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM) muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape-both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  19. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  20. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  1. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    PubMed

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  2. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment. PMID:28072840

  3. Considerations on future redefinitions of the kilogram, the mole and of other units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; DeBièvre, P.; Fujii, K.; Glaeser, M.; Inglis, B.; Luebbig, H.; Mana, G.

    2007-02-01

    The definitions of some units of the Système International are likely to be revised as early as 2011 by basing them on fixed values of fundamental constants of nature, provided experimental realizations are demonstrated with sufficiently small uncertainties. As regards the kilogram, experiments aiming at linking it to the Planck constant and the atomic mass constant are under way in several laboratories. The other units likely to be redefined are the ampere, the kelvin and the mole. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives for revised definitions of the kilogram and the mole. From physical considerations, metrological consequences and ease of understanding, a definition of the kilogram based on the mass of a particle, such as an atom or the electron, is favoured. One of the proposed definitions fixes the value of the Planck constant through the Compton frequency of a material, though unphysical, particle. Finally, a redefinition of the mole, the counting unit of the amount-of-substance, is proposed which fixes the Avogadro constant as a dimensionless number.

  4. Recurrent partial hydatidiform mole, with a first twin pregnancy, after treatment with clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed

    Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Mixich, Francisc; Tica, Vlad Justin; Berceanu, Sabina; Ebanca, Elena; Patrascu, Anca; Simionescu, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    We present a patient, treated for 3 months with clomiphen citrate after 5 years of infertility. This treatment resulted in a twin pregnancy, one degenerated into a partial hydatidiform mole and the other into a very early embryo death. The karyotype was a mosaic one: 63% of metaphases showed triploidy - 69 XXX and 37% diploidy - 46 XX. Despite all medical advice, she returned 8 months later with a new pregnancy, which proved to be a new partial hydatidiform mole, this time a single one. Karyotype was, also, a triploidy - 69 XXX. The genetic map of both genitors was performed, showing no aberrations. Unfortunately, the patient came back, once again, 5 months later, with a new positive pregnancy test. Ultrasonography revealed a new very early embryo death, the histopathological analysis establishing to be a single 'pure' stop in evolution of the pregnancy. As all the three pregnancies obtained after treatment with clomiphene were abnormal, two being partial hydatidiform moles and one being a premature miscarriage, without any genetic aberrations of the genitors, it seems very possible that clomiphene, apart from improving fertility, also increases the risk of abnormal ovum appearance.

  5. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  6. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior.

  7. [From human andro- and parthenogenesis (hydatidiform moles and benign ovarian teratomas) to cancer].

    PubMed

    Coullin, P

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a process that appeared in mammals. This phenomenon blocks the normal development of parthenogenic and androgenic conceptuses, that is to say benign ovarian teratomas and hydatidiform moles respectively. Pathological modifications of these conceptuses depend on whether the chromosomes come from the mother or father. These pathologies are associated with an accidental anomaly during gametogenesis and/or fertilizing. These reproductive anomalies are sporadic and some familial cases may exist suggesting a genetic control of such diseases. The human andro- and parthenogenetic conceptuses, but more frequently the moles, may be invasive (choriocarcinoma). An imbalance of the imprinting genes may initiate the deregulation of other genes, including oncogenes and anti-oncogenes, which can explain the cancerous modification. Immunological and environmental factors must be also considered (presence of the only paternal chromosomes in the choriocarcinoma). Numerous works on this subject are published and some recent important discoveries underline the roles of genes HOX, Tim P3, E-cad and p-16, and the recurrent chromosome anomalies 7q21+and 8p21- in the mole to choriocarcinoma processing. Although these phenomena are complex and heterogeneous, the andro- and parthenogenote conceptuses are particularly interesting models with which to understand developmental disorders and cancerous progression.

  8. Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Miles, P C

    1999-03-20

    An optical diagnostic system based on line imaging of Raman-scattered light has been developed to study the mixing processes in internal combustion engines. The system permits multipoint, single laser-shot measurements of CO(2), O(2), N(2), C(3)H(8), and H(2)O mole fractions with submillimeter spatial resolution. Selection of appropriate system hardware is discussed, as are subsequent data reduction and analysis procedures. Results are reported for data obtained at multiple crank angles and in two different engine flow fields. Measurements are made at 12 locations simultaneously, each location having measurement volume dimensions of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.9 mm. The data are analyzed to obtain statistics of species mole fractions: mean, rms, histograms, and both spatial and cross-species covariance functions. The covariance functions are used to quantify the accuracy of the measured rms mole fraction fluctuations, to determine the integral length scales of the mixture inhomogeneities, and to quantify the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in bulk mixture composition under well-mixed conditions.

  9. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Sarko, Diana K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment. PMID:24302898

  10. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  11. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  12. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  13. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    PubMed

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  14. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  15. Clinical Usefulness of Immunohistochemical Staining of p57kip2 for the Differential Diagnosis of Complete Mole

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Kunimura, Toshiaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Iino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Can polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 replace DNA analysis as an inexpensive means of differentiating complete mole from partial mole or hydropic abortion? Methods and Materials. Original paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 14 equivocal cases were turned over to our laboratory and examined by immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2. Results. Four of the 14 cases showed clearly negative nuclear staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells: these results were fully concordant with the control staining. The remaining 10 cases showed apparently positive staining in cytotrophoblasts and villous stromal cells. Without DNA analysis we are able to clearly differentiate the 4 cases of complete mole among the 14 equivocal cases. During follow-up, secondary low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) developed in 1 of the 4 cases of complete mole: the GTN was treated by single-agent chemotherapy. No subsequent changes were observed during follow-up in the other cases. Conclusion. Polymer-based immunohistochemical staining of p57kip2 (paternally imprinted gene, expressed from maternal allele) is a very effective method that can be used to differentiate androgenetic complete mole from partial mole and hydropic abortion. We might be able to avoid the cost of DNA analysis. PMID:26161420

  16. Structural, magnetic and microwave properties of barium hexaferrite thick films with different Fe/Ba mole ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Samiksha; Dhawan, S. K.; Paesano, Andrea; Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Puneet

    2015-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) thick films (∼60 μm) with different BaO·xFe2O3 mole ratio (x=5.0-6.0) were prepared by screen printing method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of single phase BaFe12O19 (BaM). Preferential site occupation of Fe3+ ion at five different crystallographic sites, with varied mole ratio was measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Vacancy fraction found to be higher at 4f1, 4f2 and 2b sites for mole ratio 5.5 and 5.0 respectively. Magnetic measurement shows that the magnetization (M) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (Ha) depends upon mole ratio. M and Ha are found to be maximum for mole ratio 5.5, while the coercivity (Hc) remains constant. Reflection losses (RL) in the frequency range of 12-18 GHz were also studied. Present investigation demonstrates the effect of mole ratio on structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaM thick films for microwave device applications.

  17. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  18. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  19. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks.

  20. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber)

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J.; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats. PMID:24391551

  1. Genetic Signatures for Enhanced Olfaction in the African Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stathopoulos, Sofia; Bishop, Jacqueline M.; O’Ryan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor (OR) superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a ‘birth and death’ model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae), a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors’ ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24699281

  2. Establishment and characterization of cell lines derived from complete hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eiko; Niimi, Kaoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Nishino, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Kenichi; Kotani, Tomomi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2017-09-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) are a group of diseases characterized by abnormal cellular proliferation of atypical trophoblasts. A hydatidiform mole is an abnormal pregnancy caused by genetic fertilization disorders, and it can be classified as a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) or a partial hydatidiform mole. The aim of this study was to establish cell lines from CHMs and to characterize the cells for future studies concerning GTD. HMol1-2C, HMol1-3B, HMol1-8 and HMol3-1B were established from primary cultures of CHM explants following the introduction of different combinations of genes including human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a mutant form of CDK (CDK4R24C), cyclin D1, p53C234, MYC and HRAS. HMol1-2C, HMol1-3B, and HMol3-1B were confirmed to originate from trophoblasts of androgenic, homozygous CHMs. These three cell lines exhibited low human chorionic gonadotropin secretion, low migration and invasion abilities, and the potential to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblastic cells via forskolin treatment. These results suggest that these cells exhibit characteristics of trophoblastic cells, especially cytotrophoblastic cells. HMol1-8 was found to consist of diploid cells and originated from maternal cells, suggesting that they were derived from decidual cells. In conclusion, we successfully established three cell lines from CHMs by introduction of hTERT and other genes. Analysis revealed that the genetic origin of each cell line was identical with that of the original molar tissue, and the cell lines exhibited characteristics of trophoblastic cells, which are similar to undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts.

  3. Cavity Enhanced Spectrometer performance assessment for greenhouse gas dry mole fraction measurement in humid air.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Olivier; Yver Kwok, Camille; Guemri, Ali; Philippon, Carole; Rivier, Leonard; Ramonet, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Due to the high variability of the water vapor content in the atmosphere, the mole fraction of trace gas such as greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere is usually presented as mole fraction in dry air. In consequence, the first technology used for GHG measurement, gas chromatography or non-dispersive infra-red spectroscopy, required to dry the air sample prior to analysis at a dew point lower than -50°C. The emergence of new GHG analyzers using infrared Enhanced Cavity Spectroscopy which measure the water vapor content in the air sample, allows providing the dry mole fraction of GHG without any drying system upstream by applying appropriate correction of the water vapor effects (dilution, pressure broadening…). In the framework of ICOS, a European research infrastructure aiming to provide harmonized high precision data for advanced research on carbon cycle and GHG budgets over Europe, the Metrology Lab of the Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ATC), located at LSCE in France, is mainly dedicated to elaborating measurement protocols and evaluating performance of GHG analyzers. Among the different tests conducted to characterize the metrological performance, the Metrology Lab focuses on the water vapor correction to apply on the GHG measurement. Most of the analyzers tested at the Metrology Lab are based on Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy measuring the ICOS mandatory species, CO2, CH4 and CO. This presentation presents the results of the performance assessment of the manufacturer built-in water vapor correction and the possible improvement. Thanks to the large number of instrument tested, the presentation provides a performance overview of the GHG analyzers deployed in the ICOS atmospheric station network. Finally the performance of the water vapor correction will be discussed in regard of the performance obtained by using a drying system.

  4. Genetic signatures for enhanced olfaction in the African mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Sofia; Bishop, Jacqueline M; O'Ryan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor (OR) superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a 'birth and death' model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae), a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors' ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics.

  5. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  6. Organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in Star-Nosed Moles

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Eva K.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Catania, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensory inputs from the face project to multiple regions of the trigeminal nuclear complex in the brainstem. In mice and rats three subdivisions contain visible representations of the mystacial vibrissae: the principal sensory nucleus, the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris and subnucleus caudalis. These regions are considered important for touch with high spatial acuity, active touch, and pain and temperature sensation, respectively. Like mice and rats, the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a somatosensory specialist. Given the visible star pattern in preparations of the star-nosed mole cortex and the principal sensory nucleus, we hypothesized there were star patterns in the spinal trigeminal nucleus subnuclei interpolaris and caudalis. In sections processed for cytochrome oxidase we found star-like segmentation consisting of lightly stained septa separating darkly stained patches in subnucleus interpolaris (juvenile tissue) and subnucleus caudalis (juvenile and adult tissue). Subnucleus caudalis represented the face in a three-dimensional map with the most anterior part of the face represented more rostrally than posterior parts of the face. Multi-unit electrophysiological mapping was used to map the ipsilateral face. Ray-specific receptive fields in adults matched the CO-segmentation. The mean areas of multiunit receptive fields in subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis were larger than previously mapped receptive fields in the mole's principal sensory nucleus. The proportion of tissue devoted to each ray's representation differed between subnucleus interpolaris and the principal sensory nucleus. Our finding that different trigeminal brainstem maps can exaggerate different parts of the face could provide new insights for the roles of these different somatosensory stations. PMID:24715542

  7. MagAO: status and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Briguglio, Runa; Follette, Katherine B.; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Vezilj, Jennifer; Xompero, Marco; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2016-07-01

    "MagAO" is the adaptive optics instrument at the Magellan Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. MagAO has a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror and 1000-Hz pyramid wavefront sensor, operating on natural guide stars from R-magnitudes of -1 to 15. MagAO has been in on-sky operation for 166 nights since installation in 2012. MagAO's unique capabilities are simultaneous imaging in the visible and infrared with VisAO and Clio, excellent performance at an excellent site, and a lean operations model. Science results from MagAO include the first ground-based CCD image of an exoplanet, demonstration of the first accreting protoplanets, discovery of a new wide-orbit exoplanet, and the first empirical bolometric luminosity of an exoplanet. We describe the status, report the AO performance, and summarize the science results. New developments reported here include color corrections on red guide stars for the wavefront sensor; a new field stop stage to facilitate VisAO imaging of extended sources; and eyepiece observing at the visible-light diffraction limit of a 6.5-m telescope. We also discuss a recent hose failure that led to a glycol coolant leak, and the recovery of the adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) after this recent (Feb. 2016) incident.

  8. Metabolic regulatory clues from the naked mole rat: toward brain regulatory functions during stroke.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Otukonyong, Effiong E; Okon, Marvin; Chaves, Jose; Cochran, Thomas; Nathaniel, Adebobola I

    2013-09-01

    Resistance to tissue hypoxia is a robust fundamental adaptation to low oxygen supply, and represents a novel neuroscience problem with significance to mammalian physiology as well as human health. With the underlying mechanisms strongly conserved in evolution, the ability to resist tissue hypoxia in natural systems has recently emerged as an interesting model in mammalian physiology research to understand mechanisms that can be manipulated for the clinical management of stroke. The extraordinary ability to resist tissue hypoxia by the naked mole rat (NMR) indicates the presence of a unique mechanism that underlies the remarkable healthy life span and exceptional hypoxia resistance. This opens an interesting line of research into understanding the mechanisms employed by the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) to protect the brain during hypoxia. In a series of studies, we first examined the presence of neuroprotection in the brain cells of naked mole rats (NMRs) subjected to hypoxic insults, and then characterized the expression of such neuroprotection in a wide range of time intervals. We used oxygen nutrient deprivation (OND), an in vitro model of resistance to tissue hypoxia to determine whether there is evidence of neuronal survival in the hippocampal (CA1) slices of NMRs that are subjected to chronic hypoxia. Hippocampus neurons of NMRs that were kept in hypoxic condition consistently tolerated OND right from the onset time of 5h. This tolerance was maintained for 24h. This finding indicates that there is evidence of resistance to tissue hypoxia by CA1 neurons of NMRs. We further examined the effect of hypoxia on metabolic rate in the NMR. Repeated measurement of metabolic rates during exposure of naked mole rats to hypoxia over a constant ambient temperature indicates that hypoxia significantly decreased metabolic rates in the NMR, suggesting that the observed decline in metabolic rate during hypoxia may contribute to the adaptive mechanism used by the NMR

  9. [Twin pregnancy with complete mole and coexisting fetus: Reach fetal viability is possible].

    PubMed

    Arsène, E; Clouqueur, E; Stichelbout, M; Devisme, L; Vaast, P; Subtil, D

    2015-11-01

    Twin pregnancies combining complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus are a rare situation (incidence in 1/20,000 in 1/100,000 pregnancies) and a challenge for diagnosis. Their complications can be important - bleeding, preeclampsia, miscarriage - and their management remains complex and controversial. In case of continuing the pregnancy, nearly 40% of women have lives babies. Three quarters of fetal loss occur before 24weeks gestation. We report here three new cases; only one of these cases had a favorable outcome.

  10. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  11. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  12. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  13. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. PMID:20497578

  14. Body Temperature Patterns and Rhythmicity in Free-Ranging Subterranean Damaraland Mole-Rats, Fukomys damarensis

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, Sonja; Boyles, Justin G.; Oosthuizen, Maria K.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    Body temperature (Tb) is an important physiological component that affects endotherms from the cellular to whole organism level, but measurements of Tb in the field have been noticeably skewed towards heterothermic species and seasonal comparisons are largely lacking. Thus, we investigated patterns of Tb patterns in a homeothermic, free-ranging small mammal, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) during both the summer and winter. Variation in Tb was significantly greater during winter than summer, and greater among males than females. Interestingly, body mass had only a small effect on variation in Tb and there was no consistent pattern relating ambient temperature to variation in Tb. Generally speaking, it appears that variation in Tb patterns varies between seasons in much the same way as in heterothermic species, just to a lesser degree. Both cosinor analysis and Fast Fourier Transform analysis revealed substantial individual variation in Tb rhythms, even within a single colony. Some individuals had no Tb rhythms, while others appeared to exhibit multiple rhythms. These data corroborate previous laboratory work showing multiplicity of rhythms in mole-rats and suggest the variation seen in the laboratory is a true indicator of the variation seen in the wild. PMID:22028861

  15. Structural Features of the Telomerase RNA Gene in the Naked Mole Rat Heterocephalus glaber

    PubMed Central

    Evfratov, S. A.; Smekalova, E. M.; Golovin, A. V.; Logvina, N. A.; Zvereva, M. I.; Dontsova, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, an important feature of life span control, is dependent on the activity of telomerase (a key enzyme of the telomere-length-maintaining system). Telomerase RNA is a component of telomerase and, thus, is crucial for its activity. The structures of telomerase RNA genes and their promoter regions were compared for the long-living naked mole rat and different organisms. Two rare polymorphisms in Heterocephalus glaber telomerase RNA (hgTER) were identified: A→G in the first loop of pseudoknot P2b-p3 (an equivalent of 111nt in hTR) and G→A in the scaRNA domain CR7-p8b (an equivalent of 421nt in hTR). Analysis of TER promoter regions allowed us to identify two new transcription factor binding sites. The first one is the ETS family site, which was found to be a conserved element for all the analyzed TER promoters. The second site is unique for the promoter region of TER of the naked mole rat and is a binding site for the SOX17 transcription factor. The absence of one Sp1 site in the TER promoter region of the naked small rat is an additional specific feature of the promoter area of hgTER. Such variation in the hgTER transcription regulation region and hgTER itself could provide increased telomerase activity in stem cells and an extended lifespan to H. glaber. PMID:25093110

  16. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy.

  18. Adaptations to a subterranean environment and longevity revealed by the analysis of mole rat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaodong; Seim, Inge; Huang, Zhiyong; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Turanov, Anton A.; Zhu, Yabing; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Fan, Dingding; Yim, Sun Hee; Yao, Xiaoming; Ma, Siming; Yang, Lan; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Bronson, Roderick T.; Šumbera, Radim; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhou, Xin; Krogh, Anders; Park, Thomas J.; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Jun; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia, and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis) and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber). Comparative genome analysis, along with transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, reveal candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and novel processing of 28S rRNA. Together, the new genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance and longevity. PMID:25176646

  19. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  20. Donut shape plasma jet plumes generated by microwave pulses even without air mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Liu, Xiaodong; Zou, Changlin; Song, Xiao; Li, Ping; Hu, Yelin; Qiu, Hanbiao; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhu, Mengzhou

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the plasma jets driven by lower frequency voltages or pulsed DC power supply normally present with donut shaped cross sections, especially at where the diffused air mole fractions are less than 0.01. Thence, it is interesting to further study whether the donut shape is still in truth for the pulsed microwave plasma jet or not. In this letter, the cross sectional structures of atmospheric pressure plasma jet plumes driven by pulsed microwaves have been experimented on a cylindrical coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plumes demonstrate particular characteristics, like argon plasma with a donut shape but helium plasma with an uniform lighten cross section, despite whether the air mole fraction exists or not. For argon discharge, the fast images show that the donut shaped cross section only occurs at the end of each microwave pulses. In combination with helium discharge, the cross sectional patterns are immediately determined by the dominant ionization front of the plasma jet plumes, which are resonantly generated by the local enhanced electric field of ionization waves.

  1. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, F M; Faulkes, C G

    1997-01-01

    Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol, dominance rank and reproductive status; and to determine if behavioural and/or physiological parameters can be used as predictors of queen succession. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females. Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory. PMID:9263466

  2. Slow aging in mammals-Lessons from African mole-rats and bats.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Philip

    2017-07-08

    Traditionally, the main mammalian models used in aging research have been mice and rats, i.e. short-lived species that obviously lack effective maintenance mechanisms to keep their soma in a functional state for prolonged periods of time. It is doubtful that life-extending mechanisms identified only in such short-lived species adequately reflect the diversity of longevity pathways that have naturally evolved in mammals, or that they have much relevance for long-lived species such as humans. Therefore, some complementary, long-lived mammalian models have been introduced to aging research in the past 15-20 years, particularly naked mole-rats (and to a lesser extent also other mole-rats) and bats. Here, I summarize and compare the most important results regarding various aspects of aging - oxidative stress, molecular homeostasis and repair, and endocrinology - that have been obtained from studies using these new mammalian models of high longevity. I argue that the inclusion of these models was an important step forward, because it drew researchers' attention to certain oversimplifications of existing aging theories and to several features that appear to be universal components of enhanced longevity in mammals. However, even among mammals with high longevity, considerable variation exists with respect to other candidate mechanisms that also must be taken into account if inadequate generalizations are to be avoided. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Body temperature patterns and rhythmicity in free-ranging subterranean Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

    PubMed

    Streicher, Sonja; Boyles, Justin G; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Bennett, Nigel C

    2011-01-01

    Body temperature (T(b)) is an important physiological component that affects endotherms from the cellular to whole organism level, but measurements of T(b) in the field have been noticeably skewed towards heterothermic species and seasonal comparisons are largely lacking. Thus, we investigated patterns of T(b) patterns in a homeothermic, free-ranging small mammal, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis) during both the summer and winter. Variation in T(b) was significantly greater during winter than summer, and greater among males than females. Interestingly, body mass had only a small effect on variation in T(b) and there was no consistent pattern relating ambient temperature to variation in T(b). Generally speaking, it appears that variation in T(b) patterns varies between seasons in much the same way as in heterothermic species, just to a lesser degree. Both cosinor analysis and Fast Fourier Transform analysis revealed substantial individual variation in T(b) rhythms, even within a single colony. Some individuals had no T(b) rhythms, while others appeared to exhibit multiple rhythms. These data corroborate previous laboratory work showing multiplicity of rhythms in mole-rats and suggest the variation seen in the laboratory is a true indicator of the variation seen in the wild.

  4. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with Three Viable Fetuses in a Quadruplet Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Nabia; Ghazali, Usman; Uddin, Zeeshan; Rasheed, Kamran; Tariq, Hina

    2016-04-01

    We hereby report a case of quadruplet pregnancy with delivery of 3 viable infants and a complete mole. This was an induced conception with clomiphene citrate. At 22 weeks, cystic structures were noticed in one of the placentae and a suspicion of co-existant molar pregnancy was made. The case discussed with oncologist and pregnancy was continued with close monitoring of β-hCG and Ultrasound. Her β-hCG at 23 weeks was 748 mIU/ml, which continued to rise until the 29th week of gestation to a level of 305881.68 mIU/ml and declined gradually thereafter. Similarly, hydropic change in placenta also continued to increase progressively. She was given steroid cover at 32 weeks and delivery was aimed at 34 weeks of gestation. The patient went into preterm labour at 33 weeks and 3 female infants delivered by lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) followed by removal of 3 placentae along with copious molar tissue at the end. The newborns were kept in the nursery, non-requiring assisted ventilation and discharged in satisfactory condition. The histopathologyand immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of a quadruplet pregnancy comprising of one complete mole with 3 normal placentae.

  5. Clinical findings of multiple pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and coexisting fetus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Won; Kim, Moon Young; Chung, Jin Hoon; Yang, Jae Hyug; Lee, Young Ho; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this series was to evaluate the clinical features, management, and outcomes of multiple pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF). Between 1998 and 2008, we investigated 6 women with a diagnosis of a CHMCF. The gestational age at diagnosis, symptoms, serum b-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, cytogenetic and molecular analysis findings, complications, routes of delivery, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed. All cases were diagnosed before 14 weeks' gestation by sonography. Only 1 ended with the delivery of a live-born neonate, whereas the other 5 cases required termination of pregnancy (TOP) before 21 weeks' gestation because of severe maternal complications (eg, preeclampsia, thyrotoxicosis, lung metastasis, and heavy bleeding) or intrauterine fetal death. The pathologic diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole was confirmed in all cases. Two patients required methotrexate for treatment of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). On the basis of our experience, in cases with a normal karyotype and no gross fetal abnormalities on sonography, we carefully recommend continuation of pregnancy as long as maternal complications are absent or controllable. However, updated treatment criteria are still needed, and intensive maternal follow-up is necessary in the postpartum period because maternal complications during pregnancy and PTD after TOP are not uncommon.

  6. Estimation of alkali metal mole percent and weight of calcined solids for ICPP calcine

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, B.H.

    1995-03-01

    An updated method is given for estimation of the weight of calcined solids and volume reduction factor for calcine, and mole percent sodium plus potassium in calcine produced from radioactive waste in a fluidized-bed calciner at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It incorporates new information on a calcine chemistry from a study by K. N. Brewer and G. F. Kessinger in which they determined the compounds formed during calcination by both high temperature thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and by analyses of pilot-plant calcines. An explanation of the assumptions made in the calculations, along with several example calculations and comparisons with the previous calculation methods are included. This method allows calculation of the heat generation rate and sodium content of the calcine, which are used to determine the suitability of the calcine for storage in the ICPP bin sets. Although this method accurately predicts the weight of calcine and mole percent Na + K for its intended purpose, the compounds predicted should only be used as a first approximation for other purposes since the calculation does not incorporate all of the compounds, such as mixed-metal oxides, which may form during calcination.

  7. Expression pattern of cadherins in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) suggests innate cortical diversification of the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Nambu, Sanae; Iriki, Atsushi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is an indispensable region for higher cognitive function that is remarkably diverse among mammalian species. Although previous research has shown that the cortical area map in the mammalian cerebral cortex is formed by innate and activity-dependent mechanisms, it remains unknown how these mechanisms contribute to the evolution and diversification of the functional cortical areas in various species. The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean, eusocial rodent. Physiological and anatomical studies have revealed that the visual system is regressed and the somatosensory system is enlarged. To examine whether species differences in cortical area development are caused by intrinsic factors or environmental factors, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of neonatal naked mole rat and mouse brains. The expression domain of cadherin-6, a somatosensory marker, was expanded caudally and shifted dorsally in the cortex, whereas the expression domain of cadherin-8, a visual marker, was reduced caudally in the neonatal naked mole rat cortex. The expression domain of cadherin-8 was also reduced in other visual areas, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus. Immunohistochemical analysis of thalamocortical fibers further suggested that somatosensory input did not affect cortical gene expression in the neonatal naked mole rat brain. These results suggest that the development of the somatosensory system and the regression of the visual system in the naked mole rat cortex are due to intrinsic genetic mechanisms as well as sensory input-dependent mechanisms. Intrinsic genetic mechanisms thus appear to contribute to species diversity in cortical area formation.

  8. Effect of hypoxia on metabolic rate, core body temperature, and c-fos expression in the naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Otukonyong, Effiong; Abdellatif, Ahmed; Soyinka, Julius O

    2012-10-01

    Recent investigations of hypoxia physiology in the naked mole rat have opened up an interesting line of research into the basic physiological and genomic alterations that accompany hypoxia survival. The extent to which such findings connect the effect of hypoxia to metabolic rate (O₂ consumption), core body temperature (Tb), and transcripts encoding the immediate early gene product (such as c-fos) under a constant ambient temperature (Ta) is not well known. We investigated this issue in the current study. Our first sets of experiments measured Tb and metabolic rates during exposure of naked mole rats to hypoxia over a constant Ta. Hypoxia significantly decreased metabolic rates in the naked mole rat. Although core Tb also decreased during hypoxia, the effect of hypoxia in suppressing core Tb was not significant. The second series of experiments revealed that c-fos protein and mRNA expression in the hippocampus neurons (CA1) increased in naked mole rats that were repeatedly exposed to 3% O₂ for 60 min per day for 5 days when compared to normoxia. Our findings provide evidence for the up-regulation of c-fos and suppression of metabolic rate in hypoxia tolerating naked mole rats under constant ambient temperature. Metabolic suppression and c-fos upregulation constitute part of the physiological complex associated with adaptation to hypoxia.

  9. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  10. Wintertime loss of ultradian and circadian rhythms of body temperature in the subterranean euthermic mole vole, ellobius talpinus.

    PubMed

    Petrovski, Dmitry V; Novikov, Eugene A; Burns, John T; Moshkin, Mikhail P

    2010-06-01

    Subterranean common mole voles, Ellobius talpinus, were implanted with long-term recording electronic thermometers to obtain hourly body temperature (T(b)) data during either the wintertime or summertime. The two individuals tested during the summertime had significant circadian and ultradian rhythms in their T(b). Four of the five mole voles tested during the wintertime lacked rhythmicity in their T(b). The fifth individual lacked circadian rhythms but had ultradian rhythms in its T(b). A loss of circadian rhythms in T(b) during deep torpor or hibernation has been reported for a few species of mammals. Inasmuch as the mole voles' wintertime T(b) remained at euthermic levels, our results show that a loss of circadian body temperature rhythms in mole voles does not require the low T(b) of deep torpor or hibernation. A tentative conclusion, based on these few animals, is that in common mole voles the T(b) rhythms may disappear during the wintertime even though their T(b) remains high.

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  12. Evaluation of germline CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4, PTEN, and BRAF alterations in atypical mole syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celebi, J T; Ward, K M; Wanner, M; Polsky, D; Kopf, A W

    2005-01-01

    Atypical mole syndrome is a sporadic or an inherited condition with an increased risk of melanoma. Germline mutations in the CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4 and somatic mutations in the PTEN and BRAF genes have been associated with melanoma. In this study, we evaluated genes associated with familial and sporadic melanoma for mutations in 28 probands with the atypical mole syndrome. No sequence alterations in the coding regions or in the splice junctions of CDKN2A, ARF, CDK4, PTEN or BRAF were identified. These data suggest that genes evaluated in this study are unlikely to be candidate genes for atypical mole syndrome and support the notion that unknown susceptibility gene/s for this disease exist.

  13. (H2)2 mole-fraction altitude profile in the atmosphere of Jupiter: A computational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Kim, Sang J.; Fox, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The mole fraction x(sub 2) of (H2)2 in equilibrium mixture with H2 under the atmospheric conditions of Jupiter is evaluated from the dimerization equilibrium constant calculated by quantum-chemical treatments and also from the Lennard-Jones potential. The treatments are of an ab initio type with the second and fourth order Moller-Plesset perturbation techniques and a basis set superposition error evaluation. The computed dimerization equilibrium constant is combined with observed height profiles of temperature and pressure. In six treatments considered it is found that the mole fraction decreases with increasing height. Various approximations suggest the dimeric mole fraction at the Jupiter 1 atm pressure level between 0.04 and 1.06%.

  14. On the dimensionality of the Avogadro constant and the definition of the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Nigel

    2011-06-01

    There is a common misconception among educators, and even some metrologists, that the Avogadro constant NA is (or should be) a pure number, and not a constant of dimension N-1 (where N is the dimension amount of substance). Amount of substance is (and always has been) measured as a ratio of other physical quantities, and not in terms of a specified pure number of elementary entities. Hence the Avogadro constant has always been defined in terms of the unit of amount of substance, and not vice versa. The proposed redefinition of the mole in terms of a fixed value of the Avogadro constant is examined, and it is shown that such a redefinition would not bring any significant metrological benefit. It is contended that such a redefinition would only add to the confusion in this field, and so should be rejected.

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of moles (Eulipotyphla, Talpidae): chromosomal differences in Talpa romana and T. europaea.

    PubMed

    Gornung, E; Volleth, M; Capanna, E; Castiglia, R

    2008-01-01

    The genus Talpa is the most specious and widespread one in the family Talpidae. The existing karyological records are predominantly basic morphological descriptions. To further investigate the case in point, we performed a comparative cytogenetic study in the genus by comparing G- and C-chromosome banding and NOR patterns of the two European species, T. romana and T. europaea, along with available data regarding several other mole species. Chromosomal hybridization patterns for telomeric repeats and major and 5S ribosomal RNA genes were obtained in T. romana and T. europaea for the first time. The comparison of these patterns revealed differences in distribution of interstitial telomeric repeats and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the two species with apparently identical karyotypes but different evolutionary histories.

  16. Whack-A-Mole Model: Towards a Unified Description of Biological Effects Caused by Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Tsunoyama, Yuichi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel model to for estimating biological effects caused by artificial radiation exposure, i.e., the Whack-A-Mole (WAM) model. It is important to take into account the recovery effects during the time course of cellular reactions. The inclusion of dose-rate dependence is essential in the risk estimation of low-dose radiation, while nearly all the existing theoretical models rely on the total dose dependence only. By analyzing experimental data of the relationship between the radiation dose and the induced mutation frequency of five organisms, namely, mouse, Drosophila, chrysanthemum, maize, Tradescantia, we found that all the data can be reproduced by the WAM model. Most remarkably, a scaling function, which is derived from the WAM model, consistently accounts for the observed mutation frequencies of the five organisms. This is the first rationale to account for the dose rate dependence as well as to provide a unified understanding of a general feature of organisms.

  17. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  18. A mobile one-sided NMR sensor with a homogeneous magnetic field: the NMR-MOLE.

    PubMed

    Manz, B; Coy, A; Dykstra, R; Eccles, C D; Hunter, M W; Parkinson, B J; Callaghan, P T

    2006-11-01

    A new portable NMR sensor with a novel one-sided access magnet design, termed NMR-MOLE (MObile Lateral Explorer), has been characterised in terms of sensitivity and depth penetration. The magnet has been designed to be portable and create a volume with a relatively homogeneous magnetic field, 15,000 ppm over a region from 4 to 16 mm away from the probe, with maximum sensitivity at a depth of 10 mm. The proton NMR frequency is 3.3 MHz. We have demonstrated that with this approach a highly sensitive, portable, unilateral NMR sensor can be built. Such a design is especially suited for the characterisation of liquids in situations where unilateral or portable access is required.

  19. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR.

  20. Risk of recurrent molar pregnancies following complete and partial hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Eagles, N; Sebire, N J; Short, D; Savage, P M; Seckl, M J; Fisher, R A

    2015-09-01

    What is the risk of further molar pregnancies for women with one or more hydatidiform moles (HM) in relation to molar subtype. Women with a complete hydatidiform mole (CM) have a 1 in 100 and 1 in 4 risk of further CM after one or two consecutive CM, respectively, while women with a partial hydatidiform mole (PM) have only a small increase in risk for further molar pregnancies. Women with a molar pregnancy have an increased risk of further HM. A small subgroup of women with recurrent HM has an autosomal recessive condition, familial recurrent hydatidiform moles (FRHM), that predisposes them to molar pregnancies. A retrospective study of subsequent pregnancies in 16 000 women registered at a centralized referral centre, with a CM or PM, between 1990 and 2009. One hundred and sixty-six women with two or more molar pregnancies were identified from electronic records and patient notes. Histopathological features of all molar tissue were reviewed in these cases and genotyping performed where diagnosis was not possible on the basis of histopathological features alone. In addition, genotyping of molar tissue was performed in all cases of women with three or more CM to establish whether the tissue was diploid and biparental or androgenetic. This study confirms an increased recurrence risk of ∼1% for a second molar pregnancy and in addition that this risk is associated with CM rather than PM. The data further indicate that the risk of a third HM is associated almost exclusively with CM and enabled an estimate that 1 in 640 women registered with a CM has the rare condition FRHM. The study also found that there was no significant difference between the risk of developing gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) for typical sporadic CM and the diploid biparental CM associated with FRHM (GTN; proportion difference 0.05, Z = 0.87, P = 0.29). While pathology was reviewed for all women with two or more molar pregnancies, not all cases registered underwent central review

  1. Incidental Finding of Persistent Hydatidiform Mole in an Adolescent on Depo-Provera

    PubMed Central

    McKendrick, Rebecca; Nokkaew, May

    2016-01-01

    Molar pregnancies represent an uncommon yet important obstetric problem with potentially fatal outcomes. Patients typically present with signs and symptoms of early pregnancy, and physicians most often suspect nonmolar pregnancy complications initially; however a hydatidiform mole should be included in the differential diagnosis of a woman with a positive pregnancy test and abnormal vaginal bleeding irrespective of the use of contraception. Our case is that of an adolescent female on Depo-Provera injectable contraceptive with increased vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting who was incidentally found to be pregnant and subsequently diagnosed with a molar pregnancy despite persistent denial of having initiated sexual intercourse. Though gestational trophoblastic disease is uncommon with an incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1,000 pregnancies, a clinician has to display a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients at extremes of age in order to avoid potentially life-threatening outcomes. PMID:28116190

  2. [Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatiform mole and a viable co-twin].

    PubMed

    Godinho, Ana Beatriz; Martins, Diana; Araújo, Cláudia; Melo, Maria Antonieta; Mendes Graça, Luís

    2014-01-01

    A complete hydatiform mole coexisting with a live, viable twin is a rare event. The diagnosis is challenging, and is normally achieved only at second trimester. It may be associated with thyrotoxicosis, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, fetal death or persistent throphoblastic disease. The authors describe the case of a pregnant woman presenting with first trimester bleeding. Ultrasound revealed a twin pregnancy with a viable twin and another placenta apparently detached. At 16 gestational weeks ultrasound revealed a live fetus with a normal placenta and a separate vacuolated and vascularized mass. Facing the hypothesis of gestational trophoblastic disease, the couple chose pregnancy interruption. Given the rarity of this situation, a high index of suspicion is needed to achieve the diagnosis. Despite the existence of case reports with good fetal and maternal outcome, the decision of pregnancy continuation should be made by the informed parents.

  3. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG), or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu) of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species) at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding) at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation. PMID:20637064

  4. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Matthew J.; Cornwall, Hannah L.; Smith, Ewan St. J.

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a ‘columelliform’ stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence. PMID:27926945

  5. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-05

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  6. Social condition and oxytocin neuron number in the hypothalamus of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M

    2013-01-29

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates.

  7. Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).

    PubMed

    Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

    2006-01-01

    The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves.

  8. Social and hormonal triggers of neural plasticity in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Seney, Marianne L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2011-03-17

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large social groups with a strict reproductive hierarchy. In each colony only a few individuals breed; all others are non-reproductive subordinates. We previously showed that breeders have increased volume of several brain regions linked to reproduction: the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTp), and the medial amygdala (MeA). Breeders also have more large motoneurons in Onuf's nucleus (ON) in the spinal cord, a cell group innervating perineal muscles that attach to the genitalia. Here, we sought to determine triggers for the neural changes seen in breeders. Specifically, we compared four groups of animals: subordinates, paired animals that did not reproduce, gonadally intact breeders, and gonadectomized breeders. We find that pairing alone is sufficient to cause breeder-like changes in volume of the PVN and cell size distribution in ON. In contrast, increases in BSTp volume were seen only in animals that actually reproduced. Those changes that were seen in successful breeders appear to be independent of gonadal steroids because long-term gonadectomy did not reverse the breeder-like neural changes in the PVN, BSTp or ON, although a trend for gonadectomized animals having larger MeA volumes was detected. Thus, neural changes associated with breeding status in naked mole-rats may be triggered by different aspects of the social and reproductive environment; once changes occur they are largely independent of gonadal hormones and may be permanent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on electron mole fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takamura, Akira; Kimura, Keiichi; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kawagoe, Shio; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2009-12-15

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Y{sub e} is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Y{sub e}. At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub {mu}}{sub ,{tau}} occurs in Y{sub e}<0.5 and normal mass hierarchy or in Y{sub e}>0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Y{sub e} values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub {mu}}{sub ,{tau}} occurs. The final {nu}{sub e} spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Y{sub e}<0.5 and Y{sub e}>0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low {nu}{sub e} energy to high {nu}{sub e} energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron fraction in the innermost region exceeds 0.5. In inverted mass hierarchy, on the other hand, a dip of the event ratio should be observed. Therefore, the time variation of the event number ratio is useful to investigate the effect of the RSF conversion.

  10. Hydatidiform mole and subsequent pregnancy outcome: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Joneborg, Ulrika; Eloranta, Sandra; Johansson, Anna L V; Marions, Lena; Weibull, Caroline E; Lambe, Mats

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether a history of hydatidiform mole (HM) is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. This was a nationwide cohort study with data from population-based registers. The study population consisted of all children registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register 1973-2009 (n = 3,730,825). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for adverse maternal and offspring pregnancy outcomes by maternal history of HM prior to the delivery, with children to women with no maternal history of HM as the reference. Risk estimates were adjusted for maternal age at delivery and maternal country of birth. A history of HM was not associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in subsequent pregnancies (n = 5186). Women exposed to a molar pregnancy prior to the index birth were at an almost 25% increased risk of preterm birth (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), whereas women with at least 1 birth between the HM and the index birth were at an increased risk of a large-for-gestational-age birth and stillbirth (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67 and OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11-2.96, respectively). The risk of repeat mole was 0.4%. Women with a history of HM are at no increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in subsequent pregnancies but have an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and preterm birth. However, in absolute terms, the risk of subsequent adverse offspring outcomes is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE OF STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE TO EUROPEAN MOLE CRICKET GRYLLOTALPA GRYLOTALPA L.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Pisdlisnyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    Common European mole cricket (CEML) Grillotalpa grillotalpa L causes damage to field, vegetable crops, and small fruits growing at commercial plantations and nurseries. Chemical control if insecticides are used in poison bates, soil application or seedling/bulbs treatment is not environmentally friendly. Inundative and innoculative release of CTVL biocontrol agents, in particularly, Entomopathogenic nematode is a reliable alternative to chemical control. At the laboratory study the comparison of the ability of commercial strain (Nemastar) and local Ukrainian isolate of Steinernema carpocapsae in various concentrations to parasite in last instar nymph and adults of G. grillotalpa was investigated. Grillotalpa grillotalpa was found as a susceptible host for both commercial and local strains of S. carpocapsae. The life cycle of S. carpocapsae both strains in the adults of G. grillotapla with concentration 50 IJs per larva has been completed 12-15 days at t=25 C. Two generations of S. carpocapsae were able to develop in mole cricket for both strains. Two strains of S. carpocapsae nematode species tested were pathogenic to adults of G. grillotalpa. The mortalities of G. grillotapla last last instars' larva caused by S. carpocapsae were recorded in every concentration tested at least 20 to 150 IJs per larva. Mean larval mortality ranged from 48% to 95% depending upon nematode strain and rate of application. Larval mortality generally increased with increasing of nematode rates. It was significant for both S. carpocapsae strains (Ukr. Isolate F = 26 > 2,86) and commercial strain (Nemastar F = 102,95 > 2,86). Ukrainian local isolate caused a greater percentage of mortality of G. grillotapla adult than commercial strain of S. carpocapsae tested but interactions between nematode strains, application rates were not significant. This study presents new data on effect of S. carpocapsae isolated for Ukraine to key agricultural polyphagous pest G. grillotalpa susceptibility

  12. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  13. Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courtney L. Davis,; David A.W. Miller,; Walls, Susan; Barichivich, William J.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Brown, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.

  14. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A.; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y.; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk–basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological–genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk–basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  15. Life history plasticity does not confer resilience to environmental change in the mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum).

    PubMed

    Davis, Courtney L; Miller, David A W; Walls, Susan C; Barichivich, William J; Riley, Jeffrey; Brown, Mary E

    2017-03-01

    Plasticity in life history strategies can be advantageous for species that occupy spatially or temporally variable environments. We examined how phenotypic plasticity influences responses of the mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, to disturbance events at the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR), FL, USA from 2009 to 2014. We observed periods of extensive drought early in the study, in contrast to high rainfall and expansive flooding events in later years. Flooding facilitated colonization of predatory fishes to isolated wetlands across the refuge. We employed multistate occupancy models to determine how this natural experiment influenced the occurrence of aquatic larvae and paedomorphic adults and what implications this may have for the population. We found that, in terms of occurrence, responses to environmental variation differed between larvae and paedomorphs, but plasticity (i.e. the ability to metamorphose rather than remain in aquatic environment) was not sufficient to buffer populations from declining as a result of environmental perturbations. Drought and fish presence negatively influenced occurrence dynamics of larval and paedomorphic mole salamanders and, consequently, contributed to observed short-term declines of this species. Overall occurrence of larval salamanders decreased from 0.611 in 2009 to 0.075 in 2014 and paedomorph occurrence decreased from 0.311 in 2009 to 0.121 in 2014. Although variation in selection pressures has likely maintained this polyphenism previously, our results suggest that continued changes in environmental variability and the persistence of fish in isolated wetlands could lead to a loss of paedomorphosis in the SMNWR population and, ultimately, impact regional persistence in the future.

  16. Post mortem identification of Kalicephalus colubri colubri (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae) in a captive mole snake (Pseudaspis cana) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Lane, E P; Dlamini, B; Kotze, A; Boomker, J

    2009-03-01

    Necropsy examination of a captive emaciated, dehydrated adult female Mole snake (Pseudaspis cana) in October 2007 revealed multiple cutaneous abscesses. Other findings included renal and hepatic atrophy, hepatic haemosiderosis, multifocal granulomatous hepatitis associated with acid-fast bacteria as well as pulmonary congestion and oedema. Large numbers of the nematode Kalicephalus colubri colubri were recovered from the oesophagus and stomach, representing the 1st reported case of K. colubri from a Mole snake in South Africa. The lesions caused by K. c. colubri were insignificant, but the presence of worms may have contributed to weight loss.

  17. PSF reconstruction for AO photometry and astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso, J.; Neichel, B.; Silva, M.; Fusco, T.; Garcia, P.

    2015-12-01

    Extracting accurate photometry (and astrometry) from images taken with adaptive optics assisted instruments is particularly challenging. Current post-processing tools are not prepared to achieve high accuracy from AO data, especially in limiting cases of crowded fields and marginally resolved sources. We quantify the limitations of these tools with synthetic images, and present a proof-of-concept study showing the potential of using reconstructed PSFs from the (GL)AO system telemetry to increase the measured photometric accuracy. We show that the photometric accuracy is significantly improved with a good PSF reconstruction in considerably crowded regions. We demonstrate the need for a dedicated post-processing tool that incorporates available information about the PSF, as well as the ability to adjust to the spatial variations of the PSF characteristic of AO data.

  18. A Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Mole Ratio Flow Chart to Dimensional Analysis for Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.

    2001-01-01

    Reaction stoichiometry calculations have always been difficult for students. Offers the use of a mole ratio flow chart (MRFC) as a logistical sequence of steps that incorporates molar proportions as alternative problem solving techniques to improve student understanding. Indicates that MRFC users performed as well on exam problems covering…

  19. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Osmulski, Pawel A; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-11-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31years) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although Heat shock protein 72 kDa (HSP72) and Heat shock protein 40 kDa (Homolog of bacterial DNAJ1) (HSP40(Hdj1)) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging.

  20. A Study Comparing the Efficacy of a Mole Ratio Flow Chart to Dimensional Analysis for Teaching Reaction Stoichiometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.

    2001-01-01

    Reaction stoichiometry calculations have always been difficult for students. Offers the use of a mole ratio flow chart (MRFC) as a logistical sequence of steps that incorporates molar proportions as alternative problem solving techniques to improve student understanding. Indicates that MRFC users performed as well on exam problems covering…

  1. A modified mole cricket lure and description of Scapteriscus borellii (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) range expansion and calling song in California.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Adler R; Cronin, Christopher J; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species, such as Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-Tos 1894, are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semipermanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps, we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations.

  2. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  3. Shared Ancestry between a Newfound Mole-Borne Hantavirus and Hantaviruses Harbored by Cricetid Rodents ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N.; Hope, Andrew G.; Cook, Joseph A.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles. PMID:21632770

  4. Habitat and Burrow System Characteristics of the Blind Mole Rat Spalax galili in an Area of Supposed Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Hrouzková, Ema; Dvořáková, Veronika; Nevo, Eviatar; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    A costly search for food in subterranean rodents resulted in various adaptations improving their foraging success under given ecological conditions. In Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, adaptations to local ecological conditions can promote speciation, which was recently supposed to occur even in sympatry at sites where two soil types of contrasting characteristics abut each other. Quantitative description of ecological conditions in such a site has been, nevertheless, missing. We measured characteristics of food supply and soil within 16 home ranges of blind mole rats Spalax galili in an area subdivided into two parts formed by basaltic soil and pale rendzina. We also mapped nine complete mole rat burrow systems to compare burrowing patterns between the soil types. Basaltic soil had a higher food supply and was harder than rendzina even under higher moisture content and lower bulk density. Population density of mole rats was five-times lower in rendzina, possibly due to the lower food supply and higher cover of Sarcopoterium shrubs which seem to be avoided by mole rats. A combination of food supply and soil parameters probably influences burrowing patterns resulting in shorter and more complex burrow systems in basaltic soil. PMID:26192762

  5. A recurrent intragenic genomic duplication, other novel mutations in NLRP7 and imprinting defects in recurrent biparental hydatidiform moles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is an abnormal pregnancy with hyperproliferative vesicular trophoblast and no fetal development. Most CHM are sporadic and androgenetic, but recurrent HM have biparental inheritance (BiHM) with disrupted DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) o...

  6. A Modified Mole Cricket Lure and Description of Scapteriscus borellii (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) Range Expansion and Calling Song in California

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, Adler R.; Cronin, Christopher J.; Tang, Joseph; Gray, David A.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mole cricket species in the genus Scapteriscus have become significant agricultural pests and are continuing to expand their range in North America. Though largely subterranean, adults of some species such as S. borellii are capable of long dispersive flights and phonotaxis to male calling songs to find suitable habitats and mates. Mole crickets in the genus Scapteriscus are known to be attracted to and can be caught by audio lure traps that broadcast synthesized or recorded calling songs. We report improvements in the design and production of electronic controllers for the automation of semi-permanent mole cricket trap lures as well as highly portable audio trap collection designs. Using these improved audio lure traps we collected the first reported individuals of the pest mole cricket S. borellii in California. We describe several characteristic features of the calling song of the California population including that the pulse rate is a function of soil temperature, similar to Florida populations of S. borellii. Further, we show that other calling song characteristics (carrier frequency, intensity, and pulse rate) are significantly different between the populations. PMID:24472207

  7. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  8. Successful Outcome of Twin Gestation with Partial Mole and Co-Existing Live Fetus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Rani, Reddi; John, Lopamudra B.

    2015-01-01

    Sad fetus syndrome comprising of a live twin gestation with a hydatidiform mole is a rare entity. The condition is even rarer when the co-existing live fetus is associated with a partial mole than a complete mole. We report the case of a 24-year-old G2P1L1 at 28 weeks gestation who presented to our casualty in the second stage of labour. She had a previous ultrasound scan at 13 weeks which showed a live fetus with a focal area of multicystic placenta. She delivered an alive preterm male fetus weighing 1.32 kg vaginally. Following expulsion of normal placenta of the live fetus, partial mole was expelled. The fetus was admitted to neonatal ICU and discharged after two weeks. Soon after delivery, β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) was 1,21,993 mIU/ml which decreased to 30mIU/ml within two weeks. The patient was discharged with advice of regular follow up of β-hCG reports. PMID:26436001

  9. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  10. Twelve thousand laser-AO observations: first results from the Robo-AO large surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed L.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first AO system which can feasibly perform surveys of thousands of targets. The system has been operating in a fully robotic mode on the Palomar 1.5m telescope for almost two years. Robo-AO has completed nearly 12,000 high-angular-resolution observations in almost 20 separate science programs including exoplanet characterization, field star binarity, young star binarity and solar system observations. We summarize the Robo-AO surveys and the observations completed to date. We also describe the data-reduction pipeline we developed for Robo-AO—the first fully-automated AO data-reduction, point-spread-function subtraction and companion-search pipeline.

  11. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-02-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  12. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  13. Development of accurate dimethyl sulfide primary standard gas mixtures at nanomole per mole levels for ambient measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eon Kim, Mi; Doo Kim, Yong; Kang, Ji Hwan; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil

    2017-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emitted from the oceanic phytoplankton is the major natural sulfur source in global scale. Ambient DMS plays important roles in climate change and atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of sulfate aerosols. In this regard, DMS over the marine atmosphere is monitored in global network and reported at several hundred picomole per mole levels. However, their measurement uncertainty is too high for monitoring long-term trends of DMS and thus necessary to be improved for better understanding of the role of DMS in atmospheric chemistry. Accurate and stable DMS standards are essential for the precise measurement of ambient DMS since the uncertainty of the standards is one of the main uncertainty for the measurement data quality. Gravimetrically prepared gas standards in cylinders are widely used because of their traceability and portability. To maintain the accuracy, assessment of stability of gas standards in cylinders is important especially for reactive gases such as DMS. A primary standard gas mixture (PSM) is the top of the pinnacle of standards, therefore both preparing and maintaining the accurate mole fraction of PSM is essential to distribute accurate standards. In this study, DMS PSMs at nanomole per mole levels were prepared in cylinders with different internal wall treatment to develop stable DMS PSMs in the optimum cylinder. Short-term stability of DMS PSMs was checked using equal division method. And then long-term stability of DMS PSMs was assessed by tracking the ratios of DMS to internal standards. The gravimetrically determined mole fractions of DMS PSMs at nanomole per mole levels were analytically verified and consistent within their uncertainties.

  14. Characterization of an AO-OCT system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2007-07-26

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be measured by an external system. Typically this

  15. Tumour resistance in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Oiwa, Yuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Bono, Hidemasa; Koya, Ikuko; Okada, Yohei; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Narita, Minoru; Ikeda, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo; Seino, Ken-Ichiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Kyoko

    2016-05-10

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which is the longest-lived rodent species, exhibits extraordinary resistance to cancer. Here we report that NMR somatic cells exhibit a unique tumour-suppressor response to reprogramming induction. In this study, we generate NMR-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and find that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumour-suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS). The forced expression of Arf in mouse iPSCs markedly reduces tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we identify an NMR-specific tumour-suppression phenotype-ARF suppression-induced senescence (ASIS)-that may protect iPSCs and somatic cells from ARF suppression and, as a consequence, tumorigenicity. Thus, NMR-specific ARF regulation and the disruption of ERAS regulate tumour resistance in NMR-iPSCs. Our findings obtained from studies of NMR-iPSCs provide new insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenicity in iPSCs and cancer resistance in the NMR.

  16. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Macroalgal fouling on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga facilitates bird predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gallegos, Percy; Gamero, Patricia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of predation by birds on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga fouled by macroalgae in a sandy beach of central Peru (11° S). The epibiosis affected mostly the larger animals, especially adult females. Epibiosis prevalence for the entire intertidal population was relatively low (1-2%), however, within the size range affected by epibiosis in the intertidal zone (18-23 mm in carapace length), 20-38% of the animals were fouled. Focal observations of birds showed that fouled animals are preferred over those non-fouled of the same size class and hence the same sex, being consumed at a higher rate than their proportion in the intertidal (Chesson’s alpha index of prey selection >0.96), and estimations of mortality rates indicated that more than 35% of the intertidal fouled animals are removed everyday by birds. The effect of epibiosis may be mainly attributed to a higher burrowing time or an increased visual attractive effect of the algae, which make fouled animals more conspicuous to predatory birds, or because of fouling enhances profitability of the animals. The results show that epibiosis has negative effects on E. analoga through increasing predation by birds, which in turn restricts the distribution and abundance of fouled E. analoga in the intertidal zone.

  18. Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures and H2 Mole Fraction from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan has a spectral window of low opacity around 530/cm in the thermal infrared where radiation from the surface can be detected from space. The Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) uses this window to measure the surface brightness temperature of Titan. By combining all observations from the Cassini tour it is possible to go beyond previous Voyager IRIS studies in latitude mapping of surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, which is close to the 93.65+/-0.25 K value measured at the surface by Huygens HASi. The temperature decreases toward the poles, reaching 91.6+/-0.7 K at 90 S and 90.0+/-1.0 K at 87 N. The temperature distribution is centered in latitude at approximately 12 S, consistent with Titan's season of late northern winter. Near the equator the temperature varies with longitude and is higher in the trailing hemisphere, where the lower albedo may lead to relatively greater surface heating5. Modeling of radiances at 590/cm constrains the atmospheric H2 mole fraction to 0.12+/-0.06 %, in agreement with results from Voyager iris.

  19. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk–basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk–basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk–basalt ecologies. PMID:26858405

  20. Individualistic approach to the management of complete hydatidiform mole with coexisting live fetus.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Singh, Purnima; Kaur, Jaswinder; Jain, Vanita; Gupta, Nalini; Prasad, G R V

    2015-08-01

    Complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting live fetus (CHMCF) is a rare obstetric occurrence. So far, approximately 177 cases have been documented in the literature with consequent 66 live births. We report a review article along with two cases of CHMCF, one presenting as incomplete abortion and other continued as CHMCF but terminated because of antepartum hemorrhage. Both had histopathologically proven one normal and other complete molar placenta with coexisting normal fetus. No evidence of persistent trophoblastic disease was observed. The dilemma of continuation versus termination of pregnancy is being emphasized in the review of literature. Pregnancy complicated by CHMCF may result in a viable live born infant in approximately one third of the cases. A potentially viable fetus with CHMCF may result in normal live birth with antecedent high risk maternal complications. A decision of termination of pregnancy in all CHMCF will however nullify all the chances of a live birth. An individualistic approach and an informed doctor patient consensus may improve the likely outcome. Appropriate counseling of the mother regarding high incidence of antenatal complications plays an integral part of decision of continuation of such pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryptic sex? Estimates of genome exchange in unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H Lisle; Denton, Robert D

    2016-06-01

    Cryptic sex has been argued to explain the exceptional longevity of certain parthenogenetic vertebrate lineages, yet direct measurements of genetic exchange between sexual and apparently parthenogenetic forms are rare. Female unisexual mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.) are the oldest known unisexual vertebrate lineage (~5 million years), and one hypothesis for their persistence is that allopolyploid female unisexuals periodically exchange haploid genomes 'genome exchange' during gynogenetic reproduction with males from sympatric sexual species. We test this hypothesis by using genome-specific microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the rates of genome exchange between sexual males and unisexual females in two ponds in NE Ohio. We also test the prediction that levels of gene flow should be higher for 'sympatric' (sexual males present) genomes in unisexuals compared to 'allopatric' (sexual males absent) unisexual genomes. We used a model testing framework in the coalescent-based program MIGRATE-N to compare models where unidirectional gene flow is present and absent between sexual species and unisexuals. As predicted, our results show higher levels of gene flow between sexuals and sympatric unisexual genomes compared to lower (likely artefactual) levels of gene flow between sexuals and allopatric unisexual genomes. Our results provide direct evidence that genome exchange between sexual and unisexual Ambystoma occurs and demonstrate that the magnitude depends on which sexual species are present. The relatively high levels of gene flow suggest that unisexuals must be at a selective advantage over sexual forms so as to avoid extinction due to genetic swamping through genome exchange. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies.

  3. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research.

  4. Stress, adaptation, and speciation in the evolution of the blind mole rat, Spalax, in Israel.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stress played a major role in the evolution of the blind mole rat superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi, affecting its adaptive evolution and ecological speciation underground. Spalax is safeguarded all of its life underground from aboveground climatic fluctuations and predators. However, it encounters multiple stresses in its underground burrows including darkness, energetics, hypoxia, hypercapnia, food scarcity, and pathogenicity. Consequently, it evolved adaptive genomic, proteomic, and phenomic complexes to cope with those stresses. Here I describe some of these adaptive complexes, and their theoretical and applied perspectives. Spalax mosaic molecular and organismal evolution involves reductions or regressions coupled with expansions or progressions caused by evolutionary tinkering and natural genetic engineering. Speciation of Spalax in Israel occurred in the Pleistocene, during the last 2.00-2.35 Mya, generating four species associated intimately with four climatic regimes with increasing aridity stress southwards and eastwards representing an ecological speciational adaptive trend: (Spalax golani, 2n=54→S. galili, 2n=52→S. carmeli, 2n=58→S. judaei, 2n=60). Darwinian ecological speciation occurred gradually with relatively little genetic change by Robertsonian chromosomal and genic mutations. Spalax genome sequencing has just been completed. It involves multiple adaptive complexes to life underground and is an evolutionary model to a few hundred underground mammals. It involves great promise in the future for medicine, space flight, and deep-sea diving.

  5. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  6. Functional Characteristics of the Naked Mole Rat μ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Clarisse A.

    2013-01-01

    While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR) opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids. PMID:24312175

  7. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  8. THE DISTRIBUTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN TWO POPULATIONS OF COMMON MOLE-RATS (CRYPTOMYS HOTTENTOTUS HOTTENTOTUS).

    PubMed

    Archer, Elizabeth Kate; Bennett, Nigel C; Junker, Kerstin; Faulkes, Chris G; Lutermann, Heike

    2017-08-29

    The spread of parasites through a host population is based on the variation in behavior and immune function between individuals and is rarely uniform. We studied the gastrointestinal parasites of common mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus, Lesson 1826) from 2 sites and assessed the levels of infection based on host sex, breeding status and season. Only nematode species were found; Neoheligmonella sp. and Mammalakis macrospiculum, (Ortlepp, 1939) and a single specimen of Trichuris sp., all of which have direct life cycles. Parasite burden and species richness was greater in the mesic habitat. The abundance of Neoheligmonella sp. differed significantly between seasons and the season of peak abundance differed between sites, perhaps due to differences in host densities between sites. In addition, parasite burden did not differ between the sexes but breeding animals had higher infections of Neoheligmonella sp. and M. macrospiculum than non-breeding animals. This and previous studies thus suggest that the subterranean environment is beneficial in reducing parasite diversity, although the restrictions on movement may lead to certain individuals suffering higher parasite burdens.

  9. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in mole rats (Spalax leucodon).

    PubMed

    İlgun, R; Yoldas, A; Kuru, N; Özkan, Z E

    2014-12-01

    The morphologic and morphometric features of the lower respiratory system in mole rats were examined. It was seen that the low respiratory system of this species leading a special life under highly hypoxic/hypercapnic conditions underground is structurally similar to other mammals living on land in terms of the parts examined; trachea was formed by 29.5 ± 4 oval-formed cartilaginous tracheals arranged backwards and became gradually more stenotic diameter from cranial to the caudal of the neck. The trachea was separated in two principal bronchus at the fourth thoracal intercostal spatium level. The angle between the two main principal bronchi was 60.5 ± 2.35°. The lung constituted 1.29 ± 0.03% of the body weight and the right lung was heavier than the left lung. Fissura inter-lobaris was deep and separated the lung lobes wholly, and the right lung was separated in four lobes, whereas the left lung was not separated into the lobes. Also, the medial lobe of the left lung was the lightest lobe.

  10. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  11. Ectoparasite Burdens of the Damaraland Mole-Rat (Fukomys damarensis) from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutermann, Heike; Carpenter-Kling, Tegan; Ueckermann, Edward A; Gutjahr, Gundula; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-12-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) of the family Bathyergidae are widely distributed subterranean rodents in sub-Saharan Africa. No parasites have ever been reported for this species and only 1 ectoparasite is described for the entire genus. In the current study ectoparasites were collected from individuals captured at 3 localities in South Africa and Namibia to document the ectoparasite community of F. damarensis, investigate their aggregation patterns, and evaluate the influence of season on ectoparasite burden. A total of 2,071 arthropods from 9 mite taxa and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected from 293 hosts sampled. Of these, 5 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Androlaelaps tauffliebi, Radfordia sp., and unidentified chiggers) and the louse were parasites while the remainder was soil mites. All ectoparasites were highly aggregated and the species richness as well as the prevalence and abundance of 4 of them were significantly greater in summer compared to winter, possibly as a result of seasonal changes in rainfall patterns affecting the ectoparasites, host behavior, or both.

  12. The isotopic ecology of African mole rats informs hypotheses on the evolution of human diet.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Justin D; Bennett, Nigel C; Koch, Paul L; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2007-07-22

    The diets of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus are hypothesized to have included C4 plants, such as tropical grasses and sedges, or the tissues of animals which themselves consumed C4 plants. Yet inferences based on the craniodental morphology of A. africanus and P. robustus indicate a seasonal diet governed by hard, brittle foods. Such mechanical characteristics are incompatible with a diet of grasses or uncooked meat, which are too tough for efficient mastication by flat, low-cusped molars. This discrepancy, termed the C4 conundrum, has led to the speculation that C4 plant underground storage organs (USOs) were a source of nutrition for hominin species. We test this hypothesis by examining the isotopic ecology of African mole rats, which consume USOs extensively. We measured delta18O and delta13C of enamel and bone apatite from fossil and modern species distributed across a range of habitats. We show that delta18O values vary little and that delta13C values vary along the C3 to C4/CAM-vegetative axis. Relatively high delta13C values exist in modern Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis and Cryptomys spp. recovered from hominin-bearing deposits. These values overlap those reported for A. africanus and P. robustus and we conclude that the USO hypothesis for hominin diets retains certain plausibility.

  13. AoB PLANTS: origins and features.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    AoB PLANTS is a peer reviewed, Open Access (OA) journal owned and run by plant biologists and published by Oxford University Press. The journal publishes research papers, reviews and opinion papers on all aspects of land based plant biology. They are made available rapidly online and can be accessed without the need for subscriptions or payment. Several difficulties in conventional publishing of peer-reviewed manuscripts encouraged AoB PLANTS to adopt OA. Open Access helps sidestep library budgets which are struggling to purchase the increasing numbers of journals. Open Access makes research freely available both to the academic community and beyond while publishing online only eliminates the need to reject good manuscripts simply to control the size of the printed journal. Finally, the journal chose to go OA to ensure the widest possible international readership for the growing amount of high-quality plant science research being carried out worldwide in response to problems such as climate change and food shortages. Responses to a wide-ranging online questionnaire indicated strong international support for a journal such as AoB PLANTS. AoB PLANTS strives for fair and rapid peer review followed by fast publication of accepted papers. For an initial period, there will be no OA fees, and fees will remain modest once introduced. AoB PLANTS adopts double-blind peer review using published criteria for acceptability as a basis for decision-making. Accepted papers are published shortly after acceptance together with referees' analyses using Stanford University Libraries High Wire Press H2O platform. Authors retain ownership of the copyright in their papers.

  14. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  15. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  16. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance.

  17. RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential Expression of Mitochondrial and Oxidation Reduction Genes in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat When Compared to Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G.; Coen, Clive W.; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M.

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics. PMID:22073188

  18. Single haplotype assembly of the human genome from a hydatidiform mole.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Schneider, Valerie A; Graves-Lindsay, Tina A; Fulton, Robert S; Agarwala, Richa; Huddleston, John; Shiryev, Sergey A; Morgulis, Aleksandr; Surti, Urvashi; Warren, Wesley C; Church, Deanna M; Eichler, Evan E; Wilson, Richard K

    2014-12-01

    A complete reference assembly is essential for accurately interpreting individual genomes and associating variation with phenotypes. While the current human reference genome sequence is of very high quality, gaps and misassemblies remain due to biological and technical complexities. Large repetitive sequences and complex allelic diversity are the two main drivers of assembly error. Although increasing the length of sequence reads and library fragments can improve assembly, even the longest available reads do not resolve all regions. In order to overcome the issue of allelic diversity, we used genomic DNA from an essentially haploid hydatidiform mole, CHM1. We utilized several resources from this DNA including a set of end-sequenced and indexed BAC clones and 100× Illumina whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequence coverage. We used the WGS sequence and the GRCh37 reference assembly to create an assembly of the CHM1 genome. We subsequently incorporated 382 finished BAC clone sequences to generate a draft assembly, CHM1_1.1 (NCBI AssemblyDB GCA_000306695.2). Analysis of gene, repetitive element, and segmental duplication content show this assembly to be of excellent quality and contiguity. However, comparison to assembly-independent resources, such as BAC clone end sequences and PacBio long reads, indicate misassembled regions. Most of these regions are enriched for structural variation and segmental duplication, and can be resolved in the future. This publicly available assembly will be integrated into the Genome Reference Consortium curation framework for further improvement, with the ultimate goal being a completely finished gap-free assembly. © 2014 Steinberg et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Nutrition and burrowing energetics of the Cape mole-rat Georychus capensis.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, J T; Jarvis, J U M; Louw, G N

    1985-04-01

    At 22°C the resting oxygen consumption of G. capensis is 1.13±0.05 cm(3)O2·g(-1)·h(-1) (mean± S.E.). In loose sandy soil the burrowing metabolic rate was approximately three times that of resting (3.41±0.19 cm(3)O2·g(-1)· h(-1)). Rate of oxygen consumption while burrowing bears a linear relationship with rate of burrowing. The equation of the regression line describing this relationship was used to construct a model for calculating energy expenditure of burrowing in free-living mole-rats. The diet of G. capensis consists of some green plant material and geophyte corms. The latter has a mean gross energy content of 16.36 kJ·g(-1) dry weight. The digestibility coefficient for captive G. capensis fed on sweet potato, was 97.42±0.41%. Data collected from an excavated burrow system revealed that the total energetic cost of constructing the burrow amounted to 79% of the estimated digestible energy available from geophyte corms in the area. A food store in the same burrow system was sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of an adult G. capensis, resting at 22°C, for approximately 80-85 days. Soil samples taken at random adjacent to the burrow contained corms with a mean estimated digestible energy value of 2084 kJ per m(3) of soil. A comparison of energetic cost of burrowing and randomly available digestible energy in the field suggests that foraging patterns are not random.

  20. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Juckem, Paul F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system near Mole Lake, Forest County, Wis. was simulated using a previously calibrated regional model. The previous model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model was then used to calculate the area contributing recharge for one existing and two proposed pumping locations on lands of the Sokaogon Chippewa Community. Delineated 1-, 5-, and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to the northeast of the pumping locations. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Tribe expects to pump and a high pumping scenario, in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area. In the base pumping scenario, pumping rates of 32 gallons per minute (gal/min; 46,000 gallons per day (gal/d)) from the existing well and 30 gal/min (43,000 gal/d) at each of the two proposed wells were simulated. The high pumping scenario simulated a rate of 70 gal/min (101,000 gal/d) from each of the three pumping wells to estimate of the largest areas contributing recharge that might be expected given what is currently known about the shallow groundwater system. The areas contributing recharge for both the base and high pumping scenarios did not intersect any modeled surface-water bodies; however, the high pumping scenario had a larger areal extent than the base pumping scenario and intersected a septic separator.

  1. Local and Regional Scale Genetic Variation in the Cape Dune Mole-Rat, Bathyergus suillus

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Jacobus H.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta–a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  2. Evolutionary basis of mitonuclear discordance between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Denton, Robert D; Kenyon, Laura J; Greenwald, Katherine R; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2014-06-01

    Distinct genetic markers should show similar patterns of differentiation between species reflecting their common evolutionary histories, yet there are increasing examples of differences in the biogeographic distribution of species-specific nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants within and between species. Identifying the evolutionary processes that underlie these anomalous patterns of genetic differentiation is an important goal. Here, we analyse the putative mitonuclear discordance observed between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri and A. texanum) in which A. barbouri-specific mtDNA is found in animals located within the range of A. texanum. We test three hypotheses for this discordance (undetected range expansion, mtDNA introgression, and hybridization) using nuDNA and mtDNA data analysed with methods that varied in the parameters estimated and the timescales measured. Results from a Bayesian clustering technique (structure), bidirectional estimates of gene flow (migrate-n and IMa2) and phylogeny-based methods (*beast, bucky) all support the conclusion that the discordance is due to geographically restricted mtDNA introgression from A. barbouri into A. texanum. Limited data on species-specific tooth morphology match this conclusion. Significant differences in environmental conditions exist between sites where A. texanum with and without A. barbouri-like mtDNA occur, suggesting a possible role for selection in the process of introgression. Overall, our study provides a general example of the value of using complimentary analyses to make inferences of the directionality, timescale, and source of mtDNA introgression in animals.

  3. Effects of total-body digital photography on cancer worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moye, Molly S; King, Sallyann M C; Rice, Zakiya P; DeLong, Laura K; Seidler, Anne M; Veledar, Emir; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Chen, Suephy C

    2015-02-01

    Cancer worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients may affect one's quality of life and adherence to screening. Little is known about melanoma-related worry in patients with atypical mole syndrome (AMS). To quantify levels and elucidate predictors of worry related to developing melanoma in patients with AMS and to determine whether total-body digital photography (TBDP) in pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) reduces worry. In this pretest-posttest study, patients with AMS from PLCs at 2 academic medical centers were recruited from June 1, 2005, through October 31, 2008, to answer questions about cancer worry before and after undergoing TBDP. Questionnaires used included the new melanoma and recurrent melanoma Revised Impact of Event Scale (RIES), the Melanoma Worry Scale (MWS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Life Orientation Test. All patients underwent TBDP. Changes in the MWS and new melanoma RIES scores. A total of 138 patients completed baseline questionnaires; 108 patients (78.3%) completed questionnaires after TBDP. Baseline levels of worry were low and reduced further after TBDP. In patients with a personal history of melanoma, worry was reduced on all scales. In patients without a personal history of melanoma, only the new melanoma RIES score was significantly decreased. Predictors of baseline MWS scores include female sex, personal history of melanoma, and higher Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, adjusted for demographics, family history of melanoma, and Life Orientation Test scores. Adjusted predictors of the baseline new melanoma RIES score were similar but also included lower educational level and did not include sex. Patients with AMS have low levels of melanoma-related worry, which is similar to data from other populations at high risk of cancers. We found that TBDP is a clinically useful tool that can be used in PLCs to help decrease worry about developing melanoma in at-risk patients.

  4. Local and regional scale genetic variation in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    PubMed

    Visser, Jacobus H; Bennett, Nigel C; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variation is determined through the interaction of life history, morphology and habitat specificity of a species in conjunction with landscape structure. While numerous studies have investigated this interplay of factors in species inhabiting aquatic, riverine, terrestrial, arboreal and saxicolous systems, the fossorial system has remained largely unexplored. In this study we attempt to elucidate the impacts of a subterranean lifestyle coupled with a heterogeneous landscape on genetic partitioning by using a subterranean mammal species, the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus), as our model. Bathyergus suillus is one of a few mammal species endemic to the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of the Western Cape of South Africa. Its distribution is fragmented by rivers and mountains; both geographic phenomena that may act as geographical barriers to gene-flow. Using two mitochondrial fragments (cytochrome b and control region) as well as nine microsatellite loci, we determined the phylogeographic structure and gene-flow patterns at two different spatial scales (local and regional). Furthermore, we investigated genetic differentiation between populations and applied Bayesian clustering and assignment approaches to our data. Nearly every population formed a genetically unique entity with significant genetic structure evident across geographic barriers such as rivers (Berg, Verlorenvlei, Breede and Gourits Rivers), mountains (Piketberg and Hottentots Holland Mountains) and with geographic distance at both spatial scales. Surprisingly, B. suillus was found to be paraphyletic with respect to its sister species, B. janetta-a result largely overlooked by previous studies on these taxa. A systematic revision of the genus Bathyergus is therefore necessary. This study provides a valuable insight into how the biology, life-history and habitat specificity of animals inhabiting a fossorial system may act in concert with the structure of the surrounding

  5. Investigation of anti-cancer mechanisms by comparative analysis of naked mole rat and rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naked mole rats (NMRs) are small-sized underground rodents with plenty of unusual traits. Their life expectancy can be up to thirty years, more than seven times longer than laboratory rat. Furthermore, they are resistant to both congenital and experimentally induced cancer genesis. These peculiar physiological and pathological characteristics allow them to become a suitable model for cancer and aging research. Results In this paper, we carried out a genome-wide comparative analysis of rat and NMR using the recently published genome sequence of NMR. First, we identified all the rat-NMR orthologous genes and specific genes within each of them. The expanded and contracted numbers of protein families in NMR were also analyzed when compared to rat. Seven cancer-related protein families appeared to be significantly expanded, whereas several receptor families were found to be contracted in NMR. We then chose those rat genes that were inexistent in NMR and adopted KEGG pathway database to investigate the metabolic processes in which their proteins may be involved. These genes were significantly enriched in two rat cancer pathways, "Pathway in cancer" and "Bladder cancer". In the rat "Pathway in cancer", 9 out of 14 paths leading to evading apoptosis appeared to be affected in NMR. In addition, a significant number of other NMR-missing genes enriched in several cancer-related pathways have been known to be related to a variety of cancers, implying that many of them may be also related to tumorigenesis in mammals. Finally, investigation of sequence variations among orthologous proteins between rat and NMR revealed that significant fragment insertions/deletions within important functional domains were present in some NMR proteins, which might lead to expressional and/or functional changes of these genes in different species. Conclusions Overall, this study provides insights into understanding the possible anti-cancer mechanisms of NMR as well as searching for

  6. Investigation of anti-cancer mechanisms by comparative analysis of naked mole rat and rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Luonan

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole rats (NMRs) are small-sized underground rodents with plenty of unusual traits. Their life expectancy can be up to thirty years, more than seven times longer than laboratory rat. Furthermore, they are resistant to both congenital and experimentally induced cancer genesis. These peculiar physiological and pathological characteristics allow them to become a suitable model for cancer and aging research. In this paper, we carried out a genome-wide comparative analysis of rat and NMR using the recently published genome sequence of NMR. First, we identified all the rat-NMR orthologous genes and specific genes within each of them. The expanded and contracted numbers of protein families in NMR were also analyzed when compared to rat. Seven cancer-related protein families appeared to be significantly expanded, whereas several receptor families were found to be contracted in NMR. We then chose those rat genes that were inexistent in NMR and adopted KEGG pathway database to investigate the metabolic processes in which their proteins may be involved. These genes were significantly enriched in two rat cancer pathways, "Pathway in cancer" and "Bladder cancer". In the rat "Pathway in cancer", 9 out of 14 paths leading to evading apoptosis appeared to be affected in NMR. In addition, a significant number of other NMR-missing genes enriched in several cancer-related pathways have been known to be related to a variety of cancers, implying that many of them may be also related to tumorigenesis in mammals. Finally, investigation of sequence variations among orthologous proteins between rat and NMR revealed that significant fragment insertions/deletions within important functional domains were present in some NMR proteins, which might lead to expressional and/or functional changes of these genes in different species. Overall, this study provides insights into understanding the possible anti-cancer mechanisms of NMR as well as searching for new cancer-related candidate

  7. Organization of the main olfactory bulbs of some mammals: musk shrews, moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, mice, and rats.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Katsuko; Kosaka, Toshio

    2004-04-19

    We immunohistochemically examined the organization of the main olfactory bulbs (MOBs) in seven mammalian species, including moles, hedgehogs, tree shrews, bats, and mice as well as laboratory musk shrews and rats. We focused our investigation on two points: 1) whether nidi, particular spheroidal synaptic regions subjacent to glomeruli, which we previously reported for the laboratory musk shrew MOBs, are also present in other animals and 2) whether the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells we proposed for the rat MOBs are general in other animals. The general laminar pattern was similar among these seven species, but discrete nidi and the nidal layer were recognized only in two insectivores, namely, the mole and laboratory musk shrew. Olfactory marker protein-immunoreactive (OMP-IR) axons extended beyond the limits of the glomerular layer (GL) into the superficial region of the external plexiform layer (EPL) or the nidal layer in the laboratory musk shrew, mole, hedgehog, and tree shrew but not in bat, mouse, and rat. We observed, in nidi and the nidal layer in the mole and laboratory musk shrew MOBs, only a few OMP-IR axons. In the hedgehog, another insectivore, OMP-IR processes extending from the glomeruli were scattered and intermingled with calbindin D28k-IR cells at the border between the GL and the EPL. In the superficial region of the EPL of the tree shrew MOBs, there were a small number of tiny glomerulus-like spheroidal structures where OMP-IR axons protruding from glomeruli were intermingled with dendritic branches of surrounding calbindin D28k-IR cells. Furthermore, we recognized the compartmental organization of glomeruli and two types of periglomerular cells in the MOBs of all of the mammals we examined. These structural features are therefore considered to be common and important organizational principles of the MOBs.

  8. Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Colleen M; Troendle, Nicholas J; Gill, Clare A; Braude, Stanton; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2015-10-01

    The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as a mating system) are the driving forces for the evolution of this eusocial species. One caveat to accepting this long-held view is that the original genetic studies were based on limited sampling from the species' geographic distribution. A growing body of evidence supports a contrary view, with the original samples not representative of the species-rather reflecting a single founder event, establishing a small population south of the Athi River. Our study is the first to address these competing hypotheses by examining patterns of molecular variation in colonies sampled from north and south of the Athi and Tana rivers, which based on our results, serve to isolate genetically distinct populations of naked mole-rats. Although colonies south of the Athi River share a single mtDNA haplotype and are fixed at most microsatellite loci, populations north of the Athi River are considerably more variable. Our findings support the position that the low variation observed in naked mole-rat populations south of the Athi River reflects a founder event, rather than a consequence of this species' unusual mating system.

  9. Study of Pulse Laser Assisted Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of InGaN with Large Indium Mole Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Norihito; Hida, Ken-nosuke; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

    2004-08-01

    The indium composition of the InGaN film increases with decreasing growth temperature; however, the crystalline quality of the film is poor when it is grown at low temperatures. To form a high-quality InGaN film with a large indium mole fraction, Nd: YAG pulse laser assisted metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was carried out at low temperatures. The results suggest that film quality can be improved by pulse laser irradiation on the surface of the film.

  10. Comparison of the regional CO2 mole fraction filtering approaches at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-12-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis, for the estimation of regional sources and sinks, and for the modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the concentration of atmospheric black carbon (BC), on a statistical approach (robust extraction of baseline signal, REBS), on CH4 as an auxiliary tracer (AUX), and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during the winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fraction evaluations, as the filtered trend may be influenced by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks, and considers diurnal variations and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2011.

  11. Study of the regional CO2 mole fractions filtering approach at a WMO/GAW regional station in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, S. X.; Tans, P. P.; Steinbacher, M.; Zhou, L. X.; Luan, T.

    2015-07-01

    The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which is minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for the estimation of trend analysis, regional sources and sinks, and for modeling of long-range transport of CO2. In this study, four approaches are used to filter the atmospheric CO2 observation records from 2009 to 2011 at one World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) regional station (Lin'an, LAN) in China. The methods are based on the atmospheric black carbon concentration (BC), on a statistical approach (REBS), on CH4 as auxiliary tracer (AUX) and on meteorological parameters (MET). All approaches do suitably well to capture the seasonal CO2 cycle at LAN. Differences are observed in the average regional mole fractions with annual values in the REBS method at least 1.7 ± 0.2 ppm higher than the other methods. The BC method may underestimate the regional CO2 mole fractions during winter-spring period and should be treated with caution. The REBS method is a purely statistical method and it may also introduce errors on the regional CO2 mole fractions evaluations, as the filtered trend may be deviated by the "noisy" raw data series. Although there are correlations between CH4 and CO2 mole fractions at LAN, the different source/sink regimes may introduce bias on the regional CO2 estimation in the AUX method, typically in summer. Overall, the MET method seems to be the most favorable because it mainly focuses on the influence of potential local sources and sinks and considers diurnal variations, local topography, and meteorological conditions. Using the MET method, the annual growth rate of regional CO2 at LAN is determined to be 3.1 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1 (standard error) from 2009 to 2013.

  12. Multiple primary cutaneous melanomas in patients with FAMMM syndrome and sporadic atypical mole syndrome (AMS): what's worse?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi; Ananiev, Julian; Cardoso, José-Carlos; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Philipov, Stanislav; Penev, Plamen Kolev; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Since early diagnosis of melanoma is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers (sporadic and familial) is essential, as well as the recommendation of preventative measures that must be undertaken by these patients.We report two rare cases concerning patients with multiple primary skin melanomas in the setting of a familial and a sporadic syndrome of dysplastic nevi: the first patient is a 67-year-old patient with a history of multiple superficial spreading melanomas localized on his back. The second patient presented with multiple primary melanomas in advanced stage in the context of the so-called sporadic form of the syndrome of dysplastic nevi-AMS (atypical mole syndrome). In the first case, excision of the melanomas was carried out with an uneventful post-operative period. In the second case, disseminated metastases were detected, involving the right fibula, the abdominal cavity as well as multiple lesions in the brain. The patient declined BRAF mutation tests as well as chemotherapy or targeted therapies, and suffered a rapid deterioration in his general condition leading to death. We classified the second case as a sporadic form of the atypical mole syndrome, associated with one nodular and two superficial spreading melanomas.There are no data in the literature to allow us to understand if, in patients with multiple primary melanomas, there is any difference in terms of prognosis between those with and without a family history of a similar phenotype. To answer this and other questions related to these rare cases, further studies with a significant number of patients should be carried out.

  13. [Twin pregnancy with complete hydatiform mole and coexistent fetus: Report of 4 cases and review of literature].

    PubMed

    de Marcillac, F; Akladios, C Y; Hui-bon-hoa, I; Fritz, G; Nisand, I; Langer, B

    2015-11-01

    Twin pregnancy with complete hydatiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare clinical condition, occurring in 1 in 22,000 to one in 100,000 pregnancies. Continuation of pregnancy in these cases is controversial because of a high risk of immediate and long-term maternal morbidity. It allows, however, in 33 % of the case the delivery of a healthy child. This retrospective study included all patients presenting a complete hydatiform mole coexisting with a live twin fetus antenatally diagnosed between 2007 and 2012 in the level III maternity of the Strasbourg University Hospital. Informations concerning diagnostic circumstances, pregnancy follow-up and outcome were studied. Four pregnancies were included in the study, all of them were spontaneous. Medical termination of pregnancies was related to maternal reasons in the four cases. One before 17 weeks of gestation, the three other after 2 weeks of gestation, leading to delivery of a healthy child. All patients developed a mild to severe preeclampsia. One patient developed a gestational trophoblastic disease, requiring chemotherapy by methotrexate. There was no fatal evolution. Twin pregnancy with complete hydatifom mole and coexistent fetus is associated with increased risk of gestational trophoblastic disease. This risk is not increased by continuation of pregnancy. In case of prenatal diagnosis of complete hydatiform mole coexisting with a live twin fetus, patients should be aware of the potential high risk of morbidity and a regular follow-up during and after the pregnancy should be intaured. In absence of maternal complications, continuation of the pregnancy is possible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Recent enhancements to the NAOMI AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Paul D.; Goodsell, Stephen; Benn, Chris R.; Gregory, Thomas; Rees, Simon; van der Hoeven, Michiel; Blanken, Maarten; Pit, Renee

    2004-10-01

    The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics Multipurpose Instrument (NAOMI) is the adaptive optics (AO) platform on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING). Until recently NAOMI has been concentrating on near infrared observations using the Isaac Newton Group Red Imaging Device (INGRID). Recent developments have added an extra optical port to NAOMI. The observer can now rapidly switch between infrared and optical instrumentation during AO observing, making the system more appealing for visiting instruments. To allow for the operation of the common user optical spectrograph OASIS, a new optical path was created around the existing NAOMI optics. Various mechanisms were also added to the whole optical system. The OASIS beam was reshaped to f/20. The original optical/IR beam remains unchanged at f/16, and forms a new universal science port (USP). The existing Nasmyth Calibration Unit (NCU) has been replaced with a new design. This new NCU has multiple fibre-fed light sources that include continuum and arc lamps. The intensity of light can be individually adjusted via computer control. A new acquisition camera is mounted such that it can be used simultaneously with the spectral lamps. Software upgrades now allow faster deformable mirror calibration. A moveable mirror is used to select which science port will receive the light. Enhancements to the NAOMI AO system are discussed in this paper and suggestions for possible future upgrades.

  15. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  16. Expression patterns of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and other placentally expressed human endogenous retroviruses along the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Patrier, Sophie; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Massardier, Jérôme; Hajri, Touria; Guillotte, Michèle; Bossus, Marc; Sanlaville, Damien; Golfier, François; Mallet, François

    2016-03-01

    Up to 20% of hydatidiform moles are followed by malignant transformation in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and require chemotherapy. Syncytin-1 is involved in human placental morphogenesis and is also expressed in various cancers. We assessed the predictive value of the expression of Syncytin-1 and its interactants in the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was localized by immunohistochemistry in hydatidiform moles, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and control placentas. The transcription levels of its locus ERVWE1, its interaction partners (hASCT1, hASCT2, TLR4 and DC-SIGN) and two loci (ERVFRDE1 and ERV3) involved the expression of other placental envelopes were assessed by real-time PCR. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was expressed in syncytiotrophoblast of hydatidiform moles with an apical enhancement when compared with normal placentas. Moles with further malignant transformation had a higher staining intensity of Syncytin-1 surface unit C-terminus but the transcription level of its locus ERVWE1 was not different from that of moles with further remission and normal placentas. hASCT1 and TLR4, showed lower transcription levels in complete moles when compared to normal placentas. ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 transcription was down-regulated in hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Variations of Syncytin-1 protein localization and down-regulation of hASCT1 and TLR4 transcription are likely to reflect altered functions of Syncytin-1 in the premalignant context of complete moles. The reduced transcription in gestational trophoblastic diseases of ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, which expression during normal pregnancy is differentially regulated by promoter region methylation, suggest a joint dysregulation mechanism in malignant context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  18. A new definition for the mole based on the Avogadro constant: a journey from physics to chemistry.

    PubMed

    Milton, Martin J T

    2011-10-28

    The mole is the most recent addition to the set of base units that form the International System of Units, although its pre-cursor the 'gram-molecule', had been in use by both physicists and chemists for more than 120 years. A proposal has been published recently to establish a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant. This would introduce consistent relative uncertainties for the molar and the atomic masses while making no change to the system of relative atomic masses ('atomic weights'). Although the proposal would have little impact on the measurement uncertainty of practical work, it has stimulated considerable debate about the mole and the nature of the quantity amount of substance. In this paper, the rationale for the new definition is explained against the background of changes in the way the quantity amount of substance has been used, from its first use during the early development of thermodynamics through to the use of the 'number of gram-molecules' at the end of the nineteenth century.

  19. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-02-19

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans.

  20. Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-06-13

    Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer's organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer's organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer's organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer's organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer's organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer's organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species.

  1. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  2. The neuronal structure of the preoptic area in the mole and the rabbit: Golgi and Nissl studies.

    PubMed

    Bogus-Nowakowska, K; Robak, A; Szteyn, S; Równiak, M; Najdzion, J; Wasilewska, B

    2006-11-01

    The present studies were carried out on the brains of the adult mole and rabbit. The preparations were made by means of the Golgi technique and the Nissl method. Two types of neurons were distinguished in the preoptic area (POA) of both species: bipolar and multipolar. The bipolar neurons have oval, fusiform or round perikarya and two dendritic trunks arising from the opposite poles of the cell body. The dendrites bifurcate once or twice. The dendritic branches have swellings, single spine-like and filiform processes. The multipolar neurons usually have triangular and quadrangular perikarya and from 3 to 5 dendritic trunks. The dendrites of the mole neurons branch sparsely, whereas the dendrites of the rabbit neurons display 2 or 3 divisions. On the dendritic branches varicosities and different protuberances were observed. The general morphology of the bipolar and multipolar neurons is similar in the mammals studied, although the neurons of the rabbit POA display a more complicated structure. Their dendritic branches show more divisions and possess more swellings and different processes than the dendrites of the neurons of the mole POA. Furthermore, of the multipolar neurons only the dendrites in POA of the rabbit were observed to have a rosary-like beaded appearance.

  3. Ectoparasite burdens of the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) from the Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archer, Elizabeth K; Bennett, Nigel C; Ueckermann, Edward A; Lutermann, Heike

    2014-02-01

    The members of the African mole-rat family Bathyergidae are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, the current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited and ambiguous due to recent revisions of the bathyergid taxonomy. The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) is 1 of the most widely distributed species of these subterranean rodents. Ectoparasites were collected from 268 common mole-rats at 2 localities (Western and Northern Cape provinces) in South Africa over the course of 18 mo with the aim to document species richness, prevalence, and abundance of these ectoparasites. The aggregation of parasite species, sex bias within a species, and seasonal variation in ectoparasite burdens were investigated. A total of 4,830 individual parasites from 4 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Radfordia ensifera, and 1 undetermined chigger [family Trombiculidae]), 1 flea species (Cryptopsylla ingrami), and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected. With the exception of R. ensifera and the chigger, all of these ectoparasites appear to be host specific either for the host species or the Bathyergidae. Aggregation indices indicated that with the exception of E. hilli, the distribution of all parasite species was highly aggregated among hosts and sex biased. Seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and species richness was apparent, with greater burdens in the rainy winter season. This is likely related to seasonal variation in abiotic factors but may also be affected by the timing of host reproduction and dispersal behavior.

  4. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades. PMID:27997359

  5. FOREWORD: International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Giuseppe; Garfagnini, Raffaello; Mana, Giovanni; Peuto, Anna; Zosi, Gianfranco

    1994-01-01

    This special issue of Metrologia brings together contributions to the International Workshop on the Avogadro Constant and the Representation of the Silicon Mole, held in Turin, Italy, from 9 to 10 March 1994. It was organized by the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti" (IMGC) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro" (IFG) dell'Università di Tonno. It was sponsored by the CNR, the University of Turin, the Regione Piemonte, and the Commission of the European Communities DG XII. The workshop was a follow-up to previous international meetings held in Turin to commemorate Amedeo Avogadro, one in 1911 (the centenary of the publication of his hypothesis) and another in 1957 (the centenary of his death). On this occasion the workshop was motivated by the requirements of researchers engaged in the international project on the determination of the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method. Sixty-four participants representing eight countries attended the workshop. Doctoral students in metrology from Turin University and researchers working in adjacent fields were also present. The lectures were chosen so as to review the different aspects of this project, to illustrate progress in research, and to indicate future developments to scientists working in different fields of physics, metrology and technology. Complementary approaches to the NA determination based on electrical measurements were also reported and analysed. During the workshop, a number of specialist meetings allowed experts to discuss specific topics, to exchange information on results and techniques, and to improve the coordination of their activities. In their opening addresses, Prof. C Castagnoli (Director of the IFG) and Prof. L Crovini (Director of the IMGC) welcomed the participants and introduced the work in progress with a view to making a more precise determination of the Avogadro constant. They mentioned the expected influence of this

  6. Functional morphology of giant mole crab larvae: a possible case of defensive enrollment.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Nicole R; Haug, Carolin; Haug, Joachim T

    2016-01-01

    Mole crabs (Hippidae) are morphologically distinct animals within Meiura, the "short-tailed" crustaceans. More precisely, Hippidae is an ingroup of Anomala, the group which includes squat lobsters, hermit crabs, and numerous "false" crabs. Within Meiura, Anomala is the sister group to Brachyura, which includes all true crabs. Most meiuran crustaceans develop through two specific larval phases. The first, pelagic one is the zoea phase, which is followed by the transitory megalopa phase (only one stage). Zoea larvae are rather small, usually having a total size of only a few millimeters. Zoea larvae of some hippidan species grow significantly larger, up to 15 mm in size, making them the largest known zoea larvae of all anomalan, and probably all meiuran, crustaceans. It has been suggested that such giant larvae may be adapted to a specific defensive strategy; i.e., enrollment. However, to date such giant larvae represent a rarity. Eight specimens of large-sized hippidan larvae from museum collections were photographed with a Canon Rebel T3i digital camera under cross-polarized light. Additionally, one of the specimens was documented with a Keyence BZ-9000 fluorescence microscope. The specimen was subsequently dissected to document all appendages in detail. UV light (377 nm) was used for illumination, consistent with the specimen's autofluorescence capacities. For high-resolution images, composite imaging was applied. All specimens differ in important aspects from all other known hippidan zoea larvae, and thus probably represent either previously unreported larvae or stages of known species, or larvae of unknown species. The sixth pleon segment articulates off the telson, a condition not previously reported in hippidan zoea larvae, but only for the next larva phase (megalopa). The larvae described here thus most likely represent the ultimate pelagic larval stages, or rare cases of 'early megalopae'. The morphological features indicate that giant hippidan larvae

  7. Deformable mirror designs for extreme AO (XAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaco, Jeffrey; Wirth, Allan

    2014-08-01

    One of the science missions for the next generation of extremely large ground based telescopes (30-42m apertures) is the imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets. To achieve that goal an Adaptive Optics (AO) subsystem with a very large number of corrected modes is required. To provide contrast ratios in the range of 10-9 or better for a 42m telescope an AO system with 25,000 to 60,000 channels will be needed. This is approximately an order of magnitude beyond the current state of the art. Adaptive Optics Associates Xinetics has developed the Photonex Module Deformable Mirror (DM) technology specifically to address the needs of extreme AO for high contrast applications. A Photonex Module is a monolithic block of electrostrictive ceramic in which a high density of individually addressable actuators are formed by screen printing of electrodes and partial wire saw cutting of the ceramic. The printed electrode structures also allow all electrical connections to be made at the back surface of the module via flex circuits. Actuator spacings of 1mm or less have been achieved using this approach. The individual modules can be edge butted and bonded to achieve high actuator count. The largest DMs fabricated to date have 4096 actuators in a 64X64mm array. In this paper the engineering challenges in extending this technology by a factor of ten or more in actuator count will be discussed. A conceptual design for a DM suitable for XAO will be presented. Approaches for a support structure that will maintain the low spatial frequency surface figure of this large (~0.6m) DM and for the electrical interface to the tens of thousands of actuators will be discussed. Finally, performance estimates will be presented.

  8. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  9. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  10. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  11. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant - Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-05-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  12. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A

    2002-08-01

    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  13. Results of AO simulations for ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Rodolphe; Le Louarn, Miska; Braud, J.; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.

    2003-01-01

    The design and elaboration of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) with primary mirror from 20m to 100m face with many challenges: mechanical, optical, computational, etc. To benefit completely of the full potentiality of such facilities, an Adaptive Optics System (AOS) have also to be designed for these telescopes. For whole field--of--view compensation and full sky coverage, the new but promising Multi--Conjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) technique has to be envisaged. The first step towards the design of an MCAO system is the numerical simulation. This is the first challenge we have to face. The scale of AO simulations being imposed by the ratio (D/r0), the simulation requirements of a MCAOS for an ELT, in terms of computing power and memory available to store the data, reach and sometimes overcome the capacity of actual computers. In ESO, we have evaluated different hardware and software strategies to achieve MCAO simulations goals. Two codes have been developed to simulate MCAOS using an analytical and an end-to-end model. The goals and advantages/limitations of both approaches is shown. The hardware requirements for both methods is also given through the size of their largest matrices. And finally, results of hardware and software tests for MCAO simulations with PC--cluster and paralleled code are presented.

  14. Unusual Ratio between Free Thyroxine and Free Triiodothyronine in a Long-Lived Mole-Rat Species with Bimodal Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Vole, Christiane; Begall, Sabine; Bens, Martin; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Burda, Hynek; Dammann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a) their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b) these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs), and c) reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. PMID:25409169

  15. Uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry parameters for predicting gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after complete hydatidiform mole, a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, Flavia Tarabini Castellani; Braga-Neto, Antonio Rodrigues; de Rezende-Filho, Jorge; Villas-Boas, Juliana Marques Simões; Charry, Rafael Cortés; Maesta, Izildinha

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Doppler ultrasonography can be used to assess neoangiogenesis, a characteristic feature of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. However, there is limited information on whether uterine artery Doppler flow velocimetry parameters can predict gestational trophoblastic neoplasia following a complete hydatidiform mole. The purpose of this study was as follows: 1) to compare uterine blood flow before and after complete mole evacuation between women who developed postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and those who achieved spontaneous remission, 2) to assess the usefulness of uterine Doppler parameters as predictors of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the best parameters and cutoff values for predicting postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 246 patients with a complete mole who were treated at three different trophoblastic diseases centers between 2013 and 2014. The pulsatility index, resistivity index, and systolic/diastolic ratio were measured by Doppler flow velocimetry before and 4-6 weeks after molar evacuation. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon’s test, logistic regression, and ROC analysis. RESULTS: No differences in pre- and post-evacuation Doppler measurements were observed in patients who developed postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In those with spontaneous remission, the pulsatility index and systolic/diastolic ratio were increased after evacuation. The pre- and post-evacuation pulsatility indices were significantly lower in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (odds ratio of 13.9-30.5). A pre-evacuation pulsatility index ≤1.38 (77% sensitivity and 82% specificity) and post-evacuation pulsatility index ≤1.77 (79% sensitivity and 86% specificity) were significantly predictive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Uterine Doppler flow velocimetry measurements, particularly pre- and post

  16. Extended Pile Driving Model to Predict the Penetration of the Insight/HP3 Mole into the Martian Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poganski, Joshua; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Schweiger, Helmut F.; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Krömer, Olaf; Krause, Christian; Wippermann, Torben; Tsakyridis, Georgios; Fittock, Mark; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Vrettos, Christos; Anrade, Jose E.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA InSight mission will provide an opportunity for soil investigations using the penetration data of the heat flow probe built by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The Heat flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3) will penetrate 3 to 5 meter into the Martian subsurface to investigate the planetary heat flow. The measurement of the penetration rate during the insertion of the HP3 will be used to determine the physical properties of the soil at the landing site. For this purpose, numerical simulations of the penetration process were performed to get a better understanding of the soil properties influencing the penetration performance of HP3. A pile driving model has been developed considering all masses of the hammering mechanism of HP3. By cumulative application of individual stroke cycles it is now able to describe the penetration of the Mole into the Martian soil as a function of time, assuming that the soil parameters of the material through which it penetrates are known. We are using calibrated materials similar to those expected to be encountered by the InSight/HP3 Mole when it will be operated on the surface of Mars after the landing of the InSight spacecraft. We consider various possible scenarios, among them a more or less homogeneous material down to a depth of 3-5 m as well as a layered ground, consisting of layers with different soil parameters. Finally we describe some experimental tests performed with the latest prototype of the InSight Mole at DLR Bremen and compare the measured penetration performance in sand with our modeling results. Furthermore, results from a 3D DEM simulation are presented to get a better understanding of the soil response.

  17. SOCIAL STATUS AND SEX INDEPENDENTLY INFLUENCE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE EUSOCIAL NAKED MOLE-RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the pre-optic area demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species. PMID:18455726

  18. The comparative anatomy of the abdominal gastrointestinal tract of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet H; Van Der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Bennett, Nigel C; O'Riain, M Justin

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of six species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) were compared. The aim was to provide a comprehensive anatomical comparison between the different species. The relative shape, length, and surface areas were taken into account to determine whether the GITs are phylogenetically constrained or exhibit anatomical adaptations in response to diets. In all six species the stomach was simple and glandular. With the exception of Heterocephalus glaber, the caecum was coiled in a flat spiral, the ascending colon was arranged in a loop of varying lengths, and a mucosal colonic papillary-lined groove was present in the ascending colon in all species. By contrast, the caecum in H. glaber was uncoiled, the ascending colon was not looped, and the groove was not papillated. A caeco-appendix was observed only in Bathyergus suillus and Georychus capensis. Hierarchical multivariate cluster analysis on the presence/absence of nine anatomical structures associated with the GIT of mole-rats revealed that H. glaber was anatomically the least similar of the six species (77.6% similarity) with respect to the nine GIT variables included. All Cryptomys species were the same (100% similarity), and two species B. suillus and G. capensis grouped together and were more similar to the Cryptomys genus (95% similarity) than they were to H. glaber. These findings support previous phylogenetic classifications. The voluminous caeco-colon in B. suillus may be explained by its ingestion of grasses in addition to below-ground storage organs of plants. We conclude that phylogeny and diet affect the GIT anatomy of the African mole rats studied here.

  19. Circadian rhythms of locomotor activity in solitary and social species of African mole-rats (family: Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Maria K; Cooper, Howard M; Bennett, Nigel C

    2003-12-01

    Mole-rats are strictly subterranean and hardly, if ever, come into contact with external light. As a result, their classical visual system is severely regressed and the circadian system proportionally expanded. The family Bathyergidae presents a unique opportunity to study the circadian system in the absence of the classical visual system in a range of species. Daily patterns of activity were studied in the laboratory under constant temperature but variable lighting regimes in individually housed animals from 3 species of mole-rat exhibiting markedly different degrees of sociality. All 3 species possessed individuals that exhibited endogenous circadian rhythms under constant darkness that entrained to a light-dark cycle. In the solitary species, Georychus capensis, 9 animals exhibited greater activity during the dark phase of the light cycle, while 2 individuals expressed more activity in the light phase of the light cycle. In the social, Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, 5 animals displayed the majority of their activity during the dark phase of the light cycle and the remaining 2 exhibited more activity during the light phase of the light cycle. Finally in the eusocial Cryptomys damarensis, 6 animals displayed more activity during the light phase of the light cycle, and the other 2 animals displayed more activity during the dark phase of the light cycle. Since all three mole-rat species are able to entrain their locomotor activity to an external light source, light must reach the SCN, suggesting a functional circadian clock. In comparison to the solitary species, the 2 social species display a markedly poorer response to light in all aspects. Thus, in parallel with the sociality continuum, there exists a continuum of sensitivity of the circadian clock to light.

  20. Morphological diversity of mole vole mono- and polymorphic populations: Does Chernov's "compensation principle" work within a population?

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A G; Bolshakov, V N; Evdokimov, N G; Sineva, N V

    2016-05-01

    The ecological "compensation principle" enunciated by Yu.I. Chernov, who suggested a higher level of compensatory diversity in communities depleted in composition, proved to be also applicable to a single population, as demonstrated in a model rodent species, mole vole with mono- and polymorphic coat color, using the methods of geometric morphometrics. The mandible shape diversity was significantly increased in the monomorphic as compared to polymorphic populations, in which the division of foraging activities between animals of different morphs led to a suppression of general morphological diversity.

  1. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  2. AO Infrared Imaging of M71 Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberg, Andres; Richer, H.; Brewer, J.; Davis, S.; Hickson, P.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Hurley, J.; Shara, M.; Hansen, B.; Gebhardt, K.; Fahlman, G.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster we present infrared H and K AO data taken with ALTAIR/NIRI on Gemini North of the globular cluster Messier 71. This data represents approximately 22ks of observations in H and 17ks in K, in a field 22x22 arcsec centered on the core of the cluster. These data were secured under superb conditions and will provide an excellent opportunity to pursue our scientific goals. These goals include the observation of the end of hydrogen-burning main sequence in a moderately metal-rich globular cluster and, by fitting the brightness profile and looking for deviations from a King model, we will search for evidence for a central black hole in this cluster.

  3. Development of traceable precision dynamic dilution method to generate dimethyl sulphide gas mixtures at sub-nanomole per mole levels for ambient measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Kang, Ji Hwan; Heo, Gwi Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil

    2016-04-01

    Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) is an important compound in global atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Traceable international standards are essential for measuring accurately the long-term global trend in ambient DMS. However, developing accurate gas standards for sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) mole fractions of DMS in a cylinder is challenging, because DMS is reactive and unstable. In this study, a dynamic dilution method that is traceable and precise was developed to generate sub-nmol/mol DMS gas mixtures with a dynamic dilution system based on sonic nozzles and a long-term (>5 years) stable 10 μmol/mol parent DMS primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs). The dynamic dilution system was calibrated with traceable methane PSMs, and its estimated dilution factors were used to calculate the mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures. A dynamically generated DMS gas mixture and a 6 nmol/mol DMS PSM were analysed against each other by gas chromatography with flame-ionisation detection (GC/FID) to evaluate the dilution system. The mole fractions of the dynamically generated DMS gas mixture determined against a DMS PSM and calculated with the dilution factor agreed within 1% at 6 nmol/mol. In addition, the dynamically generated DMS gas mixtures at various mole fractions between 0.4 and 11.7 nmol/mol were analysed by GC/FID and evaluated for their linearity. The analytically determined mole fractions showed good linearity with the mole fractions calculated with the dilution factors. Results showed that the dynamic dilution method generates DMS gas mixtures ranging between 0.4 nmol/mol and 12 nmol/mol with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 2%. Therefore, the newly developed dynamic dilution method is a promising reference method for generating sub-nmol/mol DMS gas standards for accurate ambient measurements.

  4. Genetic structure and diversity in an isolated population of an endemic mole salamander (Ambystoma rivulare Taylor, 1940) of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Bobadilla, Rosa-Laura; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Sunny, Armando

    2016-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the distribution of species worldwide by causing fragmentation and isolation of populations. Isolation and fragmentation lead to populations with lower genetic variability and an increased chance of inbreeding and genetic drift, which results in a loss of biological fitness over time. Studies of the genetic structure of small and isolated populations are critically important for management and conservation decisions. Ambystoma rivulare is a micro-endemic Mexican mole salamander from central Mexico. It is found in the most ecologically disturbed region in Mexico, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The goal of this study of the population genetics of the micro-endemic mole salamander was to provide information to be used as a basis for future research and conservation planning of this species and other species of the Ambystoma genus in Mexico. The structural analysis found two subpopulations, one for each river sampled, with no signs of admixture and very high levels of genetic differentiation. Medium to high levels of heterozygosity and few alleles and genotypes were observed. Evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck, low values of effective population size, small inbreeding coefficients, and low gene flow were also found.

  5. Walking the Oxidative Stress Tightrope: A Perspective from the Naked Mole-Rat, the Longest-Living Rodent

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I.; Lambert, Adrian J.; Edrey, Yael H.; Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L.; Brand, Martin D.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age. PMID:21736541

  6. Walking the oxidative stress tightrope: a perspective from the naked mole-rat, the longest-living rodent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I; Lambert, Adriant J; Edrey, Yael H; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L; Brand, Martin D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age.

  7. Ecology of the tawny mole cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae): population estimation, spatial distribution, movement, and host relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Scapteriscus vicinus is the most important pest of turf and pasture grasses in Florida. This study develops a method of correlating sample results with true population density and provides the first quantitative information on spatial distribution and movement patterns of mole crickets. Three basic techniques for sampling mole crickets were compared: soil flushes, soil corer, and pitfall trapping. No statistical difference was found between the soil corer and soil flushing. Soil flushing was shown to be more sensitive to changes in population density than pitfall trapping. No technique was effective for sampling adults. Regression analysis provided a means of adjusting for the effects of soil moisture and showed soil temperature to be unimportant in predicting efficiency of flush sampling. Cesium-137 was used to label females for subsequent location underground. Comparison of mean distance to nearest neighbor with the distance predicted by a random distribution model showed that the observed distance in the spring was significantly greater than hypothesized (Student's T-test, p < 0.05). Fall adult nearest neighbor distance was not different than predicted by the random distribution hypothesis.

  8. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

    2012-08-01

    Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission.

  9. Review of AO calibrations, or how to best educate your AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Johann

    2016-07-01

    If the Real-Time Computer is the heart of an AO system, the Wavefront Sensor (WFS) its eyes, the Deformable Mirror (DM) its hands and the control strategy its nervous system, the sum of all those parts is made into a harmonious entity thanks to calibrations. This paper does not have the ambition to provide an overview of all the currently existing calibration strategies, but rather to focus on a few challenging problems and their recent evolution in the era of adaptive telescopes, mostly based on the experience of ESO's Adaptive Optics Instruments in general and the AO Facility in particular. Single most important calibration in post-focal AO system, the recording of the Interaction Matrix (IM) between WFS and DM has since long evolved to use fast modulation techniques, has shown to be feasible on-sky and is now almost free from measurements thanks to its pseudo-synthetic generation, quasi-mandatory solution in an adaptive telescope. Pseudo- because it requires an unprecedented knowledge of the components' characteristics, especially the WFS, DM and the optical registration between the two. Bigger telescopes and the use of Laser Guide Stars (LGS) also mean that the properties of the system will change in time and thus need to be constantly updated thanks to online diagnosis tools for spot size measurement, atmosphere monitoring, Wavefront Sensing and control optimization. New loops come into play like the one to minimize LGS Jitter and the one taking over the telescope active optics by means of offloading the DM low orders, and they all require calibration. More calibration means more time and one has to carefully balance the calibrations that require precious telescope night time, day time or for the best, no telescope time at all. Their importance sometimes underestimated, calibrations have repeatedly shown to be a vital part in the optimum functioning of present and future AO systems.

  10. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Nofi, Larissa; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-12-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets. We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo-AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for 3 years and a higher-contrast Robo-AO system is being developed for the 2.2-m UH telescope on Maunakea.

  11. Abnormal villous morphology mimicking a hydatidiform mole associated with paternal trisomy of chromosomes 3,7,8 and unipaternal disomy of chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Neil J; May, Philippa C; Kaur, Baljeet; Seckl, Michael J; Fisher, Rosemary A

    2016-02-04

    Pregnancies affected by non-molar chromosomal abnormality may sometimes demonstrate abnormal chorionic villous morphology that is similar to partial hydatidiform mole. Determination of the underlying aetiology may be difficult in such cases. This report describes a case referred to the regional trophoblastic disease unit as a possible hydatidiform mole that demonstrated both villous dysmorphology and abnormal p57(KIP2) expression. Molecular genotyping revealed that while most chromosomes in the villous tissue were diploid and biparental, chromosomes 3, 7 and 8 were trisomic with an additional paternally derived chromosome. In contrast chromosome 11 showed uniparental disomy of paternal origin a situation more usually associated with complete hydatidiform moles. This unusual case highlights that exceptions may occur to the general rules of both histological morphology and immunoprofile, and that these can be resolved by detailed molecular genetic investigations. The findings confirm that trisomic pregnancies may demonstrate morphological villous features similar to hydatidiform mole, and that loss of p57(KIP2) expression occurs due to an absence of maternally transcribed genes on chromosome 11 and can therefore be independent of androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole.

  12. Directly Imaging Planets with SCExAO: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Uyama, Taichi; Garcia, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    We present the first science results from the newly commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project, an experimental system dedicated to image faint jovian planets around nearby stars. SCExAO is now achieving true extreme AO capability. We describe the typical performance of SCExAO, the first images of benchmark exoplanets and planet-forming disks, and SCExAO’s first science results. Finally, we briefly chart the path forward for SCExAO to achieve its full scientific capability, including imaging mature planets in reflected light.

  13. Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

    New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ∅150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

  14. Giant invasive mole presenting as a cause of abdominopelvic mass in a perimenopausal woman: An unusual presentation of a rare pathology

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Memet; Üçer, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mole is a benign gestational trophoblastic disease that arises from the myometrial invasion of any gestational event via direct extension through tissue or vascular structures. Invasive mole (and other gestational trophoblastic diseases) may present with life-threatening complications including uterine perforation, excessive bleeding, acute hemoperitoneum, and abdominal pain. We report a case of invasive mole presenting as abdominal distention in a 51-year-old perimenopausal woman (gravida 12, para 12, abortion 0). The patient was admitted to the gynecology clinic with a giant uterine mass filling the pelvic and abdominal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of a gestational trophoblastic neoplasia presenting with uterine mass of 28 weeks' gestational size in this age group. Interestingly, complications such as uterine rupture or invasion of the adjacent structures (such as parametrial tissues or blood vessels) had not developed in our patient despite the considerable enlargement of the uterus. PMID:27896261

  15. Acute onset of severe hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome in a patient with a partial hydatidiform mole at 17 weeks gestation.

    PubMed

    Sherer, David M; Dalloul, Mudar; Stimphil, Raphael; Hellmann, Mira; Khoury-Collado, Fady; Osho, Joseph; Fomitcheva, Larissa; Brennan, Kelly J; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2006-04-01

    Preeclampsia is uncommon prior to 24 weeks gestation and has been associated with partial and complete hydatidiform moles. We present an unusual case in which a patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia at 17 weeks gestation. Ultrasound findings were consistent with a partial hydatidiform mole. Within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, the patient developed severe hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, with a platelet count of 20 x 10 (9) cells/L. Termination of pregnancy was performed with rapid resolution of signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. Triploid 69,XXY was confirmed at karyotype analysis. This case demonstrates the acuteness in which life-threatening maternal conditions can arise with this uncommon complication of pregnancy, and the importance of correct identification of the characteristic ultrasonographic findings associated with a partial hydatidiform mole.

  16. Rotational diffusion of ionic and neutral solutes in mixed micelles: Effect of surfactant to block copolymer mole ratio on solute rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.; Mukherjee, T.

    2007-10-01

    Rotational diffusion of an ionic solute rhodamine 110 and a neutral solute 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) has been investigated in aqueous mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and poly(ethyleneoxide)20-poly(propyleneoxide)70-poly(ethyleneoxide)20 (P123). The purpose of this work is to understand how an increase in the mole ratio of surfactant to block copolymer from low to high influences the dynamics of ionic and neutral solute molecules. The variation in the mole ratio of CTAC to P123 from low to high has resulted in a drastic increase in the average reorientation time of rhodamine 110. In contrast, an exactly opposite trend has been noticed in the case of DMDPP. In the low mole ratio regime, rhodamine 110 and DMDPP are located at the interface and palisade layer, respectively, of P123 micelle-CTAC complexes. On the other hand, in the high mole ratio regime, both the probes are located in the Stern layer of CTAC-P123 complexes. The enhancement in the average reorientation time of rhodamine 110 with an increase in the mole ratio of surfactant to block copolymer has been rationalized on the basis of formation of rhodamine 110-Cl ion pair, which in turn associates with the cationic head groups of CTAC-P123 complexes. The observed decrease in the average reorientation time of DMDPP with an increase in the mole ratio of CTAC to P123 is a consequence of lower microviscosity of the Stern layer of CTAC-P123 complexes compared to the palisade layer of P123 micelle-CTAC complexes.

  17. Trends in ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage in the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Lian; Du, Dan-Feng; Chen, Shang-Jie; Zheng, Sai-Hua; Lee, Arier C; Chen, Qi

    2016-05-20

    Ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages and hydatidiform moles are the major types of pathological pregnancies in the early gestations of pregnancy and constitute an important public health problem. The trends and incidences of these pathological pregnancies may vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. This has not been fully investigated in the Chinese population. In this study we retrospectively report the trends of pathological pregnancies in Chinese population. Data on 22,511 women with ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Data included age at diagnosis and the annual number of women with diagnosed ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage. The total number of ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage was increased 3.5folds in 2013 compared to 2003. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading pathological pregnancy and miscarriage is increasing at a greater rate among the pathological pregnancies. The median age of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis significantly increased from 25.5 years to 29 years (p = 0.002), however the median age for other pathological pregnancies was not different between 2003 and 2013. The number of women with hydatidiform mole at diagnosis who were over 40 years old has increased. The mean maternal age is increased from 28.1 years old in 2003 to 29.4 years old in 2013 in this hospital. We speculate that the increased maternal age may contribute to the increase in these pathological pregnancies between 2003 and 2013 in China.

  18. (30)Si mole fraction of a silicon material highly enriched in (28)Si determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2015-06-02

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in (28)Si, reached the target 2 × 10(-8) relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the (30)Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of (30)Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV γ-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope (31)Si produced via the neutron capture reaction (30)Si(n,γ)(31)Si. The x((30)Si) = 1.043(19) × 10(-6) mol mol(-1) is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  19. A new form of the mole vole Ellobius tancrei Blasius, 1884 (Mammalia, Rodentia) with the lowest chromosome number

    PubMed Central

    Bakloushinskaya, Irina; Romanenko, Svetlana A.; Serdukova, Natalia A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Lyapunova, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The subterranean mole vole, Ellobius tancrei, with aspecific variability in autosomes (2n = 31–54) and unusual sex chromosomes (XX in males and females), represents an amazing model for studying the role of chromosome changes in speciation. New materials from the upper reaches of the Surkhob River in the Pamiro-Alay mountains resulted in the discovery of a new form with 2n = 30. The application of Zoo-FISH and G-banding methods allowed the detection of 13 pairs of autosomes as Robertsonian metacentrics originated after fusions of acrocentrics of an assumed ancestral karyotype of Ellobius tancrei with 2n = 54. The sex chromosomes (XX, in both sexes) and one pair of acrocentric autosomes are the only acrocentrics in this karyotype, and the set with 2n = 30 possesses the lowest possible chromosome number among populations of Ellobius tancrei. PMID:24260698

  20. Coatings with a Mole-hill Structure of Nanoparticle-Raspberry Containers for Surfaces with Abrasion-Refreshable Reservoir Functionality.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Thomas; Gellermann, Carsten; Mandel, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Active silica nanoparticle-based raspberry-like container depots for agents such as antimicrobial substances are presented. The nano raspberry-containers are integrated into coatings in a way that they form a mole-hill structure; i.e., they are partly standing out of the coating. As an application example, it is demonstrated that the containers can be filled with antimicrobially active agents such as nano ZnO or Ag or organic molecules such as thymol. It is demonstrated that the containers can be partly chopped-off via abrasion by rubbing over the surface. This mechanism proves to be an attractive approach to render surfaces refreshable. A first proof of principle for antimicrobial activity of the intact containers in the coatings and the abrasion treated, chopped-off (and thereby reactivated) containers is demonstrated.

  1. Enzymic Assay of 10−7 to 10−14 Moles of Sucrose in Plant Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael G. K.; Outlaw, William H.; Lowry, Oliver H.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for measuring sucrose in plant extracts or freeze-dried tissue in the range between 10−7 and 10−14 moles. The method is based on the destruction of pre-existing glucose and fructose, followed by the hydrolysis of sucrose and reduction of NADP+ by a series of coupled enzymic reactions. Depending on the sensitivity required, the NADPH is determined directly with a spectrophotometer or a fluorometer, or is amplified as much as 30,000 times before fluorometric assay. The procedures suggested for the macro level are simpler than current methods, and those suggested for microanalysis are several orders of magnitude more sensitive. With this technique, single palisade parenchyma cells and single spongy parenchyma cells of Vicia faba leaflets were each found to contain about 2.2 pmoles of sucrose. Images PMID:16660097

  2. DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of subterranean mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, in Israel.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Aurelio; Nevo, Eviatar; Saccone, Cecilia

    2003-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial control region was sequenced for 60 individuals representing different populations for each of the four species of the subterranean mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel: Spalax galili (2n = 52), S. golani (2n = 54), S. carmeli (2n = 58), and S. judaei (2n = 60). The control region of all species and populations is very similar both in length (979 to 983 bp) and in base composition. As in agreement with previous surveys on mitochondrial control regions on mammals, the mole rat control region can be divided into a central domain and two flanking domains, ETAS (extended termination associated sequences) and CSB (conserved sequence blocks). Along with the common conserved blocks found in these domains (ETAS1, ETAS2, CSB1, CSB2, and CSB3), we have also detected in all individuals an ETAS1-like and a CSB1-like element, both in the ETAS domain. The most conserved region was the central domain, followed by the CSB and ETAS domains, showing important differences in the four species analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of two clades. One clade contained individuals belonging to Spalax galili (2n = 52) and S. golani (2n = 54), separated in two different branches depending on the species. The other clade contained individuals belonging to S. carmeli (2n = 58) and S. judaei (2n = 60) mixed together, suggesting a more recent event of speciation. Within species we have observed a southward trend of increasing variability. These results have been explained as a consequence of the adaptation of the species to ecological factors such as aridity and temperature stresses.

  3. Redefinition of the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole: a proposed approach to implementing CIPM recommendation 1 (CI-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Ian M.; Mohr, Peter J.; Quinn, Terry J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Williams, Edwin R.

    2006-06-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is founded on seven base units, the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela corresponding to the seven base quantities of length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance and luminous intensity. At its 94th meeting in October 2005, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) adopted a recommendation on preparative steps towards redefining the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole so that these units are linked to exactly known values of fundamental constants. We propose here that these four base units should be given new definitions linking them to exactly defined values of the Planck constant h, elementary charge e, Boltzmann constant k and Avogadro constant NA, respectively. This would mean that six of the seven base units of the SI would be defined in terms of true invariants of nature. In addition, not only would these four fundamental constants have exactly defined values but also the uncertainties of many of the other fundamental constants of physics would be either eliminated or appreciably reduced. In this paper we present the background and discuss the merits of these proposed changes, and we also present possible wordings for the four new definitions. We also suggest a novel way to define the entire SI explicitly using such definitions without making any distinction between base units and derived units. We list a number of key points that should be addressed when the new definitions are adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), possibly by the 24th CGPM in 2011, and we discuss the implications of these changes for other aspects of metrology.

  4. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  5. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior.

  6. Metabolic clues to salubrious longevity in the brain of the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Lewis, Katilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are the oldest-living rodent species. Living underground in a thermally stable ecological niche, NMRs have evolved certain exceptional traits, resulting in sustained health spans, negligible cognitive decline, and a pronounced resistance to age-related disease. Uncovering insights into mechanisms underlying these extraordinary traits involved in successful aging may conceivably provide crucial clues to extend the human life span and health span. One of the most fundamental processes inside the cell is the production of ATP, which is an essential fuel in driving all other energy-requiring cellular activities. Not surprisingly, a prominent hallmark in age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, is the impairment and dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Using a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, alterations in expression and phosphorylation levels of metabolic proteins in the brains of NMRs, aged 2-24 years, were evaluated in an age-dependent manner. We identified 13 proteins with altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that play key roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, β-oxidation, the malate-aspartate shuttle, the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain, NADPH production, as well as the production of glutamate. New insights into potential pathways involved in metabolic aspects of successful aging have been obtained by the identification of key proteins through which the NMR brain responds and adapts to the aging process and how the NMR brain adapted to resist age-related degeneration. This study examines the changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in the brain of the naked mole-rat aged 2-24 years. We identified 13 proteins (labeled in red) with altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels that are conceivably associated with sustained metabolic functions in the oldest NMRs that may promote a sustained health span and life span.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Activity Patterns of the Free-Living Giant Mole-Rat (Fukomys mechowii), the Largest Social Bathyergid

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Šumbera, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia), knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest) 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels). Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males) contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions. PMID:23383166

  8. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM): A Subsurface Penetration Device with Infrared Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopic Sensing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.; Lemke, L. G.; Hammer, P.; Dalton, J. B.; Glass, B.; Zent, A.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for evidence of life on Mars will probably require access to the subsurface. The Martian surface is bathed in ultraviolet radiation which decomposes organic compounds, destroying possible evidence for life. Also, experiments performed by the Viking Landers imply the presence of several strongly oxidizing compounds at the Martian surface that may also play a role in destroying organic compounds near the surface. While liquid water is unstable on the Martian surface, and ice is unstable at the surface at low latitudes, recent results from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer experiment indicate that water ice is widely distributed near the surface under a thin cover of dry soil. Organic compounds created by an ancient Martian biosphere might be preserved in such ice-rich layers. Furthermore, accessing the subsurface provides a way to identify unique stratigraphy such as small-scale layering associated with lacustrine sediments. Subsurface access might also provide new insights into the Mars climate record that may be preserved in the Polar Layered Deposits. Recognizing the importance of accessing the subsurface of Mars to the future scientific exploration of the planet, the Mars Surveyor 2007 Science Definition Team called for drilling beneath the surface soils. Subsurface measurements are also cited as high priority in by MEPAG. Recognizing the importance of accessing the Martian subsurface to search for life, the European Space Agency has incorporated a small automated burrowing device called a subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 lander planned for 2003 launch. This device, called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), is a pointed slender cylinder 2 cm wide and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device at the pointed end that collects samples and brings them to the surface for analysis. Drawing on the PLUTO design, we are developing a larger Mole carrying sensors for identifying mineralogy, organic compounds, and water.

  9. The colonic groove or furrow: a comparative morphological study of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Kotzé, S H; van der Merwe, E L; Ndou, R; O'Riain, M J; Bennett, N C

    2009-08-01

    Herbivorous mammals such as nutrias, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and mole-rats have a longitudinal mucosal colonic groove (furrow) in their ascending colon, which is thought to play a role in the colonic separation mechanism (CSM). It is not known whether this groove is structurally modified to adapt to this function in mole-rat species. The morphology of this groove was studied in 32 mol-rats, four species, one of which consisted of three subspecies, endemic to southern Africa and two species found in eastern Africa. The macroscopic morphology of the groove was documented, and samples for histological examination were taken. The groove was wide at its origin at the cecocolic junction and was lined on either side by a row of papillae with the opposing papillae slightly offset in arrangement. The papillated groove gradually decreased in size toward the distal part of the ascending colon where it disappeared. This pattern was similar in all species except in Heterocephalus glaber, where the papillae were absent and the groove was lined by two longitudinal ridges. A histological examination of cross sections revealed that the mucosa covering the inner and outer walls of the groove was rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells. The walls of the groove contained smooth muscle extending from the inner circular smooth muscle layer at the base to the tips of the papillae in all species examined as well as arteries, lymphatic vessels, and prominent sinusoid-like veins. The groove could be demonstrated both macroscopically and histologically in three Bathyergus suillus fetuses of varying sizes. The sinusoid-like veins present in all grooves, regardless of macroscopic shape, suggest that they have a role in the functioning of the groove. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM): A Subsurface Penetration Device with Infrared Reflectance and Raman Spectroscopic Sensing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.; Lemke, L. G.; Hammer, P.; Dalton, J. B.; Glass, B.; Zent, A.

    2003-01-01

    Searching for evidence of life on Mars will probably require access to the subsurface. The Martian surface is bathed in ultraviolet radiation which decomposes organic compounds, destroying possible evidence for life. Also, experiments performed by the Viking Landers imply the presence of several strongly oxidizing compounds at the Martian surface that may also play a role in destroying organic compounds near the surface. While liquid water is unstable on the Martian surface, and ice is unstable at the surface at low latitudes, recent results from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer experiment indicate that water ice is widely distributed near the surface under a thin cover of dry soil. Organic compounds created by an ancient Martian biosphere might be preserved in such ice-rich layers. Furthermore, accessing the subsurface provides a way to identify unique stratigraphy such as small-scale layering associated with lacustrine sediments. Subsurface access might also provide new insights into the Mars climate record that may be preserved in the Polar Layered Deposits. Recognizing the importance of accessing the subsurface of Mars to the future scientific exploration of the planet, the Mars Surveyor 2007 Science Definition Team called for drilling beneath the surface soils. Subsurface measurements are also cited as high priority in by MEPAG. Recognizing the importance of accessing the Martian subsurface to search for life, the European Space Agency has incorporated a small automated burrowing device called a subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 lander planned for 2003 launch. This device, called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), is a pointed slender cylinder 2 cm wide and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device at the pointed end that collects samples and brings them to the surface for analysis. Drawing on the PLUTO design, we are developing a larger Mole carrying sensors for identifying mineralogy, organic compounds, and water.

  11. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion. PMID:26286667

  12. Interglacial refugia preserved high genetic diversity of the Chinese mole shrew in the mountains of southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, K; Hu, N-Q; Chen, X; Li, J-T; Jiang, X-L

    2016-01-01

    The mountains of southwest China (MSC) harbor extremely high species diversity; however, the mechanism behind this diversity is unknown. We investigated to what degree the topography and climate change shaped the genetic diversity and diversification in these mountains, and we also sought to identify the locations of microrefugia areas in these mountains. For these purposes, we sampled extensively to estimate the intraspecific phylogenetic pattern of the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) in southwest China throughout its range of distribution. Two mitochondrial genes, namely, cytochrome b (CYT B) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), from 383 archived specimens from 43 localities were determined for phylogeographic and demographic analyses. We used the continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot species distribution modeling (SDM) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to explore the changes in population size and distribution through time of the species. Two phylogenetic clades were identified, and significantly higher genetic diversity was preserved in the southern subregion of the mountains. The results of the SDM, continuous-diffusion phylogeographic model, extensive Bayesian skyline plot and ABC analyses were congruent and supported that the Last Interglacial Maximum (LIG) was an unfavorable period for the mole shrews because of a high degree of seasonality; A. squamipes survived in isolated interglacial refugia mainly located in the southern subregion during the LIG and rapidly expanded during the last glacial period. These results furnished the first evidence for major Pleistocene interglacial refugia and a latitudinal effect in southwest China, and the results shedding light on the higher level of species richness in the southern subregion.

  13. WIYN active optics: a platform for AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Code, Arthur D.; Claver, Charles F.; Goble, Larry W.; Jacoby, George H.; Sawyer, David G.

    1998-09-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope is situated on the southwest ridge of Kitt Peak yielding excellent atmosphere seeing conditions. As such, the telescope and enclosure design was directed towards exploiting this feature. The primary mirror was spun cast and figured by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory and the secondary mirror by Contraves. In both cases the performance exceeded the design specifications. The borosilicate primary is actively temperature controlled to within 0.2 C of the desired temperature, typically 0.5 degrees C below the ambient air. The telescope structure is also temperature controlled and the enclosure is opened to the outside ion all sides, which all heat sources are vented to ducts carrying air downwind of the facility. The primary mirror is actively controlled for low order aberrations by 66 axial actuators which are adjusted open loop via force matrix look-up tables and closed loop via real-time wavefront curvature sensing measurements. The active optics also included real-time collimation and focus control. The telescope drive and guider are capable of providing tracking to a few hundredths of a second of arc. By employing active telescope control at this level, it is possible to maintain telescope and local wavefront distortion to a level where atmospheric effects dominate the image quality. Since a significant fraction of the power in the atmospheric disturbances is contained in image motion the first step in adaptive optics control will be simple tip tilt. Studies of higher order AO system are being carried out, as well as additional test characterizing the telescope and site. It is intended to continue such studies in an attempt to establish long term variances.

  14. NFIRAOS Multiconjugate AO System for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Byrnes, Peter; Boyer, Corinne; Caputa, Kris; Correia, Carlos; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Gilles, Luc; Hickson, Paul; Hill, Alexis; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vlad; Smith, Malcolm; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wevers, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    NFIRAOS, the Adaptive Optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, is a Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics System of order 60x60 with two deformable mirrors and six laser guide star wavefront sensors. NFIRAOS is 8 x 10 x 5 m (L x W x H) on a Nasmyth Platform and supports three client instruments operating over 0.8 - 2.5 μm wavelength range. In this paper we discuss: NFIRAOS' requirements and architecture; changes to NFIRAOS since the last AO4ELT conference; interior details of NFIRAOS; interfaces to instruments; integration and verification plans. Top-level science requirements include 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole with <187 nm wavefront error. Astrometry is an important science driver - to minimize image distortion, we have recently revised the optical design to use four off-axis paraboloidal mirrors. We have vastly simplified the laser WFS zoom optics and moved them inside the cold enclosure. To control image magnification, differential magnification and tip/tilt/focus, NFIRAOS' client instruments have three low-order warfront sensors monitoring near-infrared natural guide stars. These stars are sharpened by NFIRAOS, which assists sky coverage. NFIRAOS will have high throughput and low thermal background - it will be cooled to -30 °C. The insulated walls have a buried cold plate to intercept heat leakage and isothermalize the interior of NFIRAOS. Instruments have stringent requirements on heat leakage and must provide their own rotator and interface to NFIRAOS, including a rotating seal. For wavelength and flat field calibration of client instruments, a NFIRAOS Science Calibration Unit (NSCU) feeds light in the entrance window, through NFIRAOS, to instruments. Inside NFIRAOS are deployable light sources simulating natural and laser guide stars, a focal plane mask with pinholes illuminated by the NSCU, as well as a turbulence phase screen. A prototype screen has been manufactured by magneto-rheological machining. We are currently updating the NFIRAOS

  15. Robo-AO: Performance and Characterization at Palomar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Punnadi, S.; Chordia, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hosted at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, Robo-AO is the world's first completely autonomous, laser-beacon supported adaptive optics (AO) system, delivering diffraction-limited images in the visible and IR wavelengths. With simultaneous turbulence monitoring using a MASS-DIMM instrument, we have characterized the performance of Robo-AO as a function of local seeing, turbulence profile, laser return power and the brightness of the tip-tilt star. We shall present the various AO metrics: The full-width at half maxima of the point spread function, the Strehl ratio, the isoplanatic angle and their variations with the atmospheric and operating conditions. Strategies for optimizing robotic AO observations based on varying conditions will be discussed.

  16. The path to visible extreme adaptive optics with MagAO-2K and MagAO-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Guyon, Olivier; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Mazin, Ben; Ireland, Michael J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Conrad, Al; Kenworthy, Matthew; Snik, Frans; Otten, Gilles; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) have the potential to image habitable rocky planets, if suitably optimized. This will require the development of fast high order "extreme" adaptive optics systems for the ELTs. Located near the excellent site of the future GMT, the Magellan AO system (MagAO) is an ideal on-sky testbed for high contrast imaging development. Here we discuss planned upgrades to MagAO. These include improvements in WFS sampling (enabling correction of more modes) and an increase in speed to 2000 Hz, as well as an H2RG detector upgrade for the Clio infrared camera. This NSF funded project, MagAO-2K, is planned to be on-sky in November 2016 and will significantly improve the performance of MagAO at short wavelengths. Finally, we describe MagAO-X, a visible-wavelength extreme-AO "afterburner" system under development. MagAO-X will deliver Strehl ratios of over 80% in the optical and is optimized for visible light coronagraphy.

  17. First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 μm). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 μm (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (λ=1-5.3 μm) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (

  18. AO 0235+164 and Surrounding Field: Surprising HST Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope on the highly variable radio, x-ray, and gamma-ray emitting QSO (or BL Lac object) AO 0235 + 164 are presented and analyzed. WFPC2 images were obtained in 1994 June, when AO 0235 + 164 was bright (m approx. 17), and the results are described in Sec. 3. After subtraction of the PSF of the QSO, hereafter called AO following the nomenclature of Yanny et al. (1989), the companion object named A, 2 sec south of AO, is discovered not to be an elliptical galaxy as hypothesized earlier, but to be an AGN object, with a central UV-bright point-source nucleus and faint surrounding nebulosity extending to AO. The second companion object 1.3 sec east of AO discovered by Yanny et al. (1989) and named object Al, appears more like a normal spiral galaxy. We have measured the positions, luminosities, and colors of some 30 faint objects in the field around AO 0235 + 16; most are extended and may be star-forming galaxies in a loose group or cluster. Our most surprising result of the HST observations comes from FOS spectra obtained in 1995 July, discussed in Sec. 4. Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO's faintness at that time (m approx. 20), object A was observed instead of the intended target AO. Serendipitously, we discovered A to have broad deep BALQSO-type absorptions of C IV, Si IV, N V shortward of broad emissions. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. 5 the relationship of the objects in the central 10 sec X 1O sec region around AO, where redshifts z(sub e) = 0.94, z(sub a) = 0.524, 0.851 in AO, (sub e) = 0.524 and Z(sub BAL)=0.511 in A, are found. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. x 77 sec. field may be part of a large star-forming region at z approx. 0.5, as suggested for a few objects by Yanny et al. (1989). The proximity of two highly active extragalactic objects, AO 0235+164 and its AGN companion A, is remarkable and

  19. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project: Progress and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Garrel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 λ/D. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss two exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks.

  20. Variability of space-use patterns in a free living eusocial rodent, Ansell’s mole-rat indicates age-based rather than caste polyethism

    PubMed Central

    Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial species of African mole-rats live in groups cooperating on multiple tasks and employing division of labour. In captivity, individuals of the same group differ in cooperative contribution as well as in preference for a particular task. Both can be viewed as polyethism. However, little information is available from free-ranging mole-rats, which live in large burrow systems. We made an attempt to detect polyethism in the free-living Ansell’s mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) as differences in individuals’ space-use patterns. We radio-tracked 17 adults from five groups. Large individuals, including breeding males, spent more time inside the nest than smaller individuals. Breeding females were more often located <10 m from the nest in comparison to non-breeding females, who were relatively more often located 30–90 m and exclusively >90 m from the nest. One non-breeding female even conducted a brief intrusion into a neighbouring group’s territory via an open tunnel connection. A significant part of the variability in mole-rat space-use patterns was explained by body mass which is probably related to age in this species. This result can therefore be attributed to age polyethism. There was no apparent discontinuity in the space-use patterns of non-breeders that would indicate existence of castes. PMID:27922127

  1. Adenosine receptors mediate the hypoxic ventilatory response but not the hypoxic metabolic response in the naked mole rat during acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew E; Dzal, Yvonne A; Milsom, William K

    2015-02-07

    Naked mole rats are the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified; however, the mechanisms underlying this tolerance are poorly understood. Using whole-animal plethysmography and open-flow respirometry, we examined the hypoxic metabolic response (HMR), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic thermal response in awake, freely behaving naked mole rats exposed to 7% O₂ for 1 h. Metabolic rate and ventilation each reversibly decreased 70% in hypoxia (from 39.6 ± 2.9 to 12.1 ± 0.3 ml O₂ min(-1) kg(-1), and 1412 ± 244 to 417 ± 62 ml min(-1) kg(-1), respectively; p < 0.05), whereas body temperature was unchanged and animals remained awake and active. Subcutaneous injection of the general adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline (AMP; 100 mg kg(-1), in saline), but not control saline injections, prevented the HVR but had no effect on the HMR. As a result, AMP-treated naked mole rats exhibited extreme hyperventilation in hypoxia. These animals were also less tolerant to hypoxia, and in some cases hypoxia was lethal following AMP injection. We conclude that in naked mole rats (i) hypoxia tolerance is partially dependent on profound hypoxic metabolic and ventilatory responses, which are equal in magnitude but occur independently of thermal changes in hypoxia, and (ii) adenosine receptors mediate the HVR but not the HMR.

  2. Adenosine receptors mediate the hypoxic ventilatory response but not the hypoxic metabolic response in the naked mole rat during acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Dzal, Yvonne A.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole rats are the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified; however, the mechanisms underlying this tolerance are poorly understood. Using whole-animal plethysmography and open-flow respirometry, we examined the hypoxic metabolic response (HMR), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic thermal response in awake, freely behaving naked mole rats exposed to 7% O2 for 1 h. Metabolic rate and ventilation each reversibly decreased 70% in hypoxia (from 39.6 ± 2.9 to 12.1 ± 0.3 ml O2 min−1 kg−1, and 1412 ± 244 to 417 ± 62 ml min−1 kg−1, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas body temperature was unchanged and animals remained awake and active. Subcutaneous injection of the general adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline (AMP; 100 mg kg−1, in saline), but not control saline injections, prevented the HVR but had no effect on the HMR. As a result, AMP-treated naked mole rats exhibited extreme hyperventilation in hypoxia. These animals were also less tolerant to hypoxia, and in some cases hypoxia was lethal following AMP injection. We conclude that in naked mole rats (i) hypoxia tolerance is partially dependent on profound hypoxic metabolic and ventilatory responses, which are equal in magnitude but occur independently of thermal changes in hypoxia, and (ii) adenosine receptors mediate the HVR but not the HMR. PMID:25520355

  3. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ∼17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (∼100 ka) and Kisaaka (∼50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ∼7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (∼4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  4. The Robo-AO automated intelligent queue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Hogstrom, Kristina; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first automated laser adaptive optics instrument. In just its second year of scientific operations, it has completed the largest adaptive optics surveys to date, each comprising thousands of targets. Robo-AO uses a fully automated queue scheduling system that selects targets based on criteria entered on a per observing program or per target basis, and includes the ability to coordinate with US Strategic Command automatically to avoid lasing space assets. This enables Robo-AO to select among thousands of targets at a time, and achieve an average observation rate of approximately 20 targets per hour.

  5. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  6. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control (``speckle nulling''). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield > 90% Strehl ratio and enable 106-107 contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  7. Final report of CCQM-K129 Measurement of Mole Fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. J.; Kim, A. S.; Jang, J. S.; Suh, J. K.; Wirth, T.; Unger, W.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Araujo, J. R.; Archanjo, B. S.; Galhardo, C. E.; Damasceno, J.; Achete, C. A.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Bennett, J.; Simon, D.; Kurokawa, A.; Terauchi, S.; Fujimoto, T.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B.; Spencer, S.; Shard, A.

    2016-01-01

    CCQM key comparison K-129 for the quantitative analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films has been performed by the Surface Analysis Working Group (SAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM). The objective of this key comparison is to compare the equivalency of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DIs) for the measurement of mole fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se in a thin CIGS film. The measurand of this key comparison is the average mole fractions of Cu, In, Ga and Se of a test CIGS alloy film in the unit of mole fraction (mol/mol). Mole fraction with the metrological unit of % mol/mol can be practically converted to atomic fraction with the unit of at %. In this key comparison, a CIGS film with certified mole fractions was supplied as a reference specimen to determine the relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) of Cu, In, Ga and Se. The mole fractions of the reference specimen were certified by isotope dilution - inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID-ICP/MS). A total number counting (TNC) method was recommended as a method to determine the signal intensities of the constituent elements acquired in the depth profiles by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Seven NMIs and one DI participated in this key comparison. The mole fractions of the CIGS films were measured by depth profiling based-SIMS, AES and XPS. In this key comparison, the average degrees of equivalence uncertainties for Cu, In, Ga and Se are 0.0093 mol/mol, 0.0123 mol/mol, 0.0047 mol/mol and 0.0228 mol/mol, respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. INK4 locus of the tumor-resistant rodent, the naked mole rat, expresses a functional p15/p16 hybrid isoform.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Augereau, Adeline; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Vijg, Jan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2015-01-27

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived and tumor-resistant rodent. Tumor resistance in the naked mole rat is mediated by the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan of very high molecular weight (HMW-HA). HMW-HA triggers hypersensitivity of naked mole rat cells to contact inhibition, which is associated with induction of the INK4 (inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4) locus leading to cell-cycle arrest. The INK4a/b locus is among the most frequently mutated in human cancer. This locus encodes three distinct tumor suppressors: p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and ARF (alternate reading frame). Although p15(INK4b) has its own ORF, p16(INK4a) and ARF share common second and third exons with alternative reading frames. Here, we show that, in the naked mole rat, the INK4a/b locus encodes an additional product that consists of p15(INK4b) exon 1 joined to p16(INK4a) exons 2 and 3. We have named this isoform pALT(INK4a/b) (for alternative splicing). We show that pALT(INK4a/b) is present in both cultured cells and naked mole rat tissues but is absent in human and mouse cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that pALT(INK4a/b) expression is induced during early contact inhibition and upon a variety of stresses such as UV, gamma irradiation-induced senescence, loss of substrate attachment, and expression of oncogenes. When overexpressed in naked mole rat or human cells, pALT(INK4a/b) has stronger ability to induce cell-cycle arrest than either p15(INK4b) or p16(INK4a). We hypothesize that the presence of the fourth product, pALT(INK4a/b) of the INK4a/b locus in the naked mole rat, contributes to the increased resistance to tumorigenesis of this species.

  9. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Edrey, Yael H; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  10. Specific Paucity of Unmyelinated C-Fibers in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerves of the African Naked-Mole Rat: Comparative Analysis Using Six Species of Bathyergidae

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ewan S; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (∼1.5:1 compared with ∼3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the β-catenin gene in the skin. These β-catenin loss-of function mice (β-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:2785–2803, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22528859

  11. Altered Composition of Liver Proteasome Assemblies Contributes to Enhanced Proteasome Activity in the Exceptionally Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Edrey, Yael H.; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life. PMID:22567116

  12. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  13. Dental peculiarities in the silvery mole-rat: an original model for studying the evolutionary and biological origins of continuous dental generation in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that have impacted the mammalian dentition, since more than 200 Ma, is an intricate issue. Interestingly, a few mammal species, including the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus, are able to replace their dentition by the addition of supernumerary molars at the back of jaw migrating then toward the front. The aim here was to demonstrate the potential interest of further studying this rodent in order to better understand the origins of continuous dental replacement in mammals, which could also provide interesting data concerning the evolution of limited dental generation occurring in first mammals. In the present study, we described the main stages of the dental eruptive sequence in the silvery mole-rat and the associated characteristics of horizontal replacement using X-ray microtomography. This was coupled to the investigation of other African mole-rats which have no dental replacement. This method permitted to establish evidence that the initial development of the dentition in Heliophobius is comparable to what it is observed in most of African mole-rats. This rodent first has premolars, but then identical additional molars, a mechanism convergent to manatees and the pygmy rock-wallaby. Evidence of continuous replacement and strong dental dynamics were also illustrated in Heliophobius, and stressed the need to deeply investigate these aspects for evolutionary, functional and developmental purposes. We also noticed that two groups of extinct non-mammalian synapsids convergently acquired this dental mechanism, but in a way differing from extant mammals. The discussion on the diverse evolutionary origins of horizontal dental replacement put emphasis on the necessity of focusing on biological parameters potentially involved in both continuous and limited developments of teeth in mammals. In that context, the silvery mole-rat could appear as the most appropriate candidate to do so. PMID:26401449

  14. Critical factors for detection of biphasic changes in membrane properties at specific sterol mole fractions for maximal superlattice formation.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Berenice; Sugár, István P; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2007-05-17

    Here we use the excitation generalized polarization (GPex) of 6-lauroyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene (Laurdan) fluorescence in fluid cholesterol/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles to explore the experimental conditions that would be required in order to detect a biphasic change in membrane properties at specific sterol mole fractions (Cr) (e.g., 20.0, 22.2, 25.0, 33.3, 40.0, and 50.0 mol %) for maximal sterol superlattice formation. Laurdan's GPex changes with sterol content in an alternating manner, showing minima (termed as GPex dips) at approximately Cr. GPex dips are detectable if the vesicles are preincubated for a sufficient time period and protected from sterol oxidation. In most cases, vesicles with a higher lipid concentration take a longer time to show a GPex dip at Cr. The depth of the GPex dip increases with increasing incubation time and eventually reaches a plateau, at which the maximum area covered by superlattices is expected to be achieved. However, if the vesicles are not protected against sterol oxidation, the GPex dips are attenuated or obliterated. These effects can be attributed to the increased inter-bilayer lipid exchange and the increased vesicle-vesicle interactions present at high lipid (vesicle) concentrations as well as the decreased interactions between oxysterols and phospholipids. These possible explanations have been incorporated into a kinetic model that is able to calculate the effects of sterol oxidation and lipid concentration on the depth of the GPex dip. The depth of the GPex dip, the required incubation time for the dip formation, and the lipid concentration dependence of the GPex dip vary with Cr, suggesting different physical properties for different sterol superlattices. To detect a biphasic change in membrane properties at Cr, one should also use small sterol mole fraction increments over a wide range, keep all of the vesicles in the same sample set under the same thermal history

  15. Pronounced cancer resistance in a subterranean rodent, the blind mole-rat, Spalax: in vivo and in vitro evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalax) are hypoxia tolerant (down to 3% O2), long lived (>20 years) rodents showing no clear signs of aging or aging related disorders. In 50 years of Spalax research, spontaneous tumors have never been recorded among thousands of individuals. Here we addressed the questions of (1) whether Spalax is resistant to chemically-induced tumorigenesis, and (2) whether normal fibroblasts isolated from Spalax possess tumor-suppressive activity. Results Treating animals with 3-Methylcholantrene (3MCA) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA), two potent carcinogens, confirmed Spalax high resistance to chemically induced cancers. While all mice and rats developed the expected tumors following treatment with both carcinogens, among Spalax no tumors were observed after DMBA/TPA treatment, while 3MCA induced benign fibroblastic proliferation in 2 Spalax individuals out of12, and only a single animal from the advanced age group developed malignancy 18 months post-treatment. The remaining animals are still healthy 30 months post-treatment. In vitro experiments showed an extraordinary ability of normal Spalax cultured fibroblasts to restrict malignant behavior in a broad spectrum of human-derived and in newly isolated Spalax 3MCA-induced cancer cell lines. Growth of cancer cells was inhibited by either direct interaction with Spalax fibroblasts or with soluble factors released into culture media and soft agar. This was accompanied by decreased cancer cell viability, reduced colony formation in soft agar, disturbed cell cycle progression, chromatin condensation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Cells from another cancer resistant subterranean mammal, the naked mole rat, were also tested for direct effect on cancer cells and, similar to Spalax, demonstrated anti-cancer activity. No effect on cancer cells was observed using fibroblasts from mouse, rat or Acomys. Spalax fibroblast conditioned media had

  16. Simultaneous measurement of metabolic and acoustic power and the efficiency of sound production in two mole cricket species (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Kenneth N; O'Sullivan, Kristin

    2005-04-01

    We here report the first simultaneous measurement of metabolic cost of calling, acoustic power and efficiency of sound production in animals--the mole crickets Scapteriscus borellii and S. vicinus (Gryllotalpidae). We measured O(2) consumption, CO(2) production and acoustic power as the crickets called from their burrows in an open room. We utilized their calling burrow as the functional equivalent of a mask. Both species had a respiratory quotient near 0.85, indicative of metabolism based on a mix of carbohydrates and fats. The metabolic rate was significantly higher in S. borellii (11.6 mW g(-1)) than in S. vicinus (9.0 mW g(-1)) and averaged about eight- to fivefold greater, respectively, than resting metabolism. In some individuals, metabolic rate decreased by 20% during calling bouts. Costs of refurbishing calling burrows in S. borellii were less than calling costs, due to the behavior's short duration (ca. 15 min) and its relatively low average metabolic rate (4 mW). Acoustic power was on average sevenfold greater in S. borellii (21.2 vs 2.9 microW) and was more variable within individuals and across species than the metabolic rate. The efficiency of sound production was significantly higher in S. borellii (0.23 vs 0.03%). These values are below published estimates for other insects even though these mole crickets construct acoustic burrows that have the potential to increase efficiency. The cricket/burrow system in both species have an apparent Q(ln decrement) of about 6, indicative of significant internal damping caused by the airspaces in the sand that forms the burrow's walls. Damping is therefore an important cause of the low sound production efficiency. In field conditions where burrow walls are saturated with water and there is less internal damping, calls are louder and sound production efficiency is likely higher. File tooth depths and file tooth-to-tooth distances correlated with interspecific differences in metabolism and acoustic power much better

  17. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys.Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss several KOIs of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are ``coincident multiple'' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we will discuss and update the 98%-confidence evidence from our survey that third bodies in star/planet systems produce an excess of close-in giant planets.

  18. Real-time processing for the ATST AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K.; Rimmele, T.

    The real-time processing requirements for the four meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope extended source high order adaptive optics system will be approximately 15 times that of the Dunn Solar Telescope AO systems on which the ATST AO system is based. The ATST AO, with its approximately 1232 subapertures, will use massively parallel processing and is based on Analog Devices TigerSHARC DSPs as the central processing units. We will discuss the requirements for processing and data handling and the architecture of the correlating Shack-Hartmannn and reconstructor processing unit and present the results of bench-mark testing of the DSP hardware that was selected for the ATST AO system.

  19. Visible AO Observations at Halpha for Accreting Young Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Follette, K.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Wu, Y.-L.; Apai, D.; Najita, J.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Bailey, V.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Weinberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution science in the visible with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.5-0.7'') we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60s) r' (0.63μm) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl ~ 28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young (~ 1 Myr) Orion Trapezium θ1 Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary θ1 Ori C 1 C 2 was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. Relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with ~ 0.6-5 mas accuracy. In the second commissioning run we were able to correct 378 modes and achieved good contrasts (Strehl>20% on young transition disks at Hα). We discuss the contrasts achieved at Hα and the possibility of detecting low mass (~ 1-5 Mjup) planets (past 5AU) with our new SAPPHIRES survey with MagAO at Hα.

  20. Evolution of bone compactness in extant and extinct moles (Talpidae): exploring humeral microstructure in small fossorial mammals.

    PubMed

    Meier, Patricia S; Bickelmann, Constanze; Scheyer, Torsten M; Koyabu, Daisuke; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-02-26

    Talpids include forms with different degree of fossoriality, with major specializations in the humerus in the case of the fully fossorial moles. We studied the humeral microanatomy of eleven extant and eight extinct talpid taxa of different lifestyles and of two non-fossorial outgroups and examined the effects of size and phylogeny. We tested the hypothesis that bone microanatomy is different in highly derived humeri of fossorial taxa than in terrestrial and semi-aquatic ones, likely due to special mechanical strains to which they are exposed to during digging. This study is the first comprehensive examination of histological parameters in an ecologically diverse and small-sized mammalian clade. No pattern of global bone compactness was found in the humeri of talpids that could be related to biomechanical specialization, phylogeny or size. The transition zone from the medullary cavity to the cortical compacta was larger and the ellipse ratio smaller in fossorial talpids than in non-fossorial talpids. No differences were detected between the two distantly related fossorial clades, Talpini and Scalopini. At this small size, the overall morphology of the humerus plays a predominant role in absorbing the load, and microanatomical features such as an increase in bone compactness are less important, perhaps due to insufficient gravitational effects. The ellipse ratio of bone compactness shows relatively high intraspecific variation, and therefore predictions from this ratio based on single specimens are invalid.

  1. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Luana S.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  2. Synthetic Nanopores as a Test Case for Ion Channel Theories: The Anomalous Mole Fraction Effect without Single Filing

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Dirk; Boda, Dezső; He, Yan; Apel, Pavel; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2008-01-01

    The predictions of a theory for the anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) are tested experimentally with synthetic nanopores in plastic. The negatively charged synthetic nanopores under consideration are highly cation selective and 50 Å in diameter at their smallest point. These pores exhibit an AMFE in mixtures of Ca2+ and monovalent cations. An AMFE occurs when the conductance through a pore is lower in a mixture of salts than in the pure salts at the same concentration. For ion channels, the textbook interpretation of the AMFE is that multiple ions move through the pore in coordinated, single-file motion. However, because the synthetic nanopores are so wide, their AMFE shows that single filing is not necessary for the AMFE. It is shown that the AMFE in the synthetic nanopores is explained by a theory of preferential ion selectivity. The unique properties of the synthetic nanopores allow us to experimentally confirm several predictions of this theory. These same properties make synthetic nanopores an interesting new platform to test theories of ion channel permeation and selectivity in general. PMID:18390596

  3. Twin pregnancy and partial hydatidiform mole following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer: a novel case of placental mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng-juan; Zhao, You-ping; Yu, Song; Fan, Ling; Wu, Qing-qing; Li, Guang-hui; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management. A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET. At 22 weeks' gestation, an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations. At 35 weeks' gestation, two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS). Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM. Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY), co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac. However, the other one was normal. Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery. The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.

  4. MoleView: an attribute and structure-based semantic lens for large element-based plots.

    PubMed

    Hurter, Christophe; Ersoy, Ozan; Telea, Alexandru

    2011-12-01

    We present MoleView, a novel technique for interactive exploration of multivariate relational data. Given a spatial embedding of the data, in terms of a scatter plot or graph layout, we propose a semantic lens which selects a specific spatial and attribute-related data range. The lens keeps the selected data in focus unchanged and continuously deforms the data out of the selection range in order to maintain the context around the focus. Specific deformations include distance-based repulsion of scatter plot points, deforming straight-line node-link graph drawings, and as varying the simplification degree of bundled edge graph layouts. Using a brushing-based technique, we further show the applicability of our semantic lens for scenarios requiring a complex selection of the zones of interest. Our technique is simple to implement and provides real-time performance on large datasets. We demonstrate our technique with actual data from air and road traffic control, medical imaging, and software comprehension applications. © 2011 IEEE

  5. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Inada, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  6. A Distinct Role of the Queen in Coordinated Workload and Soil Distribution in Eusocial Naked Mole-Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Inada, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals’ workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species. PMID:22957085

  7. A microfluidic platform for transcription- and amplification-free detection of zepto-mole amounts of nucleic acid molecules.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Reinhard; Haider, Michaela; Thünauer, Roland; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Schütz, Gerhard J; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hesse, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Here we report the development of a device for the transcription- and amplification-free detection of DNA and RNA molecules down to the zepto-mole range. A microfluidic chip with a built-in microarray was used for manipulation of nano-liter sample volumes. Specific staining and immobilization of the target molecules was achieved via a double hybridization approach thereby avoiding bias due to enzymatic processes like reverse transcription and PCR amplification. Therefore, target molecules were indirectly labeled by pre-hybridization to complementary Cy5-labeled probes. The remaining single-stranded portion of each target molecule could subsequently hybridize to complementary capture probes of a microarray. Thus a target-mediated immobilization of labeled DNA took place. By means of an ultra-sensitive fluorescence readout, all molecules hybridized to the microarray could be detected. The combination of minimized sample volume and single molecule detection yielded a detection limit of 39 fM (831 molecules in 35.4 nl assay volume) for target DNA and 16 fM (338 molecules) for target RNA after 1h on-chip hybridization.

  8. Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

    Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1‧‧. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00

  9. Period Studies of Close Binaries, AO Cam and AW Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Han, Won-Yong; Nha, Il-Seong

    1992-06-01

    Photoelectric observations of close binary stars, AO Cam and AW Cam, were made during the 1984 observing season with the 61cm reflector at the Sobaeksan Observatory. One time of primary minimum for AO Cam and three primary epochs for AW Cam were derived from the observation of these two system. Times of minimum light of these two binaries collected from literature were analyzed with a least square fitting method. New improved light elements for AO Cam and AW Cam were determined. The orbital period of AO Cam had been constant from October, 1980(JD 2444520) to February, 1985(JD 2446107). However, one secondary time of minimum(JD 2447864.7879) of AO Cam published recently by Mullis and Faulkner(1991) shows large deviation of about 4.6 minutes (0.d0032) from the one predicted by our new light elements. Future observations of times of minima for this system are needed to test this period change. The orbital period of AW Cam has been constant as P = 0d77134645 for about sixty years from the early 1930's to the present.

  10. Characterizing and mitigating vibrations for SCExAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Goebel, Sean; Norris, Barnaby; Okita, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, under development for the Subaru Telescope, has currently the fastest on-sky wavefront control loop, with a pyramid wavefront sensor running at 3.5 kHz. But even at that speed, we are still limited by low-frequency vibrations. The current main limitation was found to be vibrations attributed mainly to the rotation of the telescope. Using the fast wavefront sensors, cameras and accelerometers, we managed to identify the origin of most of the vibrations degrading our performance. Low-frequency vibrations are coming from the telescope drive in azimuth and elevation, as well as the elevation encoders when the target is at transit. Other vibrations were found at higher frequency coming from the image rotator inside Subaru's adaptive optics facility AO188. Different approaches are being implemented to take care of these issues. The PID control of the image rotator has been tuned to reduce their high-frequency contribution. We are working with the telescope team to tune the motor drives and reduce the impact of the elevation encoder. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller (LQG, or Kalman filter) is also being implemented inside SCExAO to control these vibrations. These solutions will not only improve significantly SCExAOs performance, but will also help all the other instruments on the Subaru Telescope, especially the ones behind AO188. Ultimately, this study will also help the development of the TMT, as these two telescopes share very similar drives.

  11. Body Mole Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... a broad-spectrum, water-resistant sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of 30 or higher to all exposed skin. Broad-spectrum provides protection from both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) ... the sun which can increase your chance of skin cancer. • ...

  12. Impact of underlap and mole-fraction on RF performance of strained-Si/Si1-xGex/strained-Si DG MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arka; Koley, Kalyan; Sarkar, Chandan K.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a systematic RF performance analysis of double-gate strained silicon (DGSS) nMOSFETs is presented. The analysis is focused upon impact of Germanium mole-fraction variation on RF performance of underlap engineered DGSS nMOSFET. The RF performance of the device is analysed as a function of intrinsic RF figure of merits (FOMs) including non-quasi static effects (NQS). The RF FOMs are represented by the intrinsic gate to source/drain capacitance (Cgs and Cgd) and resistance (Rgs and Rgd), the transport delay (τm), the intrinsic inductance (Lsd), the cut-off frequency (fT), and the maximum oscillation frequency (fMAX). The results of the study suggested a significant improvement in the device performance, up to 40% increase in Germanium mole fraction (χ).

  13. [Twin pregnancy with complete mole and coexisting fetus after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer complicated with placenta previa accreta. A case report].

    PubMed

    Guzmán González, Eduardo; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando; Valero Origel, Alberto; Deschamps Díaz, Horacio; Ramírez Fernández, María Antonieta; Miranda Lamadrid, Mario

    2009-03-01

    The double twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare event and perinatal treatment complex. Presents a significant case of this unusual partnership and describes their evolution. Patient of 33 years, secondary infertility factor-peritoneal tube and pregnancy achieved by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. An ultrasound early pregnancy reported twice, a sack was a complete mole, another bag was a fetus and placenta previa unchanged total. The case is carefully monitored and uterine inhibitors were administered at different stages of gestation. It settled the case by caesarean section at 37 weeks and obstetric hysterectomy for placenta previa percreta molar involution of the placenta and newborn health. The evolution of the mother and the child was appropriate.

  14. Petrosal anatomy in the fossil mammal Necrolestes: evidence for metatherian affinities and comparisons with the extant marsupial mole

    PubMed Central

    Ladevèze, Sandrine; Asher, Robert J; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2008-01-01

    We present reconstructions of petrosal anatomy based on high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans for the fossil mammal Necrolestes and for the marsupial mole Notoryctes sp. Compared with other mammals, Necrolestes exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters, but most of the evidence supports its metatherian status. We revised previous descriptions and report on features of phylogenetic or functional significance. Necrolestes exhibits features that support metatherian affinities, such as the presence of a short and lateral prootic canal, and the loss of the stapedial artery in adults. A deep groove at the anterior pole of the promontorium is present in front of the cochlear housing, a variant on the extrabullar pathway of the internal carotid artery. The promontorium is laterally bordered by a large bony projection resembling the eutherian tegmen tympani [De Beer GR (1937) The Development of the Vertebrate Skull, Oxford, Clarendon Press, p. 391]. Posteromedial to the secondary facial foramen and anterolateral to the fenestra vestibuli is a pronounced fossa for the tensor tympani muscle. On the medial part of the pars canalicularis there is a great inflation of the medial side of the caudal tympanic process, a structure of unknown function. The internal acoustic meatus exhibits a broad transverse septum and is bordered laterally by a broad prefacial commissure. The cochleae of Necrolestes and of Notoryctes have fewer spiral turns (1.1 and 1.6, respectively) than most marsupials. The lateral semicircular canal is more expanded than the posterior semicircular canal in Necrolestes but not in Notoryctes. Both Necrolestes and Notoryctes have a second crus commune, i.e. the lateral semicircular canal opens into the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. A stylomastoid foramen enclosed anterodorsally by both the pars cochlearis and pars canalicularis is present in Dasyuridae, Dromiciops gliroides and Notoryctes. PMID:19094184

  15. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    PubMed

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal"). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes

  16. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000–2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year. PMID:27642546

  17. Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Chemosensory Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies in the Naked Mole-Rat Reveals a Unique Adaptive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie; Park, Thomas J.; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR’s adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and

  18. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased

  19. Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebegue, Benjamin; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Wastine, Benoit; Yver Kwok, Camille; Laurent, Olivier; Belviso, Sauveur; Guemri, Ali; Philippon, Carole; Smith, Jeremiah; Conil, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in situ measurements of atmospheric N2O mole fractions have been performed using gas chromatographs (GCs) equipped with electron capture detectors. This technique, however, becomes very challenging when trying to detect the small variations of N2O as the detectors are highly nonlinear and the GCs at remote stations require a considerable amount of maintenance by qualified technicians to maintain good short-term and long-term repeatability. With new robust optical spectrometers now available for N2O measurements, we aim to identify a robust and stable analyzer that can be integrated into atmospheric monitoring networks, such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). In this study, we present the most complete comparison of N2O analyzers, with seven analyzers that were developed and commercialized by five different companies. Each instrument was characterized during a time period of approximately 8 weeks. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. During the test period, ambient air measurements were compared under field conditions at the Gif-sur-Yvette station. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10 min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability to reduce the instrument drift, which could then help in reducing the frequency of calibrations. For most instruments, the water vapor correction algorithms applied by companies are not sufficient for high-precision atmospheric measurements, which results in the need to dry the ambient air prior to analysis.

  20. Comparison of nitrous oxide (N2O) analyzers for high-precision measurements of atmospheric mole fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebegue, B.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Wastine, B.; Yver Kwok, C.; Laurent, O.; Belviso, S.; Guemri, A.; Philippon, C.; Smith, J.; Conil, S.; Jost, H. J.; Crosson, E. R.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few decades, in-situ measurements of atmospheric N2O mole fractions have been performed using gas chromatographs (GCs) equipped with electron capture detectors (ECDs). When trying to meet the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) quality goal, this technique becomes very challenging as the detectors are highly non-linear and the GCs at remote stations require a considerable amount of maintenance by qualified technicians to maintain good short-term and long-term repeatability. With more robust optical spectrometers being now available for N2O measurements, we aim to identify a robust and stable analyzer that can be integrated into atmospheric monitoring networks, such as the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). In this study, we tested seven analyzers that were developed and commercialized from five different companies and compared the results with established techniques. Each instrument was characterized during a time period of approximately eight weeks. The test protocols included the characterization of the short-term and long-term repeatability, drift, temperature dependence, linearity and sensitivity to water vapor. During the test period, ambient air measurements were compared under field conditions at the Gif-sur-Yvette station. All of the analyzers showed a standard deviation better than 0.1 ppb for the 10 min averages. Some analyzers would benefit from improvements in temperature stability to reduce the instrument drift, which could then help in reducing the frequency of calibrations. For most instruments, the water vapor correction algorithms applied by companies are not sufficient for high-precision atmospheric measurements, which results in the need to dry the ambient air prior to analysis.

  1. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles.

    PubMed

    Basso, Luana S; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B; Domingues, Lucas G; Correia, Caio S C; Borges, Viviane F

    2016-01-16

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m(-2) d(-1) over an area of approximately 1 × 10(6) km(2). Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  2. Voltage-gated calcium channels: direct observation of the anomalous mole fraction effect at the single-channel level.

    PubMed Central

    Friel, D D; Tsien, R W

    1989-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca channels are very efficient pores: even while exhibiting strong ionic selectivity, they are highly permeant to divalent cations. Studies of the mechanism of selectivity and ion permeation have demonstrated that whole-cell Ca channel current in mixtures of Ca and Ba ions can be smaller than with equimolar concentrations of either ion alone. This anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) has provided an important impetus for proposed mechanisms of ion selectivity and permeation that invoke multiple ion binding sites. However, recordings of unitary L-type Ca currents did not demonstrate the AMFE [Marban, E. & Yue, D.T. (1988) Biophys. J. 55, 594a (abstr.)], raising doubts about whether it is an expression of ion permeation through open Ca channels. We have made patch-clamp recordings from single L-type Ca channels in PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells. Our results demonstrate a significant AMFE at the single-channel level but also indicate that the AMFE can only be found under restrictive conditions of permeant ion concentration and membrane potential. While the AMFE is clear at 0 mV when permeant ions are present at 10 mM, it is not evident when the divalent cation concentration is increased to 110 mM or the membrane potential is hyperpolarized to -40 mV. We compared our experimental observations with predictions of a single-file, two-binding-site model of the Ca channel. The model accounts for our experimental results. It predicts an AMFE under conditions that favor ion-ion interactions, as long as the outer binding site is not saturated due to high permeant ion concentration or negative membrane potential. PMID:2544893

  3. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  4. The impact of gape on the performance of the skull in chisel-tooth digging and scratch digging mole-rats (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Andrew F.; Cox, Philip G.

    2016-10-01

    The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) are a family of rodents highly adapted for life underground. Previous research has shown that chisel-tooth digging mole-rats (which use their incisors to dig burrows) are clearly distinguishable from scratch diggers (which only use the forelimbs to tunnel) on the basis of morphology of the skull, and that the differences are linked to the production of high bite forces and wide gapes. We hypothesized that the skull of a chisel-tooth digging mole-rat would perform better at wider gapes than that of a scratch digging mole-rat during incisor biting. To test this hypothesis, we created finite-element models of the cranium of the scratch digging Bathyergus suillus and the chisel-tooth digging Fukomys mechowii, and loaded them to simulate incisor bites at different gapes. Muscle loads were scaled such that the ratio of force to surface area was the same in both models. We measured three performance variables: overall stress across the cranium, mechanical efficiency of biting and degree of deformation across the skull. The Fukomys model had a more efficient incisor bite at all gapes, despite having greater average stress across the skull. In addition, the Fukomys model deformed less at wider gapes, whereas the Bathyergus model deformed less at narrower gapes. These properties of the cranial morphology of Fukomys and Bathyergus are congruent with their respective chisel-tooth and scratch digging behaviours and, all other factors being equal, would enable the more efficient production of bite force at wider gapes in Fukomys. However, in vivo measurements of muscle forces and activation patterns are needed to fully understand the complex biomechanics of tooth digging.

  5. The impact of gape on the performance of the skull in chisel-tooth digging and scratch digging mole-rats (Rodentia: Bathyergidae)

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) are a family of rodents highly adapted for life underground. Previous research has shown that chisel-tooth digging mole-rats (which use their incisors to dig burrows) are clearly distinguishable from scratch diggers (which only use the forelimbs to tunnel) on the basis of morphology of the skull, and that the differences are linked to the production of high bite forces and wide gapes. We hypothesized that the skull of a chisel-tooth digging mole-rat would perform better at wider gapes than that of a scratch digging mole-rat during incisor biting. To test this hypothesis, we created finite-element models of the cranium of the scratch digging Bathyergus suillus and the chisel-tooth digging Fukomys mechowii, and loaded them to simulate incisor bites at different gapes. Muscle loads were scaled such that the ratio of force to surface area was the same in both models. We measured three performance variables: overall stress across the cranium, mechanical efficiency of biting and degree of deformation across the skull. The Fukomys model had a more efficient incisor bite at all gapes, despite having greater average stress across the skull. In addition, the Fukomys model deformed less at wider gapes, whereas the Bathyergus model deformed less at narrower gapes. These properties of the cranial morphology of Fukomys and Bathyergus are congruent with their respective chisel-tooth and scratch digging behaviours and, all other factors being equal, would enable the more efficient production of bite force at wider gapes in Fukomys. However, in vivo measurements of muscle forces and activation patterns are needed to fully understand the complex biomechanics of tooth digging. PMID:27853575

  6. The Long Gestation of the Small Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber RÜPPELL, 1842) Studied with Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and 3D-Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Kathleen; Drews, Barbara; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing. PMID:21408185

  7. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  8. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm(-1) (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm(-1) (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  9. A pyramid sensor based AO system for Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Rabien, S.

    2011-09-01

    Since the introduction of the pyramid wavefront sensor in the mid 90s, various authors have shown both theoretically and with the aid of simulations that pyramid sensors can achieve a better performance than traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Recently the First-Light AO system (FLAO) at the Large Binocular Telescope has demonstrated excellent on sky performance achieved with a pyramid based system. Motivated by these results, we will present in this paper a first heuristic analysis scaling up the FLAO performance to the case of an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). We support our arguments with preliminary numerical simulations for the case of the European ELT using the M4 adaptive corrector and a properly matched pyramid sensor. Such a system could be used as a first-light natural guide-star AO system for the European ELT offering the advantages of a demonstrated AO system with practically off-the-shelf technology.

  10. Second generation Robo-AO instruments and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Chun, Mark R.; Lu, Jessica R.; Connelley, Michael S.; Hall, Donald; Atkinson, Dani; Jacobson, Shane

    2014-07-01

    The prototype Robo-AO system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope is the world's first fully automated laser adaptive optics instrument. Scientific operations commenced in June 2012 and more than 12,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. Two new infrared cameras providing high-speed tip-tilt sensing and a 2' field-of-view will be integrated in 2014. In addition to a Robo-AO clone for the 2-m IGO and the natural guide star variant KAPAO at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope, a second generation of facility-class Robo-AO systems are in development for the 2.2-m University of Hawai'i and 3-m IRTF telescopes which will provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to λ = 400 nm.

  11. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  12. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-10-15

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x-y}N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM.

  13. Spontaneous bacterial cell lysis and biofilm formation in the colon of the Cape Dune mole-rat and the laboratory rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Kotzé, Sanet H.; Holzknecht, Zoie E.; Thomas, Anitra D.; Everett, Mary Lou; Taylor, Shanna; Duckett, Larry D.; Whitesides, John; McDermott, Patrice; Lin, Shu S.

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of techniques, including highthroughput DNA sequencing methods, have been applied to the evaluation of the normal intestinal flora. However, the inability to grow many of those species in culture imposes substantial constraints on the techniques used to evaluate this important community. The presence of biofilms in the normal gut adds further complexity to the issue. In this study, a flow cytometric analysis was used to separate intact bacterial cells, cell debris, and other particulate matter based on bacteria-specific staining and particle size. In addition, an analysis of biofilm formation using fluorescent light microscopy was conducted. Using these approaches, the ratio of bacterial cell debris to intact bacterial cells as a measure of spontaneous lysis of bacterial cells in the gut of the Cape dune mole-rat (Bathyergus suillus) and the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was examined, and the degree of biofilm formation was semi-quantitatively assessed. The results suggest that the degree of spontaneous cell lysis was greater in the appendix than in the cecum in both the mole-rat and the rabbit. Further, the results point toward extensive epithelial-associated biofilm formation in the proximal mole-rat and rabbit large bowel, although the biofilms may be less structured than those found in laboratory rodents and in humans. PMID:21538116

  14. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  15. Study of Age-Dependent Structural and Functional Changes of Mitochondria in Skeletal Muscles and Heart of Naked Mole Rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Holtze, S; Eldarov, C M; Vays, V B; Vangeli, I M; Vysokikh, M Yu; Bakeeva, L E; Skulachev, V P; Hildebrandt, T B

    2016-12-01

    Morphometric analysis of mitochondria in skeletal muscles and heart of 6- and 60-month-old naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber) revealed a significant age-dependent increase in the total area of mitochondrial cross-sections in studied muscle fibers. For 6- and 60-month-old animals, these values were 4.8 ± 0.4 and 12.7 ± 1.8%, respectively. This effect is mainly based on an increase in the number of mitochondria. In 6-month-old naked mole rats, there were 0.23 ± 0.02 mitochondrial cross-sections per µm(2) of muscle fiber, while in 60-month-old animals this value was 0.47 ± 0.03. The average area of a single mitochondrial cross-section also increased with age in skeletal muscles - from 0.21 ± 0.01 to 0.29 ± 0.03 µm(2). Thus, naked mole rats show a drastic enlargement of the mitochondrial apparatus in skeletal muscles with age due to an increase in the number of mitochondria and their size. They possess a neotenic type of chondriome accompanied by specific features of mitochondrial functioning in the state of oxidative phosphorylation and a significant decrease in the level of matrix adenine nucleotides.

  16. Effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio on the properties of foam geopolymers fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Shao, Ning-ning; Huang, Tian-yong; Qin, Jun-feng; Wang, Dong-min; Yang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional aluminosilicates formed in a short time at low temperature by geopolymerization. In this paper, alkali-activated foam geopolymers were fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash (CFA), and the effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio (0.91-1.68) on their properties was studied. Geopolymerization products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that SiO2/Na2O mole ratio plays an important role in the mechanical and morphological characteristics of geopolymers. Foam samples prepared in 28 d with a SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of 1.42 exhibit the greatest compressive strength of 2.52 MPa. Morphological analysis reveals that these foam geopolymers appear the relatively optimized pore structure and distribution, which are beneficial to the structure stability. Moreover, a combination of the Si/Al atomic ratio ranging between 1.47 and 1.94 with the Na/Al atomic ratio of about 1 produces the samples with high strength.

  17. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a wild bird (ural owl) and its feed (shrew-moles): comparison of molecular types with human isolates.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Umeda, Kaoru; Inamori, Ikuko; Kosono, Yuka; Tanigawa, Tomokazu; Komiya, Takako; Iwaki, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Nakatsu, Susumu

    2016-03-22

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a pathogen causing diphtheria-like illness to humans. In contrast to diphtheria by Corynebacterium diphtheriae circulating mostly among humans, C. ulcerans infection is zoonotic. The present study aimed to clarify how a zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild birds and animals. By screening 380 birds, a single strain of toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from a carnivorous bird, ural owl (Strix uralensis). The bacterium was also isolated from two individuals of Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides), a food preference of the owl. Analysis by ribotyping showed that the owl and mole isolates were classified in a group, suggesting that C. ulcerans can be transmissible among wild birds and their prey animals. Moreover, our isolates were found to belong to a group of previously reported C. ulcerans isolates from dogs and a cat, which are known to serve as sources for human infection. The findings suggest that the shrew-mole may be a potential reservoir of a zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans.

  18. The 'common mole' from the point of view of digital dermoscopy analysis: subjective vs. objective evaluation of easy pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Burroni, M; Rubegni, P; Dell'eva, G; Santini, S; Perotti, R; Biagioli, M; Taddeucci, P; Andreassi, L

    2003-01-01

    The term 'common mole', often used to describe a subset of benign pigmented skin lesions, is traditionally defined on the basis of morpho-chromatic features. In recent years, certain research groups have developed equipment and methods, such as digital dermoscopy analysis, that enable objective evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. In this study we use a digital dermoscopy analyser trained for the recognition of pigmented skin lesions to compare the subjective definition of 'common' and the mathematical concept of 'close to the mean of measurements'. A subset (100) of digital images of flat pigmented lesions, obtained in daily practice, were classified by trained and non-expert clinicians as common moles (60) or clear-cut melanoma (40), and processed with a DB-Mips analyser. The resulting parameters, validated by a classifier, were used to evaluate Hotelling's T2 multivariate distances from the mean. 'Common' moles could not be clearly defined in terms of closeness to the means of objectively evaluated parameters. Their diagnosis indudes many other evaluations and clusters of variables. The clinical semantics of the term 'common' does not conform to any unambiguous mathematical definition.

  19. Existence of serotonin and neuropeptides-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the small and large intestines of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon).

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Bayrakdar, A; Tarakçı, B G

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells secreting serotonin, substance P (SP), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neurotensin in the small and large intestine of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), by specific immunohistochemical methods. In the small and large intestine of mole-rats (Spalax leucodon), serotonin, SP and VIP were identified with various frequencies, but CCK-8 and neurotensin were not observed. Most of the IR cells in the small and large intestine were located in the intestinal crypt and epithelium however, they were more frequency in the intestinal crypt. Serotonin-IR cells were detected throughout the whole intestinal tract, predominantly in the duodenum and colon. SP-IR cells were demonstrated throughout the whole intestinal tract except for the ileum and rectum with highest frequencies in the cecum. VIP-IR cells were found in all parts of the small intestine except for the large intestine. In conclusion, the general distribution patterns and relative frequency of intestinal endocrine cells of the mole-rats (Spalax leucodon) was similar to those of some rodent species. However, some species-dependent unique distributions and frequencies characteristics of endocrine cells were also observed in the present study.

  20. The effect of diet on microfaunal population and function in the caecum of a subterranean naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    PubMed

    Buffenstein, R; Yahav, S

    1991-03-01

    The effect of dietary fibre and starch content on digestibility, microfaunal population and caecal function was investigated in a subterranean mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Rodentia). Mole-rats were fed on a diet of either sweet potato (neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) 65 g/kg dry matter (DM), starch 638 g/kg DM) or carrot (NDF 157 g/kg DM, starch 258.7 g/kg DM) for 4 weeks. Daily intake and faecal output were monitored. Thereafter caecal microfaunal population, density and function were assessed using light and scanning electron microscopy and by measuring both gas and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. A 2.4-fold increase in fibre and 2.5-fold decrease in starch content resulted in a decrease in caecal DM content (390 g/kg). A concomitant dramatic decline (by 93%) in ciliate protozoa with a corresponding 2-fold increase in bacteria also accompanied this change in diet. Fermentative efficiency as indicated by gas production was 2.6 times greater on a carrot diet than on sweet potato. Microbial fermentation resulted in higher SCFA concentrations on the carrot diet, with a 42% reduction in SCFA concentration on the sweet potato diet. Here, SCFA contributed 5.1% of daily energy expenditure and this increased 5.0-fold on the carrot diet. Caecal micro-organism function, therefore, played an important role in the nutritional physiology of these naked mole-rats, and enabled maximum utilization of the food substrate.

  1. Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Age-related Changes in Diastolic Heart Function in the Longest-lived Rodent, the Naked Mole Rat

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Kelly M.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The naked mole rat is an extremely long-lived (>31 years) small (35 g) rodent. Moreover, it maintains good health for most of its long life. We hypothesized that naked mole rats also show attenuated cardiac aging. With age, cardiac muscle can become less compliant, causing a decline in early diastolic filling (E) and a compensatory increase in atrial contraction-induced late filling (A). This results in decreased left ventricular E/A ratio. Doppler imaging showed no significant differences in E/A ratios (p = .48) among old (18–20 years) breeders and nonbreeders despite differences in estrogen levels. A cross-sectional study of 1- to 20-year-old naked mole rats (n = 76) revealed that E/A ratios declined with age in females (n = 40; p = .002) but not in males (n = 36; p = 0.45). Despite this, neither gender shows increased morbidity or mortality with age. These findings suggest that, notwithstanding the previously observed high lipid peroxidation in heart tissue, NMRs must possess mechanisms to stave off progression to fatal cardiac disease. PMID:22367435

  2. Measurement of InAsBi mole fraction and InBi lattice constant using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalindar, A. J.; Webster, P. T.; Wilkens, B. J.; Alford, T. L.; Johnson, S. R.

    2016-10-01

    Several 1 μm thick, nearly lattice-matched InAsBi layers grown on GaSb are examined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Random Rutherford backscattering measurements indicate that the average Bi mole fraction ranges from 0.0503 to 0.0645 for the sample set, and ion-channeling measurements indicate that the Bi atoms are substitutional. The X-ray diffraction measurements show a diffraction sideband near the main (004) diffraction peak, indicating that the Bi mole fraction is not laterally uniform in the layer. The average out-of-plane tetragonal distortion is determined by modeling the main and sideband diffraction peaks, from which the average unstrained lattice constant of each sample is determined. By comparing the Bi mole fraction measured by random Rutherford backscattering with the InAsBi lattice constant for the sample set, the lattice constant of zinc blende InBi is determined to be 6.6107 Å.

  3. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  5. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  6. Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Acton, D. Scott; An, Jong R.; Avicola, Kenneth; Beeman, Bart V.; Brase, James M.; Carrano, Carmen J.; Gathright, John; Gavel, Donald T.; Hurd, Randall L.; Lai, Olivier; Lupton, William; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Shelton, J. Christopher; Stomski, Paul J.; Tsubota, Kevin; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Watson, James A.; Wizinowich, Peter L.

    2000-07-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  7. A Prediction of the Damping Properties of Hindered Phenol AO-60/polyacrylate Rubber (AO-60/ACM) Composites through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Geng; Li, Qiang-Guo; Wu, Si-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Molecule dynamics (MD) simulation, a molecular-level method, was applied to predict the damping properties of AO-60/polyacrylate rubber (AO-60/ACM) composites before experimental measures were performed. MD simulation results revealed that two types of hydrogen bond, namely, type A (AO-60) -OH•••O=C- (ACM), type B (AO-60) - OH•••O=C- (AO-60) were formed. Then, the AO-60/ACM composites were fabricated and tested to verify the accuracy of the MD simulation through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DMTA results showed that the introduction of AO-60 could remarkably improve the damping properties of the composites, including the increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) alongside with the loss factor (tan δ), also indicating the AO-60/ACM(98/100) had the best damping performance amongst the composites which verified by the experimental.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Methane Mole Fractions and Exchanges in and Between Soil, Snow, and the Atmosphere in a Tundra System in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnan, Y.; Obrist, D.; Edwards, G. C.; Moore, C.; Hedge, C.; Helmig, D.; Paxton, D.; Jacques, H.

    2015-12-01

    An important global source of atmospheric methane (CH4) is production in tundra soils (an important global source). To place constraints on the potential role that tundra soils play in global CH4 cycling, we have been continuously measuring mole the air space in soils, snow, and the atmosphere as gradient-based surface-atmosphere fluxes for arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (68° 38' N) starting in October 2014. We have found that atmospheric CH4 mole fractions were, on average, relatively constant during the first 9 months of sampling (averaging 1.93 µmol mol-1), with pronounced diel patterns starting in May and nighttime exceeding daytime mole fractions. However, gradients measured within the soil profile showed high variability in air withdrawn from different locations of these tundra soils (Typic Aquiturbels), with one soil profile indicating a CH4 sink during fall until January; mole fractions were similar to the atmospheric measurements during winter indicating no source or sink (average 1.89 µmol mol-1). A second soil profile 5 m away showed production of CH4 (average 2.48 µmol mol-1, two-times higher than atmospheric levels), even during mid-winter when soil temperatures were below -10 °C. Measurements of CH4 in interstitial snowpack air also exhibited a similar combination of sources and sinks. We used micrometeorological gradient surface flux measurements to confirm that the area was a net source of CH4 in fall, winter, and spring, with emissions averaging 26.6, 25.2, and 16.8 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. In the summer months, we saw strong diel flux patterns with deposition during day and emission at night, corresponding with observed diel variability in CH4 snowpack mole fractions. Our results indicated a high variability of tundra landscape CH4 fluxes, which locally shift from sources to sinks with high temporal variability. CH4 oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria probably occurs in tundra soils, confirming observations in one soil, snowpack, and

  9. Course Material Model in A&O Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levasma, Jarkko; Nykanen, Ossi

    One of the problematic issues in the content development for learning environments is the process of importing various types of course material into the environment. This paper describes a method for importing material into the A&O open learning environment by introducing a material model for metadata recognized by the environment. The first…

  10. Insights Into the Recent Rise in Atmospheric Methane Inferred from Observed Mole Fractions and Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W. C.; Michel, S. E.; Tans, P. P.; Vaughn, B. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sherwood, O.; Miller, J. B.; Masarie, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is a troublesome greenhouse gas. It has multiple natural and anthropogenic sources, including microbial production in low oxygen environments, fossil sources related to coal and natural gas production, and biomass burning, making source attribution difficult. Atmospheric methane concentration rose rapidly in the industrial period, increasing by 250%, only to stall out in the first decade this century, and then rising again after 2007. Its emission is strongly related to variables that are hard to predict, such as precipitation rates, biomass burning, and natural gas use, so future projections remain murky. And unlike CO2, which is strongly tied to energy use, anthropogenic impacts on methane are strongly tied to food production. Finally, methane is expected to be released from a thawing Arctic in large, but largely unknown quantities. Understanding methane as a greenhouse gas is imperative if anthropogenic impacts on the climate system are to be managed in the future. This talk addresses what we can say about the recent rise in methane using mole fractions and 13C data from the existing NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The approach is strongly data based, and while we will present model results, the data itself are clear on several points. While attention is increasingly focused on the Arctic, the north-south gradient of CH4 concentration does not support significant changes to Boreal and Arctic emissions. This finding raises the question of how methane will behave in a warmer, wetter world. We use a simple, three end-member model, run in both forward and inverse modes, to look more deeply into the sources of the recent increase. Evidence exists for recent increases in fossil sources, in line with methane production as a fuel source, although the contribution is small. Better data are needed to constrain the 13C of sources, including the fossil sources, a problem we are working on. Importantly, while the current monitoring network is adequate

  11. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve.

    PubMed

    van Cromvoirt, Suzanne M E; Thomas, Chris M G; Quinn, Michael A; McNally, Orla M; Bekkers, Ruud L M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases suitable for this study were registered at the Hydatidiform Mole Registry of the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. hCG levels of 61 patients diagnosed as having PTD according to FIGO 2000 criteria were compared with the 95th-percentile (p95) of the normal regression curve derived from hCG levels of 251 cases of uneventful CHM. In the test group of 61 patients PTD was diagnosed by FIGO 2000 criteria after a mean (±SD, min.-max.) of 7.6 (±3.4, 3.0-16.7) weeks after evacuation of the mole while in the same group hCG values for the first time exceeded the upper limit of the 95th percentile significantly earlier after 4.5 (±1.9, 2.0-9.9) weeks (P<0.001). However, hCG levels of 14% of the cases of uneventful CHM at least once exceeded the upper limit of p95, showing that one single value above p95 is not accurate enough for the diagnosis of PTD. The normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve may be used as a tool in the follow-up of an individual case of CHM after evacuation. At least one hCG level exceeding the upper limit of p95 within 11weeks after evacuation could be added to the current FIGO criteria, in order to diagnose PTD early, but the lack of it may also prevent unnecessary treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  13. Changing presentation of complete hydatidiform mole at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center over the past three decades: does early diagnosis alter risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Sun, Sue Yazaki; Melamed, Alexander; Goldstein, Donald P; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Horowitz, Neil S; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2015-07-01

    To compare the clinical presentation and incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) among recent (1994-2013) and historical (1988-1993) cases of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). This study included two non-concurrent cohorts (1988-1993 versus 1994-2013) of patients from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC). Clinical and pathologic reports of patients diagnosed with CHM between 1994 and 2013 were reviewed. Gestational age at evacuation, features of clinical presentation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, and the rate of progression to GTN were compared. In the current cohort (1994 to 2013) the median gestational age at diagnosis continued to decline compared to our prior cohort (1988-1993) (9weeks versus 12weeks). Patients from the current cohort were significantly more likely to be diagnosed prior to the 11th week of gestation (56 versus 41%, p=0.04). Patients in the current cohort were also significantly less likely to present with vaginal bleeding (46 versus 84%, p<0.001). Earlier diagnosis of complete mole did not result in a decrease in the rate of postmolar GTN. The frequencies of postmolar GTN in the current (1994-2013) and prior (1988-1993) cohorts were 19 and 23%, respectively. In the current cohort, even diagnosis prior to ten weeks gestation did not decrease the risk of developing GTN. This study indicates that complete mole continues to be diagnosed progressively earlier resulting in a further decrease in some classical presenting symptoms. However, despite earlier detection, the risk of development of postmolar GTN has not been affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relic populations of Fukomys mole-rats in Tanzania: description of two new species F. livingstoni sp. nov. and F. hanangensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Mgode, Georgies F.; Archer, Elizabeth K.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of African mole-rats of the genera Heliophobius and Fukomys (Bathyergidae) in the regions of East and south central Africa have revealed a diversity of species and vicariant populations, with patterns of distribution having been influenced by the geological process of rifting and changing patterns of drainage of major river systems. This has resulted in most of the extant members of the genus Fukomys being distributed west of the main Rift Valley. However, a small number of isolated populations are known to occur east of the African Rift Valley in Tanzania, where Heliophobius is the most common bathyergid rodent. We conducted morphological, craniometric and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of two allopatric populations of Tanzanian mole-rats (genus Fukomys) at Ujiji and around Mount Hanang, in comparison with both geographically adjacent and more distant populations of Fukomys. Our results reveal two distinct evolutionary lineages, forming clades that constitute previously unnamed species. Here, we formally describe and designate these new species F. livingstoni and F. hanangensis respectively. Molecular clock-based estimates of divergence times, together with maximum likelihood inference of biogeographic range evolution, offers strong support for the hypothesis that vicariance in the Western Rift Valley and the drainage patterns of major river systems has subdivided populations of mole-rats. More recent climatic changes and tectonic activity in the “Mbeya triple junction” and Rungwe volcanic province between Lakes Rukwa and Nyasa have played a role in further isolation of these extra-limital populations of Fukomys in Tanzania. PMID:28462027

  15. Absence of Maternal Methylation in Biparental Hydatidiform Moles from Women with NLRP7 Maternal-Effect Mutations Reveals Widespread Placenta-Specific Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Delgado, Marta; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Tayama, Chiharu; Vidal, Enrique; Esteller, Manel; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Deo, Nandita; Barney, Olivia; Maclean, Ken; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Fisher, Rosemary; Monk, David

    2015-01-01

    Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is a maternal-effect autosomal recessive disorder usually associated with mutations of the NLRP7 gene. It is characterized by HM with excessive trophoblastic proliferation, which mimics the appearance of androgenetic molar conceptuses despite their diploid biparental constitution. It has been proposed that the phenotypes of both types of mole are associated with aberrant genomic imprinting. However no systematic analyses for imprinting defects have been reported. Here, we present the genome-wide methylation profiles of both spontaneous androgenetic and biparental NLRP7 defective molar tissues. We observe total paternalization of all ubiquitous and placenta-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in four androgenetic moles; namely gain of methylation at paternally methylated loci and absence of methylation at maternally methylated regions. The methylation defects observed in five RHM biopsies from NLRP7 defective patients are restricted to lack-of-methylation at maternal DMRs. Surprisingly RHMs from two sisters with the same missense mutations, as well as consecutive RHMs from one affected female show subtle allelic methylation differences, suggesting inter-RHM variation. These epigenotypes are consistent with NLRP7 being a maternal-effect gene and involved in imprint acquisition in the oocyte. In addition, bioinformatic screening of the resulting methylation datasets identified over sixty loci with methylation profiles consistent with imprinting in the placenta, of which we confirm 22 as novel maternally methylated loci. These observations strongly suggest that the molar phenotypes are due to defective placenta-specific imprinting and over-expression of paternally expressed transcripts, highlighting that maternal-effect mutations of NLRP7 are associated with the most severe form of multi-locus imprinting defects in humans. PMID:26544189

  16. Dependence of source gas mole ratio on crystalline quality of ZnSe layers grown on (100) ZnSe substrates by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodo, T.; Koyama, T.; Yamashita, K.

    1988-10-01

    Single crystalline layers of undoped ZnSe have been grown on (100) ZnSe substrates at 250°C by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using dimethylzinc (DMZ) and hydrogen selenide (H 2Se). The surface morphologies, observed by a Nomarski phase contrast interference microscope, depend on the growth conditions, particularly the source gas mole ratio η M ( ηM=[Se]/[Zn]). The surface morphologies of homoepilayers grown with η M of more than 15 are very rough like polycrystals. However, these layers have the best crystalline quality as determined by a double crystal X-ray diffraction spectrometer (the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (400) diffraction is 33 arc sec). The surface morphologies of layers grown at values of η M between 3 and 15 are excellent as well as those of heteroepilayers (GaAs substrates are used). On the other hand, the crystalline quality becomes worse by reducing η M. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 4.2 K exhibit strong and well-resolved band-edge emissions from the donor bound exciton (hereafter called I x) and the free exciton (hereafter called E x) only for the low mole ratio (η M<10). The FWHM of I x is 0.8 meV which is sharper than that of heteroepilayers. However, the intensity of emissions from deep levels (deep emissions) of homoepilayers measured at 77 K is several times stronger than that of heteroepilayers. In the region of high mole ratio (η M>10), the PL spectra at 4.2 K show two broad lines: I x and the unknown I v (probably donor bound exciton). And the intensity of I x reduces two orders by decreasing the mole ratio from 20 to 3. This indicates that the concentration of donor decreases for the Se-rich condition. From the investigation of PL measurements, the origin of deep emissions is considered to be caused by complexes of Zn vacancies and impurities from the source gases. The dependences of η M on the quality of homoepilayers observed in this work are quite different from those in

  17. Diffraction limited operation with ARGOS: a hybrid AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS, the Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system, using 3 low-altitude beacons, to improve the resolution over the 4'×4' FoV of the imager and Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) LUCIFER. In this paper we discuss the performance and the reconstruction scheme of an hybrid AO system using the ARGOS Rayleigh beacons complemented with a single faint high-altitude star (NGS or sodium beacon) to sense the turbulence of the upper atmosphere allowing an high degree of on-axis correction. With the ARGOS system, the NGS-upgrade can be immediately implemented at LBT using the already existing Pyramid WFS offering performance similar to the NGS AO system with the advantage of a larger sky coverage.

  18. Real-time control system verification for ELT AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Morris, Tim; Bharmal, Nazim; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Reeves, Andrew; Gendron, Eric; Rousset, Gérard; Hubert, Zoltan; Vidal, Fabrice; Matin, Olivier; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    ELT AO systems have demanding computational requirements for real-timecontrol. These systems are required to be fully tested and robustbefore commissioning so that valuable on-sky time is not wasted. Inthis talk I will report recent work at Durham on our ELT AO real-timecontrol system, algorithms that we use to improve robustness, anddevelopment of an end-to-end testing environment that will allow fulltesting of real-time control systems, including both Monte-Carlosimulation and hardware approaches. The talk will include experiencegained with CANARY, how the robustness of this system has beenimproved, and our experience operating with four laser guide stars. Workcarried out in this area on the DRAGON test-bench will also bedescribed.

  19. Intelligent vibration control of ELTs and large AO hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, J.-U.; Kürster, M.; Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Herbst, T.; Böhm, M.; Keck, A.; Ruppel, T.; Sawodny, O.

    2012-07-01

    MPIA leads the construction of the LINC-NIRVANA instrument, the MCAO-supported Fizeau imager for the LBT, serves as pathfinder for future ELT-AO imagers in terms of size and technology. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to 100nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT. MPIA also co-develops the E-ELT first-light NIR imager MICADO (both SCAO and MCAO assisted). Our experiences, made with LINC-NIRVANA, will be fed into the MICADO structural AO design to reach highest on-sky sensitivity.

  20. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) Process Improvement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC’s) AoA Primer and previous acquisition reviews (Decker- Wagner , etc.). (5...2009................................................................36 Figure E-7. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(1 of 2...37 Figure E-8. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(2 of 2).................38 Figure E-9. Goldwater Nichols

  1. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  2. Propeller Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo 12 Di -RSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kim, Ki-Han 1 3a TYPE OF REPORT 1,3b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year., Month. Day) us...3367 0441 09:11 .1507 .1604 .71 .0442 .1118 .1024 .0906 .0770 OsSO 00000 L3 I 93 S 417 3969 - 3452 -3069 -296 -. 299 to .: -. 039 -. 1612 -. 1424 -. 1304

  3. AO Distal Radius Fracture Classification: Global Perspective on Observer Agreement.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Teunis, Teun; Giménez, Beatriz Bravo; Verstreken, Frederik; Di Mascio, Livio; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-02-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to test interobserver reliability when classifying fractures by consensus by AO types and groups among a large international group of surgeons. Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. Methods A randomized set of radiographic and computed tomographic images from a consecutive series of 96 distal radius fractures (DRFs), treated between October 2010 and April 2013, was classified using an electronic web-based portal by an invited group of participants on two occasions. Results Interobserver reliability was substantial when classifying AO type A fractures but fair and moderate for type B and C fractures, respectively. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties. Intra-rater reproducibility was "substantial" for fracture types and "fair" for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. Conclusion Improved definition of reliability and reproducibility of this classification may be achieved using large international groups of raters, empowering decision making on which system to utilize. Level of Evidence Level III.

  4. Single-shot retinal imaging with AO spectral OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an adaptive optics (AO) spectral OCT retina camera that acquires with unprecedented 3D resolution (2.9 μm lateral; 5.5 μm axial) single shot B-scans of the living human retina. The camera centers on a Michelson interferometer that consists of a superluminescent diode for line illuminating the subject's retinal; voice coil translator for controlling the optical path length of the reference channel; and an imaging spectrometer that is cascaded with a 12-bit area CCD array. The imaging spectrometer was designed with negligible off-axis aberrations and was constructed from stock optical components. AO was integrated into the detector channel of the interferometer and dynamically compensated for most of the ocular aberration across a 6 mm pupil. Short bursts of B-scans, with 100 Ascans each, were successfully acquired at 1 msec intervals. Camera sensitivity was found sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. Individual outer segments of photoreceptors at different retinal eccentricities were observed in vivo. Periodicity of the outer segments matched cone spacing as measured from AO flood illuminated images of the same patches of retina.

  5. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  6. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  7. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  8. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  9. SIMS chemical and isotopic analysis of impact features from LDEF experiments AO187-1 and AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO187-2 showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues. The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO187-1 in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces. SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

  10. Chromosomal evolution of Arvicolinae (Cricetidae, Rodentia). II. The genome homology of two mole voles (genus Ellobius), the field vole and golden hamster revealed by comparative chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Sitnikova, Natalia A; Serdukova, Natalya A; Perelman, Polina L; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Bakloushinskaya, Irina Yu; Lyapunova, Elena A; Just, Walter; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Using cross-species chromosome painting, we have carried out a comprehensive comparison of the karyotypes of two Ellobius species with unusual sex determination systems: the Transcaucasian mole vole, Ellobius lutescens (2n = 17, X in both sexes), and the northern mole vole, Ellobius talpinus (2n = 54, XX in both sexes). Both Ellobius species have highly rearranged karyotypes. The chromosomal paints from the field vole (Microtus agrestis) detected, in total, 34 and 32 homologous autosomal regions in E. lutescens and E. talpinus karyotypes, respectively. No difference in hybridization pattern of the X paint (as well as Y paint) probes on male and female chromosomes was discovered. The set of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) chromosomal painting probes revealed 44 and 43 homologous autosomal regions in E. lutescens and E. talpinus karyotypes, respectively. A comparative chromosome map was established based on the results of cross-species chromosome painting and a hypothetical ancestral Ellobius karyotype was reconstructed. A considerable number of rearrangements were detected; 31 and 7 fusion/fission rearrangements differentiated the karyotypes of E. lutescens and E. talpinus from the ancestral Ellobius karyotype. It seems that inversions have played a minor role in the genome evolution of these Ellobius species.

  11. The assumption of the conservation of mass and its implications for present and future definitions of the kilogram and the mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Richard S.; Milton, Martin J. T.

    2014-06-01

    In the International System of Units (SI), the definition of the mole sets the value of the molar mass of carbon-12, M(12C), exactly equal to 0.012 kg mol-1 whereas the Avogadro constant, NA, which is the molar number of entities, is measured experimentally. In the proposed ‘new SI’ the principles underlying these relationships will be reversed. However, because the kilogram will also be redefined, the relative uncertainty of the molar mass of carbon-12 will be about 50 times smaller than the present relative uncertainty of NA. Critics contend that the mole should not be redefined because a finite uncertainty of M(12C) would be inconvenient for chemists. This criticism tacitly assumes that mass is conserved in chemical reactions and hence that the equivalent masses of chemical bond energies are negligible. Taking as an example the x-ray crystal density experiment to measure NA by determining the number of atoms in a silicon crystal, we estimate that the mass equivalent of chemical bonds in the crystal is approximately 0.18 µg for a 1 kg crystal. By coincidence, this is approximately equal to the relative uncertainty with which M(12C) will be known in the new SI. Various implications of this are discussed.

  12. Comparative Morphology of the Papillae Linguales and their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of the Greater Japanese Shrew-mole, Urotrichus talpoides

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Shindo, J; Kageyama, I

    2013-01-01

    The external morphology of the papillae linguales (papillae filiformes, papillae fungiformes and papillae vallatae) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the greater Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides) were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae filiformes were distributed over the dorsal surface of the apex linguae, and on the rostral and caudal regions of the corpus linguae but were less numerous in the mid-region. They were absent from the radix linguae. A pair of oval papillae vallatae was situated at the border between the corpus linguae and the radix linguae. Papillae foliatae were absent. The epithelial surface of each papilla filiformis consisted of a circular concavity, a ring-like wall and either a single thumb-like process or 2–3 slender pointed processes, depending on their location. The morphology of the CTCs of the papillae filiformes also varied regionally. The papillae linguales of the Japanese shrew-mole were morphologically similar to those of other Talpidae and Soricidae, including the common shrew, particularly with respect to the papillae filiformes in the mid- and caudal regions of the corpus linguae. PMID:22571539

  13. Reproduction Is Associated with a Tissue-Dependent Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Eusocial Female Damaraland Mole-Rats (Fukomys damarensis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christina M.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Nigel C.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC) and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD) in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects. PMID:25068591

  14. Large Amplitude Spatial and Temporal Gradients in Atmospheric Boundary Layer CO2 Mole Fractions Detected With a Tower-Based Network in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, A.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

    2012-02-21

    This study presents observations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} mole fraction from a nine-tower, regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive during 2007-2009. Within this network in a largely agricultural area, mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} gradients were strongly correlated with both ground-based inventory data and estimates from satellite remote sensing. The average seasonal drawdown for corn-dominated sites (35 ppm) is significantly larger than has been observed at other continental boundary layer sites. Observed growing-season median CO{sub 2} gradients are strongly dependent on local flux. The gradients between cross-vegetation site-pairs, for example, average 2.0 ppm/100 km, four times larger than the similar-vegetation site-pair average. Daily-timescale gradients are as large as 5.5 ppm/100 km, but dominated by advection rather than local flux. Flooding in 2008 led to a region-wide 23 week delay in growing-season minima. The observations show that regional-scale CO{sub 2} mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}.

  15. TDLAS-based NH3 mole fraction measurement for exhaust diagnostics during selective catalytic reduction using a fiber-coupled 2.2-µm DFB diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzke, Felix; Diemel, Oliver; Wagner, Steven

    2015-04-01

    A new developed tunable diode laser spectrometer for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) mole fractions in exhaust gas matrices with strong CO2 and H2O background at temperatures up to 800 K is presented. In situ diagnostics in harsh exhaust environments during SCR after treatment are enabled by the use of ammonia transitions in the ν2 + ν3 near-infrared band around 2300 nm. Therefore, three lines have been selected, coinciding near 2200.5 nm (4544.5 cm-1) with rather weak temperature dependency and minimal interference with CO2 and H2O. A fiber-coupled 2.2-μm distributed feedback laser diode was used and attached to the hot gas flow utilizing adjustable gas tight high-temperature fiber ports. The spectrometer spans four coplanar optical channels across the measurement plane and s