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Sample records for aortic aneurysm

  1. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - these occur in the part of the ...

  2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic aneurysm - thoracic; Syphilitic aneurysm; Aneurysm - thoracic aortic ... The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of ... high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who smoke. ...

  3. [Aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Villar, Fernando; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Vila, Ramón; Lahoz, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm is one important cause of death in our country. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) is around 5% for men older than 50 years of age. Some factors are associated with increased risk for AAA: age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease and, in particular, smoking. The medical management of patients with an AAA includes cardiovascular risk treatment, particularly smoking cessation. Most of major societies guidelines recommend ultrasonography screening for AAA in men aged 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked because it leads to decreased AAA-specific mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  4. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  7. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Aortic Aneurysm For ...

  8. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A

    1986-05-01

    Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  9. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M

    1994-08-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.

  10. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open ... Open surgery to repair an AAA is sometimes done as an emergency procedure when there is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  12. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M

    1988-06-11

    348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.

  13. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scan Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular Aortic angiography Hardening of ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  14. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  15. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  16. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Won

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysms are characterized by structural deterioration of the vascular wall leading to progressive dilatation and, potentially, rupture of the aorta. While aortic aneurysms often remain clinically silent, the morbidity and mortality associated with aneurysm expansion and rupture are considerable. Over 13,000 deaths annually in the United States are attributable to aortic aneurysm rupture with less than 1 in 3 persons with aortic aneurysm rupture surviving to surgical intervention. Environmental and epidemiologic risk factors including smoking, male gender, hypertension, older age, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and family history are highly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, while heritable genetic mutations are commonly associated with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Similar to other forms of cardiovascular disease, family history, genetic variation, and heritable mutations modify the risk of aortic aneurysm formation and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of human aortic aneurysms. This review will examine the relationship between heritable genetic and epigenetic influences on thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and rupture. PMID:28116311

  18. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... US) : Ultrasound is a highly accurate way to measure the size of an aneurysm. A physician may also use a special technique called Doppler ultrasound to examine blood flow through the aorta. Occasionally the aorta may not ...

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2010-12-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening. The acceptance rate was 77%, and 95% accept control scans. Furthermore, persons at the highest risk of having an AAA attend screening more frequently. We found that 97% of the interval cases developed from aortas that initially measured 2.5-2.9 cm - i.e. approx. only 5% attenders need re-screening at 5-year intervals. Two large RCTs have given clear indications of operation. Survivors of surgery enjoy the same quality of life as the background population, and only 2-5% of patients refuse an offer of surgery. Early detection seems relevant since the cardiovascular mortality is more than 4 times higher in AAA patients without previous hospital discharge diagnoses due to cardiovascular disease than among similar men without AAA. The absolute risk difference after 5 years was 16%. So, they will benefit from general cardiovascular preventive action as smoking cessation, statins and low-dose aspirin, which could inhibit further AAA progression. All 4 existing RCTs point in the same direction, viz. in favour of screening of men aged 65 and above. We found that screening significantly reduced AAA-related mortality by 67% within the first five years (NNT = 352). Restriction of screening to men with previous cardiovascular or pulmonary hospital discharge diagnoses would request only 27% of the relevant male population study to be invited, but would only have prevented 46.7% of the

  1. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  2. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  3. Medical management of thoracic aortic aneurysm disease.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Alan C

    2013-03-01

    The patient with thoracic aortic aneurysm disease requires careful evaluation and management over his or her lifetime. This includes assessment for the presence of an underlying genetic disorder, such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve disease, or a familial aortic aneurysm syndrome. Screening family members is necessary, inasmuch as up to 20% of first-degree relatives of the patient with a thoracic aortic aneurysm will also have aneurysm disease. Medical therapy is often prescribed, and beta-blocker therapy to reduce the stress on the aortic wall is usually recommended. However, very few clinical trials of pharmacologic therapy in humans with thoracic aortic aneurysm disease have been conducted. Mouse models have led to important discoveries and insight into the pathogenesis of aneurysm syndromes, and there is hope these may lead to effective therapy in people. Several studies are ongoing that examine the role of angiotensin receptor blockers in Marfan syndrome. Lifestyle modification is also important for patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, including restrictions on physical activity, weight lifting, and recommendations about the management of pregnancy. Long-term surveillance of the aorta, even after successful surgery, is necessary for timing of prophylactic surgery and to evaluate for late complications. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-08-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

  5. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm from Chronic Antiestrogen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rishi; Sainathan, Sandeep; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-03-01

    Aortic aneurysms are a common but often undetected pathology prevalent in the population. They are often detected as incidental findings on imaging studies performed for unrelated pathologies. Estrogens have been shown to exert a protective influence on aortic tissue. Pharmacological agents blocking the actions of estrogens may thus be implicated in causing aortic pathologies. We present the case of an elderly woman with breast carcinoma treated for 18 years with antiestrogen therapy who subsequently developed acute thoracic aortic deterioration (enlargement and wall disruption).

  6. The Genetic Basis of Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Mark E.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene identification in human aortic aneurysm conditions is proceeding at a rapid pace and the integration of pathogenesis-based management strategies in clinical practice is an emerging reality. Human genetic alterations causing aneurysm involve diverse gene products including constituents of the extracellular matrix, cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and elements of the contractile cytoskeleton. Animal modeling experiments and human genetic discoveries have extensively implicated the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) cytokine-signaling cascade in aneurysm progression, but mechanistic links between many gene products remain obscure. This chapter will integrate human genetic alterations associated with aortic aneurysm with current basic research findings in an attempt to form a reconciling if not unifying model for hereditary aortic aneurysm. PMID:25183854

  7. Gallium localization in dissecting aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Haden, H.T.; Lippman, H.R.

    1988-08-01

    Gallium concentration was demonstrated in a dissecting aneurysm of the aortic arch, imaged approximately 2 weeks after dissection. Concentration of gallium was apparently due to the inflammatory reaction associated with the organizing intramural hematoma.

  8. Management of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Dehlin, Jennifer M; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a lethal disease. Ultrasound is the modality of choice for screening patients for AAAs. It is reasonable to screen patients over age 60, particularly men, women with cardiovascular risk factors, smokers, and patients with a family history of AAAs. Patients with small (< 5.5 cm) AAAs should be followed with serial ultrasound. Medical management should focus on treating comorbidities, particularly those that put patients at risk for other cardiovascular diseases. Smoking cessation is mandatory in these patients. Patients with large or symptomatic AAAs should be evaluated for surgery; this includes careful imaging of the abdomen, aggressive treatment of comorbidities, and perioperative beta blockade. Endovascular repair has lower short-term morbidity compared with conventional open repair. Trials assessing long-term results are in progress. Basic science and translational research focusing on the underlying pathogenesis of AAAs will likely pave the way for medical therapies in the future.

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly afflicting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAA at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms. [Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.T.; Ling, D.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Sicard, G.A.; Totty, W.G.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients with radiologically or surgically proven abdominal aortic aneurysms using a Siemens Magnetom scanner with a 0.35-T superconductive magnet. Of nine patients who underwent surgical repair, MRI correctly demonstrated the origin of the aortic aneurysm in nine and accurately determined the status of the iliac arteries in eight. Of 11 patients who did not have surgical repair, MRI findings correlated well with other radiologic studies. MRI was found to be more reliable than sonography in determining the relation between the aneurysm and the renal arteries as well as the status of the iliac arteries. Despite these advantages, the authors still advocate sonography as the screening procedure of choice in patients with suspected abdominal aortic aneurysms because of its lower cost and ease of performance. MRI should be reserved for patients who have had unsuccessful or equivocal sonographic examinations.

  11. Transcatheter wiring of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, P.; Simonetti, G.; Passariello, R.; Stipa, S.; Cavallaro, A.

    1983-04-01

    A new technique of transcatheder wiring of unresectable aortic aneurysm is described that provides simultaneous transcatheder occlusion of both common iliac arteries followed by exillofemoral bypass. The spring coil used for aortic aneurysm wiring was of our own making. The outer portion of a movable core stainless steel guidewire was bent in a coil shape and introduced into the aneurysm through a 7 French Teflon catheder via the right femoral artery. The same catheder was also used for coil embolus occlusion of both iliac arteries.

  12. Airway obstruction by an aortic false aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Taillandier, S; Guillon, A; Favelle, O; Garot, D; Perrotin, D

    2011-12-01

    Aortic false aneurysms are rare complications of aortic valve replacement and cardiac surgical procedures in general. Aortic false aneurysms can also presents as a mediastinal mass. A false aneurysm etiology should always be considered in mediastinal mass exploration of patients with a cardiac surgery history. Although, a computed tomography (CT) scan can detect a mediastinal mass, it can equally misdiagnose an aneurysm in the absence of tumour contrast enhancement. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was hospitalized for a laryngeal dyspnea. She had undergone aortic valve replacement 3 years earlier and had no other relevant medical history. In the last 3 months, she presented a progressively worsening dyspnea and cough. A chest radiograph showed a large mass in the superior mediastinum. A contrast-enhanced CT-scan showed an anterior mediastinal mass (9 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm) not enhanced by contrast product, suggestive of a tissue density tumour. The mass was in fact an aortic false aneurysm where the communication with the aorta was too narrow to be filled by the contrast product in arterial phase imaging. The aneurysm was excised and successfully replaced with a prosthetic graft during deep hypothermic and circulatory arrest. In this case report, we discuss the unusual clinical presentation of this pseudoaneurysm and the absence of contrast enhancement during CT-scan, which could have lead to a catastrophic error. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... your doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Am I at risk for AAA? Men ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions familial TAAD familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection ( familial TAAD ) involves problems with the ...

  15. Aortic Aneurysm: Etiopathogenesis and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm (AA) is one of the life-threatening aortic diseases, leading to aortic rupture of any cause including atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic diseases. AA is diagnosed in a variable proportion of patients with dilated aorta by imaging modality. The etiopathogenesis of AA remains unclear in many aortic diseases. Furthermore, although it may be difficult to explain all phenotypes of patients even if genetic mutation could be identified in some proteins such as smooth muscle cell α-actin (ACTA2), myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11) or SMAD3, individualized consideration of these factors in each patient is essential on the basis of clinicopathological characteristics. PMID:27375798

  16. Familial aortic aneurysm in Leonberg dogs.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Tessier, Dominique; Borenstein, Nicolas; Delisle, Françoise; Zilberstein, Luca; Payen, Guillaume; Leglaive, Eric; Franc, Brigitte; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2003-10-15

    A thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed in a 6-month-old male Leonberg dog by use of radiography, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The aneurysm was associated with a twisted ascending aorta and dilatation of several other thoracic arteries (pulmonary trunk, brachiocephalic trunk, and left subclavian artery). Histologic examination of the aorta revealed cystic medial necrosis, with disruption of the elastic network, collagen fibers, and the muscle glycoprotein fibrillin-1. The dam and sire of the dog and 8 littermates were examined by use of transthoracic echocardiography. The sire and 1 male littermate also had an aneurysm of the ascending aorta. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of familial aortic aneurysm in dogs.

  17. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm and renovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Riambau, Vicente; Guerrero, Francisco; Montañá, Xavier; Gilabert, Rosa

    2007-06-01

    Recent technological advances in the diagnosis and therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysm and renovascular disease are continuing to bring about changes in the way patients suffering from these conditions are treated. The prevalence of both these conditions is increasing. This is due to greater life-expectancy in patients with arteriosclerosis, a pathogenetic factor underlying both conditions. The application of diagnostic imaging techniques to non-vascular conditions has led to the early diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinical suspicion of reno-vascular disease can be confirmed easily using high-resolution diagnostic imaging modalities such as CT angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Endovascular intervention is successfully replacing conventional surgical repair techniques, with the result that it may be possible to improve outcome in both conditions using effective and minimally invasive approaches. Future technological developments will enable these endovascular techniques to be applied in the large majority of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm or renovascular disease.

  18. Current aortic endografts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Colvard, Benjamin; Georg, Yannick; Chakfe, Nabil; Swanstrom, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Endovascular Aneurysm Repair is a widely adopted method of treatment for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. The minimally invasive approach offered with EVAR has become popular not only among physicians and patients, but in the medical device industry as well. Over the past 25 years the global market for aortic endografts has increased rapidly, resulting in a wide range of devices from various companies. Currently, there are seven endografts approved by the FDA for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These devices offer a wide range of designs intended to increase inclusion criteria while decreasing technical complications such as endoleak and migration. Despite advances in device design, secondary interventions and follow-up requirements remain a significant issue. New devices are currently being studied in the U.S. and abroad and may significantly reduce complications and secondary interventions.

  19. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of

  20. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: reading the enemy's playbook.

    PubMed

    Elefteriades, John A

    2008-05-01

    The vast database of the Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease--which includes information on 3000 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection, with 9000 catalogued images and 9000 patient-years of follow-up--has, over the last decade, permitted multiple glimpses into the "playbook" of this virulent disease. Understanding the precise behavioral features of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection permits us more effectively to combat this disease. In this monograph, we will first review certain fundamentals--in terms of anatomy, nomenclature, imaging, diagnosis, medical, surgical, and stent treatment. After reviewing these fundamentals, we will proceed with a detailed exploration of lessons learned by peering into the operational playbook of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Among the glimpses afforded in the behavioral playbook of this disease are the following: 1 Thoracic aortic aneurysm, while lethal, is indolent. Mortality usually does not occur until after years of growth. 2 The aneurysmal ascending thoracic aorta grows slowly: about 0.1 cm per year (the descending aorta grows somewhat faster). 3 Over a patient's lifetime, "hinge points" at which the likelihood of rupture or dissection skyrockets are seen at 5.5 cm for the ascending and 6.5 cm for the descending aorta. Intervening at 5 cm diameter for the ascending and 6 cm for the descending prevents most adverse events. 4 Symptomatic aneurysms require resection regardless of size. 5 The yearly rate of rupture, dissection, or death is 14.1% for a patient with a thoracic aorta of 6 cm diameter. 6 The mechanical properties of the aorta deteriorate markedly at 6 cm diameter (distensibility falls, and wall stress rises)--a finding that "dovetails" perfectly with observations of the clinical behavior of the thoracic aorta. 7 Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are largely inherited diseases, with a predominantly autosomal-dominant pattern. The specific genetics are being elucidated at the

  1. Understanding the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Tromp, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Summary An aortic aneurysm is a dilatation in which the aortic diameter is ≥ 3.0 cm. If left untreated, the aortic wall continues to weaken and becomes unable to withstand the forces of the luminal blood pressure resulting in progressive dilatation and rupture, a catastrophic event associated with a mortality of 50 – 80%. Smoking and positive family history are important risk factors for the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Several genetic risk factors have also been identified. On the histological level, visible hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. We expect that large genetic, genomic, epigenetic, proteomic and metabolomic studies will be undertaken by international consortia to identify additional risk factors and biomarkers, and to enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of AAA. Collaboration between different research groups will be important in overcoming the challenges to develop pharmacological treatments for AAA. PMID:26308600

  2. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  3. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  4. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hannawa, Kevin K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the tenth leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65 to 74 years of age and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA, with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine-driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues owing to excessive local production of matrix-degrading enzymes and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, no medical therapies are available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation is critical as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, Tracy; Geraghty, Patrick; Braverman, Alan C

    2017-04-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) leads to aortic root aneurysm, while descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) occurs less commonly. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is rarely reported in MFS. Risk factors for AAA are poorly understood and there are no guidelines for AAA screening in MFS. We sought to characterize AAA among Marfan patients in our center. The records of 12 adults with MFS and AAA disease were reviewed. Clinical features, imaging, operative reports, and outcomes were analyzed. Twelve adults with MFS and AAA were studied; age at AAA diagnosis was 44 ± 15 years (range 18-63). Nine patients smoked cigarettes. Eleven patients underwent prior aortic root replacement at age 31 ± 15 years. The size of AAA was 5.0 ± 1.3 cm (range 3.5-7.5) at the time of diagnosis. The AAA was suprarenal in 5, juxtarenal in 2, and infrarenal in 5 patients. Two patients had a descending TAA. Branch vessel aneurysms were present in 7 patients. Five patients underwent open surgical repair, 5 underwent endovascular repair, and 5 are being treated medically. One patient died suddenly with AAA size 5.7 cm, 2 months before death. Three patients subsequently developed type B aortic dissection, from 3 months to 9 years after AAA diagnosis. Adults with MFS are at risk for developing AAA. Evaluation for AAA is recommended in adults with MFS and prior root replacement, especially if descending aortic or branch vessel aneurysm is present or the patient smokes cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in experimental aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Eliason, Jonathan L; Roelofs, Karen J; Sinha, Indranil; Hannawa, Kevin K; Kaldjian, Eric P; Lu, Guanyi; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Weiss, Stephen J; Thompson, Robert W; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2004-11-01

    It is hypothesized that a male predominance, similar to that in humans, persists in a rodent model of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) via alterations in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Group I experiments were as follows: elastase perfusion of the infrarenal aorta was performed in male (M) and female (F) rats. At 14 days, aortas were harvested for immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and zymography. Group II experiments were the following: abdominal aorta was transplanted from F or M donors into F or M recipients. At 14 days, rodents that had undergone transplantation underwent elastase perfusion. In group III, male rats were given estradiol or sham 5 days before elastase perfusion. In group I, M rats had larger AAAs with higher frequency than did F rats. M rat aortas had more significant macrophage infiltrates and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 production and activity. In group II, M-to-M aortic transplants uniformly developed aneurysms after elastase perfusion, whereas F-to-F aortic transplants remained resistant to aneurysm formation. F aortas transplanted into M recipients, however, lost aneurysm resistance. In group III, estradiol-treated rats demonstrated smaller aneurysms and less macrophage infiltrate and MMP-9 compared with M controls after elastase. These data provide evidence of gender-related differences in AAA development, which may reflect an estrogen-mediated reduction in macrophage MMP-9 production.

  7. Aortic aneurysm mimicking a right atrial mass.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Kalra, Rajat; Bulur, Serkan; Nanda, Navin C

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of a 54-year-old female who was initially thought to have a cystic mass in the right atrium on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Careful transducer angulation and off-axis imaging showed this mass-like effect was produced by an aortic root aneurysm impinging on the right atrium.

  8. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  10. Semi-automatic aortic aneurysm analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodur, Osman; Grady, Leo; Stillman, Arthur; Setser, Randolph; Funka-Lea, Gareth; O'Donnell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Aortic aneurysms are the 13 th leading cause of death in the United States. In standard clinical practice, assessing the progression of disease in the aorta, as well as the risk of aneurysm rupture, is based on measurements of aortic diameter. We propose a method for automatically segmenting the aortic vessel border allowing the calculation of aortic diameters on CTA acquisitions which is accurate and fast, allowing clinicians more time for their evaluations. While segmentation of aortic lumen is straightforward in CTA, segmentation of the outer vessel wall (epithelial layer) in a diseased aorta is difficult; furthermore, no clinical tool currently exists to perform this task. The difficulties are due to the similarities in intensity of surrounding tissue (and thrombus due to lack of contrast agent uptake), as well as the complications from bright calcium deposits. Our overall method makes use of a centerline for the purpose of resampling the image volume into slices orthogonal to the vessel path. This centerline is computed semi-automatically via a distance transform. The difficult task of automatically segmenting the aortic border on the orthogonal slices is performed via a novel variation of the isoperimetric algorithm which incorporates circular constraints (priors). Our method is embodied in a prototype which allows the loading and registration of two datasets simultaneously, facilitating longitudinal comparisons. Both the centerline and border segmentation algorithms were evaluated on four patients, each with two volumes acquired 6 months to 1.5 years apart, for a total of eight datasets. Results showed good agreement with clinicians' findings.

  11. Diagnosis of aortic aneurysms by scintigraphy and ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, G. ); Chatal, J.F.; Tellier, J.L.; Talmant, C.; Guihard, R. )

    1981-10-01

    Angioscintigraphy, performed on 50 patients suspected of aortic aneurysm and complemented by abdominal ultrasonography in 31 cases, disclosed: - Three cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm, 2 of which were confirmed by arteriography and surgery. It was impossible to perform surgery in the third case, no arteriography was done. Strict agreement with standard thoracic images had made the angioscintigraphic diagnosis seem correct. Twenty-seven cases of abdominal aortic aneurysms were confirmed by arteriography or surgery. Ultrasonography disclosed an abdominal aortic aneurysm in 26 cases, 20 of which were confirmed. The agreement of the two procedures in 10 unconfirmed cases led us to consider the diagnosis as correct. Angioscintigraphy appears to be a reliable procedure for detecting thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ultrasonography is the simplest and least costly procedure for study of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  12. Chronic Type A Aortic Dissection and Giant Aortic Root Aneurysm After Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Puga, Andrés Enríquez; Rodríguez, Sara Castaño; Pañero, Blanca Mateos; Moreira, Beatriz Castaño; López Almodóvar, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 61-year-old male with a giant aortic root aneurysm associated with chronic aortic Type A dissection. The patient had been operated on 16 years before due to aortic annuloectasia with mechanical valve replacement. The patient underwent revision aortic surgery with a Bentall-De Bono operation with Svensson modification, using a #21 On-X Valsalva mechanical valve conduit. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:28097190

  13. Medical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Rodionov, Roman N; Mahlmann, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.

  14. MMP-2 Isoforms in Aortic Tissue and Serum of Patients with Ascending Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Root Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Tscheuschler, Anke; Meffert, Philipp; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Heilmann, Claudia; Kocher, Nadja; Uffelmann, Xenia; Discher, Philipp; Siepe, Matthias; Kari, Fabian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The need for biological markers of aortic wall stress and risk of rupture or dissection of ascending aortic aneurysms is obvious. To date, wall stress cannot be related to a certain biological marker. We analyzed aortic tissue and serum for the presence of different MMP-2 isoforms to find a connection between serum and tissue MMP-2 and to evaluate the potential of different MMP-2 isoforms as markers of high wall stress. Methods Serum and aortic tissue from n = 24 patients and serum from n = 19 healthy controls was analyzed by ELISA and gelatin zymography. 24 patients had ascending aortic aneurysms, 10 of them also had aortic root aneurysms. Three patients had normally functioning valves, 12 had regurgitation alone, eight had regurgitation and stenosis and one had only stenosis. Patients had bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves (9/15). Serum samples were taken preoperatively, and the aortic wall specimen collected during surgical aortic repair. Results Pro-MMP-2 was identified in all serum and tissue samples. Pro-MMP-2 was detected in all tissue and serum samples from patients with ascending aortic/aortic root aneurysms, irrespective of valve morphology or other clinical parameters and in serum from healthy controls. We also identified active MMP-2 in all tissue samples from patients with ascending aortic/aortic root aneurysms. None of the analyzed serum samples revealed signals relatable to active MMP-2. No correlation between aortic tissue total MMP-2 or tissue pro-MMP-2 or tissue active MMP-2 and serum MMP-2 was found and tissue MMP-2/pro-MMP-2/active MMP-2 did not correlate with aortic diameter. This evidence shows that pro-MMP-2 is the predominant MMP-2 species in serum of patients and healthy individuals and in aneurysmatic aortic tissue, irrespective of aortic valve configuration. Active MMP-2 species are either not released into systemic circulation or not detectable in serum. There is no reliable connection between aortic tissue—and serum MMP-2

  15. Successful transfemoral aortic valve implantation through aortic stent graft after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The patient was a 91-year-old woman presenting with severe aortic valve stenosis. Pre-procedural computed tomography scan revealed a 45-mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TF-TAVI) was performed after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of the AAA. The 23-mm Edwards Sapien XT system passed through the aortic stent graft smoothly. This is the first case report showing that successful TF-TAVI can be performed through a prior abdominal aortic stent graft. TF-TAVI after EVAR of AAA is a feasible option for patients with extremely poor access.

  16. Aortic aneurysms : a mechanical instability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclaux, Virginie; Gallaire, Francois; Clanet, Christophe

    2005-11-01

    We study experimentally a system composed of an elastic membrane in which water is periodically flushed from a heart-like pump. Our first interest is the occurrence of waves as opposed to an homogeneous mode of deformation of our membrane. These modes may explain differences in the localization of aneurysms in the body. Then we show the case of an inhomogeneous membrane (in terms of Young's modulus) submitted to our flow. In a certain range of parameters, our fake artery is able to gradually develop a swollen region that we call aneurysm, and whose cause is mechanical.

  17. MicroRNAs, fibrotic remodeling, and aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms are a common clinical condition that can cause death due to aortic dissection or rupture. The association between aortic aneurysm pathogenesis and altered TGF-β signaling has been the subject of numerous investigations. Recently, a TGF-β–responsive microRNA (miR), miR-29, has been identified to play a role in cellular phenotypic modulation during aortic development and aging. In this issue of JCI, Maegdefessel and colleagues demonstrate that decreasing the levels of miR-29b in the aortic wall can attenuate aortic aneurysm progression in two different mouse models of abdominal aortic aneurysms. This study highlights the relevance of miR-29b in aortic disease but also raises questions about its specific role. PMID:22269322

  18. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as meralgia paraesthetica.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, A; Hodgetts, T

    1997-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported in a patient with long standing low back pain, presenting as meralgia paraesthetica and an increase in the severity of back pain. The case highlights the need for objective assessment of new symptoms arising in a chronic condition, and for a systematic approach to the assessment of radiographs performed in the accident and emergency department. Images p50-a PMID:9147718

  20. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  1. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Growth: Role of Sex and Aneurysm Etiology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Katie; Boodhwani, Munir; Chan, Kwan-Leung; Beauchesne, Luc; Dick, Alexander; Coutinho, Thais

    2017-02-03

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) outcomes are worse in women than men, although reasons for sex differences are unknown. Because faster TAA growth is a risk factor for acute aortic syndromes, we sought to determine the role of sex and aneurysm etiology on TAA growth. Eighty-two consecutive unoperated subjects with TAA who had serial aneurysm measurements were recruited. In multivariable linear regression the association of female sex with aneurysm growth rate was assessed after adjustment for potential confounders. We also tested the interaction term sex×aneurysm etiology in the prediction of TAA growth. Seventy-four percent of subjects were men; mean±SD age was 62.4±11.9 years in men and 67.7±10.7 years in women (P=0.06). Forty-seven (57%) subjects had degenerative TAAs, and the remainder had heritable TAAs. Absolute baseline aneurysm size and follow-up time were not different between men and women. Aneurysm growth rate was 1.19±1.15 mm/y in women and 0.59±0.66 mm/y in men (P=0.02). Female sex remained significantly associated with greater aneurysm growth in multivariable analyses (β±SE: 0.35±0.12, P=0.005). In addition, female sex was associated with faster TAA growth only among those with degenerative TAA (β±SE: 0.33±0.08, P=0.0002) and not among those with heritable TAA (P=0.79), with a significant sex×etiology interaction (P=0.001). TAA growth rates are greater in women than men, and this difference is specific to women with degenerative TAAs. Our findings may explain sex differences in TAA outcomes and provide a foundation for future investigations of this topic. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Risk of rupture or dissection in descending thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Bum; Kim, Kibeom; Lindsay, Mark E; MacGillivray, Thomas; Isselbacher, Eric M; Cambria, Richard P; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2015-10-27

    Current practice guidelines recommend surgical repair of large thoracic aortic aneurysms to prevent fatal aortic dissection or rupture, but limited natural history data exist to support clinical criteria for timely intervention. Of 3247 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm registered in our institutional Thoracic Aortic Center Database, we identified and reviewed 257 nonsyndromic patients (age, 72.4±10.5 years; 143 female) with descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm without a history of aortic dissection in whom surgical intervention was not undertaken. The primary end point was a composite of aortic dissection/rupture and sudden death. Baseline mean maximal aortic diameter was 52.4±10.8 mm, with 103 patients having diameters ≥55 mm. During a median follow-up of 25.1 months (quartiles 1-3, 8.3-56.4 months), definite and possible aortic events occurred in 19 (7.4%) and 31 (12.1%) patients, respectively. On multivariable analyses, maximal aortic diameter at baseline emerged as the only significant predictor of aortic events (hazard ratio=1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.15). Estimated rates of definite aortic events within 1 year were 5.5%, 7.2%, and 9.3% for aortic diameters of 50, 55, and 60 mm, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for discriminating aortic events were higher for indexed aortic sizes referenced by body size (area under the curve=0.832-0.889) but not significantly different from absolute maximal aortic diameter (area under the curve=0.805). Aortic size was the principal factor related to aortic events in unrepaired descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Although the risk of aortic events started to increase with a diameter >5.0 to 5.5 cm, it is uncertain whether repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms in this range leads to overall benefit, and the threshold for repair requires further evaluation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sourabh; Qamar, Arman; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Alka

    2011-01-01

    An arterial aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation of a blood vessel with respect to the original artery. The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) increases dramatically in the presence of the following factors: age older than 60 years, smoking, hypertension and Caucasian ethnicity. The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by the aneurysm size, expansion rate, continued smoking and persistent hypertension. The majority of AAAs are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed for other purposes. It can also present with abdominal pain or complications such as thrombosis, embolization and rupture. Approximately 30% of asymptomatic AAAs are discovered as a pulsatile abdominal mass on routine physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography is considered the screening modality of choice for detecting AAAs because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as its safety and relatively lower cost. The decision to screen for AAAs is challenging. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that men between the age of 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked should be screened at least once for AAAs by abdominal ultrasonography. Management options for patients with an asymptomatic AAA include reduction of risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia; medical therapy with beta-blockers; watchful waiting; endovascular stenting; and surgical repair depending on the size and expansion rate of the aneurysm and underlying comorbidities. PMID:21523201

  4. Behçet's disease with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm following ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Atsushi; Kawashima, Masatou; Matsushima, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old Japanese woman with Behçet's disease suffered successive rupture of thoracic aortic and cerebral aneurysms within one year. The patient underwent successful surgical treatment for both aneurysms. Histological examination of the aneurysm walls revealed lymphocyte infiltration into the adventitia with smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in the thickened intima. This is an extremely unusual presentation of Behçet's disease associated with both cerebral and aortic aneurysms.

  5. Severe Vertebral Erosion by Huge Symptomatic Pulsating Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2008-01-01

    Aortic abdominal aneurysm rarely has been reported as causing osteolytic lesions of the spine. It may produce back and radiating pain patterns similar to those of several commonly encountered neurosurgical processes. We report a uncommon complication of huge pulsating aortic aneurysm causing severe vertebral erosion with incapacitating back and radiating pain. PMID:19096617

  6. Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a HIV-positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Márcio Luís; Binotto, Ívia; Behar, Paulo; Erling Jr., Nilon; Lichtenfels, Eduardo; Aerts, Newton

    2017-01-01

    Advent of antiretroviral therapy has increased survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, with the result that some of these patients now develop degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerotic aneurysms. Degenerative thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm is rare in HIV patients. In this report, a 63-year-old male patient with HIV submitted to open repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. The patient did not suffer any type of complication in the perioperative period and remained well in a 28-month follow-up period. In summary, open repair still remains a good alternative for aortic complex aneurysms even in HIV patients.

  7. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L; Sadeghi, Mehran M

    2016-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, for example, inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in abdominal aortic aneurysm morbidity and mortality. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide magnetic resonance imaging are 2 novel approaches to abdominal aortic aneurysm imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (eg, integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm and show great potential for clinical translation.

  8. Biomechanical Evaluation of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Andrea; Battini, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of ascending aortic aneurysms were investigated only in the last decade in a limited number of studies. Indeed, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in this field in order to identify new predictive parameters of risk of dissection, which may have clinical relevance. The researches performed so far have been conducted according to the methods used in the study of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In most cases, uniaxial or biaxial tensile tests were used, while in a smaller number of studies other methods, such as opening angle, bulge inflation, and inflation-extension tests, were used. However, parameters and protocols of these tests are at present very heterogeneous in the studies reported in the literature, and, therefore, the results are not comparable and are sometimes conflicting. The purpose of this review then thence to provide a comprehensive analysis of the experimental methodology for determination of biomechanical properties in the specific field of aneurysms of the ascending aorta to allow for better comparison and understanding of the results. PMID:24991568

  9. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  10. Monocytes and macrophages in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Raffort, Juliette; Lareyre, Fabien; Clément, Marc; Hassen-Khodja, Réda; Chinetti, Giulia; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-04-13

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity, and high mortality in the event of aortic rupture. Major advances in open surgical and endovascular repair of AAA have been achieved during the past 2 decades. However, drug-based therapies are still lacking, highlighting a real need for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AAA formation and progression. The main pathological features of AAA include extracellular matrix remodelling associated with degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and accumulation and activation of inflammatory cells. The inflammatory process has a crucial role in AAA and substantially influences many determinants of aortic wall remodelling. In this Review, we focus specifically on the involvement of monocytes and macrophages, summarizing current knowledge on the roles, origin, and functions of these cells in AAA development and its complications. Furthermore, we show and propose that distinct monocyte and macrophage subsets have critical and differential roles in initiation, progression, and healing of the aneurysmal process. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, we review potential translational applications to detect, assess, and image macrophage subsets in AAA, and discuss the relevance of these applications for clinical practice.

  11. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dominique B.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Moll, Frans L.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568

  12. Primary Aortic Infections and Infected Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Primary infections of the aorta and infected aortic aneurysms are rare and are life threatening. Most of them are due to bacterial infection occurring in an atheromatous plaque or a pre existing aneurysm during bacteremia. Rarely spread from a contiguous septic process may be the cause. The reported hospital mortality ranges from 16–44%. Gram positive bacteria are still the most common causative organisms. More recently, Gram negative bacilli are seen increasingly responsible. The mortality rate is higher for the Gram negative infection since they most often cause supra renal aneurysms and are more prone for rupture. Best results are achieved by appropriate antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. Excision of the infected aneurysm sac as well as surrounding tissue and in situ reconstruction of aorta is the preferred treatment. Pedicled omental cover also helps to reduce infection. Long term antibiotic is needed to prevent reinfection. Mortality is high for those who undergo emergency operation, with advanced age and for nonsalmonella infection. PMID:23555384

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Judy; Martufi, Giampaolo; Di Martino, Elena; Washington, Christopher B.; Grisafi, Joseph; Muluk, Satish C.; Finol, Ender A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the maximum transverse diameter of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and expansion rate are not entirely reliable indicators of rupture potential. We hypothesize that aneurysm morphology and wall thickness are more predictive of rupture risk and can be the deciding factors in the clinical management of the disease. A non-invasive, image-based evaluation of AAA shape was implemented on a retrospective study of 10 ruptured and 66 unruptured aneurysms. Three-dimensional models were generated from segmented, contrast-enhanced computed tomography images. Geometric indices and regional variations in wall thickness were estimated based on novel segmentation algorithms. A model was created using a J48 decision tree algorithm and its performance was assessed using ten-fold cross validation. Feature selection was performed using the χ2-test. The model correctly classified 65 datasets and had an average prediction accuracy of 86.6% (κ = 0.37). The highest ranked features were sac length, sac height, volume, surface area, maximum diameter, bulge height, and intra-luminal thrombus volume. Given that individual AAAs have complex shapes with local changes in surface curvature and wall thickness, the assessment of AAA rupture risk should be based on the accurate quantification of aneurysmal sac shape and size. PMID:20890661

  14. Temporal changes of aortic neck morphology in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Propper, Brandon W; Rasmussen, Todd E; Jones, W Tracey; Gifford, Shaun M; Burkhardt, Gabriel E; Clouse, W Darrin

    2010-05-01

    This study characterized temporal changes in the infrarenal aortic aneurysm neck in patients with small, untreated abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Patients with infrarenal AAA who had contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans separated by >6 months were identified and their images reviewed. Infrarenal neck diameter and length were measured along with aneurysm diameter. Comparisons between the interval CT scans were made and analysis of factors affecting neck changes performed. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria with an imaging interval of 3.8 years (median, 3.4 years; range, 0.75-9.6 years). During the interval, there was an increase in proximal and distal neck diameters of 1.1 mm (SD, 2.2) (0.28 mm/y) and 1.0 mm (SD, 3.0) (0.26 mm/y), respectively. During the same interval, the neck length decreased by 4 mm (SD, 11) (1 mm/y). A neck length of <15 mm was present in 10 patients (17%) at the initial imaging. Four of the remaining 50 patients experienced an interval decrease in neck length to <15 mm, all of whom had initial lengths of 15 to 20 mm. Medications had no association with changes in neck morphology; however, diabetes correlated with a slower rate of neck shortening (P = .001). The natural history of the aneurysm neck is one of expansion and shortening that will not affect most patients under surveillance. Patients with marginal neck lengths (range, 15-20 mm) at the initial imaging are more likely to experience loss of neck length that may negatively affect endovascular suitability. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

    1999-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

  16. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  17. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Marcelo; Zeidan, Fernanda; Lobato, Armando C.

    2013-01-01

    There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD), bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV), and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research. PMID:23401778

  18. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  19. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopinski, Piotr

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  20. Advancements in identifying biomechanical determinants for abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Tavlas, Emmanouil; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Ioannou, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common health problem and currently the need for surgical intervention is determined based on maximum diameter and growth rate criteria. Since these universal variables often fail to predict accurately every abdominal aortic aneurysms evolution, there is a considerable effort in the literature for other markers to be identified towards individualized rupture risk estimations and growth rate predictions. To this effort, biomechanical tools have been extensively used since abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is in fact a material failure of the diseased arterial wall to compensate the stress acting on it. The peak wall stress, the role of the unique geometry of every individual abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as the mechanical properties and the local strength of the degenerated aneurysmal wall, all confer to rupture risk. In this review article, the assessment of these variables through mechanical testing, advanced imaging and computational modeling is reviewed and the clinical perspective is discussed.

  1. Endovascular exclusion of patch aneurysms of intercostal arteries after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Juthier, Francis; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Vincentelli, André; Prat, Alain; Bachet, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Reimplantation of the largest patent intercostal arteries is usually performed during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This may lead to aneurysmal evolution of the intercostal arteries patch. We report the successful percutaneous endovascular repair in 4 Marfan patients of aneurysms of the intercostal arteries patch that developed after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (Crawford type II) during a mean delay of 70 months (range, 48 to 91 months). All patients had previously undergone one or several aortic surgical procedures and had patent subclavian and hypogastric arterial networks. No in-hospital deaths or spinal cord ischemic injuries occurred, which emphasizes the importance of the vascular collateral network.

  2. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi; Buttazzi, Katia; Rinaldi, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving the visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.

  3. A mathematical model of aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Gong, Shihua; Wu, Shuonan; Xu, Jinchao; Go, Michael R.; Friedman, Avner; Zhu, Dai

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta, such that the diameter exceeds 3 cm. The natural history of AAA is progressive growth leading to rupture, an event that carries up to 90% risk of mortality. Hence there is a need to predict the growth of the diameter of the aorta based on the diameter of a patient’s aneurysm at initial screening and aided by non-invasive biomarkers. IL-6 is overexpressed in AAA and was suggested as a prognostic marker for the risk in AAA. The present paper develops a mathematical model which relates the growth of the abdominal aorta to the serum concentration of IL-6. Given the initial diameter of the aorta and the serum concentration of IL-6, the model predicts the growth of the diameter at subsequent times. Such a prediction can provide guidance to how closely the patient’s abdominal aorta should be monitored. The mathematical model is represented by a system of partial differential equations taking place in the aortic wall, where the media is assumed to have the constituency of an hyperelastic material. PMID:28212412

  4. "Open" approach to aortic arch aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, Adil H; Al Kimyani, Nasser; Alameddine, Tarek; Al Abri, Qasim; Balan, Baskaran; Al Sabti, Hilal

    2014-07-01

    Aortic arch aneurysm is a relatively rare entity in cardiac surgery. Repair of such aneurysms, either in isolation or combined with other cardiac procedures, remains a challenging task. The need to produce a relatively bloodless surgical field with circulatory arrest, while at the same time protecting the brain, is the hallmark of this challenge. However, a clear understanding of the topic allows a better and less morbid approach to such a complex surgery. Literature has shown the advantage of selective cerebral perfusion techniques in comparison with only circulatory arrest. Ability to perfuse the brain has allowed circulatory arrest temperatures at moderate hypothermia without the need for deep hypothermia. Even though cannulation site selection appears to be a minor issue, literature has shown that the subclavian/axillary route has the best outcomes and that femoral cannulation should only be reserved for no access patients. Although different techniques for arch anastomosis have been described, we routinely perform the distal first technique as we find it to be less cumbersome and easiest to reproduce. In this review our aim is to outline a systematic approach to aortic arch surgery. Starting with indications for intervention and proceeding with approaches on site of cannulation, approaches to brain protection with hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion and finally surgical steps in performing the distal and arch vessels anastomosis.

  5. A mathematical model of aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenrui; Gong, Shihua; Wu, Shuonan; Xu, Jinchao; Go, Michael R; Friedman, Avner; Zhu, Dai

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta, such that the diameter exceeds 3 cm. The natural history of AAA is progressive growth leading to rupture, an event that carries up to 90% risk of mortality. Hence there is a need to predict the growth of the diameter of the aorta based on the diameter of a patient's aneurysm at initial screening and aided by non-invasive biomarkers. IL-6 is overexpressed in AAA and was suggested as a prognostic marker for the risk in AAA. The present paper develops a mathematical model which relates the growth of the abdominal aorta to the serum concentration of IL-6. Given the initial diameter of the aorta and the serum concentration of IL-6, the model predicts the growth of the diameter at subsequent times. Such a prediction can provide guidance to how closely the patient's abdominal aorta should be monitored. The mathematical model is represented by a system of partial differential equations taking place in the aortic wall, where the media is assumed to have the constituency of an hyperelastic material.

  6. Bone Deformities as a Complication of Giant Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ahmet; Kartal, Yiğitcan; Ayaz, Ercan; Aslan, Mine; Bulut, Safiye Sanem Dereli; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet Ali; Oysu, Aslıhan Semiz

    2017-07-01

    The contained rupture of thoracic aortic aneurysm and related bone deformities is a rare condition. The diagnosis is critical due to potential and fatal complications. Radiologic evaluation is required to show the location, extension, and complications. Herein we present the X-ray radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance images of a giant dissected and contained rupture of the thoracic aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm destructed the adjacent vertebrae and rib, resulting in compression of dural sac and spinal cord, and obliteration of the neural foramina. Our case demonstrates a gigantic expansion of an aneurysm (14 cm) with chronic skeletal complications.

  7. Notch-dependent EMT is attenuated in patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kostina, Aleksandra S; Uspensky, Vladimir Е; Irtyuga, Olga B; Ignatieva, Elena V; Freylikhman, Olga; Gavriliuk, Natalia D; Moiseeva, Olga M; Zhuk, Sergey; Tomilin, Alexey; Kostareva, Аnna А; Malashicheva, Anna B

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart malformation and the reasons for the aortopathies associated with bicuspid aortic valve remain unclear. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with bicuspid aortic valve and have been found in individuals with various left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. Notch is a key signaling during cardiac valve formation that promotes the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We address the role of Notch signaling in human aortic endothelial cells from patients with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic aneurysm. Aortic endothelial cells were isolated from tissue fragments of bicuspid aortic valve-associated thoracic aortic aneurysm patients and from healthy donors. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition was induced by activation of Notch signaling. Effectiveness of the transition was estimated by loss of endothelial and gain of mesenchymal markers by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. We show that aortic endothelial cells from the patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve have down regulated Notch signaling and fail to activate Notch-dependent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to its stimulation by different Notch ligands. Our findings support the idea that bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic aneurysm is associated with dysregulation of the entire Notch signaling pathway independently on the specific gene mutation.

  8. [Surgery of aortic coarctation with aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic coronary fistula].

    PubMed

    Ben Jmaà, H; Abdennadher, M; Hadj Kacem, A; Masmoudi, S; Kammoun, S; Karoui, A; Frikha, I

    2009-11-01

    Aortic coarctation is rarely associated with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and an aortic coronary fistula. In this study, we report the case of a 52-year-old man undergoing surgery for an isthmic coarctation who also had an aneurysm of the initial portion of the aorta and an aortic coronary fistula. The diagnosis was clinically suspected and confirmed by vascular catheterism. The first operative stage consisted of treating the coarctation. The second stage was performed two months later to remove the aneurysm and replace the ascending aorta and the aortic valve with a prosthesis. The coronary arteries were then reimplanted. The postoperative results were quite favourable.

  9. Hybrid Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Intercostal Patch Aneurysm after Thoracoabdominal Aortic Replacement.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Hiroto; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Hachiya, Takashi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hirano, Akinori; Kasai, Mio; Akamatsu, Yuta; Oka, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair for intercostal patch aneurysm after thoracoabdominal aortic replacement. Eighteen years ago, a 63-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome had undergone thoracoabdominal aortic replacement with reimplantation of the intercostal artery in an island fashion. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed a remaining intercostal patch aneurysm of diameter 60 mm 17 years after the last operation. Hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair for exclusion of this intercostal patch aneurysm was successfully performed, with visceral artery bypasses. Postoperative CT showed no anastomotic stenosis or endoleak.

  10. Chronic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Presenting 29 Years following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah; Kumar, Prashant; Van den Bosch, Rene; Khanafer, Adib

    2015-01-01

    Blunt, nonpenetrating injuries of the thoracic aorta are uncommon and associated with a high mortality rate within the first hour. Aortic injury is missed in 1-2% of patients that survive to hospital, and a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm may subsequently form. We present a case in which a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed 29 years following a significant motor vehicle accident. We discuss the epidemiology, presentation, and management of this uncommon consequence of blunt, nonpenetrating aortic injury. Our case illustrates an important clinical lesson; a past medical history of trauma should not be overlooked at any patient assessment. PMID:26351610

  11. Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... is thought to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerotic disease (cholesterol buildup in arteries) may also ... not it is painful and throbbing. With an aortic aneurysm, go to the emergency room or call 911 ...

  12. Gonococcal ascending aortic aneurysm with penetrating ulcer and bovine arch.

    PubMed

    Oumeiri, Bachar El; Eynden, Frédéric Vanden; Stefanidis, Constantin; Antoine, Martine; Nooten, Guido Van

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with ascending aorta aneurysm and bovine aortic arch who initially presented with fever. A 65-year-old man with a 2-month history of intermittent fever was referred to our hospital and diagnosed as having a gonococcal ascending aorta aneurysm with penetrating ulcers. He was successfully treated by resection of the ascending aorta and ulcers, replacement of the aortic valve, and prolonged postoperative antibiotic therapy.

  13. Surgical treatment of pararenal aortic aneurysms in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; D'Urso, A; Ceccanei, G; Caliò, F; Vietri, F

    2007-12-01

    Until fenestrated endografts will become the standard treatment of pararenal aortic aneurysms, open surgical repair will currently be employed for the repair of this condition. Suprarenal aortic control and larger surgical dissection represent additional technical requirements for the treatment of pararenal aneurysms compared to those of open infrarenal aortic aneurysms, which may be followed by an increased operative mortality and morbidity rate. As this may be especially true when dealing with pararenal aneurysms in an elderly patients' population, we decided to retrospectively review our results of open pararenal aortic aneurysm repair in elderly patients, in order to compare them with those reported in the literature. Twenty-one patients over 75 years of age were operated on for pararenal aortic aneurysms in a ten-year period. Exposure of the aorta was obtained by means of a retroperitoneal access, through a left flank incision on the eleventh rib. When dealing with interrenal aortic aneurysm the left renal artery was revascularized with a retrograde bypass arising from the aortic graft, proximally bevelled on the ostium of the right renal artery. Two patients died of acute intestinal ischemia, yielding a postoperative mortality of 9.5%. Nonfatal complications included 2 pleural effusions, a transitory rise in postoperative serum creatinine levels in 3 cases, and one retroperitoneal hematoma. Mean renal ischemia time was 23 min, whereas mean visceral ischemia time was 19 min. Mean inhospital stay was 11 days. Pararenal aortic aneurysms in the elderly can be surgically repaired with results that are similar to those obtained in younger patients.

  14. Thrombus Volume Change Visualization after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiora, Josu; García, Guillermo; Macía, Iván; Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Boto, Fernando; Paloc, Céline; Graña, Manuel; Abuín, Javier Sanchez

    A surgical technique currently used in the treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) is the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR). This minimally invasive procedure involves inserting a prosthesis in the aortic vessel that excludes the aneurysm from the bloodstream. The stent, once in place acts as a false lumen for the blood current to travel down, and not into the surrounding aneurysm sac. This procedure, therefore, immediately takes the pressure off the aneurysm, which thromboses itself after some time. Nevertheless, in a long term perspective, different complications such as prosthesis displacement or bloodstream leaks into or from the aneurysmatic bulge (endoleaks) could appear causing a pressure elevation and, as a result, increasing the danger of rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the application of image registration techniques to the visual detection of changes in the thrombus in order to assess the evolution of the aneurysm. Prior to registration, both the lumen and the thrombus are segmented

  15. Dissecting aortic aneurysms: accuracy of computed tomographic diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, M.K.; San Dretto, M.A.; Lawson, T.L.; Foley, W.D.; Smith, D.F.; Berland, L.L.

    1983-09-01

    During a three-year period, fifty patients were evaluated for the possibility of dissecting aortic aneurysm using high-resolution computed tomography (CT). The diagnosis of dissection was made if two contrast-medium-filled channels were identified within the aortic lumen. Eighteen patients were diagnosed with CT as having dissecting aortic aneurysms. Eight patients were evaluated postoperatively and five of these patients had persistence of the double channel. Twenty-four patients had no evidence on CT of aortic dissection. Follow-up was obtained in all patients. There were no known false-negative diagnoses and one false-positive diagnosis. High-resolution CT offers an accurate, noninvasive means to evaluate patients for suspected dissecting aortic aneurysms.

  16. Flexible tubular replicas of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Berry, E; Marsden, A; Dalgarno, K W; Kessel, D; Scott, D J A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture life-size, flexible, tubular replicas of human abdominal aortic aneurysms and the associated vasculature, suitable for use in a training simulator for endovascular procedures. Selective laser sintering was used to create a geometrically correct master model for each of ten anatomical variations. The masters were used to generate flexible latex replicas. The use of the replicas in the training simulator was demonstrated. In total ten silicone rubber models were produced. When connected into the training simulator and perfused at arterial pressure it was possible to deploy an endovascular stent under fluoroscopic control and to perform angiography. The study has shown that conventional rapid prototyping technology can be used to manufacture flexible, radiolucent replicas which provide a realistic training environment for endovascular procedures.

  17. Extended use of endovascular aneurysm sealing for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Dittmar; Holden, Andrew; Krievins, Dainis; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Peters, Andreas S; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Reijnen, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is now an established treatment modality for suitable patients presenting with aneurysm rupture. EVAR for ruptured aneurysms reduces transfusion, mechanical ventilation, intensive care. and hospital stay when compared with open surgery. In the emergency setting, however, EVAR is limited by low applicability due to adverse clinical or anatomical characteristics and increased need for reintervention. In addition, ongoing bleeding from aortic side branches post-EVAR can cause hemodynamic instability, larger hematomas, and abdominal compartment syndrome. Endovascular aneurysm sealing, based on polymer filling of the aneurysm, has the potential to overcome some of the limitations of EVAR for ruptured aneurysms and to improve outcomes. Recent literature suggests that endovascular aneurysm sealing can be performed with early mortality similar to that of EVAR for ruptured aortic aneurysms, but experience is limited to a few centers and a small number of patients. The addition of chimney grafts can increase the applicability of endovascular aneurysm sealing in order to treat short-neck and juxtarenal aneurysms as an alternative to fenestrated endografts. Further evaluation of the technique, with larger longitudinal studies, is necessary before advocating wider implementation of endovascular aneurysm sealing in the emergency setting.

  18. A New Murine Model of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rouer, Martin; Meilhac, Olivier; Delbosc, Sandrine; Louedec, Liliane; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Cross, Jane; Legagneux, Josette; Bouilliant-Linet, Maxime; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Alsac, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 19901 in a rat, then described in mice2. Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis. PMID:23851958

  19. Aortobronchial Fistula after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) for Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Melvan, John Nicholas; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Vasquez, Julio C

    2017-03-07

    Continued enlargement of the aneurysm sac after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a known risk after endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. For this reason, periodic outpatient follow-up is required to identify situations that require repair. Here, we describe an aortobronchial fistula (ABF) in a patient lost to follow-up, that presented 3 years after an elective TEVAR done for a primary, descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Our patient arrived in extremis and suffered massive hemoptysis leading to her demise. Computed tomography (CT) angiogram near the time of her death demonstrated a bleeding ABF immediately distal to her previous TEVAR repair. Aortic aneurysmal disease remains life threatening even after repair. Improved endovascular techniques and devices have resulted in decreased need for reintervention. However, this case demonstrates the risk of thoracic aortic disease progression and highlights the importance of establishing consistent, long-term follow-up after TEVAR.

  20. [Management of aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era].

    PubMed

    Gemayel, Gino; Montessuit, Michel; Sierra, Jorge; Lahlaidi Sierra, Nadia; Bednarkiewicz, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a disease seen in the elderly. Without intervention, an aneurysm can rupture which leads to death in most cases. Surgical resection was the gold standard treatment for many years but since two decades, endovascular repair has surged drastically. Less invasive and morbid than open repair, this technique has significantly evolved in the recent years. Nowadays the whole aorta can be treated with endovascular techniques in expert hands. This article presents an overview of different endovascular solutions and innovations in the management of aortic aneurysms.

  1. Aortoiliac elongation after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Venita; Rouer, Martin; Garg, Trit; Fleischmann, Dominik; Mell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Aortoiliac elongation after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is not well studied. We sought to assess the long-term morphologic changes after EVAR and identify potentially modifiable factors associated with such a change. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was conducted for 88 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR at a single academic center from 2003 to 2007 and who also had at least 2 follow-up computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) available for review up to 5 years after surgery. Standardized centerline aortic lengths and diameters were obtained on Aquarius iNtuition 3D workstation (TeraRecon Inc., San Mateo, CA) on postoperative and all-available follow-up CTAs. Relationships to aortic elongation were determined using Wilcoxon rank-sum test or linear regression (Stata version 12.1, College Station, TX). Changes in length over time were determined by mixed-effects analysis (SAS version 9.3, Cary, NC). The study cohort was composed of mostly men (88%), with a mean age of (76 ± 8) and a mean follow-up of 3.2 years (range, 0.4-7.5 years). Fifty-seven percent of patients (n = 50) had devices with suprarenal fixation and 43% (n = 38) had no suprarenal fixation. Significant lengthening was observed over the study period in the aortoiliac segments, but not in the iliofemoral segments. Aortoiliac elongation over time was not associated with sex (P = 0.3), hypertension (P = 0.7), coronary artery disease (P = 0.3), diabetes (P = 0.3), or tobacco use (P = 0.4), but was associated with the use of statins (P = 0.03) and the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = 0.02). Significant aortic lengthening was associated with increased type I endoleaks (P = 0.03) and reinterventions (P = 0.03). Over the study period, 4 different devices were used; Zenith (Cook Medical Inc., Bloomington, IN), Talent (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN), Aneuryx (Medtronic), and Excluder (W. L. Gore and Associates Inc., Flagstaff, AZ). After adjusting for

  2. Reliability of aortic aneurysm screening measurements

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tony; Wolstenhulme, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this feasibility study was to assess the impact that image processing of abdominal aortic ultrasound (US) images had on the intra-observer reliability of the diameter measurement. The study compared variability between inner-to-inner (ITI), outer-to-outer (OTO) and outer-to-inner (OTI) wall diameter measurements and their resilience to image processing. Three US images of transverse abdominal aortas were manipulated in 13 different ways using functions from Image J software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). Blinded measurements were performed of the aortic diameters from each image; this was repeated for ITI, OTO and OTI. Profiles of each image were produced and sets of rules developed to provide detailed instructions as to where, on the profile, the callipers should be placed to correspond with the actual image. The reliability of the diameter measurements compared to the original diameter measurement was least affected by adjusting the brightness and contrast of the US images (better than ± 1.5 mm). Using the functions ‘Sharpen’ and ‘Find Edges’ created the largest difference (up to −5 mm). The ITI measurements had the widest spread of variability, whereas the OTI measurements proved to be the most repeatable and resilient to image processing. This study suggests the precision of the measurements can be kept within satisfactory levels even after image manipulation. It also showed the most reliable measuring guideline was OTI, in contrast to the guideline currently used by the NHS Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programme. Further research is needed to transfer the findings into the clinical setting of the National Screening Programme to increase its reliability. PMID:27433200

  3. Role of chemical elements in formation of an aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Okuneva, G N; Levicheva, E N; Loginova, I Iu; Volkov, A M; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Al'sov, S A; Trunova, V A; Zvereva, V V

    2008-01-01

    The method of X-ray fluorescence employing synchronous radiation was used to study the content of chemical elements (CE) in the aortic wall in patients suffering from CAD (Group I), patients diagnosed with an ascending aortic aneurysm (Group II), and those presenting with aortic dissection (Group III). The obtained findings revealed a pronounced CE disbalance in the aortic wall in Group II and III patients as compared with Group I patients, suggesting an important role of trace and macroelements in metabolic processes related to formation of artic aneurysms. Based on the degree of the ascending aorta dilatation, we determined the coefficient of the ratio of the ascending aorta maximal diameter to the fibrous ring aortic valve diameter, equalling 1.88 +/- 0.04, above which metabolic processes in the aortic wall change over to a qualitatively another level. This point was arbitrarily termed the metabolic process reversibility point.

  4. Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Clinical Need Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition. The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases. The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia. The Technology Endovascular aortic aneurysm

  5. Management of concomitant large aortic aneurysm and severe stenosis of aortic arc.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shiyan; Sun, Guang; Yang, Yuguang; Liu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Primary large saccular aortic aneurysm with high grade stenosis of aortic arc is rare, and no standard therapy is available. We have encountered one case and successfully treated using a hybrid interventional approach. A 59-year-old woman with a 7-day history of headache, dizziness and chest pain, and a 5-year history of hypertension admitted and was diagnosed with transverse aortic aneurysm with sever aortic stenosis, the huge saccular aneurysm was located behind the transverse aortic arc. During surgery, a bypass with graft from ascending aorta to left external iliac artery was made initially in order to ensure the blood supply to the left leg, afterward, a 40 mm × 160 mm covered stent was implanted to cover the orifice of aneurysm and was used as a supporting anchorage in the descending aorta, a second covered stent (20 mm × 100 mm) was implanted to expand the stenosis of aortic arc. Follow-up at 1.5-year after surgery, the patient has been doing well without any surgical complication. A collateral pathway between internal mammary artery and inferior epigastric artery via the superior epigastric artery was found on3-dimensional reconstruction before surgery. Interruption of the compensatory arterial collateral pathway in the patient with severe stenosis of aortic arc should be prevented if possible in order to ensure the satisfactory perfusion of the lower limbs of the body.In conclusion, a patient with transverse aortic aneurysm accompanied with severe aortic stenosis can be treated by hybrid surgery.

  6. Traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma in a motocross rider.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Federico; Mattia, Consalvo; Ricci, Massimo; Chirichilli, Ilaria; Santo, Chiara; Rose, David; Muzzi, Luigi; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Sartini, Patrizio; Ferrari, Riccardo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Laghi, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    This article details a case report of a traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma. Thoracic aorta false aneurysms are a rare and life-threatening complication of aortic surgery, infection, genetic disorders and trauma.

  7. Traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma in a motocross rider

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarri, Federico; Mattia, Consalvo; Ricci, Massimo; Chirichilli, Ilaria; Santo, Chiara; Rose, David; Muzzi, Luigi; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; Sartini, Patrizio; Ferrari, Riccardo; Della Rocca, Carlo; Laghi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article details a case report of a traumatic aortic arch false aneurysm after blunt chest trauma. Thoracic aorta false aneurysms are a rare and life-threatening complication of aortic surgery, infection, genetic disorders and trauma. PMID:18452593

  8. [Inflammatory aortic aneurysms: Single center experiences with endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Strube, H; Treitl, M; Reiser, M; Steckmeier, B; Sadeghi-Azandaryani, M

    2010-10-01

    We report our single center experience of renal function, hydronephrosis and changes in perianeurysmal fibrosis (PAF) after endovascular repair (EVAR) of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA). A total of 6 patients were treated for IAAA with EVAR and the technical success was 100%. During the follow-up period 5 patients showed regression of PAF and 1 patient showed minor progression of PAF on computed tomography scans. In 2 patients hydronephrosis was regressive postoperatively but no patients died within 30 days. There were no secondary complications to report and no secondary intervention was necessary. In the long-term course one patient exhibited complete regression of PAF.In appropriate cases EVAR is a safe method for aneurysm repair for IAAA. In patients with acute inflammation or hydronephrosis individual treatment concepts are required.

  9. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. A 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Dalainas, I; Nano, G; Ranucci, M; Bianchi, P; Stegher, S; Casana, R; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to report a 20-year single Institution experience, with the early and late outcomes of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. In a 20-year period, 2 275 consecutive patients underwent elective surgical repair for non-rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm. Fifty-two patients (2.3%) were classified as inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. Early and late outcomes were analyzed. One patient died in the perioperative period, giving a mortality rate of 1.92%. One patient died from a pseudoaneurysm rupture 7 months after operation. Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm in the follow-up period (mean 12.1 years, range 1-20 years) and underwent a redo operation. Overall surgical outcome of these patients, in terms of short-term and long-term is good. A high rate of pseudoaneurysm formation was observed.

  10. Mitral valve aneurysm: A serious complication of aortic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria João; Alves, Vasco; Cabral, Sofia; Antunes, Nuno; Pereira, Luís Sousa; Oliveira, Filomena; Silveira, João; Torres, Severo

    2016-11-01

    Mitral valve aneurysms are rare and occur most commonly in association with aortic valve endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography is the most sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis of this entity and its potential complications, such as leaflet rupture and mitral regurgitation, which mandate prompt surgical intervention. We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with aortic valve endocarditis complicated with a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet and associated severe mitral regurgitation, diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography, with impressive images. We hypothesized that the aneurysm developed through direct extension of infection from the aortic valve or from a prolapsing aortic vegetation, with abscess formation and subsequent rupture and drainage. This case highlights the importance of appropriate imaging for early detection and timely surgical intervention (repair or replacement) to prevent fatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual complications in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Hirota, J; Taniyasu, N; Asano, S

    1999-11-01

    An unusual case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) associated with coronary aneurysms and pathological fracture of the adjacent lumbar vertebrae. The associated coronary lesions in cases of IAAA are usually occlusions. In the present case, it was concluded that a possible cause of the coronary aneurysm was coronary arteritis and the etiology of the pathological fracture of the lumbar vertebrae was occlusion of the lumbar penetrating arteries due to vasculitis resulting in aseptic necrosis. Inflammatory AAA can be associated with aneurysms in addition to occlusive disease in systemic arteries. The preoperative evaluation of systemic arterial lesions and the function of systemic organs is essential.

  12. Guilt by association: paradigm for detecting a silent killer (thoracic aortic aneurysm)

    PubMed Central

    Elefteriades, John A; Sang, Adam; Kuzmik, Gregory; Hornick, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed a close association between various medical conditions (intracranial aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm, temporal arteritis, autoimmune disorder, renal cysts), certain aortic anatomic variants (bovine aortic arch, direct origin of left vertebral artery from aortic arch, bicuspid aortic valve), and family history of aneurysm disease with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. This paper reviews these associations. We propose to capitalise on these associations as powerful and expanding opportunities to diagnose the virulent but silent disease of thoracic aortic aneurysm. This can be accomplished by recognition of this ‘guilt by association’ with the other conditions. Thus, patients with associated diseases and anatomic variants should be investigated for silent aortic aneurysms. Such a paradigm holds substantial potential for reducing death from the silent killer represented by thoracic aortic aneurysm disease. PMID:25932333

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: how can we improve their treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, T K

    1980-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms are present in a least 2% of the elderly population of the Western world and their number is increasing. Without treatment 30% of patients with asymptomatic aneurysms live for 5 years, although the risk of rupture becomes greater as the size of the aneurysm increases. Of those with untreated symptomatic aneurysms 80% are dead within a year. Elective repair of aneurysms has a low mortality, and 50% of the patients live for at least 5 years. Symptomatic aneurysms all cause pain and may produce other symptoms from pressure on adjacent structures, distal embolism, acute thrombosis or rupture. In 88% of cases an aneurysm can be diagnosed by physical examination alone; confirmatory tests include soft-tissue roentgenography of the abdomen, ultrasonography, computer-assisted tomography and aortography. Repair is indicated for symptomatic or ruptured aortic aneurysms and for asymptomatic aneurysms over 5 cm in diameter. Early diagnosis and referral for repair is essential for optimum treatment of this common condition. PMID:7004617

  14. Risk of Aortic Dissection and Aortic Aneurysm in Patients Taking Oral Fluoroquinolone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Chang; Lee, Meng-Tse Gabriel; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lee, Shih-Hao; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-11-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been associated with collagen degradation, raising safety concerns related to more serious collagen disorders with use of these antibiotics, including aortic aneurysm and dissection. To examine the relationship between fluoroquinolone therapy and the risk of developing aortic aneurysm and dissection. We conducted a nested case-control analysis of 1477 case patients and 147 700 matched control cases from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from among 1 million individuals longitudinally observed from January 2000 through December 2011. Cases patients were defined as those hospitalized for aortic aneurysm or dissection. One hundred control patients were matched for each case based on age and sex. Current, past, or any prior-year use of fluoroquinolone. Current use was defined as a filled fluoroquinolone prescription within 60 days of the aortic aneurysm or dissection; past use refers to a filled fluoroquinolone prescription between 61 and 365 days prior to the aortic aneurysm; and any prior-year use refers to having a fluoroquinolone prescription filled for 3 or more days any time during the 1-year period before the aortic aneurysm or dissection. Risk of developing aortic aneurysm or dissection. A total of 1477 individuals who experienced aortic aneurysm or dissection were matched to 147 700 controls. After propensity score adjustment, current use of fluoroquinolones was found to be associated with increased risk for aortic aneurysm or dissection (rate ratio [RR], 2.43; 95% CI, 1.83-3.22), as was past use, although this risk was attenuated (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.86). Sensitivity analysis focusing on aortic aneurysm and dissection requiring surgery also demonstrated an increased risk associated with current fluoroquinolone use, but the increase was not statistically significant (propensity score-adjusted RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.97-4.60). Use of fluoroquinolones was associated with an increased risk of aortic aneurysm and

  15. Rapidly growing aortic arch aneurysm in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Nozomi; Sakano, Yasuhito; Ohki, Shin-Ichi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-03-01

    We present a patient with a nine-year history of Behçet's disease (BD), who developed a rapidly expanding aneurysm of the aortic arch. Three-dimensional computed tomography demonstrated a saccular aortic arch aneurysm with a maximal diameter of 5 cm. No bacteria were detected by serial blood cultures. The aneurysm, however, showed a multi-lobular cavity, mimicking an infectious aneurysm. Therefore, we prescribed antibacterial agents for one week. The patient still had a high-fever and an elevated C-reactive protein level thereafter. Aortic arch replacement was performed emergently. Because we were unable to determine whether the aneurysm was caused by infection or BD, the implanted prosthetic graft and the anastomotic sites were covered with a pedicle graft of the greater omentum, and we continued to administer antibacterial agents for four weeks postoperatively. The pathological examination showed neither bacteria nor cystic medial necrosis in the resected aortic wall. Inflammatory changes with eosinophilic infiltration were recognized mainly around the adventitia near the aneurysm. The patient had a favorable postoperative course without any complications.

  16. User-assisted aortic aneurysm analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouvrard, Amandine; Renapuraar, Rahul; Setser, Randolph M.; Flamm, Scott; O'Donnell, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Aortic Aneurysms (AA) are the 13th leading cause of death in the US. In standard clinical practice, intervention is initiated when the maximal diameter cross-sectional reaches 5.5cm. However, this is a 1D measure and it has been suggested in the literature that higher order measurements (area, volume) might be more appropriate clinically. Unfortunately, no commercially available tools exist for extracting a 3D model of the epithelial layer (versus the lumen) of the vessel. Therefore, we present work towards semi-automatically recovering the aorta from CT angiography volumes with the aim to facilitate such studies. We build our work upon a previous approach to this problem. Bodur et. al., presented a variant of the iso-perimetric algorithm to semi-automatically segment several individual aortic cross-sections across longitudinal studies, quantifying any growth. As a by-product of these sparse cross-sections, it is possible to form a series of rough 3D models of the aorta. In this work we focus on creating a more detailed 3D model at a single time point by automatically recovering the aorta between the sparse user-initiated segmentations. Briefly, we fit a tube model to the sparse segmentations to approximate the cross-sections at intermediate regions, refine the approximations and apply the isoperimetric algorithm to them. From these resulting dense cross-sections we reconstruct our model. We applied our technique to 12 clinical datasets which included significant amounts of thrombus. Comparisons of the automatically recovered cross-sections with cross-sections drawn by an expert resulted in an average difference of .3cm for diameter and 2cm^2 for area.

  17. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  18. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-06-14

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection or rupture. However, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysm has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified several major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies. The second set of genes encode components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group called the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies. Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review discusses published data on genes involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm and attempts to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm origin. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Percutaneous Zenith endografting for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-03-01

    A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.

  20. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Orita, Yuichi; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtaki, Megu; Nagao, Masataka; Ishida, Mari; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO) mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail. PMID:26783750

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an illustrated narrative review.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Colin M; Hurtgen-Grace, Kristin; Talarico, Ernest; Marley, John

    2003-01-01

    To present a descriptive review of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), including a review of risk factors for and case finding in AAA for chiropractors as primary contact health care practitioners. Clinical and scientific literature identified through various sources including MEDLINE and citation tracking. Selective narrative review of relevant literature. AAA may be asymptomatic; however, back pain is a common presenting feature. Risk factors include male gender, increasing age, cigarette smoking, hypertension, chronic obstructive airway disease, claudication, and AAA in a first-degree relative. AAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of older white patients, especially males, with low back pain. Estimated prevalence for AAAs in older males is in the order of 3% to 5%; rupture accounts for 1.7% of deaths in men aged 65 to 75 years. Elective surgical resection of AAAs (prior to rupture) offers a low operative mortality and good prognosis. AAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of older patients presenting with low back pain and those with risk factors for AAA. Chiropractors, as primary contact health care practitioners, have a responsibility to refer patients suspected of having AAA for appropriate imaging and, where indicated, vascular surgical opinion.

  2. Hemodynamic Influences on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Application of Biomechanics to Aneurysm Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    “Atherosclerotic” abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur with the greatest frequency in the distal aorta. The unique hemodynamic environment of this area predisposes it to site-specific degenerative changes. In this review, we summarize the differential hemodynamic influences present along the length of the abdominal aorta, and demonstrate how alterations in aortic flow and wall shear stress modify AAA progression in experimental models. Improved understanding of aortic hemodynamic risk profiles provides an opportunity to modify patient activity patterns to minimize risk of aneurysmal degeneration. PMID:20347049

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and congenital pelvic kidney. A rare association.

    PubMed Central

    Glock, Y; Blasevich, R; Laghzaoui, A; Roux, D; Fournial, G

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm in association with a congenital right pelvic kidney vascularized by 2 aortic arteries, 1 of which arose from the aneurysmal aorta and the other from the common right iliac artery. Successful surgery consisted of excising the aneurysmal aortic segment and replacing it with a Dacron tube graft, then implanting the upper renal artery (supplemented by a short segment of saphenous venous graft) in the Dacron prosthesis. We review 6 other cases of this rare pathologic association, found in our search of the literature, and discuss techniques of renal protection and (when necessary) reimplantation of the anomalous arteries. Images PMID:9205990

  4. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortoiliac vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Gyoten, Takayuki; Doi, Toshio; Yamashita, Akio; Fukahara, Kazuaki; Kotoh, Keiju; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with severe abdominal pain and back pain. Computed tomography showed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (8.4 × 8.3 cm) and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. Immediately afterwards, the patient suffered circulatory collapse and was rushed to the operating theater. A fistula communicating with the left iliac vein was found. It was repaired with a Dacron patch while balloon-tipped catheters controlled the bleeding. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced with a bifurcated graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. There have been few reports of successful repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with aortoiliac arteriovenous fistula.

  5. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: current endovascular perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nathan; Minion, David; Bobadilla, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    Thoracoabdominal aneurysms account for roughly 3% of identified aneurysms annually in the United States. Advancements in endovascular techniques and devices have broadened their application to these complex surgical problems. This paper will focus on the current state of endovascular thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, including specific considerations in patient selection, operative planning, and perioperative complications. Both total endovascular and hybrid options will be considered. PMID:25170271

  6. [An inflammatory aortic aneurysm ruptured into the retroperitoneum and an extensive communication of the aneurysm with the vena cava inferior].

    PubMed

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B; Díaz Pardeiro, P

    1993-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysms that occurs with a frequency of 1% of operative cases or less. In this report we present a case of aortocaval fistula associated with ruptured and inflammatory aortic aneurysm that became apparent after evacuation of the thrombus. The inferior cava was ligated. We discuss the clinical syndrome and the management of patients with aortocaval fistula secondary to an abdominal aortic aneurysm and the results of surgical repair.

  7. The association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysms and their impact on renal function after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Rountas, Christos; Saleptsis, Vasileios; Athanasoulas, Athanasios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-04-01

    We validated the association of simple renal cysts with abdominal aortic aneurysm and other cardiovascular factors and assessed simple renal cysts' impact on renal function before and after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Computed tomography angiograms of 100 consecutive male patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (Group 1) were reviewed and compared with 100 computed tomography angiogram of aged-matched male patients without abdominal aortic aneurysm (Group 2). Patients' demographic data, risk factors, abdominal aortic aneurysm diameter, the presence of simple renal cyst and laboratory tests were recorded. No difference was observed between the two groups in respect to other cardiovascular risk factors except hyperlipidemia with higher prevalence in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Presence of simple renal cysts was independently associated with age (p < 0.05) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (p = 0.0157). There was no correlation between simple renal cysts and abdominal aortic aneurysm size or pre-operative creatinine and urea levels. No difference was observed in post-operative creatinine and urea levels either immediately after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or in 12-month follow-up. In male patients, the presence of simple renal cysts is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm and is increasing with age. However, their presence is neither associated with impaired renal function pre-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair nor after 12-month follow-up.

  8. [Ultrasoud screening in abdominal aortic aneurysm--numbers, data, facts].

    PubMed

    Hyhlik-Dürr, A; Debus, S; Eckstein, H-H; Lang, W; Schmitz-Rixen, T; Böckler, D; Boeckler, D

    2010-10-01

    There are increasing numbers of elective surgeries not only for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair but also for emergencies because of ruptured aneurysms (rAAA). Mortality rates of rAAA up to 40-50% have remained unchanged for years. Because of the elevated incidence of complications in rAAA, the overall mortality is at least 80% and shows a dismal prognosis for this group of patients. With ultrasonography, a cost-efficient, technically simple and safe method with high sensitivity is available for detecting abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis on an electronic Medline literature search and evaluation of data from the "voluntary quality assurance for abdominal aortic aneurysms 2008" of the German Society of Vascular Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gefäßchirurgie und Gefäßmedizin DGG), this review presents critical analysis of the efficacy and cost-efficiency of an ultrasound-based screening programme for the early detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In this systematic review of the literature on AAA screening, a description of epidemiology and current situation concerning AAA in Germany will be given. The evaluation of 4 randomised studies for ultrasonic AAA screening is discussed and the recommendations of the German Society of Vascular Surgery concerning screening for AAA are highlighted. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  9. Evaluation the Aortic Aneurysm Remodeling After a Successful Stentgraft Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Monika; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Rusak, Grażyna; Ratajczak, Przemysław; Sobociński, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Routine imaging follow-up after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is mainly aimed at detection of endoleaks. The aim of the study was to assess changes in the size of the abdominal aortic aneurysm sack using CT angiography (CTA) after successful treatment using endovascular stent graft implantation. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of CTA results included 102 patients aged 54–88, who had no postoperative complications. Patients underwent CTA before EVAR and after the treatment (mean time between studies, 7.6 months). The largest cross-sectional area of the aneurysm sac was measured using a curved multiplanar reconstruction. A change of the aneurysm cross-sectional over 10% was considered significant. Results The average cross-sectional area decreased after EVAR by 3% and this change was not statistically significant. Regression of the cross-sectional area was observed in 18.6% of patients, progression was in 23.5%, and no change was seen in 57.8%. Cross-sectional areas before and after EVAR were significantly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.0001). There was no correlation between the cross-sectional area change after EVAR and patients’ age or the time between the treatment and the follow-up CTA. Cross-sectional area before the treatment predicted changes in the aneurysm size after EVAR (p=0.0045). Conclusions Remodeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms after EVAR is not uniform. The change of aneurysm size depends on the initial aneurysm size but not on the time from EVAR. The size of the aneurysm after EVAR should not be considered as a measure of the treatment efficacy. PMID:27800038

  10. Extra-anatomic endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a horseshoe kidney supplied by the aneurysmal aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK.

  11. Measuring abdominal aortic aneurysms on digital subtraction arteriograms

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, S.D.; Illescas, F.F.; Fagert, T.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1985-05-01

    Digital intravenous subtraction angiography (DISA) has provided an additional method of imaging abdominal aortic aneurysms. DISA has the advantage of depicting an aneurysm in the same projection as standard arteriography but without the risks of arterial puncture and catheterization. With conventional angiography, the more constant focal spot-object-film distances both minimize magnification and reduce the variation among patients of differing size. However, with digital systems, the variations in height of the image intensifier and patient size result in wide differences in magnification. The authors have devised a simple technique to measure the size of aneurysms on digital images.

  12. Multiple multilayer stents for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm: a possible new tool for aortic endovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Tolva, Valerio Stefano; Bianchi, Paolo Guy; Cireni, Lea Valeria; Lombardo, Alma; Keller, Guido Carlo; Parati, Gianfranco; Casana, Renato Maria

    2012-01-01

    Endovascular surgery data are confirming the paramount role of modern endovascular tools for a safe and sure exclusion of thoracoabdominal lesions. A 57-year-old female presented with severe comorbidity affected by a 58 mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). After patient-informed consent and local Ethical Committee and Italian Public Health Ministry authorization, three multilayer stents were implanted in the thoracoabdominal aortic tract, obtaining at a 20-month computed tomography scan follow up, a complete exclusion of the TAAA, with normal patency of visceral vessels. Multilayer stents can be used in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, with positive results.

  13. Multiple multilayer stents for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm: a possible new tool for aortic endovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tolva, Valerio Stefano; Bianchi, Paolo Guy; Cireni, Lea Valeria; Lombardo, Alma; Keller, Guido Carlo; Parati, Gianfranco; Casana, Renato Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Endovascular surgery data are confirming the paramount role of modern endovascular tools for a safe and sure exclusion of thoracoabdominal lesions. Case report A 57-year-old female presented with severe comorbidity affected by a 58 mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). After patient-informed consent and local Ethical Committee and Italian Public Health Ministry authorization, three multilayer stents were implanted in the thoracoabdominal aortic tract, obtaining at a 20-month computed tomography scan follow up, a complete exclusion of the TAAA, with normal patency of visceral vessels. Conclusion Multilayer stents can be used in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, with positive results. PMID:22866014

  14. Acute Type B Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Previous Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hun; Rha, Seung-Woon

    2017-01-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) was relatively safe, and became a widely performed procedure. If aortic dissection (AD) occurred in patient with previous EVAR, it could cause fatal complications like endograft collapse. Surgical treatment was limited in this situation for comorbidities and complex anatomies. Here we report a rare case of acute type B AD developed following trans-radial coronary intervention in a patient with previous EVAR of abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was treated with thoracic EVAR. PMID:28377913

  15. Chaotic flow in an aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Abhinav; Singh, Rahul; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    Oscillatory flow in straight and deformed geometries is seen in various biomedical applications. The nature of flow plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The present study examines the onset of chaotic flow inside a bulged tube under oscillating flow conditions. An experimental facility is set up for generating the oscillatory flow field inside the model. A fusiform shaped model is hollowed out in a rectangular silicone model. A mixture of water and glycerin is used as the working liquid. Two-camera imaging system placed at right angles is used for three-component velocity measurement of a spherical particle inside the model. Images recorded as a time sequence are analyzed by a particle tracking algorithm. The particle trajectories in space and instantaneous velocities within the bulge have been obtained from experiments as well as numerical simulation. The frequency of oscillation considered is 1.2 Hz and the peak Reynolds numbers are in the range of 650-1200 (experiments) and 1000-3500 (simulation). The dimensionless frequency defined by the Womersely number is in the range of 10-12. Velocity signals obtained from the experiment have been analyzed to study chaotic behavior of fluid flow. Chaos is quantified in terms of the largest Lyapunov exponent, positive values being a signature of chaos. The Lyapunov exponent increases with Reynolds number and is significantly higher in the bulged geometry compared to that of the straight tube. The signature of chaotic flow is also seen in power spectra and Poincaré plots.

  16. Understanding administrative abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality data.

    PubMed

    Hussey, K; Siddiqui, T; Burton, P; Welch, G H; Stuart, W P

    2015-03-01

    Administrative data in the form of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR) have been used to describe surgical activity. These data have also been used to compare outcomes from different hospitals and regions, and to corroborate data submitted to national audits and registries. The aim of this observational study was to examine the completeness and accuracy of administrative data relating to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Administrative data (SMR-01 returns) from a single health board relating to AAA repair were requested (September 2007 to August 2012). A complete list of validated procedures; termed the reference data set was compiled from all available sources (clinical and administrative). For each patient episode electronic health records were scrutinised to confirm urgency of admission, diagnosis, and operative repair. The 30-day mortality was recorded. The reference data set was used to systematically validate the SMR-01 returns. The reference data set contained 608 verified procedures. SMR-01 returns identified 2433 episodes of care (1724 patients) in which a discharge diagnosis included AAA. This included 574 operative repairs. There were 34 missing cases (5.6%) from SMR-01 returns; nine of these patients died within 30 days of the index procedure. Omission of these cases made a statistically significant improvement to perceived 30-day mortality (p < .05, chi-square test). If inconsistent SMR-01 data (in terms of ICD-10 and OPCS-4 codes) were excluded only 81.9% of operative repairs were correctly identified and only 30.9% of deaths were captured. The SMR-01 returns contain multiple errors. There also appears to be a systematic bias that reduces apparent 30-day mortality. Using these data alone to describe or compare activity or outcomes must be done with caution. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of Traumatic Aortic and Splenic Rupture in a Patient With Ascending Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Ahmet Can; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Bolukcu, Ahmet; Dagsali, Sabri

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic aortic rupture is rupture of all or part of the aortic wall, mostly resulting from blunt trauma to the chest. The most common site of rupture is the aortic isthmus. Traumatic rupture of the ascending aorta is rare. A 62-year-old man with a family history of ascending aortic aneurysm was referred to our hospital after a motor vehicle accident. He had symptoms of cardiogenic shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed rupture of the proximal ascending aorta and an ascending aortic aneurysm with a diameter of 55 mm at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. Transthoracic echocardiography at the bedside revealed severe aortic valvular insufficiency. We performed a successful Bentall procedure. During postoperative recovery, the patient experienced a cerebrovascular accident. Transesophageal echocardiography did not reveal thrombosis of the mechanical prosthesis. The patient's symptoms resolved in time, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 47 without any sequelae. He has been symptom free during a 6-month follow-up period. We suggest that individuals who have experienced blunt trauma to the chest and have symptoms of traumatic aortic rupture and a known medical history of ascending aortic aneurysm should be evaluated for a rupture at the ascending aorta and the aortic isthmus.

  18. Successful Occlusion of a Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug: A Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, Tobias Baldi, Sebastian; Rabellino, Martin; Blasco, Oscar; Febles, Tomas; Wisniewska, Katarzyna; Maynar, Manuel

    2011-02-15

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is related with a 100% mortality rate if left untreated. Even with surgical intervention or endovascular repair, mortality is still extremely high. However, there are conditions in which neither open surgical aneurysm repair nor endovascular aneurysm repair can be considered a viable therapeutic option because of comorbidities or anatomic reasons. We report a case of successful endovascular treatment in a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm by occluding the abdominal aneurysm using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP II).

  19. Mortality outcomes of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and rural presentation.

    PubMed

    Munday, Emily; Walker, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    Centralisation of vascular surgery services has coincided with a move towards endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with the goal to improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rural presentation and transfer times on survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A retrospective review. All patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to public hospitals in Tasmania between July 2006 and April 2013. Demographic data, Glasgow aneurysm score, Hardman index, transfer times, operative technique and 30-day mortality were collected from medical records. Over the study period 127 patients presented to public hospitals in Tasmania with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A total of 27 presented to north west hospitals where no vascular surgery service is provided (NWRH), 23 to a northern hospital where an intermittent vascular surgery service is provided (LGH) and 77 to the state tertiary vascular surgery service (RHH). Of these, 4 (14.8%) died at NWRH, 6 (26.1%) died at LGH and 43 (55.8%) died at RHH without operation. Of the 35 patients transferred from NWRH and LGH to RHH, 5 died without operation. Median time from presentation to theatre at RHH if transferred from NWRH was 6.25 hours, from the LGH 4.75 hours, compared to 2.75 hours when presenting directly to RHH. Open repair was performed in 41 patients and endovascular repair in 23 patients. Overall 30-day mortality in those treated at RHH was 26.6% (39.0% for open repair, 4.3% for endovascular repair). Mortality for intended operative patients initially presenting to non-RHH hospitals was 33.3% vs. 32.3% for those initially presenting to RHH. p Value 0.93. There was no clinical or statistical disadvantage to rural presentation and transfer for patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Tasmania. Endovascular repair has a role despite long transfer times. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Replacement in the Awake Patient.

    PubMed

    Meecham, L; Torrance, A; Vijay, S; Burtenshaw, A; Downing, R

    2017-03-01

    Nonintubated aortic surgery using various techniques has been reported, but despite publication of favorable outcomes in select patient groups, awake aortic surgery remains unpopular. Our patient had an abdominal aortic aneurysm that was unsuitable for endovascular repair. Because of the significant respiratory disease, general anesthesia represented an unacceptably high risk. As a result, he underwent open AAA repair via a retroperitoneal approach with the aid of epidural anesthesia. Here, we highlight the benefits of the procedure which offer a select cohort of patients the chance of life-saving surgery.

  1. Aortic aneurysm formation following coarctation repair by Dacron patch aortoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Walhout, R.J.; Braam, R.L.; Schepens, M.A.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Plokker, H.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the finding of an aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic 43-year-old male, who was managed by Dacron patch aortoplasty for native coarctation of the aorta 25 years before. The role of magnetic resonance angiography as standard imaging technique in lifelong postoperative surveillance is discussed subsequently. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:376-7.) PMID:20730007

  2. Aortic aneurysm formation following coarctation repair by Dacron patch aortoplasty.

    PubMed

    Walhout, R J; Braam, R L; Schepens, M A; Mulder, B J M; Plokker, H W M

    2010-08-01

    We describe the finding of an aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic 43-year-old male, who was managed by Dacron patch aortoplasty for native coarctation of the aorta 25 years before. The role of magnetic resonance angiography as standard imaging technique in lifelong postoperative surveillance is discussed subsequently. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:376-7.).

  3. Huge ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysm in ultra octogenarian.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, F; Sansone, F; Zagarella, G; Patanè, F

    2014-01-01

    Giant ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA), which are larger than 10 cm, are rarely been reported (1-7). We hereby present the case of a giant AAA of about 11 cm in a very old women who was successfully operated on for ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  4. [Pseudomembranous colitis after surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Lozano Sánchez, F; Sánchez Fernández, J; Palacios, E; Fernández, M; Ingelmo Morin, A; Gómez Alonso, A

    1993-01-01

    We present a rare postoperative complication after surgical procedures for rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The disease, a pseudomembranous colitis, was early recognized (by evidence of clostridium difficile after a coprocultive) and satisfactorily treated with vancomycin. From the literature review we found only a similar case but results were absolutely different from our case.

  5. Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in experimental rodent abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indranil; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Hannawa, Kevin K; Henke, Peter K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Stanley, James C; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-10-01

    While extrinsic mechanisms of apoptosis in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are recognized, this project hypothesizes that an intrinsic, mitochondrial-dependent, mechanism of apoptosis also contributes to experimental AAA formation. Rat aortas were perfused with either saline or elastase (N = 5 per group) and harvested 7 days postperfusion. The aortas were placed in gluteraldehyde for subsequent transmission electron microscopy, Bouin's solution for TUNEL, or paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical staining for caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bid. Abdominal aortic diameters increased 168 +/- 25% (mean +/- SEM) after elastase perfusion. compared with 30 +/- 5% after saline perfusion (P < .001). Apoptosis of aortic smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and neutrophils was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL in the elastase-perfused aneurysmal aortas. Quantitative analysis of the apoptotic cells revealed a significant (P < .01) increase in the number of total apoptotic cells in the elastase-perfused aortas (12 +/- 3 cells per high-power field), compared with that of saline-infused controls (1.3 +/- 0.2). Caspase-9, the key initiator in the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, stained positively in only elastase-perfused aortas. Bid staining was not detected in either the elastase-perfused aortas or the saline controls. Apoptosis is evident in multiple cell lines in elastase-perfused aneurysmal aortas, but rarely observed in control aortas. Caspase-9, the key initiator of intrinsic apoptosis, was documented only in elastase-perfused aortas. These results suggest that mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

  6. Complications of Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, Barry T. MacLean, Alexandra A.

    2006-12-15

    The endovascular procedure for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has had an enormous impact on the treatment of this challenging disease. Complications, however, do occur and it is important to have a thorough understanding of the array of complications and appropriate management strategies. In this review of endovascular complications, we describe early and late complications paying particular attention to preventive, treatment and surveillance strategies.

  7. Aortic coarctation, aneurysm, and ventricular dysfunction in an asymptomatic infant.

    PubMed

    García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.

  8. Marfan Syndrome and Related Heritable Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Julie; Renard, Marjolijn; Campens, Laurence; Mosquera, Laura Muino; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Callewaert, Bert; Kodolitsch, Yskert von

    2015-01-01

    In this overview we aim to address a number of recent insights and developments regarding clinical aspects, etiology, and treatment of Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease (H-TAD). We will focus on monogenetic disorders related to aortic aneurysms. H-TADs are rare but they provide a unique basis for the study of underlying pathogenetic pathways in the complex disease process of aneurysm formation. The understanding of pathomechanisms may help us to identify medical treatment targets to improve prognosis. Among the monogenetic aneurysm disorders, Marfan syndrome is considered as a paradigm entity and many insights are derived from the study of clinical, genetic and animal models for Marfan syndrome. We will therefore first provide a detailed overview of the various aspects of Marfan syndrome after which we will give an overview of related H-TAD entities.

  9. Increasing incidence of aortic aneurysms in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Fowkes, F. G.; Macintyre, C. C.; Ruckley, C. V.

    1989-01-01

    The numbers of patients being admitted to hospital with aortic aneurysms have increased recently. A study was carried out to try to find out whether this was a true increase in incidence or whether it could be attributable to more accurate diagnosis and better surgical techniques. From analyses of routine statistics it was found that from 1950 to 1984 age standardised mortality rose 20-fold in men to 47.1 per 100,000 population and 11-fold in women to 22.2 per 100,000 and that this was mainly due to more deaths from abdominal aneurysms. Hospital admissions of men with abdominal aneurysms were found to have increased steadily from 1968 to 1983, but the increase for women admitted did not begin until 1978. An increase in both emergency and elective admissions and only a marginal fall in deaths in hospital (from 45% to 39%) suggest that admissions for abdominal aneurysms increased across a wide range of severity of disease. It is concluded for the following reasons that the true incidence of aortic aneurysms, particularly abdominal aneurysms, has been increasing in England and Wales: the trends are not wholly compatible with advances in diagnosis and surgery, there are inconsistencies by age and sex, and increases have occurred in the number of complicated as well as uncomplicated cases. PMID:2492850

  10. Association between osteopontin and human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Muller, Juanita; Shephard, Neil; Clancy, Paula; Smallwood, Linda; Moran, Corey; Dear, Anthony E; Palmer, Lyle J; Norman, Paul E

    2007-03-01

    In vitro and animal studies have implicated osteopontin (OPN) in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm. The relationship between serum concentration of OPN and variants of the OPN gene with human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was investigated. OPN genotypes were examined in 4227 subjects in which aortic diameter and clinical risk factors were measured. Serum OPN was measured by ELISA in two cohorts of 665 subjects. The concentration of serum OPN was independently associated with the presence of AAA. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for upper compared with lower OPN tertiles in predicting presence of AAA were 2.23 (1.29 to 3.85, P=0.004) for the population cohort and 4.08 (1.67 to 10.00, P=0.002) for the referral cohort after adjusting for other risk factors. In 198 patients with complete follow-up of aortic diameter at 3 years, initial serum OPN predicted AAA growth after adjustment for other risk factors (standardized coefficient 0.24, P=0.001). The concentration of OPN in the aortic wall was greater in patients with small AAAs (30 to 50 mm) than those with aortic occlusive disease alone. There was no association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of the OPN gene and aortic diameter or AAA expansion. Serum and tissue concentrations of OPN are associated with human AAA. We found no relationship between variation of the OPN gene and AAA. OPN may be a useful biomarker for AAA presence and growth.

  11. Endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm followed by type B dissection.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Masami; Kato, Masaaki; Motoki, Manabu; Kubo, Yoji; Isaji, Toshihiko; Okubo, Nobukazu

    2016-10-01

    An 86-year-old man with an abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed with type B aortic dissection accompanied by a patent false lumen that started at the distal arch of the thoracic aorta and terminated at the left common iliac artery. Meticulous preoperative assessment detected 3 large intimal tears in the descending aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and left common iliac artery. We performed single-stage thoracic and abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair and concomitant axillary-axillary bypass. The abdominal aortic aneurysm with type B aortic dissection was successfully treated using a single-stage endovascular stent graft, without any complications due to the careful preoperative examinations.

  12. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Reading the Enemy’s Playbook

    PubMed Central

    Elefteriades, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: At the Yale University Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease, we have been using our clinical experience and laboratory investigations to shed light on the pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), the clinical behavior of thoracic aortic aneurysm, and the optimal clinical management. Materials and Methods: The Yale database contains information on 3,000 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, with 9,000 patient-years of follow-up and 9,000 imaging studies. Advanced statistical techniques were applied to this information. Results: Analysis yielded the following Yale-generated observations: (1) TAA is a genetic disease with a predominantly autosomal dominant mode of inheritance; (2) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are activated in the pathogenesis of TAA; (3) wall tension in TAA approaches the tensile limits of aortic tissue at a diameter of 6 cm; (4) by the time a TAA reaches a clinical diameter of 6 cm, 34 percent of affected patients have suffered dissection or rupture; (5) extreme physical exertion or severe emotion often precipitate acute dissection; and (6) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RNA expression profile changes are being identified that predispose a patient to TAA and can serve as biomarkers for screening for this virulent disease. Conclusions: The “playbook” of TAA is gradually being read, with the help of scientific investigations, positioning practitioners to combat this lethal disease more effectively than ever before. PMID:19099048

  13. Endovascular Stent Grafting for Aortic Arch Aneurysm in Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease following Aortic Arch Debranching and Aortobifemoral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Canbay, Cagla; Onal, Yilmaz; Beyaz, Metin Onur; Sayin, Omer Ali; Barburoglu, Mehmet; Yornuk, Mesut; Acunas, Bulent; Alpagut, Ufuk; Dayioglu, Enver

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms constitutes high mortality and morbidity rates despite improvements in surgery, anesthesia, and technology. Endovascular stent grafting may be an alternative therapy with lower risks when compared with conventional techniques. However, sometimes the branches of the aortic arch may require transport to the proximal segments prior to successful thoracic aortic endovascular stent grafting. Atherosclerosis is accounted among the etiology of both aneurysms and occlusive diseases that can coexist in the same patient. In these situations stent grafting may even be more complicated. In this report, we present the treatment of a 92-year-old patient with aortic arch aneurysm and proximal descending aortic aneurysm. For successful thoracic endovascular stent grafting, the patient needed an alternative route other than the native femoral and iliac arteries for the deployment of the stent graft. In addition, debranching of left carotid and subclavian arteries from the aortic arch was also required for successful exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm. PMID:28408933

  14. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Onoue, Kenji; Ikegami, Koji; Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Saito, Takaaki; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV) to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  15. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  16. MAT2A Mutations Predispose Individuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Johnson, Ralph J.; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Raman, C.S.; Swindell, Eric C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:25557781

  17. Mitral valve aneurysm associated with aortic valve endocarditis and regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Raval, Amish N; Menkis, Alan H; Boughner, Derek R

    2002-01-01

    Mitral valve aneurysms are rare complications occurring most commonly in association with aortic valve infective endocarditis. [Decroly 1989, Chua 1990, Northridge 1991, Karalis 1992, Roguin 1996, Mollod 1997, Vilacosta 1997, Cai 1999, Vilacosta 1999, Teskey 1999, Chan 2000, Goh 2000, Marcos- Alberca 2000] While the mechanism of the development of this lesion is unclear, complications such as perforation can occur and lead to significant mitral regurgitation. [Decroly 1989, Karalis 1992, Teskey 1999, Vilacosta 1999]; The case of a 69-year-old male with Streptococcus Sanguis aortic valve endocarditis and associated anterior mitral leaflet aneurysm is presented. Following surgery, tissue pathology of the excised lesion revealed myxomatous degeneration and no active endocarditis or inflammatory cells. This may add support to the hypothesis that physical stress due to severe aortic insufficiency and structural weakening, without infection of the anterior mitral leaflet, can lead to the development of this lesion.

  18. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed. PMID:24038286

  19. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: a persistent painful hip.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Dinnish; Ashraf, Nadeem; Ahmad, Adil; Menon, Jay

    2013-09-13

    The presentation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with isolated hip pain is a rare phenomenon. We present an atypical case of a 58-year-old previously fit man who presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain associated with unintentional weight loss, tender bilateral testicular swellings and a large non-tender palpable mass on abdominal examination. Urgent abdominal CT scan findings revealed a 15 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic bifurcation associated with an extensive left hydronephrosis. In theatre, the diagnosis of inflammatory AAA (IAAA) was confirmed following the presence of pyuria and a successful repair with an open approach using a bifurcated dacron graft was performed.

  20. [The computed tomographic diagnosis of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Koch, J A; Grützner, G; Jungblut, R M; Kniemeyer, H W; Mödder, U

    1994-07-01

    Amongst 1599 patients undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm, there were 89 patients (5.6%) who showed typical features of inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA). 37 of the 89 patients had been examined preoperatively by CT. In 73% of the cases (27/37) a correct diagnosis had been made. Localisation, width and extent of the IAAA was correctly diagnosed in all patients. Involvement of the renal arteries by the inflammatory process, the extent of thrombus and of mural calcification were accurately shown. The inflammatory tissues were typically ventral and lateral to the aorta. Frequently, there were adhesions to neighbouring structures. Aortic rupture, aortic dissection and retroperitoneal lymphoma may produce similar CT appearances; nevertheless, CT remains at present the method of choice for the diagnosis of IAAA because of its high sensitivity.

  1. Surgical threshold for bicuspid aortic valve aneurysm: a case for individual decision-making.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Luigi; Braverman, Alan C

    2015-09-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) affects 1-2% of the population and may be associated with important valvular disease and an increased risk of aortic root and/or ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection. BAV aortic aneurysm and dissection occur earlier in life than when these disorders are associated with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). Alterations in the aortic media and differences in aortic elastic properties and wall stress also accompany BAV aortopathy. With appropriate follow-up and timely surgery, population studies have documented a survival rate for patients with BAV no different from age-matched controls. Guidelines have previously recommended prophylactic aortic surgery at a smaller aortic aneurysm size for patients with BAV compared with aneurysms in patients with a TAV. Recent guidelines have presented differing indications regarding the appropriate timing of prophylactic surgery for BAV aneurysms, giving the recommendation for surgery when the aortic root and/or ascending aortic exceeds 5.5 cm (unless certain factors are present), the same size for which TAV-associated aortic aneurysm surgery is recommended. We review the pathophysiology of BAV aortopathy, the clinical history of BAV ascending aortic disease, areas of uncertainty and make a case for a patient-centered, individualised decision regarding the optimal timing of aortic aneurysm surgery in BAV disease.

  2. Screening for aortic aneurysm after treatment of coarctation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James L; Gray, Robert G; LuAnn Minich, L; Wilkinson, Stephen E; Heywood, Mason; Edwards, Reggie; Weng, Hsin Ti; Su, Jason T

    2014-01-01

    Isolated coarctation of the aorta (CoA) occurs in 6-8 % of patients with congenital heart disease. After successful relief of obstruction, patients remain at risk for aortic aneurysm formation at the site of the repair. We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of echocardiography compared with advanced arch imaging (AAI) in diagnosing aortic aneurysms in pediatric patients after CoA repair. The Congenital Heart Databases from 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. All patients treated for CoA who had AAI defined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or catheterization were identified. Data collected included the following: type, timing, and number of interventions, presence and time to aneurysm diagnosis, and mortality. Patients were subdivided into surgical and catheterization groups for analysis. Seven hundred and fifty-nine patients underwent treatment for CoA during the study period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients had at least one AAI. Aneurysms were diagnosed by AAI in 28 of 399 patients at a mean of 10 ± 8.4 years after treatment. Echocardiography reports were available for 380 of 399 patients with AAI. The sensitivity of echocardiography for detecting aneurysms was 24 %. The prevalence of aneurysms was significantly greater in the catheterization group (p < 0.05) compared with the surgery group. Aneurysm was also diagnosed earlier in the catheterization group compared with the surgery group (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly increased risk of aneurysm diagnosis in patients in the catheterization subgroup and in patients requiring more than three procedures. Aortic aneurysms continue to be an important complication after CoA repair. Although serial echocardiograms are the test of choice for following-up most congenital cardiac lesions in pediatrics, our data show that echocardiography is inadequate for the detection of aneurysms after CoA repair. Because the time to aneurysm diagnosis was

  3. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Kothandan, Harikrishnan; Haw Chieh, Geoffrey Liew; Khan, Shariq Ali; Karthekeyan, Ranjith Baskar; Sharad, Shah Shitalkumar

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysm is defined as a localized and permanent dilatation with an increase in normal diameter by more than 50%. It is more common in males and can affect up to 8% of elderly men. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and other risk factors include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of aneurysms, inflammatory vasculitis, and trauma. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [EVAR] is a common procedure performed for AAA, because of its minimal invasiveness as compared with open surgical repair. Patients undergoing EVAR have a greater incidence of major co-morbidities and should undergo comprehensive preoperative assessment and optimization within the multidisciplinary settings. In majority of cases, EVAR is extremely well-tolerated. The aim of this article is to outline the Anesthetic considerations related to EVAR. PMID:26750684

  4. Recurrent aortic aneurysms in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, Corey; Zhen-Yu Tong, Michael; Lawlor, D Kirk; DeRose, Guy; Forbes, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    The following is a case of a 22-year-old male with recurrent thoracic aneurysms with several constitutional symptoms, including gastrointestinal discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and a 2-week history of severe lower back pain. The patient underwent an initial thoracoabdominal repair of a visceral aneurysm followed by endovascular repair of a recurrent thoracic pseudoaneurysm. The etiology of the visceral aneurysm was initially hypothesized to be mycotic; however, further information revealed signs and symptoms consistent with the diagnostic criteria for Behçet disease (BD). We suggest that BD be considered in younger patients who present with an aortic aneurysm. Although open repair is the traditional approach for arterial lesions in BD, the role for endovascular intervention should be considered as it represents a surgical repair with a significant reduction in morbidity.

  5. Transfemoral Valve-in-Valve Sapien 3 in a Patient with an Ascending Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Leung Wai Sang, Stephane; Bavaria, Joseph E; Giri, Jay S; Wickramasinghe, Rasi; Desai, Nimesh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of thoracic aortic aneurysms, particularly in the ascending aorta and arch, presents a challenge to transcatheter aortic valve replacement. We present a case of TAVR in the presence of a chronic ascending aortic aneurysm. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12724 (J Card Surg 2016;31:318-320).

  6. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  7. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  8. Application of Metabolic Profiling to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mahim I; Greco, Michele; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Holmes, Elaine; Davies, Alun H

    2017-07-07

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Metabonomics may aid in the diagnosis of AAA, determination of individualized risk, discovery of therapeutic targets, and improve understanding of pathogenesis. A systematic review of the diversity and outcomes of existing AAA metabonomic research has been performed. Original research studies applying metabonomics to human aneurysmal disease are included. Seven relevant articles were identified: four studies were based on plasma/serum metabolite profiling, and three studies examined aneurysmal tissue. Aminomalonic acid, guanidinosuccinic acid, and glycerol emerge as potential plasma biomarkers of large aneurysm. Lipid profiling improves predictive models of aneurysm presence. Patterns of metabolite variation associated with AAA relate to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Perioperative perturbations in metabolites suggest differential systemic inflammatory responses to surgery, generating hypotheses for adjunctive perioperative therapy. Significant limitations include small study sizes, lack of correction for multiple testing false discovery rates, and single time-point sampling. Metabolic profiling carries the potential to identify biomarkers of AAA and elucidate pathways underlying aneurysmal disease. Statistically and methodologically robust studies are required for validation, addressing the hiatus in understanding mechanisms of aneurysm growth and developing effective treatment strategies.

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  10. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Arya, N. Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J.; Loan, W.; Soong, C.V.

    2004-09-15

    Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

  11. Age at detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms in siblings of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Linné, Anneli; Forsberg, Johan; Lindström, David; Ideskog, Ester; Hultgren, Rebecka

    2016-04-01

    Few countries offer organized screening of siblings of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), although a hereditary trait is well known to exist. Male relatives, but not female, are invited within the population-based screening programs for elderly men in Sweden. Evidence regarding the optimal age to screen siblings is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the age at detection in siblings found with AAAs. All patients treated for AAAs in two Swedish counties were screened for siblings. Consenting siblings aged 80 and younger were examined (N = 529) with ultrasound and were interviewed per protocol. In the cohort of 529 siblings to AAA patients, 53 siblings were diagnosed with AAAs (sisters 16/276 [5.8%] and brothers 37/253 [14.6%]). The prevalence of AAAs in the siblings 65 years of age or younger was 16/207 (7.7%). One-third of the siblings found with AAAs were young (16/53 [30%]). Among the young siblings with AAAs, 8/16 (50%) had an aneurysm larger than 50 mm or were already surgically treated. The prevalence of AAAs in siblings older than 65 years of age was 37/322 (12%). The AAA prevalence in this sibling cohort is strikingly high compared to the prevalence in the population (in Sweden, 1.4%-2.2% in 65-year-old men). The young ages among diagnosed siblings reinforce that male siblings of AAA patients should be screened before age 65 (before the population-based program) and that structured programs for female siblings are called for. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  13. Improving the efficiency of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall stress computations.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Jaime E; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses.

  14. Stent-Grafts for Unruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, John

    2006-06-15

    Aortic stent-grafts were introduced at the beginning of the 1990s as a less invasive method of dealing with aortic aneurysms in patients with poor cardiovascular reserve. The numbers of procedures performed worldwide has increased exponentially despite the current lack of any substantial evidence for long-term efficacy in comparison with the gold standard of open surgical grafting. This review summarizes the evolution of the abdominal aortic stent-graft, the techniques used for assessment and deployment, and the effect of the procedure on both the patient and the device. The recent publication of two national multicenter trials has confirmed that the endovascular technique confers a 2.5-fold reduction in 30-day mortality in comparison with open surgery. However, over 4 years of follow-up, there is a 3-fold increase in the risk of reintervention and the overall costs are 30% greater with endovascular repair. Although the improvement in aneurysm-related mortality persists in the mid-term, because of the initial reduction in perioperative mortality, the all-cause mortality rate at 4 years is actually no better than for open surgery. Longer-term data from the randomized trials are awaited as well as results from the latest trials utilizing state-of-the-art devices. Whilst the overall management of abdominal aortic aneurysms has undoubtedly benefited from the introduction of stent-grafts, open repair currently remains the gold standard treatment.

  15. Predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm rupture potential

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Pham, Thuy; Elefteriades, John

    2013-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm is a leading cause of death in adults, often taking lives without any premonitory signs or symptoms. Adverse clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysm are preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. The objective of this study was to perform a predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA) tissue to assess rupture risk on a patient-specific level. AsAA tissues, obtained intra-operatively from 50 patients, were subjected to biaxial mechanical and uniaxial failure tests to obtain their passive elastic mechanical properties. A novel analytical method was developed to predict the AsAA pressure-diameter response as well as the aortic wall yield and failure responses. Our results indicated that the mean predicted AsAA diameter at rupture was 5.6 ± 0.7 cm, and the associated blood pressure to induce rupture was 579.4 ± 214.8 mmHg. Statistical analysis showed significant positive correlation between aneurysm tissue compliance and predicted risk of rupture, where patients with a pressure-strain modulus ≥100 kPa may be nearly twice as likely to experience rupture than patients with more compliant aortic tissue. The mechanical analysis of pre-dissection patient tissue properties established in this study could predict the “future” onset of yielding and rupture in AsAA patients. The analysis results implicate decreased tissue compliance as a risk factor for AsAA rupture. The presented methods may serve as a basis for the development of a pre-operative planning tool for AsAA evaluation, a tool currently unavailable. PMID:23948500

  16. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kunihide; Matsuyama, Masakazu; Endou, Jouji; Nishimura, Masanori; Ishii, Hirohito; Yokota, Atsuko; Ikenoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA.

  17. Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Report of Seven Cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed 575 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair performed in our institution from 1979 to 2010. In this group, 7 (1.2%) patients (mean age, 72.6 years) had evidence of inflammatory AAA (IAAA). Mean aneurysmal diameter was 70.4 mm as measured on CT, and the mantle sign was present in all cases. They were male smokers. Two patients had hydronephrosis, and required a ureteral stent before surgery. All patients underwent laparotomy, and no perioperative deaths occured. We suggest that operative technique should be modified to avoid excessive dissection on both the proximal and distal sides of the IAAA. PMID:24386030

  18. Biomechanical characterization of ascending aortic aneurysm with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve and bovine aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Pham, T; Martin, C; Elefteriades, J; Sun, W

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown that patients harboring bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bovine aortic arch (BAA) are more likely than the general population to develop ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA). A thorough quantification of the AsAA tissue properties for these patient groups may offer insights into the underlying mechanisms of AsAA development. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of aortic tissues from AsAA patients with and without concomitant BAV or BAA. AsAA (n=20), BAV (n=20) and BAA (n=15) human tissues were obtained from patients who underwent elective AsAA surgery. Planar biaxial and uniaxial failure tests were used to characterize the mechanical and failure properties of the tissues, respectively. Histological analysis was performed to detect medial degenerative characteristics of aortic aneurysm. Individual layer thickness and composition were quantified for each patient group. The circumferential stress-strain response of the BAV samples was stiffer than both AsAA (p=0.473) and BAA (p=0.152) tissues at a low load. The BAV samples were nearly isotropic, while AsAA and BAA samples were anisotropic. The areal strain of BAV samples was significantly less than that of AsAA (p=0.041) and BAA (p=0.004) samples at a low load. The BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples in both mechanical and failure properties. On the microstructural level, all samples displayed moderate medial degeneration, characterized by elastin fragmentation, cell loss, mucoid accumulation and fibrosis. The ultimate tensile strength of BAV and BAA sampleswere also found to decrease with age. Overall, the BAV samples were stiffer than both AsAA and BAA samples, and the BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples. The BAV samples were thinnest, with less elastin than AsAA and BAA samples, which may be attributed to the loss of extensibility of these tissues at a low load. No apparent difference in failure mechanics among

  19. Thrombospondin-1 contributes to slower aortic aneurysm growth by inhibiting maladaptive remodeling of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Mamoru; Nasu, Takahito; Osaki, Takuya; Hitomi, Sho

    2017-06-01

    In this issue of Clinical Science, Krishna and colleagues describe recent work on thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) maturation and its association with slower growth of aortic aneurysm in TSP-1 knockdown mouse models. The authors conclude that TSP-1 deficiency promotes maladaptive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to accelerated aortic aneurysm progression. We comment on a causal relation between TSP-1 and the progression of aortic aneurysm. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Aortic Arch Aneurysms: Treatment with Extra anatomical Bypass and Endovascular Stent-Grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Noriyuki; Shimono, Takatsugu; Hirano, Tadanori; Mizumoto, Toru; Ishida, Masaki; Fujii, Hideki; Yada, Isao; Takeda, Kan

    2002-10-15

    Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms is emerging as an attractive alternative to surgical graft replacement. However,patients with aortic arch aneurysms are often excluded from the target of endovascular repair because of lack of suitable landing zones, especially at the proximal ones. In this paper we describe our method for treating patients with aortic arch aneurysms using a combination of extra anatomical bypass surgery and endovascular stent-grafting.

  1. Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections: Identification of a Novel Locus for Stable Aneurysms with a Low Risk for Progression to Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-Chuan; Regalado, Ellen S.; Minn, Charles; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Coney, Joshua; Cao, Jiumei; Wang, Min; Yu, Robert K.; Estrera, Anthony L.; Safi, Hazim J.; Shete, Sanjay S.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (TAAD) are the major diseases that affect the thoracic aorta. Approximately 20% of patients with TAAD have a family history of TAAD, and these patients present younger with more rapidly enlarging aneurysms than patients without a family history of aortic disease. Methods and Results A large family with multiple members with TAAD inherited in an autosomal dominant manner was identified. The ascending aortic aneurysms were associated with slow enlargement, a low risk of dissection, and decreased penetrance in women. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed and a novel locus on chromosome 12 was identified for the mutant gene causing disease in this family. Of the 12 male members who carry the disease-linked microsatellite haplotype, nine had ascending aortic aneurysms with an average diameter of 4.7 cm and average age of 55 years (age range, 32-76) at the time of diagnosis; only one individual had progressed to acute aortic dissection and no other members with aortic dissections were identified. Women harboring the disease-linked haplotype did not have thoracic aortic disease, including an 84 year old woman. Sequencing of 9 genes within the critical interval at the chromosome 12 locus did not identify the mutant gene. Conclusion Mapping a locus for ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms associated with a low risk of aortic dissection supports our hypothesis that genes leading to familial disease can be associated with less aggressive thoracic aortic disease. PMID:21163914

  2. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair with visceral arteries intermittent clamp technique for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with shaggy aorta.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takashi; Takase, Shinya; Satokawa, Hirono; Misawa, Yukitoki; Wakamatsu, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Aortic repair for severely atheromatous aneurysm remains a challenge. We used an intermittent clamp technique for all visceral arteries during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for a thoracic aortic aneurysm with a "shaggy aorta" to prevent systemic thromboembolism. In addition, we applied an extracorporeal circulation circuit to trap the thrombi during the endovascular repair. Postoperatively, no embolic complications were seen, and microscopic examination showed trapped plaques on the filter. We conclude that this technique is an option for preventing thromboembolism in aortic aneurysm repair in the context of a shaggy aorta when substantial concern of distal diffuse atheromatous emboli is raised based on clinical history or clear evidence on imaging.

  3. The use of a stentless porcine bioprosthesis to repair an ascending aortic aneurysm in combination with aortic valve regurgitation.

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, B; Sanisoğlu, I; Konuralp, C; Akay, H; Güden, M; Sönmez, B

    1999-01-01

    Over the years, many surgical methods have evolved for the treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm in combination with aortic valve regurgitation; however, precise guidelines for optimal surgical techniques for varying presentations have not been defined. We describe the use of a stentless porcine bioprosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle) in a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic regurgitation. We used the complete root replacement method, and anastomosed a Dacron graft (Hemashield) between the bioprosthetic valve and the native aorta to replace the distal part of the aneurysm. Images PMID:10524742

  4. Effectiveness of open versus endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in population settings: A systematic review of statewide databases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher R; Brooke, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Patient outcomes after open abdominal aortic aneurysm and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair have been widely reported from several large, randomized, controlled trials. It is not clear whether these trial outcomes are representative of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures performed in real-world hospital settings across the United States. This study was designed to evaluate population-based outcomes after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases and examine how they have helped improve our understanding of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify articles comparing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using data from statewide inpatient databases. This search was limited to studies published in the English language after 1990, and abstracts were screened and abstracted by 2 authors. Our search yielded 17 studies published between 2004 and 2016 that used data from 29 different statewide inpatient databases to compare endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. These studies support the randomized, controlled trial results, including a lower mortality associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair extended from the perioperative period up to 3 years after operation, as well as a higher complication rate after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. The evidence from statewide inpatient database analyses has also elucidated trends in procedure volume, patient case mix, volume-outcome relationships, and health care disparities associated with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair versus open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Population analyses of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair using statewide inpatient databases have confirmed short- and long-term mortality outcomes obtained from

  5. New ascending aortic aneurysm model in rats reproduces main structural features of degenerative ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in human beings.

    PubMed

    Radu, Narcis Costin; Gervais, Marianne; Michineau, Stéphanie; Blanc, Raphaël; Fifre, Alexandre; Kirsch, Ernst Wilhelm Matthias; Allaire, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The singularity of the ascending aorta regarding mechanisms driving aneurysm formation requires the development of specific animal models. We investigated if adventitial elastase application results in ascending aorta aneurysms in rats. Adult Lewis rats (n = 26) were anesthetized, their ascending aortas measured by transthoracic ultrasound, and exposed via median sternotomy. Elastase or saline was applied on the ascending aortic adventitia. Ascending aorta diameters were monitored by ultrasound at 10 and 30 days, when the animals were killed. Wall area was measured on orcein stained sections. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels were quantified on gelatin zymography. Following elastase application, ascending aortic diameter increased at 10 and 30 days follow-up by 38% and 44%, respectively (P = .004). Despite thinning of the media secondary to vascular dilation, standardized medial area was not different between elastase-treated aortas and controls. Standardized total wall area had a significant increase in treated aortas compared with controls. Active matrix metalloproteinase-2 was significantly increased at 30 days in treated aortas, whereas active matrix metalloproteinase-9 was no different from controls. Elastase application on rat ascending aortic adventitia produced aneurysms, creating a reproducible model. Aortic wall remodeling evolved toward an increase in total wall area, reproducing the main structural features of this disease in human beings. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of flow recirculation on abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taib, Ishkrizat; Amirnordin, Shahrin Hisham; Madon, Rais Hanizam; Mustafa, Norrizal; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    The presences of flow recirculation at the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) region yield the unpredictable failure of aneurismal wall. The failure of the aneurismal wall is closely related to the hemodynamic factor. Hemodynamic factor such as pressure and velocity distribution play a significance role of aneurysm growth and rupture. By using the computational approach, the influence of hemodynamic factor is investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method on the virtual AAA model. The virtual 3D AAAs model was reconstructed from Spiral Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan). The blood flow is assumed as being transient, laminar and Newtonian within a rigid section of the vessel. The blood flow also driven by an imposed of pressure gradient in the form of physiological waveform. The pulsating blood flow is also considered in this simulation. The results on pressure distribution and velocity profile are analyzed to interpret the behaviour of flow recirculation. The results show the forming of vortices is seen at the aneurysm bulge. This vortices is form at the aneurysm region then destroyed rapidly by flow recirculation. Flow recirculation is point out much higher at distal end of aneurysm closed to iliac bifurcation. This phenomenon is managed to increase the possibility of aneurysm growth and rupture.

  7. Arteriomegaly and inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, M; Uccini, S; Luzi, G; Murante, G; Tagliacozzo, S

    1997-02-01

    In this case report inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) was superimposed on an arteriomegaly condition complicated by bilateral aneurysm of the common iliac arteries. Obstruction of the right ureter, mild hydronephrosis of the left system and a slight impairment of renal function were also present. Preoperative cellular and humoral immunological parameters were within normal limits while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated (74 mm). Histological analysis showed numerous scattered lymphoid cells or organized in follicles with germinal centers within the adventitial thickening of the IAAA wall. Immunohistochemical analysis on frozen sections demonstrated that dispersed and perivascular lymphoid cells were mainly composed of similar amounts of CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ T lymphocytes. Histological analysis of the common iliac artery aneurysm showed a mild intimal thickening will small aggregates of macrophages. After aneurysm repair all peripheral blood analysis normalized within one month after surgery. The IAAA observed in our patient with arteriomegaly as underlying arterial disease cannot be interpreted as an inflammatory variation of an atherosclerotic aneurysm. The histological pattern of the inflammatory reaction and its resolution after surgery give, in our opinion, more credit to the etiopathogenetic hypothesis of a reaction elicited by an antigen within the arterial wall of the infrarenal aorta which might be enhanced by the lymphatic stasis subsequent to aneurysm compression.

  8. Jaundice as a Rare Indication for Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Rieß, Henrik C; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Behrendt, Christian A; Wipper, Sabine; Debus, Eike S; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Compression of adjacent anatomic structures by an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can result in a variety of symptoms. We describe the case of an 88-year-old Caucasian woman with jaundice, elevated laboratory parameters for extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis, and concomitant juxtarenal AAA compressing the liver hilum. Following exclusion of other common causes for cholestasis, the patient was considered to have a symptomatic AAA. Open abdominal aortic surgery revealed a contained rupture and was repaired. Obstructive jaundice secondary to a compromising AAA is a rare condition and to the best of our knowledge has not been reported to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful Treatment of Clostridium difficile Bacteremia with Aortic Mycotic Aneurysm in a Patient with Prior Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Brauch, Rebecca; Cherabuddi, Kartikeya

    2017-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection can range from benign gastrointestinal colonization to mild diarrhea and life threatening conditions such as pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Extraintestinal manifestations of C. difficile are rare. Here, we report a patient with a history of an endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) presenting with an endovascular leak complicated by C. difficile bacteremia and a mycotic aneurysm. He was successfully treated with an explant of the EVAR, an aorto-left renal bypass, and aorto-bi-iliac bypass graft placement along with a six-week duration of intravenous vancomycin and oral metronidazole. PMID:28348903

  10. Custom Fenestration Templates for Endovascular Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Starnes, Benjamin W.

    2015-01-01

    Physician-modified endovascular grafts, with fenestrations added to accommodate major branch vessels, provide a means for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms that are adjacent to the renal arteries. Manual measurements of vessel origin locations from CT images, however, take time and can lead to errors in the positions of the fenestrations. To make the fenestration process faster and more accurate, we have developed a procedure to create custom templates that serve as patient-specific guides for graft fenestration. We use a 3D printer to create a clear rigid sleeve that replicates the patient’s aorta and includes holes placed precisely at the locations of the branch vessels. The sleeve is slipped over the graft, the locations of the openings are marked with a pen, and the fenestrations are created after removing the sleeve. Custom fenestration templates can potentially save procedural costs and make minimally-invasive aortic aneurysm repair available to more patients. PMID:25864045

  11. Custom fenestration templates for endovascular repair of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Daniel F; Starnes, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Physician-modified endovascular grafts, with fenestrations added to accommodate major branch vessels, provide a means for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms that are adjacent to the renal arteries. Manual measurements of vessel origin locations from computed tomography images, however, take time and can lead to errors in the positions of the fenestrations. To make the fenestration process faster and more accurate, we have developed a procedure to create custom templates that serve as patient-specific guides for graft fenestration. We use a three-dimensional printer to create a clear rigid sleeve that replicates the patient's aorta and includes holes placed precisely at the locations of the branch vessels. The sleeve is slipped over the graft, the locations of the openings are marked with a pen, and the fenestrations are created after the sleeve is removed. Custom fenestration templates can potentially save procedural costs and make minimally invasive aortic aneurysm repair available to more patients.

  12. Thoracoabdominal aortic replacement for Crawford extent II aneurysm after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haiou; Zheng, Tie; Zhu, Junming; Liu, Yongmin; Qi, Ruidong

    2017-01-01

    Background The surgical treatment of Crawford extent II aneurysms after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) remains challenging, because of the need to remove the failed endograft and the complexity of the aortic reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with surgical management of Crawford extent II aneurysms after TEVAR using thoracoabdominal aortic replacement (TAAR). Methods Eleven patients (10 males, 1 female) with Crawford extent II aneurysm after TEVAR were treated with TAAR between August 2012 and May 2015. The indications included: diameter >5.0 cm; persistent pain; size increase >0.5 cm/year; and no suitable landing zone for re-TEVAR. Five patients underwent surgery under deep hypothermic cardiac arrest, two under mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and four under direct aortic cross-clamping under normothermia. Two patients had Marfan syndrome. Results There were no in-hospital deaths. Continuous renal replacement therapy was required in three patients. One patient needed re-intubation, and two patients had prolonged intubation (>72 h). One patient sustained paraplegia after surgery but recovered during follow-up. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage were used in four patients (3 immediately in the operation room, and 1 in the intensive care unit when the patient suffered paraplegia). One patient died during follow-up. Conclusions TAAR represents a feasible option for the treatment of Crawford extent II aneurysms after TEVAR, with acceptable surgical risks and favorable results. PMID:28203407

  13. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  14. Postsurgical aortic false aneurysm: pathogenesis, clinical presentation and surgical strategy.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Giuseppe M; Malvindi, Pietro G; Ornaghi, Diego; Basciu, Alessio; Barbone, Alessandro; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Settepani, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    Postsurgical aortic false aneurysm occurs in less than 0.5% of all cardiac surgical cases and its management is a challenge in terms of preoperative evaluation and surgical approach. Although infections are well recognized as risk factors, technical aspects of a previous operation may have a role in pseudoaneurysm formation. The risk factors and clinical presentation of pseudoaneurysms and the surgical strategy are revisited in this article.

  15. Influence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Shape on Hemodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-19

    simulation was performed on two patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms ( AAA ) using physiologically realistic flow conditions. The patients have... AAA with diameters of approximately 5 and 7 cm, respectively. The blood flow hemodynamics are shown to consist of large-scale periodic structures and...been reached and turbulence persists in the AAA after the bulk flow decelerates to a laminar condition. For both cases, a jet of blood forms at the AAA

  16. Alternative splicing impairs soluble guanylyl cyclase function in aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emil; Golunski, Eva; Laing, Susan T; Estrera, Anthony L; Sharina, Iraida G

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a key regulator of several important vascular functions and is important for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and vascular plasticity. Diminished sGC expression and function contributes to pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. However, the processes that control sGC expression in vascular tissue remain poorly understood. Previous work in animal and cell models revealed the complexity of alternative splicing of sGC genes and demonstrated its importance in modulation of sGC function. The aim of this study was to examine the role of alternative splicing of α1 and β1 sGC in healthy and diseased human vascular tissue. Our study found a variety of α1 and β1 sGC splice forms expressed in human aorta. Their composition and abundance were different between samples of aortic tissue removed during surgical repair of aortic aneurysm and samples of aortas without aneurysm. Aortas with aneurysm demonstrated decreased sGC activity, which correlated with increased expression of dysfunctional sGC splice variants. In addition, the expression of 55-kDa oxidation-resistant α1 isoform B sGC (α1-IsoB) was significantly lower in aortic samples with aneurysm. The α1-IsoB splice variant was demonstrated to support sGC activity in aortic lysates. Together, our results suggest that alternative splicing contributes to diminished sGC function in vascular dysfunction. Precise understanding of sGC splicing regulation could help to design new therapeutic interventions and to personalize sGC-targeting therapies in treatments of vascular disease. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, e.g., inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in AAA morbidity and mortality. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) magnetic resonance imaging are two novel approaches to AAA imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of AAA and show great potential for clinical translation. PMID:26763279

  18. Hybrid Procedure with Debranching from the Descending Aorta for Aortic Arch Aneurysm after Previous Open Repair.

    PubMed

    Zanow, Juergen; Breuer, Martin; Lopatta, Eric; Schelenz, Christoph; Settmacher, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Aortic arch aneurysms can be treated with hybrid procedures by endovascular exclusion and prior debranching of supra-aortic arteries. We report on a case of symptomatic arch aneurysm following previous supracoronary ascending aorta and hemiarch replacement with a very short proximal landing zone. A successful reconstruction was performed by retrograde revascularization of supra-aortic vessels from the descending aorta and subsequent endovascular repair deploying a proximal stent graft directly above the sinotubular junction with good results in the 4-year follow-up. Retrograde supra-aortic debranching may constitute a suitable approach for hybrid endovascular repair of aneurysms of the aortic arch and the ascending aorta in selected cases.

  19. Endovascular Repair of an Anastomotic Leak Following Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Mofidi, R. Flett, M.; Milne, A.; Chakraverty, S.

    2007-09-15

    This report describes the case of an early postoperative anastomotic leak following elective open repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm which was successfully treated by endovascular stent-grafting. A 71-year-old man underwent open tube graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Twelve days later he presented with a contained leak from the distal anastomosis, which was confirmed on CT scan. This was successfully treated with a bifurcated aortic stent-graft. This case illustrates the usefulness of the endovascular approach for resolving this rare surgical complication of open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and the challenges associated with the deployment of such a device within an aortic tube graft.

  20. Endovascular Exclusion of Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Thomas J.; Kane, Peter N.; Madjarov, Jeko M.; Holleman, Jeremiah H.; Robicsek, Francis; Roush, Timothy S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of prohibitive risk may preclude usual surgical management. Such was the case for a critically ill, 60-year-old woman who presented with concomitant, life-threatening conditions. The patient presented with acute central cord syndrome and lower-extremity paraplegia after completing a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine. Radiologic examination revealed bony destruction of thoracic vertebrae T4 through T6, impingement on the spinal cord and canal by an inflammatory mass, and a separate 2.5-cm mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta. The clinical and radiologic findings warranted immediate decompression and stabilization of the spinal cord, aneurysmectomy, and vascular reconstruction. However, the severely debilitated patient could not tolerate 2 simultaneous open procedures. She underwent emergent endovascular exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm with a stent-graft, followed immediately by laminectomy and stabilization of the thoracic spine. Intraoperative microbiology specimens showed no growth. The patient was maintained on prophylactic antibiotic therapy for 6 months. Fourteen months postoperatively, her neurologic function was near full recovery, and neither surveillance blood cultures nor radiologic examinations showed a recurrence of infection or aneurysm. Although the long-term outcome of endovascular stent-grafts in the treatment of culture-negative mycotic aneurysms is unknown, the use of these grafts in severely debilitated patients can reduce operative risk and enable recovery in the short term. PMID:18172531

  1. Aneurysm Wall Enhancement Detected by Contrast Computed Tomography Scan Is Associated With Aneurysm Shrinkage After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ito, Eisaku; Toya, Naoki; Fukushima, Soichiro; Murakami, Yuri; Akiba, Tadashi; Ohki, Takao

    2017-09-27

    Aneurysm expansion, and consequent endoleaks, after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a major problem. Accurate prediction of aneurysm expansion is demanding for surgeons and remains difficult.Methods and Results:We retrospectively analyzed 157 cases of EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using a bifurcated main-body stent-graft. There were 62 cases of aneurysm shrinkage after EVAR, 63 cases of stable aneurysm, and 32 cases of aneurysm expansion. Type I endoleaks were significantly increased in the aneurysm expansion group (EXP) compared with the stable (STB) and shrinkage (SHR) groups (EXP: 15.6% vs. STB: 4.8% vs. SHR: 0%, P=0.005). Type II endoleaks were also significantly increased in EXP (EXP: 65.6% vs. STB: 36.5% vs. SHR: 6.5%, P<0.001). Aneurysm wall enhancement (AWE) on imaging, however, was significantly decreased in the EXP group (EXP: 18.8% vs. STB: 23.8% vs. SHR: 53.2%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of type II endoleaks significantly decreased (P<0.001) and that of AWE significantly increased the likelihood of aneurysm shrinkage (P=0.032). AWE following EVAR may be associated with aneurysm shrinkage.

  2. Modelling of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection through 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Daniel; Squelch, Andrew; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the complex anatomy of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection can be accurately reproduced from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan into a three-dimensional (3D) printed model. Contrast-enhanced cardiac CT scans from two patients were post-processed and produced as 3D printed thoracic aorta models of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. The transverse diameter was measured at five anatomical landmarks for both models, compared across three stages: the original contrast-enhanced CT images, the stereolithography (STL) format computerised model prepared for 3D printing and the contrast-enhanced CT of the 3D printed model. For the model with aortic dissection, measurements of the true and false lumen were taken and compared at two points on the descending aorta. Three-dimensional printed models were generated with strong and flexible plastic material with successful replication of anatomical details of aortic structures and pathologies. The mean difference in transverse vessel diameter between the contrast-enhanced CT images before and after 3D printing was 1.0 and 1.2 mm, for the first and second models respectively (standard deviation: 1.0 mm and 0.9 mm). Additionally, for the second model, the mean luminal diameter difference between the 3D printed model and CT images was 0.5 mm. Encouraging results were achieved with regards to reproducing 3D models depicting aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Variances in vessel diameter measurement outside a standard deviation of 1 mm tolerance indicate further work is required into the assessment and accuracy of 3D model reproduction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  3. Transcaval Aortic Access for Percutaneous Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Initial Human Experience

    PubMed Central

    Uflacker, Andre; Lim, Scott; Ragosta, Michael; Haskal, Ziv J; Lederman, Robert J.; Kern, John; Upchurch, Gilbert; Huber, Timothy; Angle, John F.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2015-01-01

    Transcaval aortic access has been used for deployment of transcatheter aortic valves in patients in whom conventional arterial approaches are not feasible. The present report describes its use for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in a 61-year-old man with a descending thoracic aneurysm. Transcaval access was performed in lieu of a surgical iliac conduit in view of small atherosclerotic pelvic arteries. TEVAR was successfully performed, followed by intervascular tract occlusion with the use of a ventricular septal occluder. Computed tomography 2 d later demonstrated no extravasation. At 1 mo, the aneurysm was free of endoleaks, the aortocaval tract had healed, and the patient had returned to baseline functional status. PMID:26408210

  4. Late diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms substantiates underutilization of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening for Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Mell, Matthew W; Hlatky, Mark A; Shreibati, Jacqueline B; Dalman, Ronald L; Baker, Laurence C

    2013-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening remains largely underutilized in the U.S., and it is likely that the proportion of patients with aneurysms requiring prompt treatment is much higher compared with well-screened populations. The goals of this study were to determine the proportion of AAAs that required prompt repair after diagnostic abdominal imaging for U.S. Medicare beneficiaries and to identify patient and hospital factors contributing to early vs late diagnosis of AAA. Data were extracted from Medicare claims records for patients at least 65 years old with complete coverage for 2 years who underwent intact AAA repair from 2006 to 2009. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography was tabulated from 2002 to repair. We defined early diagnosis of AAA as a patient with a time interval of greater than 6 months between the first imaging examination and the index procedure, and late diagnosis as patients who underwent the index procedure within 6 months of the first imaging examination. Of 17,626 patients who underwent AAA repair, 14,948 met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 77.5 ± 6.1 years. Early diagnosis was identified for 60.6% of patients receiving AAA repair, whereas 39.4% were repaired after a late diagnosis. Early diagnosis rates increased from 2006 to 2009 (59.8% to 63.4%; P < .0001) and were more common for intact repair compared with repair after rupture (62.9% vs 35.1%; P < .0001) and for women compared with men (66.3% vs 59.0%; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, repair of intact vs ruptured AAAs (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.6) and female sex (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5) remained the strongest predictors of surveillance. Although intact repairs were more likely to be diagnosed early, over one-third of patients undergoing repair for ruptured AAAs received diagnostic abdominal imaging greater than 6 months prior to surgery. Despite advances in screening practices, significant missed opportunities

  5. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery Successfully Excluded by a Thoracic Aortic Stent Graft with Supra-aortic Bypass of Three Arch Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Munneke, Graham J. Loosemore, Thomas M.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thompson, Matt M.; Morgan, Robert A.

    2005-06-15

    An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) arising from a left-sided aortic arch is the fourth most common aortic arch anomaly. Aneurysmal dilatation of the ARSA requires treatment because of the associated risk of rupture. We present a case where supra-aortic bypass of the arch vessels was performed to facilitate exclusion of the aneurysm by a thoracic aortic stent graft.

  6. Genetic Risk for Aortic Aneurysm in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David M; Willing, Marcia C; Braverman, Alan C; Bridwell, Keith H; Kelly, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence G; Luhmann, Scott J; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2015-09-02

    Scoliosis is a feature of several genetic disorders that are also associated with aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and type-IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Life-threatening complications of aortic aneurysm can be decreased through early diagnosis. Genetic screening for mutations in populations at risk, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, may improve recognition of these disorders. The coding regions of five clinically actionable genes associated with scoliosis (COL3A1, FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3) and aortic aneurysm were sequenced in 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Gene variants that had minor allele frequencies of <0.0001 or were present in human disease mutation databases were identified. Variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of unknown significance. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified in 0.9% (three) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Two patients had pathogenic SMAD3 nonsense mutations consistent with type-III Loeys-Dietz syndrome and one patient had a pathogenic FBN1 mutation with subsequent confirmation of Marfan syndrome. Variants of unknown significance in COL3A1 and FBN1 were identified in 5.0% (seventeen) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Six FBN1 variants were previously reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, yet were considered variants of unknown significance based on the level of evidence. Variants of unknown significance occurred most frequently in FBN1 and were associated with greater curve severity, systemic features of Marfan syndrome, and joint hypermobility. Clinically actionable pathogenic mutations in genes associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and aortic aneurysm are rare in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who are not suspected of having these disorders, although variants of unknown significance are relatively common. Routine genetic screening of all patients with adolescent

  7. Genetic Risk for Aortic Aneurysm in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David M.; Willing, Marcia C.; Braverman, Alan C.; Bridwell, Keith H.; Kelly, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Luhmann, Scott J.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is a feature of several genetic disorders that are also associated with aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and type-IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Life-threatening complications of aortic aneurysm can be decreased through early diagnosis. Genetic screening for mutations in populations at risk, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, may improve recognition of these disorders. Methods: The coding regions of five clinically actionable genes associated with scoliosis (COL3A1, FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3) and aortic aneurysm were sequenced in 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Gene variants that had minor allele frequencies of <0.0001 or were present in human disease mutation databases were identified. Variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of unknown significance. Results: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified in 0.9% (three) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Two patients had pathogenic SMAD3 nonsense mutations consistent with type-III Loeys-Dietz syndrome and one patient had a pathogenic FBN1 mutation with subsequent confirmation of Marfan syndrome. Variants of unknown significance in COL3A1 and FBN1 were identified in 5.0% (seventeen) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Six FBN1 variants were previously reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, yet were considered variants of unknown significance based on the level of evidence. Variants of unknown significance occurred most frequently in FBN1 and were associated with greater curve severity, systemic features of Marfan syndrome, and joint hypermobility. Conclusions: Clinically actionable pathogenic mutations in genes associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and aortic aneurysm are rare in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who are not suspected of having these disorders, although variants of unknown significance are relatively common. Clinical

  8. Osteoclastogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A new therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander D; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2017-09-25

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a major cause of death. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for AAA is surgical repair and there are no FDA approved medical therapies for AAA. Much research is in progress to discover new medical therapies for AAA. The pathophysiology of AAA is understood to be a complex interplay of inflammatory and proteolytic processes that degenerate the aneurysm wall. Arterial calcification, which is observed in AAA but to a lesser extent than in arterial occlusive disease, occurs in a highly regulated manner in a similar process as mineral deposition in bone. Osteoblasts-like cells are responsible for mineral deposition in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, osteoclast-like cells - the catabolic counterpart to osteoblasts - were discovered in atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, osteoclast-like cells are present in the wall of AAA but not in healthy aortas. Osteoclast-like cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) - proteases implicated in arterial aneurysm wall degeneration - and may contribute to the degredation of the aneurysm wall. Inhibiting osteoclast-like cells may prevent aneurysm progression by reducing tissue levels of MMPs. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of AAA formation and the current role of medical therapy in treatment of AAA. Furthermore, we highlight the emerging hypothesis that osteoclasts play a key role in the development of AAA and discuss therapies to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in AAA. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Endovascular treatment of proximal arsastomotic aneurysms after aortic prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Tiesenhausen, Kurt; Hausegger, Klaus A.; Tauss, Josef; Amann, Wilfried; Koch, Guenter

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To describe the efficacy and value of endovascular stent-grafts for the treatment of aortic anastomotic pseudo-aneurysms.Methods: Three patients with proximal aortic anastomotic pseudoaneurysms 8-15 years after prosthetic reconstruction were treated by transfemoral stent-graft implantation. In two patients the pseudoaneurysms were excluded by Talent prostheses [tube graft (n=1), bifurcated graft (n=s1)]. In one patient an uniiliac Zenith stent-graft was implanted and an extra-anatomic crossover bypass for revascularization of the contralateral lower extremity was performed.Results: All procedures were successful with primary exclusion of the pseudoaneurysms. During the follow-up (mean 16 months) one endoleak occurred due to migration of the tube stent-graft. The endoleak was sealed successfully by implanting an additional bifurcated stent-graft.Conclusion: Stent-graft exclusion of aortic pseudoaneurysms offers a minimally invasive and safe alternative to open surgical reconstruction.

  10. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial preventive physical examination (as... for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (3) Is included in at least one of...

  11. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial preventive physical examination (as... for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (3) Is included in at least one of...

  12. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial preventive physical examination (as... for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (3) Is included in at least one of...

  13. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial preventive physical examination (as... for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (3) Is included in at least one of...

  14. 42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms... ultrasound screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm under Medicare program; and (2) Is included in at least one of the following risk categories: (i) Has a family history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm....

  15. Sac enlargement due to seroma after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the Endologix PowerLink device.

    PubMed

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Bianchi, Paolo G; Gotti, Riccardo; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2006-01-01

    A patient who had undergone endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with the Endologix PowerLink bifurcated system presented with delayed aortic aneurysm enlargement due to assumed endotension. He was treated with aortic sac evacuation and wrapping of the endograft. This is the first report of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement after implantation of the PowerLink endograft.

  16. Anterior Retroperitoneal Spine Exposure following Prior Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Thompson, Patrick; Mell, Matthew W

    2016-08-01

    We describe successful anterior retroperitoneal spine exposure to facilitate anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) in a patient with a prior endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A 74-year-old male with an extensive spine surgical history presented with progressive neurogenic claudication and paresthesia involving both feet. In addition, his surgical history was notable for an EVAR performed elsewhere 5 years earlier, with subsequent right renal stent placement for encroachment of the right renal artery. Diagnostic evaluation identified severe L3-4 and L4-5 canal stenosis, and a 48 × 36-mm aneurysm sac with a type II endoleak. Revision L3-L5 fusion from an anterior approach with vascular surgery assistance was recommended. The retroperitoneum was accessed through a left paramedian abdominal incision. The abdominal aortic aneurysm sac was visualized and noted to be nonpulsatile. The distal aorta and left iliac vessels were dissected and retracted medially to facilitate anterior exposure of the L3-4 and L4-5 disk spaces. Successful ALIF of the L3-5 vertebrae was then performed. Retractors were removed and the aortoiliac vessels were carefully returned to anatomic position. The aneurysm sac remained nonpulsatile, with normal pulses in the iliac arteries. Postoperative imaging demonstrated stable appearance of aortic stent graft. At 1-year follow-up, the patient reports complete resolution of symptoms and imaging demonstrates a patent aortic stent graft with a stable type II endoleak. Widespread application of ALIF will inevitably include an increasing subgroup of patients with previous EVAR. Such patients require thorough clinical and radiographic perioperative considerations for the access surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of paraplegia with current thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Wongkornrat, Wanchai; Yamamoto, Shin; Sekine, Yuji; Ono, Makoto; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2015-05-01

    Although the results of surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm continue to improve, the incidence of paraplegia remains within a wide range depending on each institution. The purpose of this study was to find predictors of paraplegia following thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair in our institute, using the current spinal cord protection strategies. From January 2007 to December 2011, 200 consecutive patients underwent thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Of these, 24 (12%) had Crawford extent I repair, 82 (41%) had extent II, 51 (25.5%) had extent III, 10 (5%) had extent IV, and 33 (16.5%) had extent V (modified by Safi). Aortic dissection was present in 101 (50.5%) patients. Adjuncts used during the procedures included left heart bypass in all patients, cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 164 (82%), and intercostal artery reimplantation in 76 (38%). There were 20 (10%) hospital deaths including 6 (3%) within 30 days; hospital mortality was 8.8% in elective operations. Postoperative complications included paraplegia in 17 (8.5%) patients, stroke in 5 (2.5%), and acute renal failure requiring dialysis in 5 (2.5%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that significant factors for the development of paraplegia were preoperative hypotension (p = 0.005, odds ratio 18.5), intraoperative hypotension (p = 0.001, odds ratio 77.6), and an open distal anastomosis technique (p = 0.012, odds ratio 4.6). The predictors of postoperative paraplegia in our institution were perioperative hypotension and an open distal anastomosis technique. Avoidance of these risk factors might diminish the incidence of postoperative paraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing for the Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Brownrigg, Jack R. W.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Holt, Peter J. E.; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Morgan, Robert A.; Loftus, Ian M.; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and report preliminary results of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) repair with endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), a novel therapeutic alternative whose feasibility has not been established in rAAAs due to the unknown effects of the rupture site on the ability to achieve sealing. Case Report: Between December 2013 and April 2014, 5 patients (median age 71 years, range 57–90; 3 men) with rAAAs were treated with the Nellix EVAS system at a single institution. Median aneurysm diameter was 70 mm (range 67–91). Aneurysm morphology in 4 of the 5 patients was noncompliant with instructions for use (IFU) for both EVAS and standard stent-grafts; the remaining patient was outside the IFU for standard stent-grafts but treated with EVAS under standard IFU for the Nellix system. Median Hardman index was 2 (range 0–3). Two patients died of multiorgan failure after re-laparotomy and intraoperative cardiac arrest, respectively. Among survivors, all devices were patent with no signs of endoleak or failed aneurysm sac sealing at 6 months (median follow-up 9.2 months). Conclusion: EVAS for the management of infrarenal rAAAs appears feasible. The use of EVAS in emergency repairs may broaden the selection criteria of the current endovascular strategy to include patients with more complex aneurysm morphology. PMID:25904491

  19. The effect of aortic morphology on peri-operative mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether aneurysm shape and extent, which indicate whether a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is eligible for endovascular repair (EVAR), influence the outcome of both EVAR and open surgical repair. The influence of six morphological parameters (maximum aortic diameter, aneurysm neck diameter, length and conicality, proximal neck angle, and maximum common iliac diameter) on mortality and reinterventions within 30 days was investigated in rAAA patients randomized before morphological assessment in the Immediate Management of the Patient with Rupture: Open Versus Endovascular strategies (IMPROVE) trial. Patients with a proven diagnosis of rAAA, who underwent repair and had their admission computerized tomography scan submitted to the core laboratory, were included. Among 458 patients (364 men, mean age 76 years), who had either EVAR (n = 177) or open repair (n = 281) started, there were 155 deaths and 88 re-interventions within 30 days of randomization analysed according to a pre-specified plan. The mean maximum aortic diameter was 8.6 cm. There were no substantial correlations between the six morphological variables. Aneurysm neck length was shorter in those undergoing open repair (vs. EVAR). Aneurysm neck length (mean 23.3, SD 16.1 mm) was inversely associated with mortality for open repair and overall: adjusted OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.57, 0.92) for each 16 mm (SD) increase in length. There were no convincing associations of morphological parameters with reinterventions. Short aneurysm necks adversely influence mortality after open repair of rAAA and preclude conventional EVAR. This may help explain why observational studies, but not randomized trials, have shown an early survival benefit for EVAR. ISRCTN 48334791. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  20. The effect of aortic morphology on peri-operative mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether aneurysm shape and extent, which indicate whether a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) is eligible for endovascular repair (EVAR), influence the outcome of both EVAR and open surgical repair. Methods and results The influence of six morphological parameters (maximum aortic diameter, aneurysm neck diameter, length and conicality, proximal neck angle, and maximum common iliac diameter) on mortality and reinterventions within 30 days was investigated in rAAA patients randomized before morphological assessment in the Immediate Management of the Patient with Rupture: Open Versus Endovascular strategies (IMPROVE) trial. Patients with a proven diagnosis of rAAA, who underwent repair and had their admission computerized tomography scan submitted to the core laboratory, were included. Among 458 patients (364 men, mean age 76 years), who had either EVAR (n = 177) or open repair (n = 281) started, there were 155 deaths and 88 re-interventions within 30 days of randomization analysed according to a pre-specified plan. The mean maximum aortic diameter was 8.6 cm. There were no substantial correlations between the six morphological variables. Aneurysm neck length was shorter in those undergoing open repair (vs. EVAR). Aneurysm neck length (mean 23.3, SD 16.1 mm) was inversely associated with mortality for open repair and overall: adjusted OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.57, 0.92) for each 16 mm (SD) increase in length. There were no convincing associations of morphological parameters with reinterventions. Conclusion Short aneurysm necks adversely influence mortality after open repair of rAAA and preclude conventional EVAR. This may help explain why observational studies, but not randomized trials, have shown an early survival benefit for EVAR. Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN 48334791. PMID:25627357

  1. Aortic angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem with the aorta or its branches, including: Aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Congenital (present from birth) problems AV ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Congenital (present ...

  2. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Hoddick, W K; Hricak, H; Sollitto, R; Justich, E; Filly, R A; Higgins, C B

    1985-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate abdominal aortic aneurysms in 27 patients. The findings were compared retrospectively with CT, ultrasound (US), and angiography in 17 cases and prospectively with US in 10 cases. MRI identified the renal arteries in all cases, demonstrated involvement at or above the origin of the renal arteries in eight patients, and showed extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries in 12 cases. The outer dimension of the aneurysm, the diameter of the residual lumen, and the length of the aneurysm were measured easily from the MR images. The measurements of transverse dimension of the abdominal aortic aneurysm were similar for MRI, CT, and US. MRI more accurately defined extension above the renal arteries and below the aortic bifurcation. It is concluded that MRI provides the necessary information for the surveillance and preoperative evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  3. Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Aortic aneurysm is not common in young patient. When a young patient presents with abdominal aortic aneurysm, there may be an underlying cause. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with flu like illness, chest and abdominal pains following a tooth extraction. A chest X-ray and subsequent computerised tomogram of the chest and abdomen demonstrated lung nodules and an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was repaired and his serology was positive for Wegener's granulomatosis. A nasal mucosal biopsy confirmed WG. He was treated with oral steroids and cyclophosphamide. His graft leaked and had to be replaced with a synthetic graft. Two months after his re-operation, he remains well. Conclusion Whenever a young patient presents with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, an underlying connective disease should be excluded because early steroid/immunosuppressive treatment may prevent the development of further aneurysms. PMID:20066062

  4. Complete regression of a symptomatic, mycotic juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm after treatment with fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Durgin, Jonathan M; Arous, Edward J; Kumar, Shivani; Robinson, William P; Simons, Jessica P; Schanzer, Andres

    2016-09-01

    Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms are rare and present unique challenges when potential treatment options are considered. Although aortic resection with in situ grafting techniques or extra-anatomic reconstruction are the treatments of choice, endovascular aortic repair has emerged as a suitable alternative in critically ill patients. We report the successful endovascular repair of a symptomatic, mycotic juxtarenal aortic aneurysm using a physician-modified fenestrated endograft. In this patient, with >6 months of follow-up, the aneurysm has completely regressed, illustrating that in select patients with complex mycotic aneurysms, endovascular repair combined with appropriate medical management is a viable treatment strategy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: serial changes of periaortic fibrosis demonstrated by CT.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is characterized by inflammatory and/or fibrotic changes in the periaortic regions of the retroperitoneum. Surgical repair is usually selected for this disease. However, the perioperative mortality associated with open surgical repair of IAAs is three times higher than that with noninflammatory aortic aneurysms due to inflammation and periaortic fibrosis (PAF). Endovascular aneurysm repair of IAAs excludes the aneurysm and seems to reduce the size of the aneurysmal sac and the extent of PAF with acceptable peri-interventional and long-term morbidity. We describe the successful endovascular repair of an IAAA and the serial CT findings after repair.

  6. Blood flow in abdominal aortic aneurysms: pulsatile flow hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Finol, E A; Amon, C H

    2001-10-01

    Numerical predictions of blood flow patterns and hemodynamic stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are performed in a two-aneurysm, axisymmetric, rigid wall model using the spectral element method. Physiologically realistic aortic blood flow is simulated under pulsatile conditions for the range of time-averaged Reynolds numbers 50< or =Re(m)< or =300, corresponding to a range of peak Reynolds numbers 262.5< or =Re(peak) < or = 1575. The vortex dynamics induced by pulsatile flow in AAAs is characterized by a sequence of five different flow phases in one period of the flow cycle. Hemodynamic disturbance is evaluated for a modified set of indicator functions, which include wall pressure (p(w)), wall shear stress (tau(w)), and Wall Shear Stress Gradient (WSSG). At peak flow, the highest shear stress and WSSG levels are obtained downstream of both aneurysms, in a pattern similar to that of steady flow. Maximum values of wall shear stresses and wall shear stress gradients obtained at peak flow are evaluated as a function of the time-average Reynolds number resulting in a fourth order polynomial correlation. A comparison between predictions for steady and pulsatile flow is presented, illustrating the importance of considering time-dependent flow for the evaluation of hemodynamic indicators.

  7. An Aortic Tampon for Emergency Control of Ruptured Abdominal Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Heimbecker, R. O.

    1964-01-01

    Ruptured abdominal aneurysm has now become a common surgical emergency, frequently amenable to successful resection and cure. The final result is often marred, however, by the effects of renal, coronary or cerebral ischemia resulting from dangerous hypotension during transportation of the patient to a vascular centre. An aortic catheter has been developed which is passed by way of a brachial artery cut-down so that it rests in the abdominal aorta. The balloon at its tip is then filled with sodium diatrizoate (Hypaque) so that it completely obstructs the aortic lumen just above the level of the aneurysm. Accurate positioning of the balloon to carefully preserve renal blood flow is facilitated by fluoroscopic control. The use of this procedure in three patients has been very satisfactory, with a dramatic return of consciousness and of normal blood pressure, without the need for further blood replacement. Subsequent surgery with dissection of the aneurysm was aided by the presence of the palpable inflated balloon. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14222672

  8. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: A rare cause of elevated hemidiaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Ejazi, Md Arshad; Alam, Md Mazhar; Shameem, Mohammad; Bhargava, Rakesh; Adil Wafi, CG; Salauddin

    2016-01-01

    Phrenic nerve palsy causing hemidiaphragm paralysis is a very uncommon feature of thoracic aortic aneurysm. In one case, a 30 year male complained of chronic dull aching chest pain, and hoarseness of voice; posteroanterior view chest radiograph revealed large spherical radiopacity on the left upper lung zone with smooth lobulated margin with elevated left hemidiaphragm. On Colour Doppler sonography, lesion was anechoic on gray scale sonography but on Doppler analysis revealed intense internal vascularity within it with characteristic “Ying Yang” sign. The finding favor the vascular origin of the lesion and a diagnosis of an arterial aneurysm was made Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed a large well defined spherical lesion of 8 × 10 cm size with smooth well defined margin arising from the aortic arch and attenuation of impending rupture or dissection were lesion on immediate post contrast and delayed scan was similar to that of aorta. Left hemidiaphragm elevation was explained by the gross mass effect of the aneurysm causing right phrenic nerve palsy. PMID:27578939

  9. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the geriatric population

    PubMed Central

    Saratzis, Athanasios; Mohamed, Saif

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common pathology among the elderly. More people above the age of 80 will have to undergo treatment of an AAA in the future. This review aims to summarize the literature focusing on endovascular repair of AAA in the geriatric population. A systematic review of the literature was performed, including results from endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) registries and studies comparing open repair and EVAR in those above the age of 80. A total of 15 studies were identified. EVAR in this population is efficient with a success rate exceeding 90% in all cases, and safe, with early mortality and morbidity being superior among patients undergoing EVAR against open repair. Late survival can be as high as 95% after 5 years. Aneurysm-related death over long-term follow-up was low after EVAR, ranging from 0 to 3.4%. Endovascular repair can be offered safely in the geriatric population and seems to compare favourably with open repair in all studies in the literature to date. PMID:23097659

  10. In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

    2015-01-21

    The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5 cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient.

  11. Elevated homocysteine in human abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chan, Crystal Yin Tung; Cheng, Stephen Wing Keung

    2017-10-01

    An abnormally high level of homocysteine (Hcy) has been consistently observed in the blood of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. However, the expression of Hcy in human AAA tissues has not been investigated. In this study, the expression of Hcy in aneurysmal tissues from AAA patients ( n=30) was compared with non-aneurysmal tissues from organ donors ( n=31) by dot blotting and immunohistochemistry. A significantly higher expression of Hcy was observed in AAA than control tissues ( p<0.001). Furthermore, the associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with both AAA and tissue Hcy expression were evaluated. Our results showed MTHFR C677T polymorphism was not significantly associated with AAA or tissue Hcy expression. Lastly, the expression of Hcy in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which were isolated from human aortic tissues by explant culture, and their release to cultured media was investigated by dot blotting. The AAA VSMCs expressed and released a significantly higher level of Hcy than the control VSMCs ( p<0.001). In summary, our novel findings showed Hcy expression was abnormally elevated in human AAA tissues, which may not be dependent on MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

  12. Partial aortic root replacement for aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hiroaki; Kyogoku, Masahisa; Fujino, Takahisa; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    An aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva is clinically rare, and its operative indications and procedures are controversial. We herein report the rare case of a 68-year-old woman with severe right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by an aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva. We performed partial aortic root reconstruction using a bovine pericardial patch, and aortic valve replacement. Although this case provides evidence that these are suitable surgical techniques for treatment of aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva, total aortic root replacement should have been chosen based on the pathological finding of aortic medial and valve degeneration.

  13. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Balloon Thrombectomy for Acute Thrombosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Uotani, Kensuke; Hamanaka, Akihiro; Matsushiro, Keigo; Idaka, Erika; Ito, Kiyo; Yamasaki, Yuko; Kushima, Takeyuki; Sugimoto, Takaki; Sugimoto, Koji

    2017-08-17

    Acute occlusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rare complication and is usually treated with surgical reconstruction. We present a case of acute AAA occlusion that was successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with Fogarty balloon thrombectomy. A 77-year-old man with a history of acute myocardial ischemia presented with limb weakness and coldness. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 42-mm-diameter infrarenal AAA that was completely thrombosed in the distal portion. The proximal neck of the aneurysm was patent, and its shape was suitable for EVAR. Therefore, we performed balloon thrombectomy of the aortoiliac thrombus that was followed by EVAR. EVAR can be a less invasive alternative than traditional treatment for acute occlusion of AAA.

  14. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  15. Aneurysmal Lesions of Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Contain Clonally Expanded T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Song; White, John V.; Lin, Wan Lu; Zhang, Xiaoying; Solomides, Charalambos; Evans, Kyle; Ntaoula, Nectaria; Nwaneshiudu, Ifeyinwa; Gaughan, John; Monos, Dimitri S.; Oleszak, Emilia L.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with often life-threatening consequences. This vascular disorder is responsible for 1–2% of all deaths in men aged 65 years or older. Autoimmunity may be responsible for the pathogenesis of AAA. Although it is well documented that infiltrating T cells are essentially always present in AAA lesions, little is known about their role in the initiation and/or progression of the disease. To determine whether T cells infiltrating AAA lesions contain clonally expanded populations of T cells, we amplified β-chain TCR transcripts by the nonpalindromic adaptor–PCR/Vβ-specific PCR and/or Vβ-specific PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. We report in this article that aortic abdominal aneurysmal lesions from 8 of 10 patients with AAA contained oligoclonal populations of T cells. Multiple identical copies of β-chain TCR transcripts were identified in these patients. These clonal expansions are statistically significant. These results demonstrate that αβ TCR+ T lymphocytes infiltrating aneurysmal lesions of patients with AAA have undergone proliferation and clonal expansion in vivo at the site of the aneurysmal lesion, in response to unidentified self- or nonself Ags. This evidence supports the hypothesis that AAA is a specific Ag–driven T cell disease. PMID:24752442

  16. A Contained Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Presenting with Vertebral Erosion.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqi; Li, Lei; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Weidong; Wang, Han

    2017-02-24

    Chronic contained rupture (CCR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with vertebral erosion is a rare condition. Although it has been reported previously, it is still liable to be misdiagnosed. We present a case of CCR of AAA with vertebral erosion. A brief analysis of similar cases reported in the last 5 years is presented. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of severe prickling pain in his left thigh. Computerized tomography angiography revealed an AAA which had caused erosion of L3 vertebral body and the left psoas muscle. An aortotomy was performed, and the excised aortic aneurysm replaced with a Dacron graft. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography indicated a normal aortic graft. The patient was discharged 13 days after the surgery. In conclusion, pain in lower back and leg could be associated with vertebral erosion caused by CCR of AAA. Ultrasonography, CT, or magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen should be routinely performed in cases of lumbago that have associated risk factors for AAA.

  17. [Costs evaluation of operation treatment of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy; Grzanka, Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm operation, performed in the emergency mode, has a much larger mortality than the operation of the aneurysm in scheduled mode. The aim of this study is to compare the treatment costs of the aneurysm operated in the emergency mode and scheduled mode. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 125 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were take under consideration, 18 of whom were admitted because of the abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture, and 107 of them were admitted without the signs of rupture. From 107 patients admitted in the scheduled mode, 25 were not qualified to the operation because of: other coexisting illnesses (10), recent stroke (1), not agreeing to the surgical intervention (4) and 10 were observed because of the small diameter of the aneurysm and lack of pain. After receiving the costs from the accountants, we analyzed the costs of treatment in the ruptured and non-ruptured aortic aneurysms. The total cost of the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is almost as twice higher as the treatment cost of non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  18. Animal models in the research of abdominal aortic aneurysms development.

    PubMed

    Patelis, N; Moris, D; Schizas, D; Damaskos, C; Perrea, D; Bakoyiannis, C; Liakakos, T; Georgopoulos, S

    2017-09-22

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent and potentially life threatening disease. Many animal models have been developed to simulate the natural history of the disease or test preclinical endovascular devices and surgical procedures. The aim of this review is to describe different methods of AAA induction in animal models and report on the effectiveness of the methods described in inducing an analogue of a human AAA. The PubMed database was searched for publications with titles containing the following terms "animal" or ''animal model(s)'' and keywords "research", ''aneurysm(s)'', "aorta", ''pancreatic elastase'', "Angiotensin", "AngII" "Calcium Chloride" or "CaCl(2)". Starting date for this search was set to 2004, since previously bibliography was already covered by the review of Daugherty A. and Cassis L.A. We focused on animal studies that reported a model of aneurysm development and progression. A number of different approaches of AAA induction in animal models has been developed, used and combined since the first report in the 1960's. Although specific methods are successful in AAA induction in animal models, it is necessary that these methods and their respective results are inline with the pathophysiology and the mechanisms involved in human AAA development. A researcher should know the advantages/disadvantages of each animal model and choose the appropriate model.

  19. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm treated by endovascular surgery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Alconero-Camarero, Ana Rosa; Cobo-Sánchez, José Luis; Casaus-Pérez, María; García-Campo, María Elena; García-Zarrabeitia, María José; Calvo-Diez, Marta; Mirones-Valdeolivas, Luz Elena

    2008-01-01

    An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually leads to rupture. Treatment is surgical, consisting of the introduction of a prosthesis, composed basically of a stent and an introducer, into the aorta. We report the case of a person diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm in a routine examination who was admitted for ambulatory surgical treatment. We designed a nursing care plan, following Virginia Henderson's conceptual model. The care plan was divided into 2 parts, a first preoperative phase and a second postimplantation or monitoring phase. The care plan contained the principal nursing diagnoses, based on the taxonomies of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), nursing interventions classification (NIC) and nursing outcomes classifications (NOC), and collaboration problems/potential complications. The patient was discharged to home after contact was made with his reference nurse in the primary health center, since during the hospital phase, some NOC indicators remained unresolved.

  20. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms in cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Ann M; Javad, Shazia; Anderson, Louise P; Horgan, John; Kelly, Cathal J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) in a population of symptomatic cardiac patients. A retrospective cohort study of investigations was done at the cardiology clinic, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin. There were 415 men and women recruited by referral to the cardiology clinic. All participants underwent routine ultrasound screening for AAA, and full assessment of all cardiac risk factors. Data were analyzed and correlated with age, sex, and diagnosis. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior diameter of 3 cm or more. Of the 415 patients screened, 47 aneurysms were detected. Total incidence of AAA was 9.9% (male 14.1%, female 3.95%). All aneurysms were detected in patients over 60 years, detection rate 11.7% (male 16.3%, female 3.9%). The incidence of AAA was significantly higher in those who were subsequently proven to have cardiovascular disease, 13.8% (male 18%, female 5.15%). Screening the general population for those at risk of AAA is an ongoing debate. This study supports the concept of screening a higher risk population of patients over 60 years with cardiovascular disease.

  1. Current modalities for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: Implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Debra Ann

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) represent a significant health problem in the United States as more than 1 million people are afflicted and the prevalence is only expected to increase. Given that AAA rupture carries a high mortality rate, there is interest in repairing the aneurysm electively before aneurysm rupture. Two approaches to aneurysm repair are open repair and endovascular repair. However, limited data comparing the outcomes of these different methods exist. A systematic review of recent clinical trials was conducted to identify and compare the short- and long-term clinical outcomes between open and endovascular repair. Prospective, controlled trials published in the last 5 years were acquired using PubMed, Ovid, and Scopus databases. Four studies were identified during the search. Study trends suggest a perioperative advantage using endovascular repair. However, this advantage does not appear to be maintained in the long term. Each type of repair carries its own risk profile that is likely influenced by additional factors, such as the patient's age and comorbidities. It is critical that healthcare providers are aware of the risks associated with each approach in order to provide optimal patient care. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aortic Dissection in Patients With Genetically Mediated Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Weinsaft, Jonathan W.; Devereux, Richard B.; Preiss, Liliana R.; Feher, Attila; Roman, Mary J.; Basson, Craig T.; Geevarghese, Alexi; Ravekes, William; Dietz, Harry C.; Holmes, Kathryn; Habashi, Jennifer; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Bavaria, Joseph; Milewski, Karianna; LeMaire, Scott A.; Morris, Shaine; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Prakash, Siddharth; Maslen, Cheryl; Song, Howard K.; Silberbach, G. Michael; Shohet, Ralph V.; McDonnell, Nazli; Hendershot, Tabitha; Eagle, Kim A.; Asch, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic dissection (AoD) is a serious complication of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Relative risk for AoD in relation to TAA etiology, incidence, and pattern after prophylactic TAA surgery are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine the incidence, pattern, and relative risk for AoD among patients with genetically associated TAA. METHODS The population included adult GenTAC participants without AoD at baseline. Standardized core laboratory tests classified TAA etiology and measured aortic size. Follow-up was performed for AoD. RESULTS Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (39%) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) (22%) were the leading diagnoses in the studied GenTAC participants (n = 1,991). AoD occurred in 1.6% over 3.6 ± 2.0 years; 61% of AoD occurred in patients with MFS. Cumulative AoD incidence was 6-fold higher among patients with MFS (4.5%) versus others (0.7%; p < 0.001). MFS event rates were similarly elevated versus those in patients with BAV (0.3%; p < 0.001). AoD originated in the distal arch or descending aorta in 71%; 52% of affected patients, including 68% with MFS, had previously undergone aortic grafting. In patients with proximal aortic surgery, distal aortic size (descending thoracic, abdominal aorta) was larger among patients with AoD versus those without AoD (both p < 0.05), whereas the ascending aorta size was similar. Conversely, in patients without previous surgery, aortic root size was greater in patients with subsequent AoD (p < 0.05), whereas distal aortic segments were of similar size. MFS (odds ratio: 7.42; 95% confidence interval: 3.43 to 16.82; p < 0.001) and maximal aortic size (1.86 per cm; 95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 2.67; p = 0.001) were independently associated with AoD. Only 4 of 31 (13%) patients with AoD had pre-dissection images that fulfilled size criteria for prophylactic TAA surgery at a subsequent AoD site. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with genetically associated TAA, MFS augments risk for AoD even after

  3. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment in the stent graft era.

    PubMed

    Tulga, Ulus A; Fahrettin, Kucukay; Erdal, Simsek; Sarper, Oktem; Serkan, Mola; Mustafa, Ozdemir; Ahmet, Saritas; Kerem, Vural; Levent, Birincioglu

    2014-01-01

    We aim to decrease mortality and morbidity by early diagnosis and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or by using open surgery. The patients who had underwent open surgery and EVAR with a diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with EVAR were separated as group I and the patients with surgical operations constituted group II. The risk factors, duration of the operation, blood product usage, drainage amounts, complications, mortality, and morbidity rates were evaluated. The duration of the operation and the required blood and blood products were lower in group I (P < .05). There is no any significant difference between the groups in terms of mortality, complications, short-, and long-term results. We support the idea that better results can be obtained by showing regard to suitable patient, suitable clinical condition, and suitable anatomy together with the correct choice of operation type. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Aortic Angiosarcoma: A Rare Cause for Leaking Thoracic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, S. L. Locke, R.; Sandison, A.; Jenkins, M.; Hamady, M.

    2011-02-15

    Primary malignant tumours of the aorta are rare. They present with aneurysm formation, arterial occlusion, and embolic phenomenon. We report the case of a 56-year-old man whose initial presentation and investigations lead to emergency endovascular stenting of a descending thoracic aneurysm with a contained leak. Initial response was favourable, yet the patient presented again with worsening symptoms. The circum-aortic haematoma expanded by 50% on subsequent imaging, but no endoleak was identified. When altered bone marrow signal was identified on magnetic resonance imaging, the possibility of malignancy was considered. A metastatic skin lesion was then biopsied, which demonstrated morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with metastases from a pleomorphic sarcoma of the aorta.

  5. Rupture of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm associated with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Nobuhiro; Saito, Satoshi; Ishii, Hikaru; Aomi, Shigeyuki; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2007-10-01

    Surgical treatment of arterial Behcet's disease (BD) has a higher incidence of graft-related complications such as anastomotic pseudoaneurysm or graft occlusion. A 64-year-old man presented with a rupture of the thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms associated with BD. Evaluation shows a large hematoma in the retroperitoneum and multiple aneurysms of the thoracoabdominal aorta. Physical examination and past history fulfills the diagnostic criteria of BD. The abdominal aorta was replaced with an allograft and the major branches were reconstructed with its branches. The postoperative course was uneventful. A 10-month follow-up computed tomographic scan did not show any graft-related complications. This case suggests the usefulness of an allograft for arterial involvement of BD.

  6. [Acute ischemic myelomalacia and colon necrosis in infrarenal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Lang, W; Kobras, G; Schweiger, H

    1990-01-12

    A 54-year-old man suddenly developed a transverse spinal cord syndrome with paralysis of both legs and diffuse abdominal pain. Spinal compression was excluded by myelography. Subsequent computed tomography, however, revealed an aortic aneurysm of 7 cm diameter. At laparotomy extensive mesenteric ischaemia with necrosis of the entire colon and massive peritonitis were noted. It was not possible, because of the peritonitis, to bypass the aneurysm with a graft and only a colectomy was performed. The patient died 48 hours after admission of prolonged cardiocirculatory failure. Autopsy revealed further multiple organ damage in addition to the ischaemic myelomalacia. The common cause of the findings was probably a sudden drop in blood pressure in the presence of severe generalized arteriosclerosis.

  7. Complex pathologies of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms*

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Lu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the primary bioactive peptide of the renin angiotensin system that plays a critical role in many cardiovascular diseases. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII into mice induces the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Like human AAAs, AngII-induced AAA tissues exhibit progressive changes and considerable heterogeneity. This complex pathology provides an impediment to the quantification of aneurysmal tissue composition by biochemical and immunostaining techniques. Therefore, while the mouse model of AngII-induced AAAs provides a salutary approach to studying the mechanisms of the evolution of AAAs in humans, meaningful interpretation of mechanisms requires consideration of the heterogeneous nature of the diseased tissue. PMID:21796801

  8. Ruptured Mycotic Aortic Aneurysm after Bacille Calmette-Guerin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Floros, Nikolaos; Meletiadis, Konstantinos; Kusenack, Ulrich; Zirngibl, Hubert; Kamper, Lars; Haage, Patrick; Dreger, Nici Markus

    2015-10-01

    To report a case of a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (MAA) after intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy because of bladder carcinoma. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for follow-up computed tomography 14 months after transurethral resection of a papillary carcinoma of the bladder and intravesical BCG therapy. The CT scan revealed a ruptured MAA aneurysm and the patient underwent an endovascular repair with an aorto-bi-iliac stent graft. A ruptured MAA is a rare but lethal complication after BCG instillation therapy. The standard therapy is the open reconstruction but according to the literature an endovascular therapy in combination with long-term antibiotics should be considered as a bridging or a definite solution.

  9. Epithelioid Angiosarcoma With Metastatic Disease After Endovascular Therapy of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Schmehl, Joerg; Scharpf, Marcus; Brechtel, Klaus; Kalender, Guenay; Heller, Stephan; Claussen, Claus D.; Lescan, Mario

    2012-02-15

    Malignancies of the aortic wall represent a rare condition, and only a few reports have covered cases of sarcomas arising at the site of a prosthesis made of Dacron. A coincidence with endovascular repair has only been reported in one case to date. We report a patient with epithelioid angiosarcoma and metastatic disease, which was found in an aneurysmal sac after endovascular aortic repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  10. Precise treatment of aortic aneurysm by three-dimensional printing and simulation before endovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ding; Luo, Han; Yang, Hongliu; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jingqiang; Zhao, Jichun

    2017-04-11

    In this study, three-dimensional printing (3Dp) models and simulation surgeries (SSs) were applied in two challenging aortic cases. The first was an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex neck, and the second was a thoracic aortic dissection aneurysm (TADA) with an angled arch. In order to avoid unpredictable obstacles and difficulties, we made optimal surgical plans by using 3D models and virtual simulations. Based on preoperative evaluation system, the surgical plans seemed more reasonable and time-saving.

  11. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: a disease entity? Histological analysis of 60 cases of inflammatory aortic aneurysms of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Leu, H J

    1990-01-01

    Sixty inflammatory aortic aneurysms of unknown aetiology were examined by serial sections. The histological findings failed to reveal significant differences in either thoracic or abdominal aneurysms with or without marked adventitial fibrosis. Their identical morphology does not favour the existence of a special disease entity of so-called inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA). Absence or existence of giant cells of any type, occurrence of plasma cells, eosinophils, granulomas, fibrinoid necrosis and adventitial fibrotic thickening cannot be considered as variables which help in differentiation. IAAA are characterized by a marked predominance of male patients and a rather benign clinical course. They usually affect the age group around 60 years. They are not rare and do not seem to be restricted to certain races. Their aetiology, like that of the cases affecting the thoracic aorta (Takayasu's disease, non-specific aortitis) remains unknown, although autoimmune diseases, the retroperitoneal fibrosis of Ormond and arteriosclerosis may be related. However, on the basis of the present evidence we cannot consider them to be one of these diseases. There are no morphological findings which would justify the separation of IAAA from Takaysu's disease.

  12. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in an infant treated by thromboexclusion with thoracoabdominal aortic bypass. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Hada, M; Kamiya, K; Tada, Y; Ueno, A; Yanai, J; Komai, T

    1996-12-01

    A case of a huge thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in an eighteen-month-old boy is reported. Surgical treatment was successfully performed by thromboexclusion of the aneurysm with thoracoabdominal aortic bypass using a low-porosity woven Dacron graft 10 mm in diameter and of sufficient surplus length. During the early postoperative period, he developed moderate hydronephrosis, owing to compression of the left ureter by the graft, but no further deterioration was seen. Follow-up angiographies performed four and six years after surgery revealed straightening of the graft and slight stretching of the aorta at the distal anastomosis, but no stenosis was found. Now, seven and a half years after surgery, he has no pressure gradient between upper and lower extremities.

  13. Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Secondary to Septic Embolism of a Thoracic Aorta Graft Infection.

    PubMed

    Blanco Amil, Carla Lorena; Vidal Rey, Jorge; López Arquillo, Irene; Pérez Rodríguez, María Teresa; Encisa de Sá, José Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Mycotic aneurysms account for 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. There are very few cases published that describe the formation of mycotic aneurysms after septic embolism due to graft infection. We present the first case to our knowledge to be described in the literature of a mycotic aneurysm caused by septic embolism derived from a thoracic aorta graft infection, treated with conventional surgery leading to a successful outcome and evolution.

  14. Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm From Late Type II Endoleak Treated by Transarterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Senthil; Funaki, Brian Lorenz, Jonathan

    2013-02-15

    Endoleak is the most common complication after endovascular aneurysm repair. The most common type of endoleak, a type II endoleak, typically follows a benign course and is only treated when associated with increasing aneurysm size. In this case report, we describe a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm due to a late, type II endoleak occurring 10 years after endovascular aneurysm repair that was successfully treated by transarterial embolization.

  15. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  16. Complicated Fenestrated Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kasemi, Holta; Marino, Mario; Di Angelo, Costantino Luca; Fadda, Gian Franco

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 77-year-old man treated with a custom-made fenestrated endograft for pararenal aortic aneurysm repair. Fenestrations for the superior mesenteric and both the renal arteries and augmented anterior valley and/or scallop for the celiac trunk were performed. The procedure was complicated by the superior mesenteric artery stent-graft entrapment from the endograft delivery system release wires and total dislodgement into the endograft main body. Superior mesenteric artery restenting and displaced stent-graft removal completed the intervention. Fenestrated-endograft deployment should be performed by a team familiar with the device, deployment system, and bail out solutions.

  17. Rare presentation of ruptured syphilitic aortic aneurysm with pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Feitosa, Israel Nilton; Dantas Leite Figueiredo, Magda; de Sousa Belem, Lucia; Evelin Soares Filho, Antônio Wilon

    2015-11-01

    We report the interesting case of a rare form of presentation of rupture of the ascending aorta with formation of a pseudoaneurysm, diagnosed following the development of a large mass on the surface of the chest over a period of about eight months. Serological tests were positive for syphilis. Echocardiography and computed tomography angiography were essential to confirm the diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cardiovascular syphilis is a rare entity since the discovery of penicillin. Rupture of an aortic aneurysm with formation of a pseudoaneurysm is a potentially fatal complication. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital within days of surgery.

  18. A rare case of multiple bronchial artery aneurysms associated with a double aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani; Chen, Zhi Yong; Low, Teck Boon; Ng, Keng Sin

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial artery aneurysm is uncommon, and the occurrence of multiple aneurysms arising from a bronchial artery is even rarer. To date, there has been only one published case report describing double bronchial artery aneurysms. We herein describe a case of three aneurysms arising from a left bronchial artery, accompanied by multiple bilateral hypertrophied bronchial and intercostobronchial arteries, as well as a double aortic arch. Bronchial artery aneurysm is potentially life-threatening, and immediate treatment is recommended to minimise the potential risk of rupture. The aneurysms in our case were successfully treated via transcatheter arterial embolisation using coils. PMID:25820859

  19. Genotype–phenotype correlation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Kathleen C.; Crenshaw, Melissa L.; Goh, Denise L. M.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality, occurring in 1% to 2% of the population, and often associates with ascending aortic aneurysm. Based on familial studies, bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysm segregates in an autosomal dominant manner with incomplete penetrance. NOTCH1 mutations have been reported in 6 families with prominent valve calcification and dysfunction and low penetrance of aneurysm. We sought to determine the contribution of NOTCH1 mutations to the more common phenotype of highly penetrant aneurysms with low penetrance of bicuspid aortic valve and with rare valve calcification or dysfunction. Methods All exons and splice junctions of NOTCH1 were sequenced in probands from 13 affected families presenting with bicuspid aortic valve with ascending aortic aneurysm in the absence of valve calcification. In addition, mutation analysis was performed on a single individual with aneurysm and calcified tricuspid aortic valve. Sequences were aligned and compared with the reference genomic sequence. Results Corroborating previous studies, analysis of the single sporadic patient with calcified aortic valve in the presence of ascending aortic aneurysm revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation in NOTCH1 resulting in a nonsynonymous amino acid substitution (p.T1090S, c.C3269G) of an evolutionarily conserved residue. This change was not observed in controls. In contrast, we did not identify any pathologic NOTCH1 mutations in the 13 families segregating noncalcified bicuspid aortic valve with highly penetrant aortic aneurysm. Conclusions These data suggest that there are phenotypic differences that distinguish families with and without NOTCH1 mutations, indicating a genotype–phenotype correlation with potential implications for patient diagnosis, counseling, and management. PMID:23102684

  20. Staged endourologic and endovascular repair of an infrarenal inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting with forniceal rupture.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Rebecca D; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Jackman, Stephen V; Chaer, Rabih A

    2008-11-01

    We present the case of a 79-year-old female who presented with severe left flank pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with left peripelvic urinary extravasation and forniceal rupture secondary to an intact infrarenal inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm with extensive periaortic fibrosis. Successful operative repair was performed with staged ureteral and endovascular stenting with subsequent resolution of periaortic inflammation and ureteral obstruction, and shrinkage of the aneurysm sac. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs) represent 5% to 10% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms. The distinguishing features of inflammatory aneurysms include thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and adhesions to adjacent retroperitoneal structures. The most commonly involved adjacent structures are the duodenum, left renal vein, and ureter. Adhesions to the urinary system can cause hydronephrosis or hydroureter and result in obstructive uropathy. An unusual case of IAAA presenting with forniceal rupture is presented, with successful endovascular and endourologic repair.

  1. Activation of Endocannabinoid System Is Associated with Persistent Inflammation in Human Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gestrich, Christopher; Duerr, Georg D.; Heinemann, Jan C.; Meertz, Anne; Probst, Chris; Roell, Wilhelm; Schiller, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Welz, Armin; Dewald, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Human aortic aneurysms have been associated with inflammation and vascular remodeling. Since the endocannabinoid system modulates inflammation and tissue remodeling, we investigated its components in human aortic aneurysms. We obtained anterior aortic wall samples from patients undergoing elective surgery for aortic aneurysm or coronary artery disease as controls. Histological and molecular analysis (RT-qPCR) was performed, and endocannabinoid concentration was determined using LC-MRM. Patient characteristics were comparable between the groups except for a higher incidence of arterial hypertension and diabetes in the control group. mRNA level of cannabinoid receptors was significantly higher in aneurysms than in controls. Concentration of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was significantly higher, while the second endocannabinoid anandamide and its metabolite arachidonic acid and palmitoylethanolamide were significantly lower in aneurysms. Histology revealed persistent infiltration of newly recruited leukocytes and significantly higher mononuclear cell density in adventitia of the aneurysms. Proinflammatory environment in aneurysms was shown by significant upregulation of M-CSF and PPARγ but associated with downregulation of chemokines. We found comparable collagen-stained area between the groups, significantly decreased mRNA level of CTGF, osteopontin-1, and MMP-2, and increased TIMP-4 expression in aneurysms. Our data provides evidence for endocannabinoid system activation in human aortic aneurysms, associated with persistent low-level inflammation and vascular remodeling. PMID:26539497

  2. Hemodynamic Study of Flow Remodeling Stent Graft for the Treatment of Highly Angulated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, Siang Lin; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a novel flow remodeling stent graft (FRSG) on the hemodynamic characteristics in highly angulated abdominal aortic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. An idealized aortic aneurysm with varying aortic neck angulations was constructed and CFD simulations were performed on nonstented models and stented models with FRSG. The influence of FRSG intervention on the hemodynamic performance is analyzed and compared in terms of flow patterns, wall shear stress (WSS), and pressure distribution in the aneurysm. The findings showed that aortic neck angulations significantly influence the velocity flow field in nonstented models, with larger angulations shifting the mainstream blood flow towards the center of the aorta. By introducing FRSG treatment into the aneurysm, erratic flow recirculation pattern in the aneurysm sac diminishes while the average velocity magnitude in the aneurysm sac was reduced in the range of 39% to 53%. FRSG intervention protects the aneurysm against the impacts of high velocity concentrated flow and decreases wall shear stress by more than 50%. The simulation results highlighted that FRSG may effectively treat aneurysm with high aortic neck angulations via the mechanism of promoting thrombus formation and subsequently led to the resorption of the aneurysm. PMID:27247612

  3. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance of a Predisposition to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections and Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen; Medrek, Sarah; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Golabbakhsh, Hossein; Smart, Suzanne; Chen, Julia H.; Shete, Sanjay; Kim, Dong H.; Stern, Ralph; Braverman, Alan C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetic predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with decreased penetrance and variable expression. Four genes identified to date for familial TAAD account for approximately 20% of the heritable predisposition. In a cohort of 514 families with two or more members with presumed autosomal dominant TAAD, 48 (9.3%) families have one or more members who were at 50% risk to inherit the presumptive gene causing TAAD had an intracranial vascular event. In these families, gender is significantly associated with disease presentation (p <0.001), with intracranial events being more common in women (65.4%) while TAAD events occurred more in men (64.2%,). Twenty-nine of these families had intracranial aneurysms (ICA) that could not be designated as saccular or fusiform due to incomplete data. TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and ACTA2 mutations were found in 4 families with TAAD and predominantly fusiform ICAs. In 15 families, of which 14 tested negative for 3 known TAAD genes, 17 family members who were at risk for inheriting TAAD had saccular ICAs. In 2 families, women who harbored the genetic mutation causing TAAD had ICAs. In 2 additional families, intracranial, thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms were observed. This study documents the autosomal dominant inheritance of TAADs with saccular ICAs, a previously recognized association that has not been adequately characterized as heritable.I these families, routine cerebral and aortic imaging for at risk members could prove beneficial for timely medical and surgical management to prevent a cerebral hemorrhage or aortic dissection. PMID:21815248

  4. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Rateri, Debra L; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-09-28

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5-10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms.

  5. Subcutaneous Angiotensin II Infusion using Osmotic Pumps Induces Aortic Aneurysms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Rateri, Debra L.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic pumps continuously deliver compounds at a constant rate into small animals. This article introduces a standard protocol used to induce aortic aneurysms via subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) from implanted osmotic pumps. This protocol includes calculation of AngII amount and dissolution, osmotic pump filling, implantation of osmotic pumps subcutaneously, observation after pump implantation, and harvest of aortas to visualize aortic aneurysms in mice. Subcutaneous infusion of AngII through osmotic pumps following this protocol is a reliable and reproducible technique to induce both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice. Infusion durations range from a few days to several months based on the purpose of the study. AngII 1,000 ng/kg/min is sufficient to provide maximal effects on abdominal aortic aneurysmal formation in male hypercholesterolemic mouse models such as apolipoprotein E deficient or low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms induced by AngII infusion via osmotic pumps is 5 - 10 times lower in female hypercholesterolemic mice and also lower in both genders of normocholesterolemic mice. In contrast, AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms in mice are not hypercholesterolemia or gender-dependent. Importantly, multiple features of this mouse model recapitulate those of human aortic aneurysms. PMID:26436287

  6. Aortic root aneurysm in an adult patient with aortic coarctation: a single-stage approach

    PubMed Central

    Ananiadou, Olga G.; Koutsogiannidis, Charilaos; Ampatzidou, Fotini; Drossos, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital defect that may be undiagnosed until adulthood. Moreover, coarctation is associated with congenital and acquired cardiac pathology that may require surgical intervention. The management of an adult patient with aortic coarctation and an associated cardiac defect poses a great technical challenge since there are no standard guidelines for the therapy of such a complex pathology. Several extra-anatomic bypass grafting techniques have been described, including methods in which distal anastomosis is performed on the descending thoracic aorta, allowing simultaneous intracardiac repair. We report here a 37-year old man who was diagnosed with an aortic root aneurysm and aortic coarctation. The patient was treated electively with a single-stage approach through a median sternotomy that consisted of valve-sparing replacement of the aortic root and ascending-to-descending extra-anatomic aortic bypass, using a 18-mm Dacron graft. Firstly, the aortic root was replaced with the Yacoub remodelling procedure, and then the distal anastomosis was performed to the descending aorta, behind the heart, with the posterior pericardial approach. The extra-anatomic bypass graft was brought laterally from the right atrium and implanted in the ascending graft. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and a control computed tomographic angiogram 1 month after complete repair showed good results. PMID:22647969

  7. Aortic root aneurysm in an adult patient with aortic coarctation: a single-stage approach.

    PubMed

    Ananiadou, Olga G; Koutsogiannidis, Charilaos; Ampatzidou, Fotini; Drossos, George E

    2012-09-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital defect that may be undiagnosed until adulthood. Moreover, coarctation is associated with congenital and acquired cardiac pathology that may require surgical intervention. The management of an adult patient with aortic coarctation and an associated cardiac defect poses a great technical challenge since there are no standard guidelines for the therapy of such a complex pathology. Several extra-anatomic bypass grafting techniques have been described, including methods in which distal anastomosis is performed on the descending thoracic aorta, allowing simultaneous intracardiac repair. We report here a 37-year old man who was diagnosed with an aortic root aneurysm and aortic coarctation. The patient was treated electively with a single-stage approach through a median sternotomy that consisted of valve-sparing replacement of the aortic root and ascending-to-descending extra-anatomic aortic bypass, using a 18-mm Dacron graft. Firstly, the aortic root was replaced with the Yacoub remodelling procedure, and then the distal anastomosis was performed to the descending aorta, behind the heart, with the posterior pericardial approach. The extra-anatomic bypass graft was brought laterally from the right atrium and implanted in the ascending graft. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and a control computed tomographic angiogram 1 month after complete repair showed good results.

  8. Progression of perianeurysmal inflammation after endovascular aneurysm repair for inflammatory abdominal aortic and bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Uchiyama, Hidetoshi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2015-02-01

    The use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs) has been reported, and this procedure appears to be preferable to open surgical repair because of intraoperative difficulties related to inflammation. We herein report a case of IAAA and bilateral inflammatory common iliac artery aneurysms that was successfully treated with bifurcated stent grafting. The perianeurysmal inflammation worsened postoperatively, requiring the placement of a ureteric stent. EVAR is feasible in cases of inflammatory aneurysms; however, the potential for an inflammatory response should be taken into account when considering the application of EVAR in patients with IAAA.

  9. Expression of fibrinolytic genes in atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm wall. A possible mechanism for aneurysm expansion.

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, J; Bordin, G M; Engelberg, I; Adar, R; Seiffert, D; Thinnes, T; Bernstein, E F; Dilley, R B; Loskutoff, D J

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been attributed to remodeling of the extracellular matrix by active proteolysis. We used in situ hybridization to analyze the expression of fibrinolytic genes in aneurysm wall from eight AAA patients. All specimens exhibited specific areas of inflammatory infiltrates with macrophage-like cells expressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type PA (t-PA) mRNA. Type 1 PA inhibitor (PAI-1) mRNA was expressed at the base of the necrotic atheroma of all specimens and also within some of the inflammatory infiltrates where it frequently colocalized in regions containing u-PA and t-PA mRNA expressing cells. However, in these areas, the cellular distribution of the transcripts for t-PA and u-PA extended far beyond the areas of PAI-1 expression. These observations suggest a local ongoing proteolytic process, one which is only partially counteracted by the more restricted expression of PAI-1 mRNA. An abundance of capillaries was also obvious in all inflammatory infiltrates and may reflect local angiogenesis in response to active pericellular fibrinolysis. The increased fibrinolytic capacity in AAA wall may promote angiogenesis and contribute to local proteolytic degradation of the aortic wall leading to physical weakening and active expansion of the aneurysm. Images PMID:7615837

  10. Proteomic comparison between abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Kazumi; Maniwa, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Okunishi, Hideki; Oda, Teiji

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and that of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) is distinct. In this study, to reveal the differences in their biochemical properties, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis of AAAs and TAAs compared with adjacent normal aorta (NA) tissues. The proteomic analysis revealed 176 non-redundant differentially expressed proteins in the AAAs and 189 proteins in the TAAs which were common in at least 5 samples within 7 samples of each. Among the identified proteins, 55 and 68 proteins were unique to the AAAs and TAAs, respectively, whereas 121 proteins were identified in both the AAAs and TAAs. Panther overrepresentation analysis of the unique proteins in the AAAs and TAAs revealed a significant downregulation of the blood coagulation pathway in the AAAs and that of the integrin signaling pathway in the TAAs. On the other hand, Genesis analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of 58 proteins among the 121 proteins. Panther overrepresentation analysis of these 58 proteins revealed that the expression of these proteins in the blood coagulation and the plasminogen activating cascade was decreased in the AAAs, whereas it was increased in the TAAs compared with the NA tissues. On the other hand, the protein expression in the integrin signaling pathway was increased in the AAAs, whereas it was decreased in the TAAs compared with the NA tissues. Thus, the data presented in this study indicate that the proteins that show differential expression patterns in AAAs and TAAs may be involved in the distinct pathogenesis of AAAs and TAAs.

  11. “Open” approach to aortic arch aneurysm repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Al Kindi, Adil H.; Al Kimyani, Nasser; Alameddine, Tarek; Al Abri, Qasim; Balan, Baskaran; Al Sabti, Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Aortic arch aneurysm is a relatively rare entity in cardiac surgery. Repair of such aneurysms, either in isolation or combined with other cardiac procedures, remains a challenging task. The need to produce a relatively bloodless surgical field with circulatory arrest, while at the same time protecting the brain, is the hallmark of this challenge. However, a clear understanding of the topic allows a better and less morbid approach to such a complex surgery. Literature has shown the advantage of selective cerebral perfusion techniques in comparison with only circulatory arrest. Ability to perfuse the brain has allowed circulatory arrest temperatures at moderate hypothermia without the need for deep hypothermia. Even though cannulation site selection appears to be a minor issue, literature has shown that the subclavian/axillary route has the best outcomes and that femoral cannulation should only be reserved for no access patients. Although different techniques for arch anastomosis have been described, we routinely perform the distal first technique as we find it to be less cumbersome and easiest to reproduce. In this review our aim is to outline a systematic approach to aortic arch surgery. Starting with indications for intervention and proceeding with approaches on site of cannulation, approaches to brain protection with hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion and finally surgical steps in performing the distal and arch vessels anastomosis. PMID:24954988

  12. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Isselbacher, Eric M.; Cardenas, Christian Lacks Lino; Lindsay, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection (AoD) or rupture. Nevertheless, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of TAA is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to TAA has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified two major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies (TGFβVs). The second set of genes encodes components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group termed the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies (SMCVs). Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review will discuss published data on genes involved in TAA and attempt to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm etiology. PMID:27297344

  13. Differential tensile strength and collagen composition in ascending aortic aneurysms by aortic valve phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Phillippi, Julie A; Cleary, Deborah A; Chew, Douglas W; Hempel, John; Vorp, David A; Gleason, Thomas G

    2013-12-01

    Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) predisposes patients to aortic dissection and has been associated with diminished tensile strength and disruption of collagen. Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms arising in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) develop earlier than in those with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) and have a different risk of dissection. The purpose of this study was to compare aortic wall tensile strength between BAV and TAV ATAAs and determine whether the collagen content of the ATAA wall is associated with tensile strength and valve phenotype. Longitudinally and circumferentially oriented strips of ATAA tissue obtained during elective surgery were stretched to failure, and collagen content was estimated by hydroxyproline assay. Experimental stress-strain data were analyzed for failure strength and elastic mechanical variables: α, β, and maximal tangential stiffness. The circumferential and longitudinal tensile strengths were higher for BAV ATAAs when compared with TAV ATAAs. The α and β were lower for BAV ATAAs when compared with TAV ATAAs. The maximal tangential stiffness was higher for circumferential when compared with longitudinal orientation in both BAV and TAV ATAAs. The amount of hydroxyproline was equivalent in BAV and TAV ATAA specimens. Although there was a moderate correlation between the collagen content and tensile strength for TAV, this correlation is not present in BAV. The increased tensile strength and decreased values of α and β in BAV ATAAs despite uniform collagen content between groups indicate that microstructural changes in collagen contribute to BAV-associated aortopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of the inflammatory cells in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in patients with Marfan syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and sporadic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    He, Rumin; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Sun, Wei; Papke, Christina L.; Duraisamy, Senthil; Estrera, Anthony L.; Safi, Hazim J.; Ahn, Chul; Buja, L. Maximilian; Arnett, Frank C.; Zhang, Jingwu; Geng, Yong-Jian; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to characterize the inflammatory infiltrate in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAAs) in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), familial TAA (FTAA), and non-familial TAA cases. Background TAAs are associated with a pathologic lesion termed medial degeneration, which was described as a noninflammtory lesion. TAAs are a complication of MFS and also can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner of FTAA. Methods Full aortic segments were collected from patients undergoing elective repair with MFS (n=5), FTAA (n=6) and TAAs (n=9), along with control aortas (n=5). Immunohistochemistry staining was performed using antibodies directed against markers of lymphocytes and macrophages. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to quantify the expression level of T cell receptor β chain variable region gene. Results Immunohistochemisty of TAA aortas demonstrated that the media and adventitia from MFS, FTAA and sporadic cases had increased numbers of T lymphocytes and macrophages when compared with control aortas. The number of T cells and macrophages in the aortic media of the aneurysm correlated inversely with the patient’s age at the time of prophylactic surgical repair of the aorta. Surprisingly, T cell receptor profiling indicated a similar clonal nature of the T cells in the aortic wall in a majority of aneurysms, whether the patient had MFS, FTAA or sporadic disease. Conclusion These results indicate that infiltration of inflammatory cells contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAs. Superantigen-driven stimulation of T lymphocytes in the aortic tissues of the TAA patients may contribute to the initial immune response. Ultramini-Abstract This study sought to investigate the infiltration of T-lymphocytes and macrophage in the aortas of patients with MFS, FTAA and sporadic TAAs. The results indicate that infiltration of inflammatory cells contributes to the pathogenesis of TAAs and superantigen-driven stimulation of T-lymphocytes may contribute to

  15. Saccular aneurysm formation of the descending aorta associated with aortic coarctation in an infant.

    PubMed

    Ozyuksel, Arda; Canturk, Emir; Dindar, Aygun; Akcevin, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm of the descending aorta associated with CoA is an extremely rare congenital abnormality. In this report, we present a 16 months old female patient in whom cardiac catheterization had been performed which had revealed a segment of coarctation and saccular aneurysm in the descending aorta. The patient was operated and a 3x2 centimeters aneurysm which embraces the coarcted segment in descending aorta was resected. In summary, we present a case of saccular aortic aneurysm distal to aortic coarctation in an infant without any history of intervention or vascular inflammatory disease. Our case report seems to be the youngest patient in literature with this pathology.

  16. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm With Extensive Vertebral Body and Retroperitoneal Space Destruction.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sean T; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Johanning, Jason M; Vargo, Christopher J

    Chronic contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with vertebral body erosion most commonly presents with symptoms of low back pain. Although not well known, vertebral body erosion or destruction may be seen in up to 25% of patients with sealed or contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This appearance on cross-sectional imaging may mimic a malignant or infectious process. Although these cases can present a diagnostic challenge, published cases of chronic contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with vertebral body erosion demonstrate clinical and imaging similarities that, when recognized, can assist in diagnosis.

  18. Rare Complication of non-Treated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Extensive Thrombus in Right Cardiac Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Bluemke, David A.; Staszko, Kamila Fernanda; Pereira, Ana Neri Rodrigues Epitacio; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old patient presented with shortness of breath after falling down. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed an extensive thrombus in the right atrium (RA), extensive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A magnetic resonance confirmed the thrombosis of the RA extending to the IVC, which was apparently fused to the abdominal aortic aneurysm (compression? erosion?). This case illustrates a severe and rare complication of a non-treated AAA. There probably was IVC erosion by the aortic aneurysm, leading to blood stasis and extensive thrombosis of the IVC and right cardiac chambers. PMID:27849260

  19. Contained rupture of a mycotic infrarenal aortic aneurysm infected with Campylobacter fetus

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrief, Maria; Déglise, Sébastien; Pezzetta, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms (MAAAs) are rare entities accounting for 0.65–2% of aortic aneurysms. Campylobacter fetus has a tropism for vascular tissue and is a rare cause of mycotic aneurysm. We present a 73-year-old male patient with contained rupture of a MAAA caused by C. fetus, successfully treated with endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and antibiotics, which is not previously described for this aetiology. Although open surgery is the gold standard, EVAR is nowadays feasible and potentially represents a durable option, especially in frail patients. PMID:27852656

  20. Infective Endocarditis of the Aortic Valve with Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Anton; Li, Wilson W L; van Paridon, Marieke; Bindraban, Navin R; de Mol, Bas A J M

    2016-08-01

    Mitral valve leaflet aneurysm is a rare and potentially devastating complication of aortic valve endocarditis. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had endocarditis of the native aortic valve and a concomitant aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred after the aneurysm perforated. The patient showed no signs of heart failure and completed a 6-week regimen of antibiotic therapy before undergoing successful aortic and mitral valve replacement. In addition to the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature.

  1. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  2. No increased mortality with early aortic aneurysm disease.

    PubMed

    Mell, Matthew; White, Julie J; Hill, Bradley B; Hastie, Trevor; Dalman, Ronald L

    2012-11-01

    In addition to increased risks for aneurysm-related death, previous studies have determined that all-cause mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients is excessive and equivalent to that associated with coronary heart disease. These studies largely preceded the current era of coronary heart disease risk factor management, however, and no recent study has examined contemporary mortality associated with early AAA disease (aneurysm diameter between 3 and 5 cm). As part of an ongoing natural history study of AAA, we report the mortality risk associated with presence of early disease. Participants were recruited from three distinct health care systems in Northern California between 2006 and 2011. Aneurysm diameter, demographic information, comorbidities, medication history, and plasma for biomarker analysis were collected at study entry. Survival status was determined at follow-up. Data were analyzed with t-tests or χ(2) tests where appropriate. Freedom from death was calculated via Cox proportional hazards modeling; the relevance of individual predictors on mortality was determined by log-rank test. The study enrolled 634 AAA patients; age 76.4 ± 8.0 years, aortic diameter 3.86 ± 0.7 cm. Participants were mostly male (88.8%), not current smokers (81.6%), and taking statins (76.7%). Mean follow-up was 2.1 ± 1.0 years. Estimated 1- and 3-year survival was 98.2% and 90.9%, respectively. Factors independently associated with mortality included larger aneurysm size (hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-3.57 for diameter >4.0 cm) and diabetes (hazard ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.47). After adjusting for patient-level factors, health care system independently predicted mortality. Contemporary all-cause mortality for patients with early AAA disease is lower than that previously reported. Further research is warranted to determine important factors that contribute to improved survival in early AAA disease. Copyright © 2012 Society for

  3. No Increased Mortality With Early Aortic Aneurysm Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Matthew; White, Julie J.; Hill, Bradley B.; Hastie, Trevor; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In addition to increased risks for aneurysm-related death, previous studies have determined that all-cause mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients is excessive and equivalent to that associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). These studies largely preceded the current era of CHD risk factor management, however, and no recent study has examined contemporary mortality associated with early AAA disease (aneurysm diameter between 3 and 5 cm). As part of an ongoing natural history study of AAA, we report the mortality risk associated with presence of early disease. Methods Participants were recruited from three distinct health care systems in Northern California between 2006 and 2011. Aneurysm diameter, demographic information, co-morbidities, medication history, and plasma for biomarker analysis were collected at study entry. Survival status was determined at follow-up. Data were analyzed with t- or chi-square tests where appropriate. Freedom from death was calculated via Cox proportional hazards modeling; the relevance of individual predictors on mortality was determined by log-rank test. Results The study enrolled 645 AAA patients; age 76.4 +/− 8.0 years, aortic diameter 3.86+/− 0.7 cm. Participants were mostly male (88.8%) not current smokers (81.6%) and taking statins (76.7%). Mean follow-up was 2.1 +/− 1.0 years. Estimated 1- and 3-year survival was 98.2% and 90.9%, respectively. Factors independently associated with mortality included larger aneurysm size (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.26 – 3.57 for diameter >4.0 cm) and diabetes (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.12 – 4.47). After adjusting for patient-level factors, health care system independently predicted mortality. Conclusion Contemporary all-cause mortality for patients with early AAA disease is lower than that previously reported. Further research is warranted to determine important factors that contribute to imporved survival in early AAA disease. PMID:22832264

  4. Surgical management of a hypoplastic distal aortic arch and coarctation of aorta in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, ascending aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Frantisek; Kolesar, Adrián; Toporcer, Tomás; Bajmoczi, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome has been associated with cardiovascular malformations, but only 3 cases have been reported to be associated with aortic coarctation and surgical management is not defined. A 51-year old woman with Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta, hypoplastic aortic arch and aortic coarctation at the level of the left subclavian artery presented with shortness of breath 2 years after diagnosis. Imaging identified interim development of a 7.2-cm aneurysm at the level of the aortic coarctation. She underwent surgical repair with a Dacron interposition graft under hypothermic circulatory arrest. She continues to do well 18 months following repair.

  5. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  6. ENDOVASCULAR AORTIC ANEURYSM REPAIR AT JOHANNESBURG ACADEMIC HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K; du Toit, R; Abdool-Carrim, A T O

    2017-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease seen in vascular units. AAA is defined as transverse diameter greater than 3 cm and affects men more than women. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is increasingly being used to treat AAA. Renal dysfunction, graft-related endoleaks, graft limb occlusion, device migration and delayed aneurysm rupture are possible complications that have been encountered after EVAR. Changes in renal functions after one month, six months and twelve months. The incidence of endoleaks, limb occlusion and re-interventions required. Total of thirty-six patients had EVAR done from February 2014 to April 2017. There were two patients who had type 2 endoleaks on completion angiograms, these resolved on one month CT scan. Fourteen patients had post-EVAR imaging at 1, 6 and 12 months which showed no endoleaks. Three patients developed iliac limb occlusion and was appropriately managed with fem-fem crossover. Eight patients had preexiting renal impairment with worsening of renal function in one patient (not requiring dialysis). Three patients developed renal impairment after EVAR. Twenty-two patients are waiting for the follow up imaging and few patients missing follow-up blood tests - this data will be added before the congress. The follow-up data demonstrates that EVAR can be performed safely in anatomically suitable patients. The limb occlusion rates are within accepted rates to standard vascular registry. The patients who developed renal dysfunction (Glomerular filtration rate between 50-60ml/min/1.73m2) after EVAR remained static for 12 months.

  7. Influence of atmospheric pressure on infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicolas; Frank, Michael; Avenin, Laure; Hemery, Francois; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Meteorologic conditions have a significant impact on the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Previous studies have shown that abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture (AAAR) may be associated with atmospheric pressure, with conflicting results. Therefore, we aimed to further investigate the nature of the correlation between atmospheric pressure variations and AAAR. Hospital admissions related to AAAR between 2005-2009 were assessed in 19 districts of metropolitan France and correlated with geographically and date-matched mean atmospheric pressures. In parallel and from 2005-2009, all fatal AAARs as reported by death certificates were assessed nationwide and correlated to local atmospheric pressures at the time of aortic rupture. Four hundred ninety-four hospital admissions related to AAAR and 6,358 deaths nationwide by AAAR were identified between 2005-2009. Both in-hospital ruptures and aneurysm-related mortality had seasonal variations, with peak/trough incidences in January and June, respectively. Atmospheric pressure peaks occurred during winter. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association (P < 0.001) of high mean atmospheric pressure values and AAAR. After multivariate analysis, mean maximum 1-month prerupture atmospheric pressure had a persistent correlation with both in-hospital relative risk (1.05 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.06]; P < 0.0001) and aneurysm rupture-related mortality relative risk (1.02 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.03]; P < 0.0001). The annual incidence of AAAR is nonhomogeneous with a peak incidence in winter, and is independently associated with mean maximum 1-month prerupture atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gottsäter, Anders; Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and standard endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2011 with elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 81) and endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 201) were evaluated concerning age, cardiovascular medication, comorbidities, and mid-term mortality. Results: Patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group were younger than the endovascular aneurysm repair group (p = 0.006). In comparison with the endovascular aneurysm repair group, a lower proportion of patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group had diabetes (p = 0.013) and anemia (p = 0.003), and a higher proportion had arterial hypertension (p = 0.009). When entering age, endovascular aneurysm repair or fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair operation, diabetes, anemia, and hypertension in a Cox regression model, only age (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11; p < 0.001) was a risk factor for mid-term mortality. Conclusion: Careful patient selection and medical optimization resulted in comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:26770700

  9. Partially uncovered Cheatham platinum-covered stent to treat complex aortic coarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Butera, Gianfranco; Piazza, Luciane

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment of aortic coarctation is a widely used option. Covered stents have increased the profile of efficacy and safety of this procedure. Here we report on a 32-year-old woman with significant aortic recoarctation associated with aortic wall aneurysm and close proximity of both lesions to the origin of both the subclavian arteries. It was decided to manually and partially uncover the proximal part of the stent to have a hybrid stent that could act as a bare stent at the level of the origin of the subclavian arteries and as a covered stent at the level of the aneurysm.

  10. The influence of atmospheric pressure on aortic aneurysm rupture--is the diameter of the aneurysm important?

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Tomasz; Juśko, Maciej; Niewiem, Alfred; Kuczmik, Wacław; Ziaja, Damian; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The rate of aortic aneurysm rupture correlates with the aneurysm's diameter, and a higher rate of rupture is observed in patients with larger aneurysms. According to the literature, contradictory results concerning the relationship between atmospheric pressure and aneurysm size have been reported. In this paper, we assessed the influence of changes in atmospheric pressure on abdominal aneurysm ruptures in relationship to the aneurysm's size. The records of 223 patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysms were evaluated. All of the patients had been admitted to the department in the period 1997-2007 from the Silesia region. The atmospheric pressures on the day of the rupture and on the days both before the rupture and between the rupture events were compared. The size of the aneurysm was also considered in the analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in pressure between the days of rupture and the remainder of the days within an analysed period. The highest frequency of the admission of patients with a ruptured aortic aneurysm was observed during periods of winter and spring, when the highest mean values of atmospheric pressure were observed; however, this observation was not statistically confirmed. A statistically non-significant trend towards the higher rupture of large aneurysms (> 7 cm) was observed in the cases where the pressure increased between the day before the rupture and the day of the rupture. This trend was particularly pronounced in patients suffering from hypertension (p = 0.1). The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is a direct link between atmospheric pressure values and abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures.

  11. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN was -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.

  12. Differential regulation of the superoxide dismutase family in experimental aortic aneurysms and rat aortic explants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indranil; Pearce, Charles G; Cho, Brenda S; Hannawa, Kevin K; Roelofs, Karen J; Stanley, James C; Henke, Peter K; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2007-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis. This study sought to characterize the relevance of superoxide dismutases (SOD), a family of reactive oxygen catalyzing metalloenzymes, including manganese SOD (MnSOD), copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD), and extracellular SOD (EcSOD), in a rodent aortic aneurysm model. Male rat infrarenal abdominal aortas were perfused with either saline (control) or porcine pancreatic elastase (6 U/mL). Aortic diameter was measured and aortas harvested on post-operation days 1, 2, and 7 (N=5-6 per treatment group per day). MnSOD, CuZnSOD, EcSOD, catalase, MMP-2, MMP-9, and beta-actin expression in aortic tissue was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. MnSOD protein levels were measured using western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. In subsequent experiments, aimed at understanding the mechanism by which SOD is involved in AAA pathogenesis, rat aortic explants (RAEs) were incubated in media for 24 h in the presence of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, 2 ng/mL) and TEMPOL (SOD mimetic), catalase, or a combined SOD and catalase mimetic. Media MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was determined by zymography. Data were analyzed by Student's t-tests and ANOVA. Elastase-perfused aortic diameters were significantly increased compared to control aortas by post-perfusion day 7 (P=0.016). MnSOD mRNA levels in elastase perfused aortas were 6.0 (P=0.05) and 7.5 times (P<0.01) greater than control aortas at post-perfusion days 1 and 2, respectively. EcSOD, CuZnSOD, catalase, and MMP-2 mRNA expression did not statistically vary between the two groups. MMP-9 expression was 3.5-fold higher in the elastase group on post-perfusion day 2 (P=0.04). Western immunoblotting confirmed MnSOD protein was up-regulated on day 4 in the elastase-perfused group compared to controls (P=0.02). Immunohistrochemistry demonstrated increased MnSOD staining in the elastase group on day 4. In RAE experiments, TEMPOL increased both MMP-9 and MMP-2

  13. Metformin treatment status and abdominal aortic aneurysm disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xiong, Jiang; Kettler, Ellen B; Xuan, Haojun; Glover, Keith J; Mell, Matthew W; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In population-based studies performed on multiple continents over the past two decades, diabetes mellitus has been negatively associated with the prevalence and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. We investigated the possibility that metformin, the primary oral hypoglycemic agent in use worldwide, may influence the progression of AAA disease Methods Pre-operative AAA patients with diabetes were identified from an institutional database. After tabulating individual cardiovascular and demographic risk factors and prescription drug regimens, odds ratios for categorical influences on annual AAA enlargement were calculated via nominal logistical regression. Experimental AAA modeling experiments were subsequently performed in normoglycemic mice to validate the database-derived observations, as well as suggest potential mechanisms of metformin-mediated aneurysm suppression. Results Fifty eight patients met criteria for study inclusion. Of 11 distinct classes of medication considered, only metformin usage was negatively associated with AAA enlargement. This association remained significant after controlling for gender, age, cigarette smoking status and obesity. The median enlargement rate in AAA patients not taking oral diabetic medication was 1.5 mm/year; by nominal logistic regression, metformin, hyperlipidemia, and age ≥70 years were associated with below median enlargement, whereas sulfonylurea therapy, initial aortic diameter ≥40 mm and statin usage were associated with above median enlargement. In experimental modeling, metformin dramatically suppressed the formation and progression, with medial elastin and smooth muscle preservation and reduced aortic mural macrophage, CD8 T cell and neovessel density. Conclusions Epidemiologic evidence of AAA suppression in diabetes may be attributable to concurrent therapy with the oral hypoglycemic agent metformin. PMID:27106243

  14. Endovascular Exclusion of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Initial Experience with Stent-Grafts in Cardiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Marcus H.; Zaqqa, Munir; Villareal, Rollo P.; Strickman, Neil E.; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2000-01-01

    The use of an endovascular stent-graft prosthesis for the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms is receiving increasing attention as an option that may avoid the significant morbidity and mortality associated with open surgical treatment. We studied the clinical effectiveness of stent-grafts in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Between October 1995 and May 1998, 33 patients underwent infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion with a homemade polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent, and between November 1998 and September 1999, 56 patients underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion with the Medtronic AneuRx stent-graft. Overall, these patients represented a high-risk surgical group. The technical success rate was 100% in both groups. No patient required immediate conversion to open repair. With the polytetrafluoroethy-lene-covered stent, the primary success rate was 33%, and the secondary success rate was 76%. In the AneuRx group, the primary success rate was 82.8%, and the secondary success rate was 85.3% at 6 months. There was no procedural or 1-month mortality or major morbidity in either group. By showing that infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms can be treated safely and successfully with an endoluminal stent-graft, our early results provide additional support for the endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Further follow-up studies will determine the long-term ability of such treatment to prevent aneurysmal rupture and death. PMID:10928501

  15. RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING INFRARENAL ENDOVASCULAR AORTIC ANEURYSM REPAIR.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Badawy, A; Chaudhuri, A

    2017-09-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms exposes patients and healthcare professions to the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionization radiation. The study aim was to determine our standard of radiation exposure in infrarenal EVARs and compare it against other published data and national guidelines. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of patients undergoing EVARs was obtained. Radiation dose, fluoroscopy time, aneurysm size and patient characteristics were collected. Results are expressed as mean with 95% confidence interval. This study included 147 elective patients undergoing aorto bi-iliac EVAR with a mean age of 76 years from June 2013 until December 2016. The mean dose area product (DAP) was 5.91 (5.07-6.75) mGy.m2, cumulative air kerma (CAK) 248 (211-284) mGy and fluoroscopy time 32.5 (28.5-36.5) minutes. A greater BMI and a longer fluoroscopy time caused a significantly greater DAP to be administered to the patient. The device type, sex, AAA size, smoking status did not significantly effect the DAP administered to the patient. Radiation exposure during endovascular aneurysm repairs is a significant hazard to both the patient and the theatre staff. Our study shows that a greater BMI and total fluoroscopy time can cause greater radiation exposure to patient. Anatomical and technical difficulties are also related to increased radiation exposure. Radiation exposure at our centre is below threshold levels suggested by Stecker et al before radiation induced skin injuries can manifest. Additionally, radiation exposure is comparable to other centres but can be reduced further by reducing our fluoroscopy time and adhering to the principles of ALARA (As low as reasonably achievable).

  16. National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Marfan Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACTA2 or MYH11 Genetic Mutation; Bicuspid Aortic Valve Without Known Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Coarctation; Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissections; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Other Aneur/Diss of Thoracic Aorta Not Due to Trauma, <50yo; Other Congenital Heart Disease

  17. Aorfix™ device for abdominal aortic aneurysm with challenging anatomy.

    PubMed

    Sbarzaglia, P; Grattoni, C; Oshoala, K; Castriota, F; D'Alessandro, G; Cremonesi, A

    2014-02-01

    Anatomical characteristics of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most critical factors for successful endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). Of these, severe proximal aortic neck angulation and iliac axis tortuosity increase the complexity of EVAR. Neck angulation seems to have a pivotal potential for fixation failure, a situation that may lead to complications, including endoleak and late rupture. Bench-test studies identified that the relative stiffness of a stent-graft was responsible for its inability to conform to neck angulation, therefore creating leaks through gaps between the stent graft and the neck. Aorfix™ stent graft (Lombard Medical, Didcot, UK) is a flexible stent-graft designed and manufactured with the purpose of overcoming the issue of stent-graft stiffness. Many studies have shown good results in term of procedural success and mid-term type-I endoleak. PYTHAGORAS trial evaluated mainly patients with highly angulated infrarenal neck and showed that high performance of Aorfix™ stent graft did not present any significant difference between neck >60° and <60°. In the series of 27 patients treated at our Institution we had a primary technical success of 96.3% and an assisted primary technical success of 100%. In this review we will analyze the available data in literature regarding Aorfix™ stent graft and will discuss the outcome of the patients treated with Aorfix™ stent graft at our centre.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification applied to flow simulations in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccadifuoco, Alessandro; Mariotti, Alessandro; Celi, Simona; Martini, Nicola; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2015-11-01

    The thoracic aortic aneurysm is a progressive dilatation of the thoracic aorta causing a weakness in the aortic wall, which may eventually cause life-threatening events. Clinical decisions on treatment strategies are currently based on empiric criteria, like the aortic diameter value or its growth rate. Numerical simulations can give the quantification of important indexes which are impossible to be obtained through in-vivo measurements and can provide supplementary information. Hemodynamic simulations are carried out by using the open-source tool SimVascular and considering patient-specific geometries. One of the main issues in these simulations is the choice of suitable boundary conditions, modeling the organs and vessels not included in the computational domain. The current practice is to use outflow conditions based on resistance and capacitance, whose values are tuned to obtain a physiological behavior of the patient pressure. However it is not known a priori how this choice affects the results of the simulation. The impact of the uncertainties in these outflow parameters is investigated here by using the generalized Polynomial Chaos approach. This analysis also permits to calibrate the outflow-boundary parameters when patient-specific in-vivo data are available.

  19. Clinical Stratification of Pediatric Patients with Idiopathic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Landis, Benjamin J; Ware, Stephanie M; James, Jeanne; Shikany, Amy R; Martin, Lisa J; Hinton, Robert B

    2015-07-01

    To describe the global phenotypes of pediatric patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) who do not have a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) or related connective tissue disorders. We hypothesized that the presence of noncardiovascular abnormalities correlate with TAA severity and that medical therapy reduces TAA progression. This is a retrospective case series of patients with TAA age ≤ 21 years evaluated in a cardiovascular genetics clinic. Patients meeting clinical criteria for MFS or related disorders were excluded. Repeated measures analyses of longitudinal echocardiographic measurements of the aorta were used to test associations between TAA severity and noncardiovascular phenotype and to assess the impact of medical therapy. Sixty-nine patients with TAA at mean age 12.5 ± 5.3 years were included. Noncardiovascular abnormalities, including skeletal (65%) or craniofacial (54%) findings, were frequently observed. Increased rate of aortic root enlargement was associated with ocular (P = .002) and cutaneous (P = .003) abnormalities, and increased rate of ascending aorta enlargement was associated with craniofacial (P < .001) abnormalities. Beta blocker or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (n = 41) was associated with reduction in the rate of aortic root growth (P = .018). Children with TAA not satisfying diagnostic criteria for MFS or related disorders frequently have noncardiovascular findings, some of which are associated with TAA progression. Because therapy initiation may reduce risk of progression and long-term complications, comprehensive assessment of noncardiovascular findings may facilitate early risk stratification and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infected Aortic Aneurysm Mimicking Anti-proteinase 3-Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hachiya, Kenta; Wakami, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Suda, Hisao; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an unusual case of an infected descending aortic pseudoaneurysm with luminal pathognomonic oscillating vegetation with serological findings and clinical features mimicking anti-proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. The positive blood cultures and imaging findings, including a pseudoaneurysm and vegetations in the aorta, suggested the presence of an infected aortic aneurysm. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and endovascular aortic repair. A precise diagnosis is crucial in order to avoid inappropriate therapy such as immunosuppressive treatment, which could result in life-threatening consequences in a patient with an infected aortic aneurysm. PMID:27904110

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Late Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms after Surgical Repair of Congenital Aortic Coarctation in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Juszkat, Robert; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zabicki, Bartosz; Trojnarska, Olga; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Smoczyk, Wiesław; Pukacki, Fryderyk

    2013-01-01

    Background In some patients, local surgery-related complications are diagnosed many years after surgery for aortic coarctation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to systematically evaluate asymptomatic adults after Dacron patch repair in childhood, (2) to estimate the formation rate of secondary thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and (3) to assess outcomes after intravascular treatment for TAAs. Methods This study involved 37 asymptomatic patients (26 female and 11 male) who underwent surgical repair of aortic coarctation in the childhood. After they had reached adolescence, patients with secondary TAAs were referred to endovascular repair. Results Follow-up studies revealed TAA in seven cases (19%) (including six with the gothic type of the aortic arch) and mild recoarctation in other six (16%). Six of the TAA patients were treated with stentgrafts, but one refused to undergo an endovascular procedure. In three cases, stengrafts covered the left subclavian artery (LSA), in another the graft was implanted distally to the LSA. In two individuals, elective hybrid procedures were performed with surgical bypass to the supraaortic arteries followed by stengraft implantation. All subjects survived the secondary procedures. One patient developed type Ia endoleak after stentgraft implantation that was eventually treated with a debranching procedure. Conclusions The long-term course of clinically asymptomatic patients after coarctation patch repair is not uncommonly complicated by formation of TAAs (particularly in individuals with the gothic pattern of the aortic arch) that can be treated effectively with stentgrafts. However, in some patients hybrid procedures may be necessary. PMID:24386233

  2. Fenestrated and Chimney Technique for Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hu, Zhongzhou; Bai, Chujie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Yangyang; Luan, Shaoliang; Guo, Wei

    2016-02-12

    Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAA) account for approximately 15% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (CH-EVAR) are both effective methods to treat JAAs, but the comparative effectiveness of these treatment modalities is unclear. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify English language articles published between January 2005 and September 2013 on management of JAA with fenestrated and chimney techniques to conduct a systematic review to compare outcomes of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JAA) treated with the two techniques. We compared nine F-EVAR cohort studies including 542 JAA patients and 8 CH-EVAR cohorts with 158 JAA patients regarding techniques success rates, 30-day mortality, late mortality, endoleak events and secondary intervention rates. The results of this systematic review indicate that both fenestrated and chimney techniques are attractive options for JAAs treatment with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes.

  3. Fenestrated and Chimney Technique for Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm: A Systematic Review and Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Hu, Zhongzhou; Bai, Chujie; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Yangyang; Luan, Shaoliang; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAA) account for approximately 15% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (CH-EVAR) are both effective methods to treat JAAs, but the comparative effectiveness of these treatment modalities is unclear. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify English language articles published between January 2005 and September 2013 on management of JAA with fenestrated and chimney techniques to conduct a systematic review to compare outcomes of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JAA) treated with the two techniques. We compared nine F-EVAR cohort studies including 542 JAA patients and 8 CH-EVAR cohorts with 158 JAA patients regarding techniques success rates, 30-day mortality, late mortality, endoleak events and secondary intervention rates. The results of this systematic review indicate that both fenestrated and chimney techniques are attractive options for JAAs treatment with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes. PMID:26869488

  4. Aortic Valve Regurgitation that Resolved after a Ruptured Coronary Sinus Aneurysm Was Patched

    PubMed Central

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Joggerst, Steven; Reddy, Kota J.; Cervera, Roberto D.; Ott, David A.; Wilson, James M.; Stainback, Raymond F.

    2013-01-01

    Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms appear to be rare. They occur most frequently in the right sinus of Valsalva (52%) and the noncoronary sinus (33%). More of these aneurysms originate from the right coronary cusp than from the noncoronary cusp. Surgical intervention is usually recommended when symptoms become evident. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a congenital, ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm that originated from the noncoronary cusp. Moderate aortic regurgitation was associated with this lesion. Simple, direct patch closure of the ruptured aneurysm resolved the patient's left-to-right shunt and was associated with decreased aortic regurgitation to a degree that valve replacement was not necessary. Only trace residual aortic regurgitation was evident after 3 months, and the patient remained free of symptoms after 6 months. Our observations support the idea that substantial runoff blood flow in the immediate supra-annular region can be responsible for aortic regurgitation in the absence of a notable structural defect in the aortic valve, and that restoring physiologic flow in this region and equalizing aortic-cusp closure pressure can largely or completely resolve aortic insufficiency. Accordingly, valve replacement may not be necessary in all cases of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysms with associated aortic valve regurgitation. PMID:24082388

  5. Acute thrombosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm subsequent to Heimlich maneuver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, R L; Green, R M

    1985-07-01

    We report a case of acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to a correctly applied and successful Heimlich maneuver. Although the Heimlich maneuver is generally safe and effective, this possible catastrophic consequence needs to be recognized.

  6. Hybrid Decision Support System for Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair Follow-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Boto, Fernando; Macía, Iván; Maiora, Josu; García, Guillermo; Paloc, Céline; Graña, Manuel; de Blas, Mariano

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is an abnormal widening of the aortic vessel at abdominal level, and is usually diagnosed on the basis of radiological images. One of the techniques for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm repair is Endovascular Repair. The long-term outcome of this surgery is usually difficult to predict in the absence of clearly visible signs, such as leaks, in the images. In this paper, we present a hybrid system that combines data extracted from radiological images and data extracted from the Electronic Patient Record in order to assess the evolution of the aneurysm after the intervention. The results show that the system proposed by this approach yields valuable qualitative and quantitative information for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm patients after Endovascular Repair.

  7. Unusual false aneurysm of the ascending aorta associated with ruptured acute type A aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Koji; Nakajima, Masato; Akashi, Okihiko

    2008-01-01

    False aneurysm of the thoracic aorta unrelated to trauma, or to previous aortic or cardiac surgery, is extremely rare. We encountered a case of ascending aortic false aneurysm formation associated with ruptured acute type A aortic dissection. The false aneurysm, which was contained by thin connective tissue surrounding the aortic wall, was located beside the false lumen of the dissected ascending aorta, expanding toward the transverse sinus. We immediately decided to perform an emergency operation. We noted the large entry site at the anterior wall of the dissected ascending aorta after resection of the flap. We identified the false aneurysm arising from a small tear of the false lumen. Graft replacement of the ascending aorta using a tube graft was performed. The postoperative course was satisfactory. This pathology was believed to be not only a consequence of hemostasis, but also a process of re-rupture of the dissected aorta.

  8. Surgery for aortic aneurysms: how to reduce tension on the anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Francesco; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Domenico; Stilo, Francesco; Lentini, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    We describe a simple technique we use in our institution during surgery for aortic aneurysms to reduce tension on the anastomosis when there is a discrepancy between the remnant portion of the native aorta and the vascular prosthesis.

  9. Measuring of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Reconstruction before Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoona; Joh, Jin Hyun; Park, Ho-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Conventional computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard method for case planning for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, aortography with a marking catheter is needed for measuring the actual length of an aneurysm. With advances in imaging technology, a 3-dimensional (3D) workstation can obviate the need for the aortography. The objective of this study was to determine whether a 3D workstation could obviate the need for aortography for EVAR. Materials and Methods One vascular surgeon and 1 interventional radiologist retrospectively assessed axial CT scans and reformatted the 3D CT scans by using the iNtuition workstation (TeraRecon Inc., San Mateo, CA, USA) for 25 patients who underwent EVAR. Four measurements of diameter and length were obtained from each modality. The actual length of an aneurysm for the proper graft was decided by 2 observers by reviewing the aortography with a marking catheter. Results The measurements from the 2 modalities were reproducible with intraobserver correlation coefficients of 0.89 to 1.0 for conventional CT and 0.98 to 1.0 for 3D workstation. Interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.29 to 0.95 for conventional CT and 0.85 to 0.99 for the 3D workstation. The length of the aneurysm for proper main graft coincided in 18 and 14 patients according to the conventional CT scan and in 21 and 18 patients according to the 3D workstation, respectively. Conclusion The interobserver agreement in planning EVAR was significantly better with the iNtuition 3D workstation. But aortography with a marking catheter may still be needed for selecting the proper graft. PMID:28377909

  10. Aortic Endoprosthesis for the Treatment of Native Aortic Coarctation and Concomitant Aneurysm in an Octogenarian Patient.

    PubMed

    Rabellino, Martín; Kotowicz, Vadim; Kenny, Alberto; Kohan, Andres Alejandro; García-Mónaco, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of an 82-year-old female patient with native coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. On consultation, she was receiving 4 antihypertensive drugs, and physical examination revealed nonpalpable lower-limb pulses with intermittent claudication at 50 min. Because of her age, high surgical risk and combination of lesions, endovascular treatment was suggested. Placement of a Valiant thoracic aorta endoprosthesis followed by coarctation angioplasty was performed. At 48 hr, the patient was discharged on 1 antihypertensive drug, palpable pulses on both limbs and a normal ankle-brachial index. At 1 month follow-up, the patient remained as discharged and multislice computed tomography angiography depicted complete coarctation expansion without residual stenosis, exclusion of the aortic aneurysm, and no signs of endoleaks.

  11. Association of statins with aortic, peripheral, and visceral artery aneurysm development.

    PubMed

    Mansi, Ishak A; Frei, Christopher R; Halm, Ethan A; Mortensen, Eric M

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Prior studies examining the effects of statins on arterial aneurysm development and progression yielded conflicting results due to their smaller size and presence of residual confounders. The objective of this study is to examine the association of statins with risk of being diagnosed with aortic, peripheral, and visceral artery aneurysm. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of Tricare enrollees (from 1 October 2003 to 31 March 2012). Main outcomes were diagnosis of aortic, peripheral, or visceral artery aneurysm and undergoing aortic aneurysm repair procedure during follow-up period. Using 115 baseline characteristics, we generated a propensity score to match statin users and nonusers and examine the odds of outcomes (primary analysis). Secondary analysis examined outcomes at various subcohorts. Results Out of 10,910 statin users and 49,545 nonusers, we propensity score-matched 6728 pairs of statin users and nonusers. Statin users and nonusers had similar odds of being diagnosed with aortic, peripheral, and visceral artery aneurysms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.85-1.33) and of undergoing aortic aneurysm repair procedures (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.22-1.35). Secondary analysis showed a tendency toward fewer aortic aneurysm procedures among statin users that did not reach statistical significance. However, high-intensity statin users in comparison to non-intensive statin users had higher adjusted odds of aortic, peripheral, and visceral artery aneurysms (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.37-2.25, p < .0001). Conclusions This study does not support a clinically significant benefit or harm from statins regarding development of arterial aneurysm. However, secondary analyses may support the hypothesis proposed by previous research proposing a bidirectional role for statins.

  12. Lumbosacral radiculopathy secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysms. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Wilberger, J E

    1983-06-01

    Focal neurological deficits as the initial manifestation of expanding or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are uncommon. When such a situation does occur, the femoral nerve is most often involved due to retroperitoneal or iliopsoas hematoma. Three cases of typical lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by an abdominal aortic aneurysm are reported to emphasize the importance of considering this diagnosis in the older patient with leg pain and radiculopathic findings.

  13. Extensive Erosion of Vertebral Bodies Due to a Chronic Contained Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Alecio Fernando; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; da Rocha Fernandes, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of chronically ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm contained within the lumbar vertebral bodies that presented with dull abdominal pain. Sudden, massive hemorrhage is an uncommon, yet well-known complication of an untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm. In addition, misleading clinical and radiological findings present difficult diagnostic challenges in such cases. This report emphasizes the findings obtained with multidetector computed tomography and delineates the differentiation of this condition from similar pathologies. PMID:27200153

  14. Endovascular treatment of a small infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm causing duodenal obstruction: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Andrea; Menna, Danilo; Mansour, Wassim; Sirignano, Pasqualino; Capoccia, Laura; Speziale, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Duodenal obstruction caused by abdominal aortic aneurysm was first described by Osler in 1905 and is named "aortoduodenal syndrome." This condition has always been treated by open surgical repair. We report the first case of aortoduodenal syndrome successfully treated by endovascular aneurysm repair. A 74-year-old male patient referred to our hospital complaining postprandial vomit, reporting a consistent weight loss in the latest weeks. Enhanced computed tomography scans showed a small saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm compressing duodenum and inferior vena cava without any other evident pathological finding. As the patient underwent a successful endovascular treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm, symptoms immediately resolved so that he started back to feed and progressively gained body weight. Despite aortoduodenal syndrome is generally caused by large abdominal aortic aneurysm, this condition has to be suspected also in case of small abdominal aortic aneurysm. Differently from what has been reported in literature, endovascular aneurysm repair could be effective in the treatment of aortoduodenal syndrome.

  15. LOX Mutations Predispose to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen S.; Gong, Limin; Duan, Xueyan; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Arnaud, Pauline; Ren, Zhao; Cai, Bo; Hostetler, Ellen M.; Moran, Rocio; Liang, David; Estrera, Anthony; Safi, Hazim J; Leal, Suzanne M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Mutations in several genes have been identified that are responsible for approximately 25% of families with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). However, the causative gene remains unknown in 75% of families. Objectives To identify the causative mutation in families with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was used to identify the mutation responsible for a large family with TAAD. A heterozygous rare variant, c.839G>T (p.Ser280Arg), was identified in LOX, encoding a lysyl oxidase, that segregated with disease in the family. Sanger and exome sequencing was performed to investigate mutations in candidate genes in an additional 410 probands from unrelated families. Additional LOX rare variants that segregated with disease in families were identified, including c.125G>A (p.Trp42*), c.604G>T (p.Gly202*), c.743C>T (p.Thr248Ile), c.800A>C (p.Gln267Pro), and c.1044T>A (p.Ser348Arg). The altered amino acids cause haploinsufficiency for LOX or are located at a highly conserved LOX catalytic domain, which is relatively invariant in the population. Expression of the LOX variants p.Ser280Arg and p.Ser348Arg had significantly lower lysyl oxidase activity when compared with the wild type protein. Individuals with LOX variants had fusiform enlargement of the root and ascending thoracic aorta, leading to ascending aortic dissections. Conclusions These data, along with previous studies showing the deficiency of LOX in mice or inhibition of lysyl oxidases in turkeys and rats causes aortic dissections, support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in LOX predispose to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26838787

  16. Characterization of the transport topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by disturbed blood flow patterns that are hypothesized to contribute to disease progression. The transport topology in six patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was studied. Velocity data were obtained by image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling, with magnetic resonance imaging providing the necessary simulation parameters. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from the velocity data, and used to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). The combination of FTLE fields and LCS was used to characterize topological flow features such as separation zones, vortex transport, mixing regions, and flow impingement. These measures offer a novel perspective into AAA flow. It was observed that all aneurysms exhibited coherent vortex formation at the proximal segment of the aneurysm. The evolution of the systolic vortex strongly influences the flow topology in the aneurysm. It was difficult to predict the vortex dynamics from the aneurysm morphology, motivating the application of image-based flow modeling.

  17. Characterization of the transport topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    PubMed

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by disturbed blood flow patterns that are hypothesized to contribute to disease progression. The transport topology in six patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms was studied. Velocity data were obtained by image-based computational fluid dynamics modeling, with magnetic resonance imaging providing the necessary simulation parameters. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from the velocity data, and used to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). The combination of FTLE fields and LCS was used to characterize topological flow features such as separation zones, vortex transport, mixing regions, and flow impingement. These measures offer a novel perspective into AAA flow. It was observed that all aneurysms exhibited coherent vortex formation at the proximal segment of the aneurysm. The evolution of the systolic vortex strongly influences the flow topology in the aneurysm. It was difficult to predict the vortex dynamics from the aneurysm morphology, motivating the application of image-based flow modeling.

  18. Thresholds for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Karthikesalingam, Alan; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Holt, Peter J; Loftus, Ian M; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Soden, Peter A; Landon, Bruce E; Thompson, Matthew M

    2016-11-24

    Thresholds for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms vary considerably among countries. We examined differences between England and the United States in the frequency of aneurysm repair, the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of the procedure, and rates of aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related death. Data on the frequency of repair of intact (nonruptured) abdominal aortic aneurysms, in-hospital mortality among patients who had undergone aneurysm repair, and rates of aneurysm rupture during the period from 2005 through 2012 were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Data on the aneurysm diameter at the time of repair were extracted from the U.K. National Vascular Registry (2014 data) and from the U.S. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2013 data). Aneurysm-related mortality during the period from 2005 through 2012 was determined from data obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.K. Office of National Statistics. Data were adjusted with the use of direct standardization or conditional logistic regression for differences between England and the United States with respect to population age and sex. During the period from 2005 through 2012, a total of 29,300 patients in England and 278,921 patients in the United States underwent repair of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms. Aneurysm repair was less common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.49; P<0.001), and aneurysm-related death was more common in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.64; P<0.001). Hospitalization due to an aneurysm rupture occurred more frequently in England than in the United States (odds ratio, 2.23; 95% CI, 2.19 to 2.27; P<0.001), and the mean aneurysm diameter at the time of repair was larger in England (63.7 mm vs. 58.3 mm, P<0.001). We found a lower rate of repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

  19. Pulmonary atelectasis from compression of the left main bronchus by an aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yap, K H; Sulaiman, S

    2009-07-01

    Pulmonary atelectasis may be caused by endobronchial lesions or by extrinsic compression of the bronchus. However, lung collapse due to compression from a thoracic aneurysm is uncommon. We report a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient who has pulmonary atelectasis due to an extrinsic compression from a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm, and discuss possible treatment options.

  20. Anterior mitral valve aneurysm perforation secondary to aortic valve endocarditis detected by Doppler colour flow mapping.

    PubMed

    Decroly, P; Vandenbossche, J L; Englert, M

    1989-02-01

    We report a case of mitral valve aneurysm formation and perforation, secondary to Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis of the aortic valve. Aneurysm formation was documented by cross-sectional echocardiography and its perforation was established by Doppler colour flow mapping, and subsequently confirmed at surgery.

  1. A Rare Presentation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm-Renal Pelvis Rupture Due to Compression.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Christopher; Bashaeb, Khalid; Antoniou, George A

    2017-09-06

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually asymptomatic. The compressive effects of internal iliac aneurysms are well described in the literature; however, we report what we believe to be the first case of rupture of the renal pelvis caused by compression by an infrarenal AAA. We describe the subsequent management and briefly review the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Bakoto, N; Corman, V; Legros, J J

    2011-02-01

    Cardiovascular and endocrine complications in male or sexually-ambiguous patients carrying a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are rarely discussed in the medical literature. However, young female patients with a diagnosis of Turner's disease usually benefit from regular cardiologic and endocrine follow-up, in accordance with current international guidelines. We report the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with an ambiguous phenotype known to harbor a mixed gonadic 45,X/46,XY type dysgenesis. The patient was admitted to the cardiology ward for investigation and management of cardiac failure secondary to both a biscupid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm. This case report, and the few others, which have been previously reported in the literature, emphasizes the importance of cardiologic and endocrine follow-up in male carriers of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm-an independent disease to atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Bown, Matthew J

    Atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are multifactorial and polygenic diseases with known environmental and genetic risk factors that contribute toward disease development. Atherosclerosis represents an important independent risk factor for AAA, as people with AAA often have atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that comorbidity is usually between ~25% and 55%, but it is still not fully known whether this association is causal or a result of common shared risk profiles. Most recent epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence suggests that the two pathologies are more distinct than traditionally thought. For instance diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity are high risk for atherosclerosis development but are not as pronounced in AAA, whereas smoking, gender, and ethnicity are particularly high risk for AAA but less so for atherosclerosis. In addition, genetic and epigenetic studies have identified independent risk loci involved in AAA susceptibility that are not associated with other cardiovascular diseases, and research on important common cardiovascular biomarkers has illustrated discrepancies in those with AAA.

  4. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Annambhotla, Suman; Bourgeois, Sebastian; Wang, Xinwen; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is an increasingly common clinical condition with fatal implications. It is associated with advanced age, male gender, cigarette smoking, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and genetic predisposition. Although significant evidence has emerged in the last decade, the molecular mechanisms of AAA formation remains poorly understood. Currently, the treatment for AAA remains primarily surgical with the lone innovation of endovascular therapy. With advance in the human genome, understanding precisely which molecules and genes mediate AAA development and blocking their activity at the molecular level could lead to important new discoveries and therapies. This review summarizes recent updates in molecular mechanisms of AAA formation including animal models, autoimmune components, infection, key molecules and cytokines, mechanical forces, genetics and pharmacotherapy. This review will be helpful to those who want to recognize the newest endeavors within the field and identify possible lines of investigation in AAA. PMID:18259804

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene variants and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, L; Warrington, N; Allcock, R; van Bockxmeer, F; Palmer, L J; Iacopetta, B; Golledge, J; Norman, P E

    2009-08-01

    To investigate associations between two polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene (MMP2) and the incidence and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Cases and controls were recruited from a trial of screening for AAAs. The association between two variants of MMP2 (-1360C>T, and +649C>T) in men with AAA (n=678) and in controls (n=659) was examined using multivariate analyses. The association with AAA expansion (n=638) was also assessed. In multivariate analyses with adjustments for multiple testing, no association between either SNP and AAA presence or expansion was detected. MMP2 -1360C>T and +649C>T variants are not risk factors for AAA.

  6. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Miguel; Tchana-Sato, Vincent; Lavigne, Jean Paul

    2016-10-19

    Early diagnosis of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is still a medical challenge due to its diverse and non-specific symptoms and signs. The most common responsible pathogens are Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter and Streptococcus species. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man, admitted for high fever and finally diagnosed with Escherichia coli (E.coli)-related IAAA. The IAAA ruptured during the general anaesthesia induction, leading to an emergency surgery. The authors successfully proceeded to an open aneurysmectomy with extensive debridement and in situ graft replacement. This case emphasizes the potential for rapid IAAA expansion, its high-rupture risk and the importance of computed tomography as a diagnostic tool.

  7. [An aortic and femoral aneurysm revealing Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Lyazidi, Y; Abissegue, Y; Chtata, H T; Taberkant, M

    2015-12-01

    Vascular involvement in Behçet's disease is rare, but may be inaugural in many cases. We report a case of Behçet's disease revealed by two pre-rupture aneurysms - a subrenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a femoral aneurysm. This patient had only one of the International Study Group for Behçet's disease diagnostic criteria: pseudofolliculitis. Behçet's disease must be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with unexplained inflammatory arteriopathy.

  8. A rare combination of vascular anomalies: Hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nermin; Arslan, Şakir; Üreyen, Çağın Mustafa; Küçükseymen, Selçuk; Erol, Bekir

    2015-04-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is the fifth most common congenital cardiac anomaly encountered in adults. It is important for prognosis to diagnose and treat this anomaly early. An aneurysm might develop due to tunica media abnormalities in patients with coarctation of the aorta. We hereby present an adult case with a very rare combination of vascular anomalies including ascending aorta aneurysm, hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm.

  9. Management of a Mycotic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm Involving the Celiac Artery

    PubMed Central

    Dolapoglu, Ahmet; Coselli, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    A mycotic aneurysm that also involves the visceral arteries is a life-threatening condition. Surgical management typically consists of débridement and in situ repair with a Dacron graft and reimplantation of the involved visceral branches. We report a rare case of a mycotic saccular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm involving the celiac artery, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the responsible organism. Successful repair of the aneurysm and concomitant revascularization of the celiac artery were achieved. PMID:28100975

  10. Alcohol consumption, specific alcoholic beverages, and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Stackelberg, Otto; Björck, Martin; Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-08-19

    Studies investigating the role of alcohol consumption in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are scarce. We aimed to examine associations between total alcohol consumption and specific alcoholic beverages and the hazard of AAA. The study population was made up of 44 715 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 35 569 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 46 to 84 years of age at baseline in 1998. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the associations between alcohol consumption, assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and AAA, identified by means of linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc). Over the 14-year follow-up until December 2011 (1 019 954 person-years), AAAs occurred in 1020 men and 194 women. Compared with the consumption of 1 glass of alcohol per week (12 g of ethanol), the hazard ratio of AAA among men who consumed 10 glasses per week was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.94). The corresponding hazard ratio among women who consumed 5 glasses per week was 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.82). Among participants free from cardiovascular disease, total alcohol consumption did not seem to be associated with hazard of the disease. The most commonly consumed alcoholic beverages, beer among men and wine among women, were inversely associated, whereas no association was observed for liquor. Moderate alcohol consumption, specifically wine and beer, was associated with a lower hazard of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The associations between higher doses of alcohol and risk of the disease remain unknown. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Gene Expression Signature in Peripheral Blood Detects Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Dov; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Iakoubova, Olga; Tranquilli, Maryann; Albornoz, Gonzalo; Blake, Julie; Mehmet, Necip N.; Ngadimo, Dewi; Poulter, Karen; Chan, Frances; Samaha, Raymond R.; Elefteriades, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is usually asymptomatic and associated with high mortality. Adverse clinical outcome of TAA is preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells may correlate with TAA disease status. Our goal was to identify a distinct gene expression signature in peripheral blood that may identify individuals at risk for TAA. Methods and Findings Whole genome gene expression profiles from 94 peripheral blood samples (collected from 58 individuals with TAA and 36 controls) were analyzed. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) identified potential signature genes characterizing TAA vs. normal, ascending vs. descending TAA, and sporadic vs. familial TAA. Using a training set containing 36 TAA patients and 25 controls, a 41-gene classification model was constructed for detecting TAA status and an overall accuracy of 78±6% was achieved. Testing this classifier on an independent validation set containing 22 TAA samples and 11 controls yielded an overall classification accuracy of 78%. These 41 classifier genes were further validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR assays. Classification based on the TaqMan® data replicated the microarray results and achieved 80% classification accuracy on the testing set. Conclusions This study identified informative gene expression signatures in peripheral blood cells that can characterize TAA status and subtypes of TAA. Moreover, a 41-gene classifier based on expression signature can identify TAA patients with high accuracy. The transcriptional programs in peripheral blood leading to the identification of these markers also provide insights into the mechanism of development of aortic aneurysms and highlight potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The classifier genes identified in this study, and validated by TaqMan® real-time PCR, define a set of promising potential diagnostic markers

  12. Early recognition of acute thoracic aortic dissection and aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) and aneurysm (TAA) are rare but catastrophic. Prompt recognition of TAD/TAA and differentiation from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is difficult yet crucial. Earlier identification of TAA/TAD based upon routine emergency department screening is necessary. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients that presented with acute thoracic complaints to the ED from January 2007 through June 2012 was performed. Cases of TAA/TAD were compared to an equal number of controls which consisted of patients with the diagnosis of ACS. Demographics, physical findings, EKG, and the results of laboratory and radiological imaging were compared. P-value of > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results In total, 136 patients were identified with TAA/TAD, 0.36% of patients that presented with chest complaints. Compared to ACS patients, TAA/TAD group was older (68.9 vs. 63.2 years), less likely to be diabetic (13% vs 32%), less likely to complain of chest pain (47% vs 85%) and head and neck pain (4% vs 17%). The pain for the TAA/TAD group was less likely characterized as tight/heavy in nature (5% vs 37%). TAA/TAD patients were also less likely to experience shortness of breath (42% vs. 51%), palpitations (2% vs 9%) and dizziness (2% vs 13%) and had a greater incidence of focal lower extremity neurological deficits (6% vs 1%), bradycardia (15% vs. 5%) and tachypnea (53% vs. 22%). On multivariate analysis, increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction were independent predictors of ACS. Conclusions Increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction can be used to differentiate acute coronary syndromes from thoracic aortic dissections/aneurysms. PMID:24499618

  13. Validation of ultrasonic image boundary recognition in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ravhon, R; Adam, D; Zelmanovitch, L

    2001-08-01

    An aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA) is characterized by modified wall properties, and a balloon-like area usually filled by a thrombus. A rupture of an aortic aneurysm can be fatal, yet there is no way to accurately predict such an occurrence. The study of the wall and thrombus cross-sectional distension, due to a pressure wave, is important as a way of assessing the degradation of the mechanical properties of the vessel wall and the risk of a rupture. Echo ultrasound transverse cross-sectional imaging is used here to study the thrombus and the aortic wall distension, requiring their segmentation within the image. Polar coordinates are defined, and a search is performed for minimizing a cost function, which includes a description of the boundary (based on a limited series of sine and cosine functions) and information from the image intensity gradients along the radii. The method is based on filtering by a modified Canny-Deriche edge detector and then on minimization of an energy function based on five parts. Since echoes from blood in the lumen and the thrombus produce similar patterns and speckle noise, a modified version for identifying the lumen-thrombus border was developed. The method has been validated by various ways, including parameter sensitivity testing and comparison to the performance of an expert. It is robust enough to track the lumen and total arterial cross-sectional area changes during the cardiac cycle. In 34 patients where sequences of images were acquired, the border between the thrombus and the arterial wall was detected with errors less than 2%, while the lumen-thrombus border was detected with a mean error of 4%. Thus, a noninvasive measurement of the AAA cross-sectional area is presented, which has been validated and found to be accurate.

  14. Flow Mediated Dilatation and Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Regent; Bellamkonda, Kirthi; Jones, Amy; Killough, Nicholas; Woodgate, Felicity; Williams, Matthew; Cassimjee, Ismail; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Objective/Background Biomarker(s) for prediction of the future progression rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may be useful to stratify the management of individual patients. AAAs are associated with features of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery is a recognised non-invasive measurement for endothelial function. We hypothesised that FMD is a potential biomarker of AAA progression and reflects the temporal changes of endothelial function during AAA progression. Methods In a prospectively recruited cohort of patients with AAAs (Oxford Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Study), AAA size was recorded by antero-posterior diameter (APD) (outer to outer) on ultrasound. Annual AAA progression was calculated by (ΔAPD/APD at baseline)/(number of days lapsed/365 days). FMD was assessed at the same time as AAA size measurement. Analyses of data were performed in the overall cohort, and further in subgroups of AAA by size (small: 30–39 mm; moderate: 40–55 mm; large: > 55 mm). Results FMD is inversely correlated with the diameter of AAAs in all patients (n = 162, Spearman’s r = −.28, p < .001). FMD is inversely correlated with AAA diameter progression in the future 12 months (Spearman’s r = −.35, p = .001), particularly in the moderate size group. Furthermore, FMD deteriorates during the course of AAA surveillance (from a median of 2.0% at baseline to 1.2% at follow-up; p = .004), while surgical repair of AAAs (n = 50 [open repair n = 22, endovascular repair n = 28)] leads to an improvement in FMD (from 1.1% pre-operatively to 3.8% post-operatively; p < .001), irrespective of the type of surgery. Conclusion FMD is inversely correlated with future AAA progression in humans. FMD deteriorates during the natural history of AAA, and is improved by surgery. The utility of FMD as a potential biomarker in the context of AAA warrants further investigation. PMID:28416190

  15. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E; Chaer, Rabih A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Emergent Endovascular Stent Grafts for Ruptured Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Jennifer P.; Kolbeck, Kenneth J.; Kaufman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured aortic aneurysms uniformly require emergent attention. Historically, urgent surgical repair or medical management was the only treatment options. The development of covered stent grafts has introduced a third approach in the care of these critical patients. The clinical status of the patient and local physician expertise drive the treatment modalities in the majority of cases. The goal of therapy in these patients is to stabilize the patient as quickly as possible, establish maximum survival with minimum morbidity, and provide a long lasting result. The endovascular approach has become an acceptable treatment option in an increasing number of patients presenting with ruptured aneurysmal disease of both the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta. Major factors influencing treatment include patient clinical status, characteristics of the aorta, physician preference, institutional experience, and availability of appropriate equipment. Planning, experience, and the ability to improvise effective solutions are keys to the success of the procedure when endovascular techniques are utilized. Three separate cases, requiring intraprocedural improvisation, are presented followed by a review of the literature. PMID:26327743

  17. Contemporary Applications of Ultrasound in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Management

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark; Giannakopoulos, Triantafillos; Al-Khoury, Georges E.; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a well-established screening tool for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is currently recommended not only for those with a relevant family history but also for all men and high-risk women older than 65 years of age. The advent of minimally invasive endovascular techniques in the treatment of AAAs [endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR)] has increased the need for repeat imaging, especially in the postoperative period. Nevertheless, preoperative planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative surveillance all mandate accurate imaging. While computed tomographic angiography and angiography have dominated the field, repeatedly exposing patients to the deleterious effects of cumulative radiation and intravenous nephrotoxic contrast, US technology has significantly evolved over the past decade. In addition to standard color duplex US, 2D, 3D, or 4D contrast-enhanced US modalities are revolutionizing AAA management and postoperative surveillance. This technology can accurately measure AAA diameter and volume, and most importantly, it can detect endoleaks post-EVAR with high sensitivity and specificity. 4D contrast-enhanced US can even provide hemodynamic information about the branch vessels following fenestrated EVARs. The need for experienced US operators and accredited vascular labs is mandatory to guarantee the reliability of the results. This review article presents a comprehensive overview of the literature on the state-of-art US imaging in AAA management, including post-EVAR follow-up, techniques, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27303669

  18. HIF1α in aortic aneurysms and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent expansion of the vessel wall with a high prevalence in those 65 years of age and older. Aneurysms are prone to dissection and rupture that carry a mortality rate of over 85%. Currently, surgical repair is the only option to treat this disease. The need to intervene prior to these events has set off a flurry of basic studies in an effort to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern AAA formation, progression and rupture. In the present study, the role of myeloid cells in contributing to AAA development has been confirmed. More specifically, the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α), was demonstrated to be a necessary component for regulating the expression of extracellular matrix modifying enzymes and their endogenous inhibitors in these cells. This new discovery may lead to therapeutic targets to prohibit the degradation and weakening of the vessel wall with the hope of limiting AAA formation and/or growth.

  19. Aortic dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - dissection ... also cause abnormal widening or ballooning of the aorta ( aneurysm ). The exact cause is unknown, but more common ...

  20. Parenteral administration of factor Xa/IIa inhibitors limits experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Corey S; Seto, Sai-Wang; Krishna, Smriti M; Sharma, Surabhi; Jose, Roby J; Biros, Erik; Wang, Yutang; Morton, Susan K; Golledge, Jonathan

    2017-02-21

    Intraluminal thrombus is a consistent feature of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Coagulation factor Xa (FXa) catalyses FII to thrombin (FIIa). We examined the effect of FXa/FIIa inhibition on experimental aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). The concentration of FXa within the supra-renal aorta (SRA) correlated positively with SRA diameter. Parenteral administration of enoxaparin (FXa/IIa inhibitor) and fondaparinux (FXa inhibitor) over 14 days reduced to severity of aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in AngII-infused ApoE(-/-) mice. Enteral administration of the FIIa inhibitor dabigatran had no significant effect. Aortic protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 expression increased in response to AngII infusion. Fondaparinux reduced SRA levels of FXa, FIIa, PAR-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and MOMA-2 positive cells in the mouse model. FXa stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and MMP2 expression in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. Expression of MMP2 in FXa-stimulated VSMC was downregulated in the presence of a PAR-2 but not a PAR-1 inhibitor. These findings suggest that FXa/FIIa inhibition limits aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis severity due to down-regulation of vascular PAR-2-mediated Smad2/3 signalling and MMP2 expression. Inhibition of FXa/FIIa may be a potential therapy for limiting aortic aneurysm.

  1. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis. PMID:26904289

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Malashicheva, Anna; Kostina, Daria; Kostina, Aleksandra; Irtyuga, Olga; Voronkina, Irina; Smagina, Larisa; Ignatieva, Elena; Gavriliuk, Natalia; Uspensky, Vladimir; Moiseeva, Olga; Vaage, Jarle; Kostareva, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm develops as a result of complex series of events that alter the cellular structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix of the aortic wall. The purpose of the present work was to study the cellular functions of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. We studied endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and with tricuspid aortic valve. The expression of key markers of endothelial (CD31, vWF, and VE-cadherin) and smooth muscle (SMA, SM22α, calponin, and vimentin) cells as well extracellular matrix and MMP activity was studied as well as and apoptosis and cell proliferation. Expression of functional markers of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was reduced in patient cells. Cellular proliferation, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins are attenuated in the cells of the patients. We show for the first time that aortic endothelial cell phenotype is changed in the thoracic aortic aneurysms compared to normal aortic wall. In conclusion both endothelial and smooth muscle cells from aneurysms of the ascending aorta have downregulated specific cellular markers and altered functional properties, such as growth rate, apoptosis induction, and extracellular matrix synthesis.

  3. Parenteral administration of factor Xa/IIa inhibitors limits experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Corey S.; Seto, Sai-Wang; Krishna, Smriti M.; Sharma, Surabhi; Jose, Roby J.; Biros, Erik; Wang, Yutang; Morton, Susan K.; Golledge, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Intraluminal thrombus is a consistent feature of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Coagulation factor Xa (FXa) catalyses FII to thrombin (FIIa). We examined the effect of FXa/FIIa inhibition on experimental aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). The concentration of FXa within the supra-renal aorta (SRA) correlated positively with SRA diameter. Parenteral administration of enoxaparin (FXa/IIa inhibitor) and fondaparinux (FXa inhibitor) over 14 days reduced to severity of aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in AngII-infused ApoE−/− mice. Enteral administration of the FIIa inhibitor dabigatran had no significant effect. Aortic protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 expression increased in response to AngII infusion. Fondaparinux reduced SRA levels of FXa, FIIa, PAR-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and MOMA-2 positive cells in the mouse model. FXa stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and MMP2 expression in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. Expression of MMP2 in FXa-stimulated VSMC was downregulated in the presence of a PAR-2 but not a PAR-1 inhibitor. These findings suggest that FXa/FIIa inhibition limits aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis severity due to down-regulation of vascular PAR-2-mediated Smad2/3 signalling and MMP2 expression. Inhibition of FXa/FIIa may be a potential therapy for limiting aortic aneurysm. PMID:28220880

  4. Influences of aortic motion and curvature on vessel expansion in murine experimental aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Goergen, Craig J.; Azuma, Junya; Barr, Kyla N.; Magdefessel, Lars; Kallop, Dara Y.; Gogineni, Alvin; Grewall, Amarjeet; Weimer, Robby M.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Taylor, Charles A.; Tsao, Philip S.; Greve, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare aortic curvature and motion to resulting aneurysm location, direction of expansion, and pathophysiology in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods and Results Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 4.7T with: 1) a 3D acquisition for vessel geometry and 2) a 2D cardiac-gated acquisition to quantify luminal motion. Male 24-week-old mice were imaged before and after AAA formation induced by angiotensin II (AngII)-filled osmotic pump implantation or infusion of elastase. AngII-induced AAAs formed near the location of maximum abdominal aortic curvature, and the leftward direction of expansion was correlated with the direction of suprarenal aortic motion. Elastase-induced AAAs formed in a region of low vessel curvature and had no repeatable direction of expansion. AngII significantly increased mean blood pressure (22.7mmHg; p<0.05), while both models showed a significant two-fold decrease in aortic cyclic strain (p<0.05). Differences in patterns of elastin degradation and localization of fluorescent signal from protease-activated probes were also observed. Conclusions The direction of AngII aneurysm expansion correlated with the direction of motion, medial elastin dissection, and adventitial remodeling. Anterior infrarenal aortic motion correlated with medial elastin degradation in elastase-induced aneurysms. Results from both models suggest a relationship between aneurysm pathology and aortic geometry and motion. PMID:21071686

  5. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Feasibility and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lagana, Domenico Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Caronno, Roberto; Castelli, Patrizio; Cuffari, Salvatore; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods. During 36 months we treated, on an emergency basis, 30 AAAs with endovascular exclusion. In 21 hemodynamically stable patients preoperative CT angiography (CTA) was performed to confirm the diagnosis and to plan the treatment; 9 patients with hemorrhagic shock were evaluated with angiography performed in the operating room. Twenty-two Excluder (Gore) and 8 Zenith (Cook) stent-grafts (25 bifurcated and 5 aorto-uni-iliac) were used. The follow-up was performed by CTA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results. Technical success was achieved in 100% of cases with a 10% mortality rate. The total complication rate was 23% (5 increases in serum creatinine level and 2 wound infections). During the follow-up, performed in 27 patients (1-36 months, mean 15.2 months), 4 secondary endoleaks (15%) (3 type II, 2 spontaneously thrombosed and 1 under observation, and 1 type III treated by iliac extender insertion) and 1 iliac leg occlusion (treated with femoro-femoral bypass) occurred. We observed a shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac in 8 of 27 cases and stability in 19 of 27 cases; we did not observe any endotension. Conclusions. Endovascular repair is a good option for emergency treatment of AAAs. The team's experience allows correct planning of the procedure in emergency situations also, with technical results comparable with elective repair. In our experience the bifurcated stent-graft is the device of choice in patients with suitable anatomy because the procedure is less time-consuming than aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafting with surgical crossover, allowing faster aneurysm exclusion. However, further studies are required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair compared with surgical treatment.

  6. Modeling the Growth of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Marc A.; Baxter, Paul D.; Jiang, Tao; Charnell, Aimee M.; Griffin, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Anne B.; Bridge, Katherine I.; Sohrabi, Soroush; Scott, D. Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth is a complex process that is incompletely understood. Significant heterogeneity in growth trajectories between patients has led to difficulties in accurately modeling aneurysm growth across cohorts of patients. We set out to compare four models of aneurysm growth commonly used in the literature and confirm which best fits the patient data of our AAA cohort. Methods: Patients with AAA were included in the study if they had two or more abdominal ultrasound scans greater than 3 months apart. Patients were censored from analysis once their AAA exceeded 5.5 cm. Four models were applied using the R environment for statistical computing. Growth estimates and goodness of fit (using the Akaike Information Criterion, AIC) were compared, with p-values based on likelihood ratio testing. Results: Of 510 enrolled patients, 264 met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 1861 imaging studies during 932 cumulative years of surveillance. Overall, growth rates were: (1) 0.35 (0.31,0.39) cm/yr in the growth/time calculation, (2) 0.056 (0.042,0.068) cm/yr in the linear regression model, (3) 0.19 (0.17,0.21) cm/yr in the linear multilevel model, and (4) 0.21 (0.18,0.24) cm/yr in the quadratic multilevel model at time 0, slowing to 0.15 (0.12,0.17) cm/yr at 10 years. AIC was lowest in the quadratic multilevel model (1508) compared to other models (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: AAA growth was heterogeneous between patients; the nested nature of the data is most appropriately modeled by multilevel modeling techniques. PMID:26798704

  7. Modeling the Growth of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Baxter, Paul D; Jiang, Tao; Charnell, Aimee M; Griffin, Kathryn J; Johnson, Anne B; Bridge, Katherine I; Sohrabi, Soroush; Scott, D Julian A

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth is a complex process that is incompletely understood. Significant heterogeneity in growth trajectories between patients has led to difficulties in accurately modeling aneurysm growth across cohorts of patients. We set out to compare four models of aneurysm growth commonly used in the literature and confirm which best fits the patient data of our AAA cohort. Patients with AAA were included in the study if they had two or more abdominal ultrasound scans greater than 3 months apart. Patients were censored from analysis once their AAA exceeded 5.5 cm. Four models were applied using the R environment for statistical computing. Growth estimates and goodness of fit (using the Akaike Information Criterion, AIC) were compared, with p-values based on likelihood ratio testing. Of 510 enrolled patients, 264 met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 1861 imaging studies during 932 cumulative years of surveillance. Overall, growth rates were: (1) 0.35 (0.31,0.39) cm/yr in the growth/time calculation, (2) 0.056 (0.042,0.068) cm/yr in the linear regression model, (3) 0.19 (0.17,0.21) cm/yr in the linear multilevel model, and (4) 0.21 (0.18,0.24) cm/yr in the quadratic multilevel model at time 0, slowing to 0.15 (0.12,0.17) cm/yr at 10 years. AIC was lowest in the quadratic multilevel model (1508) compared to other models (P < 0.0001). AAA growth was heterogeneous between patients; the nested nature of the data is most appropriately modeled by multilevel modeling techniques.

  8. Biomechanical Indices for Rupture Risk Estimation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Eva L; Willems, Tineke P; van der Laan, Maarten J; Slump, Cornelis H; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2017-04-01

    To review the use of biomechanical indices for the estimation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk, emphasizing their potential use in a clinical setting. A search of the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Compendex databases was made up to June 2015 to identify articles involving biomechanical analysis of AAA rupture risk. Outcome variables [aneurysm diameter, peak wall stress (PWS), peak wall shear stress (PWSS), wall strain, peak wall rupture index (PWRI), and wall stiffness] were compared for asymptomatic intact AAAs vs symptomatic or ruptured AAAs. For quantitative analysis of the pooled data, a random effects model was used to calculate the standard mean differences (SMDs) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the biomechanical indices. The initial database searches yielded 1894 independent articles of which 19 were included in the analysis. The PWS was significantly higher in the symptomatic/ruptured group, with a SMD of 1.11 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.26, p<0.001). Likewise, the PWRI was significantly higher in the ruptured or symptomatic group, with a SMD of 1.15 (95% CI 0.30 to 2.01, p=0.008). After adjustment for the aneurysm diameter, the PWS remained higher in the ruptured or symptomatic group, with a SMD of 0.85 (95% CI 0.46 to 1.23, p<0.001). Less is known of the wall shear stress and wall strain indices, as too few studies were available for analysis. Biomechanical indices are a promising tool in the assessment of AAA rupture risk as they incorporate several factors, including geometry, tissue properties, and patient-specific risk factors. However, clinical implementation of biomechanical AAA assessment remains a challenge owing to a lack of standardization.

  9. Growth rate and associated factors in small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vega de Céniga, M; Gómez, R; Estallo, L; Rodríguez, L; Baquer, M; Barba, A

    2006-03-01

    To study the growth rate and factors influencing progression of small infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Observational, longitudinal, prospective study. We followed patients with AAA <5 cm in diameter in two groups. Group I (AAA 3-3.9 cm, n = 246) underwent annual ultrasound scans. Group II (AAA 4-4.9 cm, n = 106) underwent 6-monthly CT scans. We included 352 patients (333 men and 19 women) followed for a mean of 55.2+/-37.4 months (6.3-199.8). The mean growth rate was significantly greater in group II (4.72+/-5.93 vs. 2.07+/-3.23 mm/year; p<0.0001). Group II had a greater percentage of patients with rapid aneurysm expansion (>4 mm/year) (36.8 vs. 13.8%; p<0.0001). The classical cardiovascular risk factors did not influence the AAA growth rate in group I. Chronic limb ischemia was associated with slower expansion (< or = 4 mm/year) (OR 0.47; CI 95% 0.22-0.99; p = 0.045). Diabetic patients in group II had a significantly smaller mean AAA growth rate than non-diabetics (1.69+/-3.51 vs. 5.22+/-6.11 mm/year; p = 0.032). The expansion rate of small AAA increases with the AAA size. AAA with a diameter of 3-3.9 cm expand slowly, and they are very unlikely to require surgical repair in 5 years. Many 4-4.9 cm AAA can be expected to reach a surgical size in the first 2 years of follow-up. Chronic limb ischemia and diabetes are associated with reduced aneurysm growth rates.

  10. Stent graft types for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Duffy, James M N; Rolph, Rachel; Waltham, Matthew

    2015-09-24

    The UK prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is estimated at 4.9% in over 65-year olds. Progressive and unpredictable enlargement can lead to rupture. Endovascular repair of AAAs involves a stent graft system being introduced via the femoral artery and manipulated within the aorta under radiological guidance. Following endograft deployment, a seal is formed at the proximal and distal landing zones to exclude the aneurysm sac from the circulation. With the increasing popularity of endovascular repair there has been an increase in the number of commercially available stent graft designs on the market. This is an update of the review first published in 2013. This review aimed to assess the different stent graft types for endovascular repair of AAA. The Cochrane Vascular Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched February 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (2015, Issue 1). Trial databases were searched by the TSC for details of ongoing and unpublished studies. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of stent graft types in the repair of AAAs were sought without language restriction and in consultation with the Cochrane Vascular Group TSC. We planned to conduct data collection and analysis in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. It was not possible to review the quality of the evidence in the absence of studies eligible for inclusion in the review. Unfortunately, no data exist regarding direct comparisons of the performance of different stent graft types. High quality randomised controlled trials evaluating stent graft types in abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair are required.

  11. Differential gene expression in human abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Corey S.; Schreurs, Charlotte; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Walker, Philip J.; Nataatmadja, Maria; West, Malcolm; Holdt, Lesca M.; Hinterseher, Irene; Pilarsky, Christian; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and aortic occlusive disease (AOD) represent common causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly populations which were previously believed to have common aetiologies. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression in human AAA and AOD. We performed microarrays using aortic specimen obtained from 20 patients with small AAAs (≤ 55mm), 29 patients with large AAAs (> 55mm), 9 AOD patients, and 10 control aortic specimens obtained from organ donors. Some differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR)/immunohistochemistry. We identified 840 and 1,014 differentially expressed genes in small and large AAAs, respectively. Immune-related pathways including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and T-cell-receptor signalling were upregulated in both small and large AAAs. Examples of validated genes included CTLA4 (2.01-fold upregulated in small AAA, P = 0.002), NKTR (2.37-and 2.66-fold upregulated in small and large AAA with P = 0.041 and P = 0.015, respectively), and CD8A (2.57-fold upregulated in large AAA, P = 0.004). 1,765 differentially expressed genes were identified in AOD. Pathways upregulated in AOD included metabolic and oxidative phosphorylation categories. The UCP2 gene was downregulated in AOD (3.73-fold downregulated, validated P = 0.017). In conclusion, the AAA and AOD transcriptomes were very different suggesting that AAA and AOD have distinct pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25944698

  12. Congenital unruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, quadricuspid aortic valve, and ascending aortic aneurysm associated with genetic leukoencephalopathy in an infant: A new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza

    2017-10-10

    We report a 15-month-old female with unruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva anreurysm (SOVA) associated with quadricuspid aortic valve, ascending aortic aneurysm (AAA), moderate aortic insufficiency, mild mitral insufficiency, genetic leukoencepaholpathy, developmental delay and mild mixed aminoaciduria. She was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Initial echocardiographic examination showed the aneurysm as a round cyst in the right atrium which changed in size during systole and diastole. As to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of association of SOVA, quadricuspid aortic valve, AAA and genetic leukoencephalopathy in an infant. These associations may suggest a new syndrome. We describe the echocardiographic and computed tomographic angiography findings. We also review 641 cases in the literature and the current six classification systems for SOVA. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. NOX isoforms in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Siu, Kin Lung; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Yixuan; Guo, Jun; Youn, Ji Youn; Du, Jie; Cai, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA. We generated double mutants of hph-1-NOX1, hph-1-NOX2, hph-1-p47phox, and hph-1-NOX4. After two weeks of Ang II infusion, the incidence rate of AAA substantially dropped from 76.5% in Ang II infused hph-1 mice (n=34) to 11.1%, 15.0%, 9.5% and 0% in hph-1-NOX1 (n=27), hph-1-NOX2 (n=40), hph-1-p47phox (n=21), and hph-1-NOX4 (n=33) double mutant mice, respectively. The size of abdominal aortas of the four double mutant mice, determined by ultrasound analyses, was significantly smaller than the hph-1 mice. Aortic nitric oxide and H4B bioavailabilities were markedly improved in the double mutants, while superoxide production and eNOS uncoupling activity were substantially diminished. These effects seemed attributed to an endothelial specific restoration of dihydrofolate reductase expression and activity, deficiency of which has been shown to induce eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation in both Ang II-infused hph-1 and apoE null animals. In addition, over-expression of human NOX4 N129S or T555S mutant newly identified in aneurysm patients increased hydrogen peroxide production, further implicating a relationship between NOX and human aneurysm. Taken together, these data indicate that NOX isoforms 1, 2 or 4 lies upstream of dihydrofolate reductase deficiency and eNOS uncoupling to induce AAA formation. These findings may promote development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of the disease by inhibiting NOX signaling.

  14. Possible Dual Role of Decorin in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Koshiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Morikage, Noriyasu; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion. PMID:25781946

  15. Systemic oxidant/antioxidant balance in human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Menteşe, Umit; Turan, Ibrahim; Usta, Sefer; Demir, Selim; Koral, Özgür; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Çavuşoğlu, Ismail Gökhan; Karahan, Süleyman Caner; Alver, Ahmet; Doğan, Orhan Veli; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Forty-two consecutive patients with AAA and 46 control subjects were included. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI) value determined. Serum TOS and OSI values in patients with AAA were higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between abdominal aortic diameters, serum TOS levels (r = 0.592, p < 0.001) and OSI values (r = 0.598, p < 0.001). A cut-off value of 17.68 µmol H₂O₂equivalent/L for TOS was associated with 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity and a cut-off value of 1.77 for OSI was associated with 86% sensitivity and 81% specificity for predicting AAA. Systemic oxidative imbalance develops in patients with AAA, particularly as a result of an increase in TOS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Deng, Alicia C; Spin, Joshua M; Stevenson, David K; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease.

  17. [Genetic aspects of the pathogenesis of aortic abdominal aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof; Słomski, Ryszard; Oszkinis, Grzegorz; Majewski, Wacław

    2005-01-01

    In industrialized countries the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is continuously rising. In recent years the mortality rate tripled and it is the number 13 cause of death in United States. Despite many identified risk factors and understanding of their pathomechanisms, the pathogenesis of AAA remains unclear. Thanks to the epidemiological researches and improvement of molecular techniques it was noted that AAA may have a genetic bases. The diversity between the possible genomic defects that could lead to the development of aneurytic changes was also suggested. This has a direct relationship with the complexity of the aortic wall structure and therefore with the number of potential injury locations. Current genetic research confirms the changes in expression and the many polymorphic variants of genes coding structural and enzymatic proteins. Thus, AAA seems to be a disease with multifactor pathogenesis and numerous possible genome anomaly variants. Hence, it seems that the complete understanding of the genetic bases of AAA continuous to be distant. However, efforts in this matter remain valuable, giving hope for an improved diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. This article is a review of the available knowledge regarding the genetic origin of AAA.

  18. Association of statin prescription with small abdominal aortic aneurysm progression

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Craig D.; Clancy, Paula; Bourke, Bernard; Walker, Philip J.; Dear, Anthony; Buckenham, Tim; Norman, Paul; Golledge, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background Statins have been suggested to reduce expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) independent of lipid lowering effects. Methods We assessed the association of statin treatment and serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations with small AAA expansion. 652 patients undergoing surveillance of small AAAs were entered into the study from five vascular centers. In a subset fasting lipids (n=451) and other biomarkers (n=216) were measured. AAA diameter was followed by ultrasound surveillance for a median of 5 years. Results 349 (54%) of the patients were prescribed statins. Adjusting for other risk factors statin prescription was not associated with AAA growth (odds ratio, OR, 1.23, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.86–1.76). Above median AAA growth was positively associated with initial diameter (OR 1.78 per 4.35mm larger initial aortic diameter, 95% CI 1.49–2.14) and negatively associated with diabetes (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22–0.62). Above median serum LDL concentration was not associated with AAA growth. Patients receiving statins had lower serum C-reactive protein concentrations but similar matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-6 concentrations to those not prescribed these medications. Conclusions We found no association between statin prescription or LDL concentration with AAA expansion. The results do not support the findings of smaller studies and suggest that statins may have no benefit in reducing AAA progression. PMID:20152231

  19. Polymorphisms of the MMP-9 gene and abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Linda; Allcock, Richard; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Warrington, Nicole; Palmer, Lyle J; Iacopetta, Barry; Golledge, Jonathan; Norman, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    Background Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity has been implicated in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The aim of the present study was to explore the association between potentially functional variants of the MMP-9 gene and AAA. Method The −1562C>T and −1811A>T variants of the MMP-9 gene were genotyped in 678 men with AAAs (>30mm in diameter) and 659 controls (aortic diameter 19−22mm) recruited from a population-based trial of screening for AAAs. The levels of MMP-9 were measured in a random subset of 300 cases and 84 controls. The association between genetic variants (including haplotypes) and AAA was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results There was no association between the MMP-9 −1562C>T (OR 0.70 95%CI 0.27, 1.82) or −1811A>T (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.28, 1.85) genotypes, or the most common haplotype (OR 0.81 95%CI 0.62, 1.05), and AAA. The serum MMP-9 concentration (ng/mL) was higher in cases than controls and in minor allele carriers in cases and controls although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results suggest that a genetic tendency to have higher levels of circulating MMP-9 is not associated with AAAs. PMID:18763261

  20. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. Role of corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Testart, J; Plissonnier, D; Peillon, C; Watelet, J

    2000-06-01

    For more than 20 years it has been generally acknowledged that operation for inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) using the common in-lay-graft procedure will induce the regression of peri-aortic fibrosis. However in prospective studies, after a 2 years follow-up, no regression appeared in approximated 8% of the cases (table I). Moreover in some IAAA a corticosteroid treatment (CS) was prescribed and it produced a regression of fibrosis and therefore facilitated the operation. Nevertheless the usefulness of the CS remains debated. We report 4 new cases of IAAA with CS. Based on our cases and an analysis of the literature we conclude that when there is no urgency to operate (diameter inferior to 50 mm) CS is the best option in IAAA with either severe inflammation or ureter involvement. Due to the regression of the fibrosis it can facilitate the surgical procedure. However it needs to be conducted with an adequate dose and duration. Finally the CS is the only possibility when the inflammation persist following the treatment of the IAAA.

  1. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J.; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B.; Deng, Alicia C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Stevenson, David K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  2. Hybrid treatment of a huge complex aortic pseudo-aneurysm subsequent to a coarctation.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Antonio; Barletta, Valentina; Palmieri, Cataldo; Berti, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Endovascular treatment of pseudo-aneurysms subsequent to a pre-existing aortic coarctation is becoming a well-accepted technical solution especially in patients presenting anatomical challenges involving the aortic arch. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with a huge pseudo-aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. Diagnostic imaging assessment documented also the presence of an aneurysmatic aberrant right subclavian artery. Due to patient's anatomical arterial condition, we decided to treat the aneurysm applying a hybrid approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of the mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms in a district community.

    PubMed

    Budd, J S; Finch, D R; Carter, P G

    1989-08-01

    In a 6-year period (1982-1987), 197 cases of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm were identified in the area covered by the Swindon Health District. Of these, 135 (69%) reached hospital alive, 88 (45%) were operated on, and only 28 (14%) survived. This represents an overall mortality of 86%. In comparison, the mortality from elective aneurysm repair for the same period was only 3.3%. These findings suggest that early detection of aortic aneurysms, leading to elective rather than emergency repair, would be of much greater benefit than the small increase in overall survival one would expect from improving treatment in cases of rupture.

  4. Factors influencing the long-term results of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Geroulakos, G; Lumley, J S; Wright, J G

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of late graft complications such as para-anastomotic aneurysms, aortoenteric fistulas and graft infections following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is a major determinant of its overall benefit, yet most published reports of AAA repair have concentrated almost exclusively on the early postoperative mortality and morbidity. Accurate knowledge regarding the incidence of late complications is essential to making any decision regarding the operative vs nonoperative management of AAAs. A similar analysis must be applied to endovascular repair of AAAs before this technique is accepted as an alternative method of treating AAAs. In this article we review the current knowledge and understanding on the late results following aortic aneurysm repair.

  5. Minimally invasive video-assisted graft replacement of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Childers, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Standard surgical therapy of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms entails obligate extensive operative exposure that is associated with significant postoperative pain and morbidity. A 70-year-old patient with multiple significant comorbidities including severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (force expiratory volume at 1 second, 0.66 L) presented with a highly symptomatic, eccentric, descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent successful minimally invasive video-assisted graft repair of this aneurysm. This report represents the first known clinical application of this operative approach.

  6. Fenestrated Endovascular Grafts for the Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) allows the exclusion of the dilated aneurismal segment of the aorta from the systematic circulation. The procedure requires, however, that the endograft extends to the healthy parts of the aorta above and below the aneurysm, yet the neck of a juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JRA) is too short for a standard endovascular repair. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (f—EVAR) provides a solution to overcome this problem by enabling the continuation of blood flow to the renal and visceral arteries through holes or ‘fenestrations’ in the graft. These fenestrations are designed to match the ostial diameter of the renal and visceral arteries. There are three varieties fenestration, small, large, and scallop, and their location needs to be customized to fit the anatomy of the patient. If the device is not properly designed, if the alignment is inaccurate, or if the catheterization of the visceral arteries is not possible, the procedure may fail. In such cases, conversion to open surgery may become the only option as fenestrated endografts are not retrievable. It is recommended that a stent be placed within each small fenestration to the target artery to prevent shuttering of the artery or occlusion. Many authors have noted an increased risk of vessel occlusion in unstented fenestrations and scallops. Once placed in a patient, life-long follow-up at regular intervals is necessary to ensure the graft remains in its intended location, and that the components have adequate overlap. Should the need arise, routine follow-up allows the performance of timely and appropriate intervention through detection of events that could impact the long-term outcomes. Alternative Technology The technique of fenestrated endovascular grafting is still in evolution and few studies have been with published mid-term outcome data. As the technique become more common in vascular surgery practices, it will be important to

  7. One-step surgical approach of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Eduardo; Josa, Miguel; Nomdedeu, Benet; Ramírez, José; García-Valentín, Antonio; Mestres, Carlos A; Mulet, Jaime

    2007-04-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections, thrombocytopenia, and eczema. We present a 33-year-old man with this syndrome who underwent a one-stage ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending aortic aneurysm repair under moderate hypothermia and continuous visceral and cerebral perfusion. Histologic examination showed the presence of an aortitis with granulomatous inflammatory response and multinucleated cells.

  8. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms--comparisons of clinical features and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Yasuda, K; Takigami, K; Yamauchi, H; Shiiya, N; Sakuma, M

    1997-03-01

    A total of 274 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms due to atherosclerosis (AAA) and 16 patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) were reviewed to compare and contrast the clinical characteristics of the 2 groups. The AAA group comprised 243 men and 31 women with a mean age of 69.2 +/- 0.4 (range 51-86) years. The IAAA group comprised 15 men and 1 woman with a mean age of 67.4 +/- 2.0 (range 53-81) years. Most patients with IAAA (12/16; 75.0%) had pain at presentation, whereas only 37 out of 274 patients (13.5%) with AAA had pain (p < 0.001). Fifty out of 274 patients (18.2%) with AAA were asymptomatic, the most common principal complaint being a pulsatile tumor, which was found in 150 out of 274 patients (54.7%; p < 0.005 vs IAAA). Regarding laboratory findings of inflammation, preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate values were elevated in 15 out of 16 (93.8%) patients, and C-reactive protein values were elevated in 13 out of 16 (81.3%) patients with IAAA. The incidence of perioperative complications was similar in the 2 groups. The 30-day postoperative mortality among AAA patients was 6.2% (17/274 cases), including 12 cases of non-ruptured and 5 cases of ruptured AAA; in contrast, no early deaths occurred among patients with IAAA. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 80.2% for IAAA patients and 74.6% for AAA patients (NS). The results of our review suggest that careful diagnosis and intra- and postoperative management could lead to patients with IAAA having a similar survival rate to those with AAA.

  9. Female sex independently predicts mortality after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Deery, Sarah E; Shean, Katie E; Wang, Grace J; Black, James H; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Giles, Kristina A; Patel, Virendra I; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2017-07-01

    Whereas sex differences in the pathogenesis, presentation, and outcomes of repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms are well studied, less is known about sex differences after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between sex and morbidity and mortality after TEVAR. A retrospective review of all TEVARs in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry from 2011 to 2015 was conducted, excluding those with dissection, trauma, and rupture. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test for categorical and continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox hazards modeling were used to account for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and aneurysm characteristics in 30-day mortality and long-term survival. We identified 2574 patients (40% women) who underwent TEVAR. Women were older, were less likely to be white, and had smaller aortic diameters but larger aortic size indices (aortic diameter/body surface area). Women also had more chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but less coronary artery disease and fewer coronary interventions. Women were more likely to be symptomatic at presentation and subsequently to have a nonelective procedure. Women had higher estimated blood loss >500 mL (20% vs 17%; P = .04), were more likely to be transfused (29% vs 21%; P < .001), and more frequently underwent iliac access procedures (4.3% vs 2.1%; P < .01). Operative time and left subclavian intervention were similar. Postoperatively, women had increased median hospital (5 vs 4 days; P < .001) and intensive care unit (2.5 vs 2 days; P < .001) lengths of stay and were less likely to be discharged home (75% vs 86%; P < .001). Mortality was higher for women at 30 days (5.4% vs 3.3%; P < .01) and 1 year (9.8% vs 6.3%; P < .01). After adjusting for age, aortic size index, symptoms, and comorbidities, female sex remained

  10. Neutrophil depletion inhibits experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Jonathan L; Hannawa, Kevin K; Ailawadi, Gorav; Sinha, Indranil; Ford, John W; Deogracias, Michael P; Roelofs, Karen J; Woodrum, Derek T; Ennis, Terri L; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Thompson, Robert W; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-07-12

    Neutrophils may be an important source of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), two matrix-degrading enzymes thought to be critical in the formation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that neutrophil depletion would limit experimental AAA formation by altering one or both of these enzymes. Control, rabbit serum-treated (RS; n=27) or anti-neutrophil-antibody-treated (anti-PMN; n=25) C57BL/6 mice underwent aortic elastase perfusion to induce experimental aneurysms. Anti-PMN-treated mice became neutropenic (mean, 349 cells/microL), experiencing an 84% decrease in the circulating absolute neutrophil count (P<0.001) before elastase perfusion. Fourteen days after elastase perfusion, control mice exhibited a mean aortic diameter (AD) increase of 104+/-14% (P<0.0001), and 67% developed AAAs, whereas anti-PMN-treated mice exhibited a mean AD increase of 42+/-33%, with 8% developing AAAs. The control group also had increased tissue neutrophils (20.3 versus 8.6 cells per 5 high-powered fields [HPFs]; P=0.02) and macrophages (6.1 versus 2.1 cells per 5 HPFs, P=0.005) as compared with anti-PMN-treated mice. There were no differences in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 or macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha chemokine levels between groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) expression was detected only in the 14-day control mice, with increased MMP-8 protein levels by Western blotting (P=0.017), and MMP-8-positive neutrophils were seen almost exclusively in this group. Conversely, there were no statistical differences in MMP-2 or MMP-9 mRNA expression, protein levels, enzyme activity, or immunostaining patterns between groups. When C57BL/6 wild-type (n=15) and MMP-8-deficient mice (n=17) were subjected to elastase perfusion, however, ADs at 14 days were no different in size (134+/-7.9% versus 154+/-9.9%; P=0.603), which suggests that MMP-8

  11. Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ≥65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta≥30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ≥65 years and women≥75 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term results of aortic banding for complex infrarenal neck anatomy and type I endoleak after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Krajcer, Zvonimir; Dougherty, Kathryn G; Gregoric, Igor D

    2012-01-01

    For many patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, unsuitable anatomy of the infrarenal aortic neck precludes endovascular aortic aneurysm repair or causes type I endoleak after the procedure. In an attempt to overcome these challenges, we retrospectively examined the usefulness of aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular repair in 8 patients who had an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex infrarenal aortic neck. The procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia and involved making an 8-cm upper-midline laparotomy incision to expose the aneurysmal aorta. Three patients underwent aortic banding before endovascular repair; the other 5 underwent banding after the repair because of persistent type I endoleak. After banding, the abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully excluded in all 8 patients. Long-term follow-up (mean, 38±20 mo) revealed no type I endoleak and no procedure-related complications. In patients who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with complex infrarenal neck anatomy or a refractory type I endoleak, performing aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular aortic repair appears to be a safe strategy with good long-term results.

  13. Migration of the Zenith Flex Device during Endovascular Aortic Repair of an Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysm with a Severely Angulated Neck

    PubMed Central

    Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Kenji; Sakurai, Yuka; Fujiwara, Keishi; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A woman in her 80s with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm was scheduled for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck (SAN), and the Zenith Flex device was selected. Completion angiography showed migration of the main body resulting in right renal artery stenosis. A Palmaz genesis was placed across the renal orifice. The patient had no renal dysfunction and was discharged 7 days after EVAR. If Zenith Flex devices are used for a SAN, it is necessary to consider not only the position of the renal artery but also the appropriate position of the stent-graft. PMID:27738470

  14. [Identification and treatment of coronary atherosclerosis, before resection of abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    López Rodríguez, R; Rangel, A; Cruz, E; Chávez, E; Velasco, C; Murillo, H; Badui, E

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysm, is frequently associated to coronary atherosclerosis. When myocardial ischemia is asymptomatic, aortic surgery commonly is deferred because unexpected ischemic cardiopathy. To diminish the risk of aortic surgery, aortocoronary bypass must be installed before the aortic graft. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is an alternative treatment of coronary atherosclerosis, principally in elderly patients. We present the case of a male patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm and myocardial silent ischemia secondary to right coronary artery stenosis treated by mean the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) before aortic surgery, with the objective of decreasing surgical risk and its possible complications (myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, death, etc.). Nine months after the PTCA, the patient is asymptomatic and stress test on treadmill is negative.

  15. Factors associated with small abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion rate.

    PubMed

    Bhak, Rachel H; Wininger, Michael; Johnson, Gary R; Lederle, Frank A; Messina, Louis M; Ballard, David J; Wilson, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high mortality rate after rupture of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), surveillance is recommended to detect aneurysm expansion; however, the effects of clinical risk factors on long-term patterns of AAA expansion are poorly characterized. To identify significant clinical risk factors associated with the AAA expansion rate for both constant and accelerated expansion trajectories. A multivariate mixed-effects model was established to identify clinical risk factors associated with the AAA expansion rate. Separate shape factor analysis was used to characterize steady vs accelerated expansion over time. Five hundred sixty-seven patients hospitalized at Veterans Affairs medical centers were randomized to the surveillance arm of the Aneurysm Detection and Management (ADAM) study conducted by the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program from 1992 to 2000. The patients had an AAA with a maximum diameter from 3.0 to 5.4 cm, which was monitored until a 5.5-cm maximum diameter was reached or the aneurysm became symptomatic. Thirty-three participants were not included in this analysis owing to missing or extraneous values in key predictor variables. The mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.7 (2.0) years. The primary outcome measure was the AAA expansion rate, determined by measurement of the maximum diameter by ultrasonography at regular intervals. The objective to assess the association of clinical variables with the expansion of the AAA was formulated after data collection. The mean (SD) linear expansion rate of AAAs was 0.26 (0.01) cm/y. Current smoking was associated with a 0.05 (0.01)-cm/y increase in the linear expansion rate (95% CI, 0.25-0.28; P < .001), diastolic blood pressure with a 0.02 (0.01)-cm/y increase per 10 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.01-0.04; P = .001), and diabetes mellitus with a 0.11 (0.02)-cm/y decrease (95% CI, 0.07-0.16; P < .001). Diastolic blood pressure and baseline AAA diameter were associated with accelerated AAA expansion

  16. Ruptured Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Infected with Listeria Monocytogenes: A Case Report and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Shigeki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Takada, Masanori; Fujita, Koichi; Nishibori, Yoshiharu; Maruyama, Takao

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old male with a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, sigmoid colon cancer, and metastatic liver cancer was admitted to our institution with a complaint of a prickly feeling in his chest. On admission, a chest radiograph revealed a normal cardio-thoracic ratio of 47%. Echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion and blood chemical analyses revealed elevated C-reactive protein levels (14.7 mg/dL). On day 3, chest radiography revealed cardiomegaly with a cardio-thoracic ratio of 58% and protrusion of the left first arch. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography revealed a saccular aneurysm in the aortic arch with surrounding hematoma; thus, a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm was suspected. Emergency surgery was performed, which revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm with extensive local inflammation. The diagnosis of an infected aortic rupture was therefore confirmed. The aneurysm and abscess were resected, followed by prosthetic graft replacement and omental packing. Histopathology of the resected aneurysm revealed gram-positive bacilli; and Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed as the causative organism by culture. Postoperative course was uneventful; on postoperative day 60, the patient was ambulatory and was discharged. Here we report the case of a male with a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm infected with L. monocytogenes. PMID:25512697

  17. Asymptomatic aortic aneurysm causing right vocal cord palsy and hoarseness: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, M M; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Jain, Anuj; Sarkar, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord palsy (VCP) presenting as hoarseness of voice can be the first symptom of very serious and sinister common pathologies. But vocal cord palsy resulting from aortic aneurysm is a rare entity and still rarer is the right cord palsy due to aortic aneurysm. We are reporting a rare case in which a 52-year old male smoking for last 30 years having asymptomatic aortic aneurysm presented to us with hoarseness of voice. On Panendoscopy, no local pathology was found and CECT from base of skull to T12 was advised. CECT showed a large aneurysm involving ascending aorta and extending upto abdominal aorta with compression of the bilateral bronchi. CTVS consultation was sought and they advised for regular follow-up only. We are reporting this case to warn both the anaesthetist and the surgeon about the catastrophic complications if they are not alert in handling such cases.

  18. Logistic considerations for a successful institutional approach to the endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Dieter; Rancic, Zoran; Pfammatter, Thomas; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Veith, Frank J; Donas, Konstantin; Lachat, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The value of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in the setting of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm remains controversial owing to differing results. However, interpretation of published results remains difficult as there is a lack of generally accepted protocols or standard operating procedures. Furthermore, such protocols and standard operating procedures often are reported incompletely or not at all, thereby making interpretation of results difficult. We herein report our integrated logistic system for the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. Important components of this system are prehospital logistics, in-hospital treatment logistics, and aftercare. Further studies should include details about all of these components, and a description of these logistic components must be included in all future studies of emergency EVAR for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  19. The incidence of small abdominal aortic aneurysms and the change in normal infrarenal aortic diameter: implications for screening.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, A B; Hubbard, C S; Day, N E; Quick, C R

    2001-02-01

    to study the incidence of small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and to investigate what proportion of normal infrarenal aortic diameters (IAD) expand with age. longitudinal follow-up in a population-based aneurysm screening programme. The infrarenal aortic diameter (IAD) was measured by ultrasound. A second scan was performed in subjects with a normal aorta after an average of 5.5 years. data were analysed from 4072 subjects, 464 with a small AAA and 3608 with a normal aorta. The infrarenal aorta expanded in 15% of subjects, but significant growth (>5 mm) occurred in only 7%. Age and initial diameter were independent predictors for aortic dilatation. The effect of diameter at first screen was non-linear. The relative risk for expansion increased dramatically for IADs over 2.5 cm (test for departure of trend: chi2=52, p<0.0001). The effect of age was also non-linear, the risk of expansion was highest in the 60-69 year old age group; test for departure of trend (chi2=13, p=0.002). The incidence of new aneurysms was 3.5 per 1000 person-years (py) (95% CI: 2.8-4.4). The highest incidence of new aneurysms was found in the 60 to 69 year old age group. only a small proportion of the population is prone to aortic dilatation. Patients over 70 with an IAD <2.5 cm can be discharged from follow-up.

  20. Respecting Symptoms in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Management: A Case of Symptomatic Necrotizing Granulomatous Aortitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmik, Gregory A.; Sang, Adam X.; Cai, Guoping; Tranquilli, Maryann; Elefteriades, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with chest pain of unclear etiology in the setting of a mildly dilated ascending aorta. Computed tomography angiography showed an aorta with an irregular contour and an aneurysm of 4.5 cm. There was no radiographic evidence of rupture or dissection. The patient was taken to the operating room and was found to have severe aortitis with marked localized wall thinning at imminent risk of aortic rupture. Aortic pathology demonstrated necrotizing granulomas of noninfectious etiology. This case illustrates the importance of respecting symptoms in surgical decision making for thoracic aortic aneurysms that may not meet standard interventional criteria. PMID:23997559

  1. Unexpected intraoperative desaturation and lobar atelectasis due to left bronchial occlusion by concealed ascending aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinn-Sheng; Huang, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-03-01

    An 81-year-old male scheduled for debridement of a perianal abscess sustained acute upper airway obstruction with atelectasis of the left lower lobe during induction of anesthesia. Results of a fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed dorsal bulging and obstruction of the left bronchus. Under the context of tortuous aorta and calcified left border of the heart silhouette, aortic aneurysm was suspected; the diagnosis was confirmed by a computed tomography scan. Aortic aneurysm without specific symptoms cannot be screened by a single preoperative chest X-ray. The anesthesiologist should promptly request further radiographic studies to rule out potential aortic pathology if in doubt. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Maximum Diameter Measurements of Aortic Aneurysms on Axial CT Images After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Sufficient for Follow-up?

    SciTech Connect

    Baumueller, Stephan Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 {+-} 7.5 years, range 51-88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.

  3. Adjusted Hospital Outcomes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Reported in the Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit.

    PubMed

    Lijftogt, N; Vahl, A C; Wilschut, E D; Elsman, B H P; Amodio, S; van Zwet, E W; Leijdekkers, V J; Wouters, M W J M; Hamming, J F

    2017-04-01

    The Dutch Surgical Aneurysm Audit (DSAA) is mandatory for all patients with primary abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the Netherlands. The aims are to present the observed outcomes of AAA surgery against the predicted outcomes by means of V-POSSUM (Vascular-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity). Adjusted mortality was calculated by the original and re-estimated V(physiology)-POSSUM for hospital comparisons. All patients operated on from January 2013 to December 2014 were included for analysis. Calibration and discrimination of V-POSSUM and V(p)-POSSUM was analysed. Mortality was benchmarked by means of the original V(p)-POSSUM formula and risk-adjusted by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM on the DSAA. In total, 5898 patients were included for analysis: 4579 with elective AAA (EAAA) and 1319 with acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA), acute symptomatic (SAAA; n = 371) or ruptured (RAAA; n = 948). The percentage of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varied between hospitals but showed no relation to hospital volume (EAAA: p = .12; AAAA: p = .07). EAAA, SAAA, and RAAA mortality was, respectively, 1.9%, 7.5%, and 28.7%. Elective mortality was 0.9% after EVAR and 5.0% after open surgical repair versus 15.6% and 27.4%, respectively, after AAAA. V-POSSUM overestimated mortality in most EAAA risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability of V-POSSUM in EAAA was moderate (C-statistic: .719) and poor for V(p)-POSSUM (C-statistic: .665). V-POSSUM in AAAA repair overestimated in high risk groups, and underestimated in low risk groups (p < .01). The discriminative ability in AAAA of V-POSSUM was moderate (.713) and of V(p)-POSSUM poor (.688). Risk adjustment by the re-estimated V(p)-POSSUM did not have any effect on hospital variation in EAAA but did in AAAA. Mortality in the DSAA was in line with the literature but is not discriminative for hospital comparisons in EAAA. Adjusting for V(p)-POSSUM, revealed no

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Mechanisms, animal models, and potential treatment.

    PubMed

    Meital, Lara T; Sandow, Shaun L; Calder, Philip C; Russell, Fraser D

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with macrophage accumulation in the adventitia, oxidative stress, medial elastin degradation and aortic dilation. Progression of AAA is linked to increased risk of rupture, which carries a high mortality rate. Drug therapies trialled to date lack efficacy and although aneurysm repair is available for patients with large aneurysm, peri-surgical morbidity and mortality have been widely reported. Recent studies using rodent models of AAA suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) and their metabolites can moderate inflammation and oxidative stress perpetuated by infiltrating macrophages and intervene in the destruction of medial elastin. This review examines evidence from these animal studies and related reports of inhibition of inflammation and arrest of aneurysm development following prophylactic supplementation with LC n-3 PUFAs. The efficacy of LC n-3 PUFAs for management of existing aneurysm is unclear and further investigations involving human clinical trials are warranted.

  5. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion from an aortic intramural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakatani, Akihiko; Doi, Yoshinori; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Takaaki; Sasai, Yasutaka; Nishida, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Megumi; Uenoyama, Naoto; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are a rare type of visceral artery aneurysm, whose rupture is associated with high mortality. These aneurysms are of particular interest because local haemodynamic change caused by coeliac artery obstruction plays an important role in their development. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of coeliac artery obstruction is not completely understood. Pressure from the median arcuate ligament is most frequently reported cause. Although it is well-known that stenosis or occlusion of the visceral vessels may be caused by aortic syndrome, reports of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion due to aortic syndrome are extremely rare. Our case indicates a new aetiology for a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and demonstrates the rapid deterioration of the patient affected. PMID:27122676

  6. A Case of Infective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm due to Haemophilus influenzae Type B

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Toshimitsu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Infective abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is relatively rare, but a case which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B is very rare. We experienced one IAAA case due to H. influenzae type B. The patient was 69-year-old man presenting with severe abdominal and back pain and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammatory marker. The patient was found to have saccular aneurysm infrarenal aorta on computed tomography scanning. First, we started to treat him with antibiotic agent and second, we operated him at day 8 after admission with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Revascularization was made in situ reconstruction. As the result of culture with aneurysm wall, we found that the cause of this aneurysm was the infection of H. influenzae type B. As far as we know, this bacterium is scarcely reported as the cause of infective aortic aneurysms. We reported this IAAA case with the review of the English literature. PMID:23997558

  7. A Case of Infective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm due to Haemophilus influenzae Type B.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshimitsu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2012-09-01

    Infective abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is relatively rare, but a case which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B is very rare. We experienced one IAAA case due to H. influenzae type B. The patient was 69-year-old man presenting with severe abdominal and back pain and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammatory marker. The patient was found to have saccular aneurysm infrarenal aorta on computed tomography scanning. First, we started to treat him with antibiotic agent and second, we operated him at day 8 after admission with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Revascularization was made in situ reconstruction. As the result of culture with aneurysm wall, we found that the cause of this aneurysm was the infection of H. influenzae type B. As far as we know, this bacterium is scarcely reported as the cause of infective aortic aneurysms. We reported this IAAA case with the review of the English literature.

  8. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  9. Outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair performed in abdominal aortic aneurysms with large infrarenal necks.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Mauro; Gallitto, Enrico; Wattez, Helene; Verzini, Fabio; Bianchini Massoni, Claudio; Loschi, Diletta; Freyrie, Antonio; Haulon, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate midterm clinical and morphologic outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with large (≥28 mm) infrarenal neck. From 2009 to 2012, we prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed clinical, morphologic, and intraoperative and postoperative data of patients undergoing EVAR for wide-neck AAA at three European vascular surgery units. All patients had computed tomography angiography follow-up of ≥24 months. The early end points were technical success and proximal type I endoleak at 30 days. The midterm end points were type Ia endoleak, freedom from reintervention (FFR), survival, AAA-related mortality, and infrarenal and suprarenal aortic diameter progression. The aortic diameters were measured on three-dimensional workstation center lumen line reconstructions, 1 cm below the lowest renal artery, at the level of the renal arteries, at the superior mesenteric artery, and at the celiac trunk. Preoperative and 24-month aortic diameters were compared by paired t-test. Survival and FFR were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. During the study period, 118 patients (74 ± 8 years) were enrolled. The mean aneurysm diameter was 61 ± 10 mm. Suprarenal and infrarenal fixation endografts were implanted in 102 (86%) and 16 (14%) patients, respectively. The mean main body oversizing was 17% ± 9%. Technical success rate was 98% (three type Ia endoleaks at 30 days). The mean follow-up was 38 ± 12 months. Fourteen type Ia endoleaks (12%) were detected during follow-up. Survival at 3 years and 5 years was 89% and 70%, respectively. Four deaths (3.4%) were type Ia endoleak related. FFR at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years was 96%, 83%, and 82%, respectively. Eight reinterventions (7%) were proximal neck related. All infrarenal and suprarenal aortic diameters increased at 24 months. The mean increase was 11% for the lowest renal artery (29.1 ± 1.1 mm preoperatively vs 32.3 ± 4

  10. Successful Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskarelis, Ioannis S. Koukoulaki, Maria; Lappas, Ioannis; Karkatzia, Fani; Dimopoulos, Nikitas; Filias, Vasilios; Bellenis, Ion; Vougas, Vasilios; Drakopoulos, Spiros

    2006-04-15

    A renal transplant recipient presented in the early post-transplantation period with rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The high mortality rate of the surgical repair of ruptured aneurysm in addition to the concern of preserving the renal graft prompted us to seek alternative approaches, such as repairing the aneurysm by means of endovascular techniques. The ruptured aneurysm was confirmed by performing computed tomography and digital angiography and thereafter was successfully repaired by endovascular stenting technique (Talent stent-graft), which seems to be a safe and effective method of preserving a renal graft.

  11. Limitations of Endovascular Treatment with Stent-Grafts for Active Mycotic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Masaki; Kato, Noriyuki; Hirano, Tadanori; Shimono, Takatsugu; Yasuda, Fuyuhiko; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Yada, Isao; Takeda, Kan

    2002-06-15

    An 81-year-old woman with ruptured mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm was treated with endovascular placement of stent-grafts fabricated from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and Z-stents. Although exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved at the end of the procedure, a type I endoleak developed on the following day.Despite emergent surgical resection of the aneurysm and extra-anatomical reconstruction, the patient died 2 days later. Stent-graft repair may not be a suitable method for the treatment of ruptured mycotic aneurysm in the presence of active infection.

  12. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  13. Sac Hygroma After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Successful Treatment with Endograft Relining

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Robert K. Palestrant, Sarah; Ryu, Jessica; Trachtenberg, Jeffrey

    2007-06-15

    Aneurysm sac expansion following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is typically associated with endoleaks that can be readily diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound, or catheter-directed arteriography. Sac hygromas are a cause of sac expansion without apparent endoleak and are presumed to be a result of ultrafiltration of serum manifested by accumulation of fibrinous, gelatinous material within the aneurysm sac following EVAR. Although there are no reported associated ruptures, sac expansion is nevertheless disconcerting and intervention is presumably indicated. We report a case of an expanding aneurysm after EVAR secondary to sac hygroma that was successfully treated with relining of the existing, original endograft.

  14. Therapeutics Targeting Drivers of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections: Insights from Predisposing Genes and Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Milewicz, Dianna M; Prakash, Siddharth K; Ramirez, Francesco

    2017-01-14

    Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. Paradoxically, TGF-β hyperactivity has been postulated to be the primary driver for the disease. More recently, it has been proposed that the response of aortic SMCs to the hemodynamic load on a structurally defective aorta is the primary driver of thoracic aortic disease, and that TGF-β overactivity in diseased aortas is a secondary, unproductive response to restore tissue function. The engineering of mouse models of inherited aortopathies has identified potential therapeutic agents to prevent thoracic aortic disease.

  15. Aortic transection and diverting bypass as treatment of repetitive recurrent abdominal aortic false aneurysm rupture in a patient with Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Dong; Won, Yong-Sung; Yun, Sang-Seob; Park, Sun-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In-Sung; Koh, Yong-Bok

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal aortic false aneurysms in patients with Behcet's disease have been reported frequently and repaired successfully by various procedures; however, anastomotic false aneurysms have often been reported to occur after the operation. In this article, we report a case of four-time repetitive, recurrent suprarenal abdominal aortic false aneurysm ruptures that lasted for 7 years. The location of this aneurysm was not easy to repair not only by open surgical procedures but by endovascular stent because the aortic defect was too close to the visceral arterial branches. The last operation consisted of primary repair of aortic defect, transection of abdominal aorta at the level of supraceliac aorta with end closure, and a thoracic aorta to abdominal aorta bypass with Dacron graft. An 8-year follow-up revealed no more abdominal aortic aneurysm recurrence.

  16. Aortic Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries (atherosclerosis) Weakened and bulging artery (pre-existing aortic aneurysm) An aortic valve defect (bicuspid aortic valve) A ... valve, tell your doctor. If you have an aortic aneurysm, find out how often you need monitoring and ...

  17. Drawback of aortoplasty for aneurysm of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Mueller, X M; Tevaearai, H T; Genton, C Y; Hurni, M; Ruchat, P; Fischer, A P; Stumpe, F; von Segesser, L K

    1997-03-01

    Aortoplasty has been advocated for moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease. We report our results with this conservative approach. Seventeen consecutive patients with unsupported aortoplasty were reviewed. Twelve patients had aortic valve regurgitation and 5 had stenosis. The aortic wall was analyzed histologically in 14 patients. Follow-up was complete, with a mean time of 6 years (range, 2.3 to 10.5 years). Two patients among the 15 hospital survivors died during follow-up of causes unrelated to aortic pathology. Survival at 7 years was 86.7% (+/- 8.8%). Recurring aortic aneurysms developed in 4 patients after a mean time of 63 months, with an event-free survival at 7 years of 41% (+/- 21%). All of these 4 patients had aortic valve regurgitation and cystic medial necrosis. The recurrence rate of aneurysms after unsupported aortoplasty and aortic valve replacement is high in patients with aortic regurgitation. This strongly suggests that in these patients, the aortic dilatation is related to an underlying wall deficiency, associated with the aortic valve pathology, rather than to the hemodynamic stress imposed by the aortic valve disease.

  18. Trace elements in the wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms with and without coexisting iliac artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Damian; Chudek, Jerzy; Sznapka, Mariola; Kita, Andrzej; Biolik, Grzegorz; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Domalik, Jolanta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Iliac artery aneurysms (IAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) frequently coexist. It remains unknown whether the content of trace elements in AAA walls depends on the coexistence of IAAs. The aim of this study was to compare the content of selected trace elements in AAA walls depending on the coexistence of IAAs. The content of trace elements was assessed in samples of AAA walls harvested intraoperatively in 19 consecutive patients. In the studied group, coexisting IAAs were diagnosed in 11 out of the 19 patients with AAA. The coexistence of IAAs was associated with a slightly lower content of nickel (0.28 (0.15-0.40) vs. 0.32 (0-0.85) mg/g; p = 0.09) and a significantly higher content of cadmium (0.71 (0.26-1.17) vs. 0.25 (0.20-0.31) mg/g; p = 0.04) in AAA walls. The levels of the remaining studied elements, copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium and calcium, were comparable. The elevated levels of cadmium in the walls of AAA coexisting with IAAs may suggest an impact of the accumulation of this trace element on the greater damage of the iliac artery wall.

  19. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR.

  20. Battle of the Bulge: Aortic Aneurysm Management From Early Modernity to the Present.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2017-02-21

    For centuries, physicians have recognized aortic aneurysms as an acute threat to life. Therapeutic approaches to the disease began in the 18th century when leading physicians, such as René Laennec and Antonio Valsalva, applied research on circulation and blood coagulation to devise whole-body fasting and bleeding regimens to prevent rupture. After John Hunter's success in ligating arteries to treat peripheral aneurysms, surgeons attempted analogous operations on the aorta, but even the renowned Sir Astley Cooper and William Halsted met with disastrous results. Other clinicians tried various methods of creating intraluminal clots, including the application of such new technologies as electricity and plastic. Vessel repair techniques, pioneered by Alexis Carrel and others in the 20th century, eventually provided a reliably effective treatment. In the past few decades, minimally invasive methods that approach aneurysms endovascularly through small groin incisions have been adopted. A successful 2005 congressional campaign to fund screening for aortic aneurysms brought the disease to national attention and symbolizes current confidence in curing it. Drawing on various published and unpublished sources, this paper elucidates the development of specific treatments for aortic aneurysms over time and more broadly addresses how medicine and surgery apply the knowledge and technology available in particular eras to treat a specific, identifiable, and lethal disease. Examining the evolution of these therapeutic efforts unveils broader trends in the history of medicine. This allows aortic aneurysms to serve as a case study for exploring shifting philosophies in medical history.

  1. [Operative results of distal aortic arch aneurysms--approaching methods, bypass techniques and complications].

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Hayashi, I; Kurosaka, Y; Izeki, H; Onoguchi, K; Taguchi, S; Kawada, K

    1990-06-01

    Ten patients underwent repair of aneurysms of the distal aortic arch from 1985 to 1989. There were 8 men and 2 women: aged 58 to 77 (average age 67 years). Seven patients had sacciform aneurysms which were closed by graft patch aortoplasty, and three patients had fusiform aneurysms which were corrected by inserting tube grafts. Seven aneurysms operated since 1988 were approached through median sternotomy continued with left anterior thoracotomy, so called door open method. This approach presented good view of the diseased aorta, and effective for preventing recurrent and phrenic nerve palsy. We used temporary bypass for 4 patients, cardiopulmonary bypass for 4 patients (separate carotid artery perfusion for 2 patients) and centrifugal pump for 2 patients during aortic cross clamping. One patient died intraoperatively from intractable bleeding and two patients died postoperatively from brain damage due to embolic episodes during the operations. These patients showed the severely irregular intima in the aortic arch and were complicated with rupture of the aneurysm or dissections arising from the aneurysms. It should be noticed that careless manipulation of the aortic arch and the brachiocephalic vessels cause cerebral complications in such cases.

  2. Cyclic transition to turbulence in rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, T. H.; Yu, S. C. M.

    2001-08-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of cyclic flows inside rigid abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models was investigated. Rectified sine waveforms were used to simulate aortic flow conditions (Re mean=1600-2100 and α=7.2-12.2). Depending on the bulge geometry ( D/ d and L/ d ratios), AAA flows can be broadly classified into three regimes, namely types A, B and C, respectively. While type A has no vortex formation, type B and C have distinctive laminar vortical structures that are very different from one another. The type of flow regimes would also determine where and when the transition to turbulence would occur and the portion of the cycle at which the flow remains turbulent in the bulge. The stability characteristics of types B and C are obtained from the linear stability analysis performed on the unsteady velocity profiles measured at different phases of a cycle. Based on the linear stability analyses, instability is found to initiate in the bulge for types B and C through the formation of vortical structures. Instability grows progressively during the acceleration phase and transition to turbulence in the bulge occurs shortly after the commencement of the deceleration phase in all cases investigated. The mechanisms of transition to turbulence for types B and C are discussed. Although transition to turbulence appears in all the cases investigated here, fully laminar flows in types B and C are predicted to exist by the linear stability theory under extreme flow conditions. Finally, the in vivo biological implications of the in vitro results were discussed.

  3. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; González-Pascual, Montserrat; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José Mª; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; de Miguel-Diez, Javier; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Farinos, Napoleón; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; López-de-Andrés, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe trends in the rates of discharge due to thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) among patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001–2012). We used national hospital discharge data to select all of the patients who were discharged from the hospital after TAAD. We focused our analysis on patients with TAAD in the primary diagnosis field. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status (diabetic or nondiabetic). Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status. We divided the study period into 4 periods of 3 years each. We analyzed diagnostic and surgical procedures, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. We identified 48,746 patients who were discharged with TAAD. The rates of discharge due to TAAD increased significantly in both diabetic patients (12.65 cases per 100,000 in 2001/2003 to 23.92 cases per 100,000 in 2010/2012) and nondiabetic patients (17.39 to 21.75, respectively). The incidence was higher among nondiabetic patients than diabetic patients in 3 of the 4 time periods. The percentage of patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair increased in both groups, whereas the percentage of patients who underwent open repair decreased. The frequency of hospitalization increased at a higher rate among diabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.20) than among nondiabetic patients (incidence rate ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.11). The in-hospital mortality was lower in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.69–0.99). The incidence rates were higher in nondiabetic patients. Hospitalizations seemed to increase at a higher rate among diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had a significantly lower mortality, possibly because of earlier diagnoses, and improved and more readily available treatments. PMID:27149499

  4. Patients' opinions regarding research and management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Regent; Jones, Amy; Cassimjee, Ismail; Handa, Ashok

    2017-08-30

    The epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is changing. Outcomes for aortic surgery have improved. Biomarkers of AAA progression are emerging. We recently reported the opinions of international vascular surgery colleagues regarding research and management for AAAs. This study aimed to ascertain a real-world patients' opinion regarding the same questions. We administered a survey to patients with AAAs. We first ascertained their views on the priority topics for research in AAA. Using contemporary epidemiologic and surgical outcome data. We asked their preferences for different aspects of management in the hypothetical scenario where they had been diagnosed with a small (4cm) AAA and a hypothetical biomarker predicted it to be fast growing. We received 191 responses from patient with AAAs (males 91%, median-age-group 75-79 years). Amongst the topics of research for AAA, the top priorities for research chosen by patients were: "discovering why AAA develops in a person" and "discovering new medications that can make an AAA shrink back to normal size". In the hypothetical scenario, 42% of patients would prefer to have surgery early, while they are younger and fitter. 52% would follow the surgeon's recommendation as to whether to have early surgery or not. A high proportion of respondents would likely consider taking part in a clinical trial to test if early surgery in such a scenario will be beneficial. The results represent a snapshot of patient's views in terms of priorities for AAA research. We further demonstrate how patient's opinions can signpost the potential path for biomarker research to impact clinical practice.

  5. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Severe Thrombocytopenia after Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrin, Valentina; Bonvini, Stefano; Antonello, Michele; Grego, Franco; Vettor, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    After Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm, a systemic inflammatory response, named postimplantation syndrome, can develop. This syndrome is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP plasma levels and its pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. Although this syndrome generally resolves within few days, some patients develop a persisting severe inflammatory reaction leading to mild or severe complications. Here we describe the case of a male patient who developed postimplantation inflammatory syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Treatment with prednisone (50 mg/bid) for two weeks did not improve the clinical and laboratory findings. We utilized danazol, a weak androgen that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of immune and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and after 12 days of treatment with danazol (200 mg/bid), the patient improved progressively and platelet number increased up to 53,000/μL. Patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm should be carefully monitored for the development of postimplantation syndrome. This clinical condition is relatively common after the endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm but is rarely observed after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. The different known therapeutical approaches are still empiric, with reported beneficial effects with the use of NSAID, corticosteroids, and danazol. PMID:28154580

  6. Concomitant percutaneous treatment of aortic coarctation and associated intercostal aneurysms: pre-procedural recognition is key.

    PubMed

    Batlivala, Sarosh P; Rome, Jonathan J

    2016-02-01

    Intercostal aneurysms are associated with aortic coarctation. Their aetiology is not well-understood but may be related to intrinsic vascular pathology and altered flow dynamics through the intercostal artery. We present the cases of two patients with coarctation and intercostal aneurysms. The aneurysms were recognised on pre-catheterisation imaging studies and were selectively occluded during the same procedure to treat the coarctation. There were no complications; both the patients have no residual coarctation at the most recent follow-up. Intercostal aneurysms associated with coarctation can have significant consequences including late rupture, paralysis, and even death. These aneurysms are common with an incidence of up to 40% with adult-diagnosed coarctation; one treatment plan is to treat both the coarctation and aneurysm during a single catheterisation. Pre-catheterisation CT or MRI may play a role in this strategy.

  7. Attenuation of experimental aortic aneurysm formation in P-selectin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hannawa, Kevin K; Cho, Brenda S; Sinha, Indranil; Roelofs, Karen J; Myers, Daniel D; Wakefield, Thomas J; Stanley, James C; Henke, Peter K; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of P-selectin, an adhesion molecule found on the surface of activated platelets and endothelial cells during experimental aortic aneurysm formation. Infrarenal abdominal aortas of C57 black wild-type (WT) mice and P-selectin knockout (PKO) mice were measured in situ and then perfused with porcine pancreatic elastase (0.332 U/mL). Whole blood was drawn from the tail artery on day 2 pre-perfusion to determine total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts. On day 14 postperfusion, aortic diameters (AD) of WT mice (N = 19) and PKO mice (N = 9) were measured. An aortic aneurysm was defined as a 100% or greater increase in AD from pre-perfusion measurement. Immunohistochemistry, including H&E, trichrome and von Gieson staining, was performed on harvested aortic tissue. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test and Fisher's exact test. There were no significant differences in peripheral leukocyte counts at baseline between the two groups. WT mice had significantly larger AD compared to PKO mice at day 14 postperfusion (116 % vs. 38 %, P < 0.001). Aortic aneurysm penetrance was 52% in WT mice, while 0% (P = 0.01) of PKO mice formed aneurysms. On histologic examination, WT mouse aortas were associated with a significant inflammatory response and degradation of elastin and collagen fibers, while PKO mouse aortas lacked signs of inflammation or vessel wall injury. P-selectin deficiency attenuates aneurysm formation in the elastase aortic perfusion model. This was associated with a blunting of the inflammatory response and preserved vessel wall intergrity following elastase perfusion in the P-selectin knockout mice. Further investigation to elucidate the independent contributions of endothelial cell and platelet P-selectin in experimental aortic aneurysm formation is required.

  8. A huge saccular aortic aneurysm compressing right coronary artery 7 years after aortic valve replacement due to bicuspid aortic valve insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Jeong, Haemin; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In a patient underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) due to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) insufficiency without marked dilation of ascending aorta, the development of delayed-typed aneurysmal complication of ascending aorta has been often reported because the dilated aorta tends to grow insidiously with age. Case summary: A 58-year-old man who underwent AVR with mechanical valve due to severe aortic regurgitation secondary to BAV 7 years previously presented with exertional chest discomfort for 1 year. An echocardiography showed a well-functioning mechanical aortic valve without any significant abnormal findings. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) revealed a huge saccular aortic root aneurysm (79.7 mm × 72.8 mm in size) compressing the proximal right coronary artery resulting in ∼90% eccentric diffuse luminal narrowing. The patient subsequently underwent open-heart surgery with resection of the ascending aortic aneurysmal sac and consecutive ascending aorta and hemi-arch replacement using a graft. Conclusion: After successful AVR in the patient with BAV insufficiency and mildly dilated ascending aorta, a regular aortic imaging such as cardiac MDCT with aortography would be helpful to monitor the morphology and size of ascending aorta and related complications to guide future management. PMID:27749539

  9. Heterogeneity in the Segmental Development of the Aortic Tree: Impact on Management of Genetically Triggered Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Hisham M.F.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive search of the medical literature examining the development of the thoracic aortic tree reveals that the thoracic aorta does not develop as one unit or in one stage: the oldest part of the thoracic aorta is the descending aorta with the aortic arch being the second oldest, developing under influence from the neural crest cell. Following in chronological order are the proximal ascending aorta and aortic root, which develop from a conotruncal origin. Different areas of the thoracic aorta develop under the influence of different gene sets. These parts develop from different cell lineages: the aortic root (the conotruncus), developing from the mesoderm; the ascending aorta and aortic arch, developing from the neural crest cells; and the descending aorta from the mesoderm. Findings illustrate that the thoracic aorta is not a single entity, in developmental terms. It develops from three or four distinct areas, at different stages of embryonic life, and under different sets of genes and signaling pathways. Genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysms are not a monolithic group but rather share a multi-genetic origin. Identification of therapeutic targets should be based on the predilection of certain genes to cause aneurysmal disease in specific aortic segments. PMID:26798739

  10. Adventitial adipogenic degeneration is an unidentified contributor to aortic wall weakening in the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Stefan A; Gäbel, Gabor; Kokje, Vivianne B C; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2017-09-11

    The processes driving human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression are not fully understood. Although antiinflammatory and proteolytic strategies effectively quench aneurysm progression in preclinical models, so far all clinical interventions failed. These observations hint at an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in AAA progression and rupture. Interestingly, strong clinical and molecular associations exist between popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) and AAAs; however, PAAs have an extremely low propensity to rupture. We thus reasoned that differences between these aneurysms may provide clues toward (auxiliary) processes involved in AAA-related wall debilitation. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes driving AAA growth can contribute to pharmaceutical treatments in the future. Aneurysmal wall samples were collected during open elective and emergency repair. Control perirenal aorta was obtained during kidney transplantation, and reference popliteal tissue obtained from the anatomy department. This study incorporates various techniques including (immuno)histochemistry, Western Blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and cell culture. Histologic evaluation of AAAs, PAAs, and control aorta shows extensive medial (PAA) and transmural fibrosis (AAA), and reveals abundant adventitial adipocytes aggregates as an exclusive phenomenon of AAAs (P < .001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microarray analysis showed enrichment of adipogenic mediators (C/EBP family P = .027; KLF5 P < .000; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, P = .032) in AAA tissue. In vitro differentiation tests indicated a sharply increased adipogenic potential of AAA adventitial mesenchymal cells (P < .0001). Observed enrichment of adipocyte-related genes and pathways in ruptured AAA (P < .0003) supports an association between the extent of fatty degeneration and rupture. This

  11. An Aortoenteric Fistula Arising after Endovascular Management of a Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated with a Psoas Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Gülcü, Aytaç; Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Uğurlu, Şevket Baran; Göktay, Ahmet Yiğit

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic aortic aneurysms account for 1–3% of all aortic aneurysms. The management of this disease is controversial. Since open surgical repair is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, endovascular aneurysm repair is an alternative treatment method with promising early and midterm outcomes, although its long-term durability is unknown. Secondary aortoenteric fistulas may occur iatrogenically after either aortic reconstructive surgery or endovascular repair. As the number of aneurysms managed with endovascular aneurysm repair has substantially increased, cases of aortoenteric fistulas referred for endovascular repair are augmented. We report the case of an aortoduodenal fistula manifested with duodenal perforation after staged endovascular and surgical treatment of a mycotic aortic aneurysm. PMID:27365559

  12. Novel risk predictor for thrombus deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, M. G. C.; Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Succi, S.

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the basic mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular diseases stands as one of the most challenging problems in modern medical research including various mechanisms which encompass a broad spectrum of space and time scales. Major implications for clinical practice and pre-emptive medicine rely on the onset and development of intraluminal thrombus in which effective clinical therapies require synthetic risk predictors/indicators capable of informing real-time decision-making protocols. In the present contribution, two novel hemodynamics synthetic indicators, based on a three-band decomposition (TBD) of the shear stress signal, are introduced. Extensive fluid-structure computer simulations of patient-specific scenarios confirm the enhanced risk-prediction capabilities of the TBD indicators. In particular, they permit a quantitative and accurate localization of the most likely thrombus deposition in realistic aortic geometries, where previous indicators would predict healthy operation. The proposed methodology is also shown to provide additional information and discrimination criteria on other factors of major clinical relevance, such as the size of the aneurysm.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Aortocaval Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzardi, Giuseppe Fossaceca, Rita; Divenuto, Ignazio; Musiani, Antonello; Brustia, Piero; Carriero, Alessandro

    2010-08-15

    Aortocaval fistula (ACF) is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We report the endovascular repair of an AAA rupture into the inferior vena cava. A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for acute hypotension. She presented with a pulsatile abdominal mass and became rapidly anuric. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed an AAA rupture into the inferior vena cava. The features of the AAA made it suitable for endovascular repair. To prevent pulmonary embolism caused by the presence of sac thrombosis near the vena cava lumen, a temporary vena cava filter was deployed before the procedure. A bifurcated stent-graft was placed with the patient under local anaesthesia, and the AAA was successfully treated. A transient type II endoleak was detected on CT 3 days after endograft placement. At routine follow-up 6 and 12 months after the procedure, the patient was in good clinical condition, and the type II endoleak had sealed completely. Endovascular treatment offers an attractive therapeutic alternative to open repair in case of ACF; however, only small numbers of patients have been treated, and long-term follow-up interval is lacking.

  14. Lipoprotein(a) Levels in Patients With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Rizzo, Manfredi; Kostner, Karam; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    Circulating markers relevant to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are currently required. Lipoprotein(a), Lp(a), is considered a candidate marker associated with the presence of AAA. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between circulating Lp(a) levels and the presence of AAA. The PubMed-based search was conducted up to April 30, 2015, to identify the studies focusing on Lp(a) levels in patients with AAA and controls. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random effects model, with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics. Overall, 9 studies were identified. After a combined analysis, patients with AAA were found to have a significantly higher level of Lp(a) compared to the controls (SMD: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.41-1.33, P < .001). This result remained robust in the sensitivity analysis, and its significance was not influenced after omitting each of the included studies from the meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis confirmed a higher level of circulating Lp(a) in patients with AAA compared to controls. High Lp(a) levels can be associated with the presence of AAA, and Lp(a) may be a marker in screening for AAA. Further studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of measuring Lp(a) in the prevention and management of AAA.

  15. Large eddy simulations of blood dynamics in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Christian; Le Van, Davide; Quadrio, Maurizio; Formaggia, Luca; Domanin, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    We study the effects of transition to turbulence in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The presence of transitional effects in such districts is related to the heart pulsatility and the sudden change of diameter of the vessels, and has been recorded by means of clinical measures as well as of computational studies. Here we propose, for the first time, the use of a large eddy simulation (LES) model to accurately describe transition to turbulence in realistic scenarios of AAA obtained from radiological images. To this aim, we post-process the obtained numerical solutions to assess significant quantities, such as the ensemble-averaged velocity and wall shear stress, the standard deviation of the fluctuating velocity field, and vortical structures educed via the so-called Q-criterion. The results demonstrate the suitability of the considered LES model and show the presence of significant transitional effects around the impingement region during the mid-deceleration phase. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Hypertension with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is positively associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) presence, which supports a hypothesis that hypertension may also be positively associated with AAA expansion. To determine whether hypertension is associated with AAA expansion, we reviewed currently available studies with a systematic literature search and meta-analytic estimate. Databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through July 2015 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Studies considered for inclusion met the following criteria: the study population was AAA patients with and without hypertension, and outcomes included data regarding AAA expansion. For each study, expansion rates in both the hypertensive and nonhypertensive groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 614 potentially relevant publications screened initially, we identified 20 eligible studies including data on 6,619 AAA patients. No individual study indicated a statistically significant (positive or negative) association of hypertension with AAA expansion rates. A pooled analysis of all the 20 studies demonstrated that hypertension was not associated with AAA expansion rates in the fixed-effect model (SMD 0.03, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.17, P = 0.19). There was no evidence of significant publication bias. Hypertension is not associated with AAA expansion. Further investigations would be required to elucidate why hypertension is not associated with AAA expansion despite its positive association with AAA presence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral Steroid Use and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion - Positive Association.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yuta; Goto, Hitoshi; Ohara, Masato; Hashimoto, Munetaka; Akamatsu, Daijiro; Shimizu, Takuya; Miyama, Noriyuki; Tsuchida, Ken; Kawamura, Keiichiro; Umetsu, Michihisa; Suzuki, Shunya; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2017-06-30

    The maximum axial diameter (MAD) of a fusiform abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an indicator of the risk of expansion or rupture. Apart from smoking and MAD itself, few expansion risk factors have been reported. In this study, we investigated expansion risk factors for AAA.Methods and Results:This retrospective cohort study included 176 patients who attended Tohoku University Hospital with infrarenal fusiform AAA. AAA expansion rate was determined on multidetector computed tomography, and the correlations between expansion rate and the clinical data were analyzed. The median expansion rate was 2.405 mm/year. On univariate analysis, a significant positive correlation with expansion rate was observed for the initial MAD (P<0.001) and significant negative correlations for oral angiotensin receptor blocker usage (P=0.025), height (P=0.005), body weight (P=0.017), total cholesterol (P=0.007), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.004), and HbA1c (P=0.037). On logistic regression analysis, significant positive associations with expansion rate were observed for initial MAD (P<0.001) and oral steroid usage (P=0.029) and a negative association for height (P=0.041). Oral steroid usage is an important risk factor for AAA expansion, independent of other risk factors of atherosclerosis and MAD.

  18. The biaxial biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Healey, Donagh A; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2014-12-01

    Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when the local wall stress exceeds the local wall strength. Knowledge of AAA wall mechanics plays a fundamental role in the development and advancement of AAA rupture risk assessment tools. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the biaxial mechanical properties of AAA tissue. Multiple biaxial test protocols were performed on AAA samples harvested from 28 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Both the Tangential Modulus (TM) and stretch ratio (λ) were recorded and compared in both the circumferential (ϴ) and longitudinal (L) directions at physiologically relevant stress levels, the influence of patient specific factors such as sex, age AAA diameter and status were examined. The biomechanical response was also fit to a hyperplastic material model. The AAA tissue was found to be anisotropic with a greater tendency to stiffen in the circumferential direction compared to the longitudinal direction. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model represented the data well and the properties were not influenced by the investigated patient specific factors however, a future study utilizing a larger cohort of patients is warranted to confirm these findings. This work provides further insights on the biomechanical behavior of AAA and may be useful in the development of more reliable rupture risk assessment tools.

  19. Determination of linear viscoelastic behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Evelyne A; Dams, Susanne D; Peters, Gerrit W M; Rutten, Marcel C M; Schurink, Geert Willem H; Buth, Jaap; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the linear viscoelastic properties of an abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus can be determined by rheometry. Although large strains occur in the in vivo situation, in this work only linear behavior is studied to show the applicability of the described methods. A thrombus exists of several layers that vary in composition, structure and mechanical properties. Two types of thrombus are described. In discrete transition thrombi the layers are not or at most weakly attached to each other and the structure of each layer is different. Continuous transition thrombi consist of strongly attached layers whose structure changes gradually throughout the thickness of the thrombus. Shear experiments are performed on samples from both types of thrombus on a rotational rheometer using a parallel plate geometry. In the discrete type the storage modulus G' cannot be assumed equal for the different layers. In the continuous thrombus, G', changes gradually throughout the layered structure. In both types the loss modulus, G'', does not vary throughout the thrombus. Furthermore, it was found that Time-Temperature Superposition is applicable to thrombus tissue. Since results were reproducible it can be concluded that the method we used to determine the viscoelastic properties is applicable to thrombus tissue.

  20. Non-linear viscoelastic behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Evelyne A; Dams, Susanne D; Peters, Gerrit W M; Rutten, Marcel C M; Schurink, Geert Willem H; Buth, Jaap; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the linear and non-linear viscoelastic behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombus and to study the changes in mechanical properties throughout the thickness of the thrombus. Samples are gathered from thrombi of seven patients. Linear viscoelastic data from oscillatory shear experiments show that the change of properties throughout the thrombus is different for each thrombus. Furthermore the variations found within one thrombus are of the same order of magnitude as the variation between patients. To study the non-linear regime, stress relaxation experiments are performed. To describe the phenomena observed experimentally, a non-linear multimode model is presented. The parameters for this model are obtained by fitting this model successfully to the experiments. The model cannot only describe the average stress response for all thrombus samples but also the highest and lowest stress responses. To determine the influence on the wall stress of the behavior observed the model proposed needs to implemented in the finite element wall stress analysis.

  1. Matricellular protein CCN3 mitigates abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; van der Voort, Dustin; Shi, Hong; Qing, Yulan; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Takemoto, Minoru; Yokote, Koutaro; Moxon, Joseph V.; Norman, Paul; Rittié, Laure; Atkins, G. Brandon; Gerson, Stanton L.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Golledge, Jonathan; Dong, Nianguo; Perbal, Bernard; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms that are involved in disease initiation and progression are incompletely understood. Extracellular matrix proteins play an integral role in modulating vascular homeostasis in health and disease. Here, we determined that the expression of the matricellular protein CCN3 is strongly reduced in rodent AAA models, including angiotensin II–induced AAA and elastase perfusion–stimulated AAA. CCN3 levels were also reduced in human AAA biopsies compared with those in controls. In murine models of induced AAA, germline deletion of Ccn3 resulted in severe phenotypes characterized by elastin fragmentation, vessel dilation, vascular inflammation, dissection, heightened ROS generation, and smooth muscle cell loss. Conversely, overexpression of CCN3 mitigated both elastase- and angiotensin II–induced AAA formation in mice. BM transplantation experiments suggested that the AAA phenotype of CCN3-deficient mice is intrinsic to the vasculature, as AAA was not exacerbated in WT animals that received CCN3-deficient BM and WT BM did not reduce AAA severity in CCN3-deficient mice. Genetic and pharmacological approaches implicated the ERK1/2 pathway as a critical regulator of CCN3-dependent AAA development. Together, these results demonstrate that CCN3 is a nodal regulator in AAA biology and identify CCN3 as a potential therapeutic target for vascular disease. PMID:26974158

  2. The potential role of DNA methylation in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ryer, Evan J; Ronning, Kaitryn E; Erdman, Robert; Schworer, Charles M; Elmore, James R; Peeler, Thomas C; Nevius, Christopher D; Lillvis, John H; Garvin, Robert P; Franklin, David P; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder that has a significant impact on the aging population. While both genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in AAA formation, the precise genetic markers involved and the factors influencing their expression remain an area of ongoing investigation. DNA methylation has been previously used to study gene silencing in other inflammatory disorders and since AAA has an extensive inflammatory component, we sought to examine the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in mononuclear blood cells of AAA cases and matched non-AAA controls. To this end, we collected blood samples and isolated mononuclear cells for DNA and RNA extraction from four all male groups: AAA smokers (n = 11), AAA non-smokers (n = 9), control smokers (n = 10) and control non-smokers (n = 11). Methylation data were obtained using the Illumina 450k Human Methylation Bead Chip and analyzed using the R language and multiple Bioconductor packages. Principal component analysis and linear analysis of CpG island subsets identified four regions with significant differences in methylation with respect to AAA: kelch-like family member 35 (KLHL35), calponin 2 (CNN2), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade B (ovalbumin) member 9 (SERPINB9), and adenylate cyclase 10 pseudogene 1 (ADCY10P1). Follow-up studies included RT-PCR and immunostaining for CNN2 and SERPINB9. These findings are novel and suggest DNA methylation may play a role in AAA pathobiology.

  3. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Rakesh P.; Katsargyris, Athanasios Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; Adam, Donald J.; Hardman, John A.

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  4. Loss of STAT1 is Associated with Increased Aortic Rupture in an Experimental Model of Aortic Dissection and Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Eagleton, Matthew J.; Xu, Jun; Liao, Mingfang; Parine, Brittney; Chisolm, Guy M.; Graham, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 has been linked to a variety of pathologic states involved with matrix remodeling, but its role in aortic pathology has not been previously described. The current study hypothesizes that STAT1 regulates aneurysmal degeneration and its role will be evaluated in human aortic aneurysms and in a mouse model of aortic dissection. Methods Apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE−/−) or ApoE/STAT1 double knockout mice (ApoE/STAT1−/−) were infused with 1000 ng/kg/min of angiotensin II (Ang II). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured in the rodent tail. At sacrifice, aortic diameters and extent of aneurysm formation were measured by digital microscopy. STAT1 and phosphorylated-STAT1 protein levels were assessed in ApoE−/− mice at 0, 7, 14, and 28 days (n=8/time point) by ELISA. Histology was performed using H&E and Movat stains. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, T-test, and ANOVA. Results STAT1 mRNA and total protein were greater in human AAA compared to non-aneurysmal controls. In addition, aneurysms occurred in 8%, 50%, and 80% of apoE−/− mice at 7, 14, and 28 days respectively. Total STAT1 levels were not altered during the course of Ang II infusion, but phosphorylated STAT1 levels peaked at 7 days with a 1.4-fold increase over baseline (P<0.05). Aneurysms occurred in 0%, 100%, and 100% of apoE/STAT1−/− mice at 3, 5, and 28 days. In mice infused with Ang II for more than 3 days, aortic rupture occurred more frequently in apoE/STAT−/− mice (53% v. 19%, P<0.05) and at earlier time points (4.0±0.5 v. 9.2±0.77 days, P<0.05) compared with apoE−/− mice. SBP did not differ between the groups during Ang II infusion. By 28 days, aneurysms were larger in apoE/STAT1−/− mice compared to apoE−/− mice (2.7±0.4 v. 1.9±0.1 mm, P<0.05), and were more extensive arising at the level of the left subclavian artery and extending to the infrarenal aorta

  5. The Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Aortic Aneurysmal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Rateri, Debra L.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been invoked in the development of both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Experimentally, this has been demonstrated by the chronic subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) that consistently leads to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in mice. AngII-induced AAAs have highly heterogenous cellular and extracellular matrix characteristics throughout the aorta that change markedly with duration of infusion. The mechanistic basis for the reproducible location of AAA development has not been elucidated, but many recent insights have been provided especially in regard to receptor and inflammatory mechanisms. A recent clinical study has provided some limited evidence for the extrapolation of these results to mechanisms of human AAAs. Experimental evidence has also demonstrated that antagonism of AT1 receptors prevents ascending aortic aneurysms in a mouse model of Marfan’s disease. A clinical study is currently ongoing to demonstrate the efficacy of antagonism of AT1 receptors in humans. PMID:18474175

  6. RGS1 regulates myeloid cell accumulation in atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm rupture through altered chemokine signalling

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jyoti; McNeill, Eileen; Douglas, Gillian; Hale, Ashley B.; de Bono, Joseph; Lee, Regent; Iqbal, Asif J.; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Stylianou, Elena; Greaves, David R.; Channon, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine signalling drives monocyte recruitment in atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. The mechanisms that lead to retention and accumulation of macrophages in the vascular wall remain unclear. Regulator of G-Protein Signalling-1 (RGS1) deactivates G-protein signalling, reducing the response to sustained chemokine stimulation. Here we show that Rgs1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaque and aortic aneurysms. Rgs1 reduces macrophage chemotaxis and desensitizes chemokine receptor signalling. In early atherosclerotic lesions, Rgs1 regulates macrophage accumulation and is required for the formation and rupture of Angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms, through effects on leukocyte retention. Collectively, these data reveal a role for Rgs1 in leukocyte trafficking and vascular inflammation and identify Rgs1, and inhibition of chemokine receptor signalling as potential therapeutic targets in vascular disease. PMID:25782711

  7. Case-report: endovascular treatment of aortic pseudo-aneurysm caused by Fishbone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Xuesong; Lu, Mingjun

    2015-07-08

    Aortic pseudo-aneurysm (APA) is a rare disease in clinic. Because of its relative rarity, we are far from making any conclusion regarding the natural history and appropriate therapeutic strategy for this condition. This study is to investigate the treatment effect of interventional therapy in aortic pseudo-aneurysm. A woman of 68 years old diagnosed with APA caused by fishbone was treated with stent grafts. After treatment, the therapeutic effect was assessed by measuring the size of trauma. The patient recovered well after stent grafts treatment, as her trauma was minimal. However, some complications of intravascular interventional treatment were observed. Compared with conventional surgery, interventional therapy of intravascular stent grafts has its merits. Therefore, this strategy was worthy to apply in the treatment of aortic pseudo-aneurysm.

  8. First long-term evidence supporting endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Muhs, Bart E; Dardik, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The traditional method of treating abdominal aortic aneurysms with open surgical repair has been steadily replaced by endovascular repair, thought to be a more minimally invasive approach. It is not known, however, whether the endovascular approach is truly less invasive for operative physiology; in addition, this approach has a different spectrum of complications. As such, it is uncertain whether elective endovascular repair of nonruptured aortic aneurysms reduces long-term morbidity and mortality compared with traditional open approaches. In this article, the authors evaluate a recent publication investigating long-term outcomes of a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms treated with either endovascular or open repair, and discuss the results in the context of current evidence.

  9. Investigation on the Regional Loss Factor and Its Anisotropy for Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Shahmansouri, Nastaran; Alreshidan, Mohammed; Emmott, Alexander; Lachapelle, Kevin; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Cartier, Raymond; Leask, Richard L; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2016-10-26

    An aortic aneurysm is a lethal arterial disease that mainly occurs in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are prevalent in the root/ascending parts of the aorta and can lead to aortic rupture resulting in the sudden death of patients. Understanding the biomechanical and histopathological changes associated with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), this study investigates the mechanical properties of the aorta during strip-biaxial tensile cycles. The loss factor-defined as the ratio of dissipated energy to the energy absorbed during a tensile cycle-the incremental modulus, and their anisotropy indexes were compared with the media fiber compositions for aneurysmal (n = 26) and control (n = 4) human ascending aortas. The aneurysmal aortas were categorized into the aortas with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). The strip-biaxial loss factor correlates well with the diameter of the aortas with BAV and TAV (for the axial direction, respectively, R² = 0.71, p = 0.0022 and R² = 0.54, p = 0.0096). The loss factor increases significantly with patients' age in the BAV group (for the axial direction: R² = 0.45, p = 0.0164). The loss factor is isotropic for all TAV quadrants, whereas it is on average only isotropic in the anterior and outer curvature regions of the BAV group. The results suggest that loss factor may be a useful surrogate measure to describe the histopathology of aneurysmal tissue and to demonstrate the differences between ATAAs with the BAV and TAV.

  10. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o2max) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o2max). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform for

  11. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appearance of the AMI. PMID:28405066

  12. Experimental Study of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Prior to and After Surgical Repair Hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlo, Anna-Elodie; Frankel, Steven; Chen, Jun; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2014-11-01

    Once a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) is detected, the risk of rupture is estimated based on the TAA diameter compared to the normal aortic diameter and its expansion rate. However, there are no reliable predictors that can provide accurate prognosis, and each aneurysm may progress differently. This work aims to assess the hemodynamic characteristics and flow structures associated with TAAs. The flow in a patient specific thoracic aortic aneurysm is compared to the same patient after treatment, in order to quantify the differences in the hydrodynamic forces acting on the aneurysm. Flow visualization with dye and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are used to study flow features within both geometries. Local flow patterns are visualized to predict potential areas of recirculation and low shear stresses as they are associated with thrombogenicity. Understanding the differences in flow features between a thoracic aortic aneurysm and a normal aorta (or a TAA after surgical repair) may lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms that will enable clinicians to better estimate the risk of rupture.

  13. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance.

  14. A numerical framework for studying the biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalalahmadi, Golnaz; Linte, Cristian; Helguera, María.

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known as a leading cause of death in the United States. AAA is an abnormal dilation of the aorta, which usually occurs below the renal arteries and causes an expansion at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. It has been shown that biomechanical parameters of the aortic tissue coupled with a set of specific geometric parameters characterizing the vessel expansion, affect the risk of aneurysm rupture. Here, we developed a numerical framework that incorporates both biomechanical and geometrical factors to study the behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our workflow enables the extraction of the aneurysm geometry from both clinical quality, as well as low-resolution MR images. We used a two-parameter, hyper-elastic, isotropic, incompressible material to model the vessel tissue. Our numerical model was tested using both synthetic and mouse data and we evaluated the effects of the geometrical and biomechanical properties on the developed peak wall stress. In addition, we performed several parameter sensitivity studies to investigate the effect of different factors affecting the AAA and its behavior and rupture. Lastly, relationships between different geometrical and biomechanical parameters and peak wall stress were determined. These studies help us better understand vessel tissue response to various loading, geometry and biomechanics conditions, and we plan to further correlate these findings with the pathophysiological conditions from a patient population diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  15. Characterization of human aortic elastase found in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J R; Mandell, C; Wise, L

    1987-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the homeostatic balance between elastase and antiprotease activity is altered in the infrarenal aorta of those patients with different types of aortic pathologic findings. The specific properties of elastase found in the aorta of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are discussed herein. Activity of elastase extracted from ten pooled AAA specimens was observed when incubated with several inhibitors: 13.2 per cent for phenyl-suphonyl flouride (PSF); 43.3 per cent for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 77.7 per cent for pepstatin; 137.0 per cent for leupeptin, and 24.0 per cent for alpha-1-antitrypsin. Irreversible inhibition by PSF indicates that the elastase is a serine protease. The elastase is most likely not a metallo enzyme, since it had no absolute requirement for divalent cations as indicated by only partial inhibition by EDTA. Elastase activity is most likely not due to cathepsins B or D, since cathepsins are active in an acid pH and selectively inhibited by leupeptin and pepstatin. The pH curve revealed a maximum activity at pH 8.2 and elastase activity was significantly inhibited by alpha-1-antitrypsin in a dose response manner determining functional elastase activity. These data indicate that the elastase in the aorta of patients with an AAA has the exact properties of the serine elastase found in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta in rats. These results also confirm the critical role of alpha-1-antitrypsin in determining functional elastase activity. Smooth muscle cell regulation of elastin metabolism may be important in determining why some patients have AAA and others have occlusive aortic disease develop.

  16. Late aneurysm formation of Valsalva sinus after aortic valve replacement due to Takayasu's arteritis.

    PubMed

    Funada, Akira; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Nagano, Nobutaka; Sugano, Yasuo; Ohara, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2015-07-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology involving the aorta and its branches, and also causes aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the most serious but rare complications after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in TA is aneurysm formation of the sinus of Valsalva. A 64-year-old woman had undergone AVR with a prosthetic valve for AR due to TA 4 years earlier and had received an implanted permanent pacemaker for complete atrioventricular block (AVB) 2 years later. Aortography 4 years postoperatively demonstrated aneurysm formation (47 mm in diameter) at the sinus of Valsalva although preoperative aortography showed severe AR without dilatation of the sinus of Valsalva. We recommended reoperation for the aneurysm but the patient refused. The perioperative histopathological examination revealed extensive destruction of the medial elastic fibers. Both the fragility of the sinus of Valsalva and the residual inflammation could have caused the patient's aneurysm formation. Moreover, extension of TA into the ventricular septum or mechanical compression of the aneurysm against the conduction system might have caused her progressive AVB. Close and lifelong follow-up for patients with TA regarding development of aneurysm after surgical treatment is indispensable when fragility of the aortic root had been confirmed.

  17. Unusual presentation of silently growing abdominal aortic aneurysm causing biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Lim, Francis; Sunkara, Tejasvi; Hamdani, Syed Uzair

    2017-09-25

    Biliary obstruction is a rare presentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The most common symptoms of AAA are abdominal or back pain and limb ischaemia from thromboembolism. We report a case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice secondary to an AAA. CT angiogram revealed compression of the common bile duct by the large AAA, causing diffuse intrahepatic and extrahepatic ductal dilatation. Surgical repair of the aortic aneurysm was successful, and patient's symptoms improved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Caval and ureteral obstruction secondary to an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Vikram S; Fang, Raymond; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Hagino, Ryan T

    2003-12-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) represent 3% to 10% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms. Obstructive uropathy is a well-described feature of IAAAs, but venous complications are unusual secondary to IAAA. The authors report a patient presenting with acute renal failure and deep venous thrombosis secondary to an IAAA. We believe this represents the first case of an IAAA manifesting as combined inferior vena cava compression and associated obstructive uropathy. Successful operative repair was performed. With resolution of the retroperitoneal inflammation, long-term follow-up revealed spontaneous release of both ureteral and caval compression.

  19. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation and immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Machida, Hisanori; Kobayashi, Makoto; Taguchi, Hirokuni

    2002-11-01

    A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as having an abdominal aortic aneurysm when he was treated for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Three years later, he developed severe thrombocytopenia and had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) that was associated with the inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). The coagulation abnormalities were corrected by low-molecular weight heparin, however the platelet count remained low. Bone marrow showed normocellularity with an increase of immature and mature forms of megakaryocytes. Platelet-associated IgG level was high. These findings suggested that the patient had severe thrombocytopenia caused by unusual complications of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and IAAA-associated DIC.

  20. Surgical Treatment of a Voluminous Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Horseshoe Kidney: Tips and Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Massara, Mafalda; Greco, Michele; Mastrojeni, Claudio; Serra, Raffaele; Salomone, Ignazio; La Spada, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is a common urology anomaly, while its association with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm represents a very rare condition. Surgical approach remains controversial however, we believe that the left retroperitoneal approach should be preferred in order to avoid isthmus resection with any subsequent renal infarction, urinary tract damage and to facilitate renal arteries reimplantation, when required. We present a case of voluminous infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with horseshoe kidney, successfully treated through a left retroperitoneal approach on the retro-renal space. PMID:26730260

  1. Outcome after Turndown for Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Joshua D; Meecham, Lewis; Summerour, Virginia; Khalil, Sheirin; Layton, Georgia; Yousif, Marianne; Jennings, Adrian; Wall, Micheal; Newman, Jeremy

    2017-09-02

    The aim was to assess the survival of patients who had been turned down for repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and to examine the factors influencing this. This was a retrospective observational study of a prospectively maintained database of all patients turned down for AAA intervention by the Black Country Vascular Network multidisciplinary team (MDT) from January 2013 to December 2015. Data on AAA size, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and cause of death were recorded. There were 112 patients. The median age at turndown was 83.9 years (IQR 10.2 years). The median AAA size at turndown was 63 mm (IQR 16.7 mm). The median follow-up time after turndown was 324 days (IQR 537.5 days). Sixty-four patients (57.1%) were deceased after 2 years, with a median survival time of 462 days (IQR 579 days). Patients who died had a significantly larger AAA dimension (median 65 mm, IQR 18.5 mm) than those surviving to date (median 59 mm, IQR 10 mm, p = .004). Using Cox regression analysis, the probability of 1 year survival in the whole population was 0.614. The probability of 2 year survival was 0.388. When accounting for age, gender, AAA dimension, and British Aneurysm Repair risk score, no factors had significant influence over survival. Of the 64 deceased patients, 30 had an accessible cause of death: 36.7% of these were due to ruptured AAAs. There was no significant difference in AAA size between those dying of ruptures and those dying of other causes (p = .225, mean 74 mm and 67 mm respectively). Being turned down for AAA repair carries a significant short-term risk of mortality. Those turned down for repair carried significant levels of comorbid disease but no factors considered were found to be independently predictive of the length of survival. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geometric Predictors of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Maximum Wall Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Solórzano, Luis R.; Finol, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilation of the abdominal aorta (above 50 % of its original diameter), which can cause death upon rupturing. It usually grows asymptomatically leading to late clinical intervention. The medical criteria to indicate surgery are based on measuring the diameter and growth rate, but in many cases aneurysms fail at uncharacterized critical values. In search of a more efficient technique in predicting AAA failure, there is consensus on the importance of studying its geometric characteristics and estimation of the wall stress, but no fully successful correlation has been found between the two yet. This work examines the relationship between a parameterized geometry (18 input variables and 10 dependent indices) and 1 output variable: the maximum wall stress. Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques are used to generate 183 geometric configurations, for which Finite Element Analyses are performed using ANSYS™ state-of-the-art solver with a hyperelastic, isotropic and homogeneous arterial model for the wall, considering systolic internal pressure (steady state) and the restriction of longitudinal movement at the blood vessel end-sections. Due to the large number of independent parameters to consider, a preliminary Parameters Correlation analysis was performed to determine if a correlation between all input parameters and the maximum stress existed. The correlations between input parameters and the output variable were determined using the Spearman Rank correlation. Correlations with the maximum wall stress for: maximum diameter (ρ = 0.46), wall thickness (ρ = 0.35), dc parameter (ρ = 0.21) and tortuosity (ρ = 0.55) were found. The response surface function between geometry and maximum wall stress was estimated by three models: Universal Kriging geostatistical regression (18 parameters), multiple linear regression (4 parameters) and multiple exponential regression (4 parameters). The models accounted for the stress variance by 99 %, 61

  3. Single-Stage Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm through a Median Sternotomy in a Patient with Pseudocoarctation of the Aorta and Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Yoshitaka; Morimoto, Hironobu; Mukai, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a rare anomaly and considered a benign condition. Pseudocoarctation of the aorta has been associated with aneurysm formation in the thoracic aorta, which may cause sudden rupture or dissection. Thus, the presence of an aneurysm in combination with pseudocoarctation of the aorta is thought to be an indication for surgery. We present a case of pseudocoarctation of the aorta associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and severe aortic valve stenosis with a bicuspid aortic valve. In our case, single-stage repair was performed through a median sternotomy using our "pleural-window approach."

  4. Endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with aortocaval fistula based on aortic and inferior vena cava stent-graft placement.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Pierre Galvagni; Cunha, Josué Rafael Ferreira; Lima, Guilherme Baumgardt Barbosa; Franklin, Rafael Narciso; Bortoluzzi, Cristiano Torres; Galego, Gilberto do Nascimento

    2014-11-01

    A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), complicated by an aortocaval fistula (ACF), is usually associated with high morbidity and mortality during open operative repair. We report a case of endovascular treatment of an RAAA with ACF. After accessing both common femoral arteries, a bifurcated aortic stent graft was placed. Subsequently, we accessed the fistula from the right femoral vein and a cava vein angiography showed a persistent massive flow from the cava to the excluded aneurysm sac. We proceeded by covering the fistula with an Excluder aortic stent-graft cuff to prevent pressurization of the aneurysm sac and secondary endoleaks. This procedure is feasible and may reduce the chances of posterior endoleaks.

  5. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-derived ascending aortic flow eccentricity and flow compression are linked to aneurysm morphology†

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Fabian A.; Kocher, Nadja; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Tscheuschler, Anke; Meffert, Philipp; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Russe, Maximilian F.; Hope, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The impact of specific blood flow patterns within ascending aortic and/or aortic root aneurysms on aortic morphology is unknown. We investigated the interrelation of ascending aortic flow compression/peripheralization and aneurysm morphology with respect to sinotubuar junction (STJ) definition. METHODS Thirty-one patients (aortic root/ascending aortic aneurysm >45 mm) underwent flow-sensitive 4D magnetic resonance thoracic aortic flow measurement at 3 Tesla (Siemens, Germany) at two different institutions (Freiburg, Germany, and San Francisco, CA, USA). Time-resolved image data post-processing and visualization of mid-systolic, mid-ascending aortic flow were performed using local vector fields. The Flow Compression Index (FCI) was calculated individually as a fraction of the area of high-velocity mid-systolic flow over the complete cross-sectional ascending aortic area. According to aortic aneurysm morphology, patients were grouped as (i) small root, eccentric ascending aortic aneurysm (STJ definition) and (ii) enlarged aortic root, non-eccentric ascending aortic aneurysm with diffuse root and tubular enlargement. RESULTS The mean FCI over all patients was 0.47 ± 0.5 (0.37–0.99). High levels of flow compression/peripheralization (FCI <0.6) were linked to eccentric aneurysm morphology (Group A, n = 11), while low levels or absence of aortic flow compression/peripheralization (FCI >0.8) occurred more often in Group B (n = 20). The FCI was 0.48 ± 0.05 in Group A and 0.78 ± 0.14 in Group B (P < 0.001). Distribution of bicuspid aortic valve (P = 0.6) and type of valve dysfunction (P = 0.22 for aortic stenosis) was not found to be different between groups. CONCLUSIONS Irrespective of aortic valve morphology and function, ascending aortic blood flow patterns are linked to distinct patterns of ascending aortic aneurysm morphology. Implementation of quantitative local blood flow analyses might help to improve aneurysm risk stratification in the future. PMID

  6. [Quantitative changes of elastin, fibrillin and collagen in abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Osakabe, T; Okada, N; Wachi, H; Sato, A; Sasaki, S; Wada, N; Seyama, Y

    2000-12-01

    To examine quantitative changes of elastin, fibrillin and collagen in abdominal aortic aneurysms, including ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) were measured. Items measured included the desmosine content of the aorta (desmosine 1) or of the elastin fraction (desmosine 2), fibrillin content in the aorta, hydroxyproline in the aorta, collagen percent and elastin percent, and were compared with control samples from the nonaneurysmal aortic segments. The elastin contents (desmosine 2) in RAAA, IAAA and AAA were significantly lower than those of controls. The content of the desmosine 2 from IAAA and AAA did not show a negative association with Ca. The fibrillin contents of the aorta from RAAA, IAAA and AAA were significantly higher than those of controls. The collagen content in the RAAA aorta was significantly higher than that of controls. There was a correlation of the ratio of fibrillin to elastin components (fibrillin/desmosine 1 or fibrillin/desmosine 2 or fibrillin/elastin%) and the ratio of collagen to elastin components (collagen/desmosine 1 or collagen/desmosine 2 or collagen/elastin%). These results indicated that increasing fibrillin and collagen might be a complementary result of decreasing elastin crosslinks in the aorta. This phenomenon was markedly in RAAA.

  7. Pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA): is it not one uniform aorta? Role of embryologic origin.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Jean Marie; Jones, Jeffery A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a clinically silent and potentially fatal disease whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. Application of data derived from animal models and human tissue analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms may prove misleading given current evidence of structural and biochemical aortic heterogeneity above and below the diaphragm. Genetic predisposition is more common in TAA and includes multi-faceted syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and type IV Ehlers-Danlos as well as autosomal-dominant familial patterns of inheritance. Investigation into the consequences of these known mutations has provided insight into the cell signaling cascades leading to degenerative remodeling of the aortic medial extracellular matrix (ECM) with TGF-β playing a major role. Targeted research into modifying the upstream regulation or downstream effects of the TGF-β1 pathway may provide opportunities for intervention to attenuate TAA progression.

  8. Ultrasonography Performed by Primary Care Residents for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Raymond P; Ault, Mark; Greengold, Nancy L; Rosendahl, Thomas; Cossman, David

    2001-01-01

    A prospective pilot study was undertaken to assess a protocol to educate primary care residents in how to personally perform ultrasonography for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening. Resident exams were proctored by a primary care physician trained in ultrasonography and were scored on the level of competence in doing the examination. Patients had ultrasound performed by a resident, followed by repeat examination by the vascular lab. Primary care resident abdominal aortic imaging was achieved in 79 of 80 attempts. Four abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified. There were 75 normal examinations; resident ultrasonography results were consistent with the results of the vascular lab. Ten residents achieved an abdominal aortic ultrasound-independent competence level after an average of 3.4 proctored exams. The main outcome of this study is that a primary care resident, with minimal training in ultrasonography imaging, is able to rapidly learn the technique of ultrasonography imaging of the abdominal aorta. PMID:11903764

  9. Mycotic Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in an Infant after Cardiac Catheterization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Rice, Henry E; Shortell, Cynthia K; Cox, Mitchell W

    2015-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a rare entity in the pediatric population. Children with mycotic (infectious) AAA in particular are at risk of life-threatening rupture due to their rapid expansion coupled with aortic wall thinning and deterioration. Here, we present the case of a 10-month-old infant with prior 2-staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was incidentally discovered to have a mycotic AAA on abdominal ultrasound (US) for evaluation of renovascular hypertension. Before the time of evaluation with US, the infant had developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 3 days after cardiac catheterization with percutaneous thoracic aortic balloon angioplasty. She had normal aortic contours on contrasted computed tomography scan of the abdomen approximately 2 weeks before the aforementioned US evaluation. This infant subsequently underwent open aneurysmorrhaphy with cryopreserved vein patch angioplasty with resolution of her aneurysmal segment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Colorectal cancer associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm: results of EVAR followed by colectomy.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The association of colorectal cancer and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is infrequent but poses special problems of priority of treatment under elective circumstances. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcome of 16 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) followed by colectomy. Operative mortality was nil. Operative morbidity included two transient rise of serum creatinine level and one extraperitoneal anastomotic leakage which evolved favourably with conservative treatment. EVAR allowed a very short delay of treatment of colorectal cancer after aneurysm repair, minimizing operative complications.

  11. Listeriosis Infection of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Papadoulas, Spyros I; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kraniotis, Pantelis A; Manousi, Maria E; Marangos, Markos N; Tsolakis, Ioannis A

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) infected by Listeria monocytogenes in a 72-year-old male diabetic farmer, is reported. Our patient had a history of a recent pneumonia that could have been caused by Listeria too. Aneurysm infection was manifested by fever and abdominal and back pain, which prompted investigation with CT scanning that revealed a 4.9 cm AAA with typical signs of infection. He underwent urgent AAA repair with aortobifemoral bypass grafting and had an uneventful course. Aneurysm content microbiology revealed Listeria monocytogenes and following a 9-week course of antibiotics our patient remains asymptomatic 11 months later. PMID:23599616

  12. Changes in wall shear stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysms with increasing wall stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    During the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms, local changes occur in the composition and structure of the diseased wall, resulting in its stiffening. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in idealized models of aneurysms using a finite element method. A full coupling of the equations governing the pulsatile blood flow and the deformation of the compliant wall is undertaken. The effect of the progressive stiffening of the wall is analyzed at various stages in the growth of the aneurysm. Increasing the wall stiffness alters the distribution of wall shear stresses and leads to an increase in their magnitude. The wall compliance is shown to have a more pronounced effect on non-axisymmetric aneurysms, which sustain large displacements. The overall movement of the aneurysm models increases the three-dimensionality of the flow.

  13. Understanding the effects of tobacco smoke on the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul E.; Curci, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal arterial disease is a vascular degenerative condition that is distinct from atherosclerotic and other occlusive arterial diseases. There is regionalization of the predisposition to aneurysm formation within the vascular tree, and the pathologic process varies with location. Infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is the most common manifestation of aneurysmal disease, and smoking is the dominant risk factor. Smoking is a much greater risk factor for AAA than for atherosclerosis. In addition to playing a role in the etiology of AAA, smoking also increases the rate of expansion and risk of rupture of established AAA. The mechanistic relationship between AAA and smoking is being established with the use of enhanced animal models that are dependent on smoke or smoke components. The mechanisms appear to involve durable alterations in vascular smooth muscle cell and inflammatory cell function. This review will examine the clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic evidence implicating smoking as a cause of aneurysms, focusing on AAA. PMID:23685557

  14. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-Like Syndrome After Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Rucker, Janet C.; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy-like syndrome is a rare complication of ascending aortic aneurysm repair. We report two patients with videos and present a table of prior reported cases. To our knowledge there is no previously published video of this syndrome. The suspected mechanism is brainstem injury though neuroimaging is often negative for an associated infarct. We hope our report will increase recognition of this syndrome after aortic surgery, especially in patients with visual complaints. PMID:24386607

  15. Alternative to the bentall procedure for elderly patients with aortic root aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bical, Olivier M; Deleuze, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We describe an alternative technique to the Bentall procedure for elderly patients with aortic root aneurysms. It is the subcoronary implantation of a Freestyle (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) aortic bioprosthesis with interposition of a graft material between the upper part of the Freestyle bioprosthesis and the distal aorta. The technique described avoids the proximal anastomosis of the graft and avoids the coronary reimplantations of the Bentall procedure which are still a potential risk of bleeding particularly in elderly patients.

  16. A critical appraisal of endovascular stent-grafts in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Schoretsanitis, Nikolaos; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Argyriou, Christos; Ktenidis, Kiriakos; Georgiadis, George S

    2017-04-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has widely replaced the open surgical repair due to its minimal invasive nature and the accompanying lower perioperative mortality and morbidity. During the past two decades, certain improvements and developments have provided a wide variety of endograft structural designs and geometric patterns, enabling the physician to approach a more patient-specific treatment of AAA. This review presents the currently available aortic endografts and describes the clinical, technical and mechanical characteristics of them.

  17. Early patency rate and fate of reattached intercostal arteries after repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Omura, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Inoue, Takeshi; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    The present study analyzes the early patency of intercostal artery reconstruction, using graft interposition and aortic patch anastomosis, and determines the fate of reattached intercostal arteries after repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. We selected 115 patients (mean age, 63 ± 15 years; range, 19-83 years; male, n = 83) treated by thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair with 1 or more reconstructed intercostal arteries at the Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine between October 1999 and December 2012. The intercostal arteries were reconstructed using graft interposition (n = 66), aortic patch anastomosis (n = 42), or both (n = 7). The hospital mortality rate was 7.8% (n = 9). Eleven patients (9.6%) developed spinal cord ischemic injury (permanent, n = 6, transient, n = 5). The average number of reconstructed intercostal arteries per patient was 3.0 ± 1.5 (1-7), and 345 intercostal arteries were reattached. The overall patency rate was 74.2% (256/345) and that of aortic patch anastomosis was significantly better than that of graft interposition (90.8% [109/120] vs 65.3% [147/225], P < .01), but significantly worse for patients with than without spinal cord ischemic injury (51.9% [14/27] vs 76.1% [242/318], P = .01). There was no patch aneurysm in graft interposition during a mean of 49 ± 38 (range, 2-147) postoperative months, but aortic patch anastomosis including 4 intercostal arteries became dilated in 2 patients. Aortic patch anastomosis might offer better patency rates and prevent spinal cord ischemic injury compared with graft interposition. Although aneurysmal changes in intercostal artery reconstructions are rare, large blocks of aortic wall reconstruction should be closely monitored. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interleukin-6 receptor pathways in abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Seamus C.; Smith, Andrew J.P.; Jones, Gregory T.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Rampuri, Riaz; Bown, Matthew J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Baas, Annette F.; de Borst, Gert Jan; Blankensteijn, Jan D.; Price, Jacqueline F.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; McLachlan, Stela; Agu, Obi; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Ruigrok, Ynte M.; van't Hof, F.N.; Powell, Janet T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Casas, Juan P.; Eriksson, Per; Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Humphries, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting circulating IL-6 in AAA, and new investigations of the association between a common non-synonymous functional variant (Asp358Ala) in the IL-6R gene (IL6R) and AAA, followed the analysis of the variant both in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation may play a role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling through its receptor (IL-6R) is one pathway that could be exploited pharmacologically. We investigated this using a Mendelian randomization approach. Results Up to October 2011, we identified seven studies (869 cases, 851 controls). Meta-analysis demonstrated that AAA cases had higher levels of IL-6 than controls [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.46 SD, 95% CI = 0.25–0.66, I2 = 70%, P = 1.1 × 10–5 random effects]. Meta-analysis of five studies (4524 cases/15 710 controls) demonstrated that rs7529229 (which tags the non-synonymous variant Asp358Ala, rs2228145) was associated with a lower risk of AAA, per Ala358 allele odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI: 0.80–0.89, I2 = 0%, P = 2.7 × 10–11). In vitro analyses in lymphoblastoid cell lines demonstrated a reduction in the expression of downstream targets (STAT3, MYC and ICAM1) in response to IL-6 stimulation in Ala358 carriers. Conclusions A Mendelian randomization approach provides robust evidence that signalling via the IL-6R is likely to be a causal pathway in AAA. Drugs that inhibit IL-6R may play a role in AAA management. PMID:23111417

  19. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Waldemar; Sliwczynski, Andrzej; Pinkas, Jaroslaw; Jawien, Arkadiusz; Karnafel, Waldemar

    2017-09-01

    The publication is a polemical response to reports that present data that diabetes reduces the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study analyzed all cases of developing AAA in patients with and without diabetes in 2012 in Poland. Data for the analysis were obtained with a unique and complete resources of the National Health Fund (NFZ) and population data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS). In Poland during 2012 2,227,453 patients with diabetes were treated, 975,364 males and 1,252,089 females. The incidence of AAA without rupture in patients without diabetes calculated per 100,000 of the non-diabetes general population was 25.0 +/- 9.0 in males and 5.6 +/- 2.3 in females. The incidence of ruptured AAA in the general population without diabetes was 3.6 +/- 0.9 in males, and 0.6 +/- 0.3 in females calculated per 100,000 of inhabitants without diabetes. The incidence of AAA without rupture in patients with diabetes was 184.897 +/- 70.653 in males and 35.364 +/- 24.925 in females calculated per 100,000 of patients diagnosed with diabetes. The incidence of ruptured AAA in patients with diabetes was 21.090 +/- 6.050 in males and 5.170 +/- 3.053 in females calculated per 100,000 of patients diagnosed with diabetes. The incidence rate for ruptured AAA in 2012 in Poland is statistically higher both in females and males in the population with diabetes. The incidence rate for AAA without rupture in 2012 in Poland is statistically higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes.

  20. Endovascular vs open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Nedeau, April E.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Hsu, Richard; Sachs, Teviah; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Schermerhorn, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endovascular repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) has become first-line therapy at our institution and is performed under a standardized protocol. We compare perioperative mortality, midterm survival, and morbidity after EVAR and open surgical repair (OSR). Methods Records were retrospectively reviewed from May 2000 to September 2010 for repair of infrarenal rAAAs. Primary end points included perioperative mortality and midterm survival. Secondary end points included acute limb ischemia, length of stay, ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, renal failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, and secondary intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test,X2 test, the Fisher exact test, and logistic regression calculations. Midterm survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Results Seventy-four infrarenal rAAAs were repaired, 19 by EVAR and 55 by OSR. Despite increased age and comorbidity in the EVAR patients, perioperative mortality was 15.7% for EVAR, which was significantly lower than the 49% for OSR (odds ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.74; P = .008). Midterm survival also favored EVAR (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.77; P = .028, adjusted for age and sex). Mean follow-up was 20 months, and 1-year survival was 60% for EVAR vs 45% for OSR. Mean length of stay for patients surviving >1 day was 10 days for EVAR and 21 days for OSR (P = .004). Ventilator-dependent respiratory failure was 5% in the EVAR group vs 42% for OSR (odds ratio, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.62; P = .001). Conclusions EVAR of rAAA has a superior perioperative survival advantage and decreased morbidity vs OSR. Although not statistically significant, overall survival favors EVAR. We recommend that EVAR be considered as the first-line treatment of rAAAs and practiced as the standard of care. PMID:22626871

  1. Mediators of neutrophil recruitment in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Houard, Xavier; Touat, Ziad; Ollivier, Véronique; Louedec, Liliane; Philippe, Monique; Sebbag, Uriel; Meilhac, Olivier; Rossignol, Patrick; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2009-01-01

    Aims Neutrophils/platelet interactions are involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a human model of platelet/neutrophil interactions. The present study focused on mediators involved in neutrophil recruitment in AAA. Methods and results Conditioned media from luminal, intermediate, and abluminal layers of 29 human ILTs were analysed for neutrophil markers [elastase/α1-antitrypsin and MMP9/NGAL complexes, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and α-defensin peptides], RANTES, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Their time-dependent release into serum from clots generated in vitro and their plasma concentrations in AAA patients and controls were determined. Immunohistochemistry for neutrophils, platelets, IL-8, PF4, and RANTES on AAA sections was performed; and molecules involved in ILT neutrophil chemotactic function were analysed in vitro. Neutrophils and platelets colocalized in the luminal layer of the thrombus. Consistently, neutrophil markers and platelet-derived RANTES and PF4 were released predominantly by the luminal thrombus pole, where their concentrations were significantly correlated. The luminal ILT layer was also the main source of IL-8, whose immunostaining colocalized with neutrophils. All were also released time dependently from clots and were increased in plasma of AAA patients. Luminal ILT layers displayed potent neutrophil chemotactic activity in vitro, which was inhibited by RANTES- and IL-8-blocking antibodies as well as by reparixin, an antagonist of the IL-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that platelet-derived RANTES and neutrophil-derived IL-8 are involved in attracting neutrophils to the luminal layer of AAA ILT. PMID:19201759

  2. Biomechanics and gene expression in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Reeps, Christian; Kehl, Sebastian; Tanios, Fadwa; Biehler, Jonas; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Wall, Wolfgang A; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Gee, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to detect inter-relations between the mechanical conditions and material properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall and the underlying local gene expression of destabilizing inflammatory, proteolytic, and structural factors. During open surgery, 51 tissue samples from 31 AAA patients were harvested. Gene expression of collagen types I and III, inflammatory factors CD45 and MSR1, proteolytic enzymes matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Material properties of corresponding AAA tissue samples were assessed by cyclic sinusoidal and destructive testing. Local mechanical conditions of stress and strain were determined by advanced nonlinear finite element analysis based on patient-specific three-dimensional AAA models derived from preoperative computed tomography data. In the AAA wall, all parameters analyzed were significantly expressed at the messenger RNA level. With respect to mechanical properties of the aneurysmatic wall, expression of collagen III correlated with the stiffness parameter α (r = -0.348; P = .017), and matrix metalloprotease 2 correlated with the stiffness parameter β and wall strength (r = -0.438 and -0.593; P = .005 and P < .001). Furthermore, significant relationships were observed between local AAA diameter and the expression of CD45, MSR1, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (r = 0.285, 0.551, 0.328; P < .05). However, we found no inter-relation of local calculated wall stresses and strains with gene expression. Our results show for the first time that gene expressions of destabilizing factors within AAA tissue might be correlated to geometric and mechanical properties of the AAA wall. However, we found no influence of local mechanical conditions on gene expression of these factors. Therefore, these preliminary results are still ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery

  3. Imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysm: the present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Liu, Bo; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a common, progressive, and potentially lethal vascular disease. A major obstacle in AAA research, as well as patient care, is the lack of technology that enables non-invasive acquisition of molecular/cellular information in the developing AAA. In this review we will briefly summarize the current techniques (e.g. ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) for anatomical imaging of AAA. We also discuss the various functional imaging techniques that have been explored for AAA imaging. In many cases, these anatomical and functional imaging techniques are not sufficient for providing surgeons/clinicians enough information about each individual AAA (e.g. rupture risk) to optimize patient management. Recently, molecular imaging techniques (e.g. optical and radionuclide-based) have been employed to visualize the molecular alterations associated with AAA, which are discussed in this review. Lastly, we try to provide a glance into the future and point out the challenges for AAA imaging. We believe that the future of AAA imaging lies in the combination of anatomical and molecular imaging techniques, which are largely complementary rather than competitive. Ultimately, with the right molecular imaging probe, clinicians will be able to monitor AAA growth and evaluate the risk of rupture accurately, so that the life-saving surgery can be provided to the right patients at the right time. Equally important, the right imaging probe will also allow scientists/clinicians to acquire critical data during AAA development and to more accurately evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments. PMID:20180767

  4. Superior mesenteric artery outcomes after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lala, Salim; Knowles, Martyn; Timaran, David; Baig, Mirza Shadman; Valentine, James; Timaran, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The Zenith (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) fenestrated endovascular graft may be designed with single-wide scallops or large fenestrations to address the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Misalignment of the SMA with an unstented scallop or a large fenestration is possible. This study assessed SMA outcomes after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR). During an 18-month period, 47 FEVARs were performed at a single institution. For analysis, patients were grouped according to unstented (n = 23) vs stented (n = 24) SMA scallops/fenestrations. The Institutional Review Board approved this single-institution observational study. Because this was a retrospective review of the data, patient consent was unnecessary for the study. Technical success for FEVAR was 100%. The median follow-up period was 7.7 months (range, 1-16 months). Nine of 21 patients (43%) in the unstented group had some degree of misalignment of the SMA (range, 9%-71%). Among these, four patients (44%) developed complications: three SMA stenoses and one occlusion. The mean peak systolic velocity in patients with and without SMA misalignment was 317.8 cm/s vs 188.4 cm/s (P < .08), respectively. No misalignment occurred in the stented group, and only one of 19 patients (5%) developed an SMA stenosis that required angioplasty. Overall, patients with unstented SMAs had significantly more adverse events directly attributable to SMA misalignment than the stented group (44% vs 5%, respectively; P < .05). Misalignment of the SMA with the use of unstented unreinforced scallops or fenestrations occurs frequently. Routine stenting of single-wide and large fenestrations, when feasible, may be a safer option for patients undergoing FEVAR. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Liu, Bo; Cai, Weibo

    2010-11-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a common, progressive, and potentially lethal vascular disease. A major obstacle in AAA research, as well as patient care, is the lack of technology that enables non-invasive acquisition of molecular/cellular information in the developing AAA. In this review we will briefly summarize the current techniques (e.g. ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) for anatomical imaging of AAA. We also discuss the various functional imaging techniques that have been explored for AAA imaging. In many cases, these anatomical and functional imaging techniques are not sufficient for providing surgeons/clinicians enough information about each individual AAA (e.g. rupture risk) to optimize patient management. Recently, molecular imaging techniques (e.g. optical and radionuclide-based) have been employed to visualize the molecular alterations associated with AAA, which are discussed in this review. Lastly, we try to provide a glance into the future and point out the challenges for AAA imaging. We believe that the future of AAA imaging lies in the combination of anatomical and molecular imaging techniques, which are largely complementary rather than competitive. Ultimately, with the right molecular imaging probe, clinicians will be able to monitor AAA growth and evaluate the risk of rupture accurately, so that the life-saving surgery can be provided to the right patients at the right time. Equally important, the right imaging probe will also allow scientists/clinicians to acquire critical data during AAA development and to more accurately evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments.

  6. Functional characterization of T cells in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Forester, Nerys D; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) exhibit features of a chronic inflammatory disorder. The functional attributes of the T cells in AAA tissue are unclear, with little quantitative or functional data. Using a novel, non-enzymatic method to isolate viable cells from AAA tissue, functional properties of AAA T cells were investigated for the first time. Composition and phenotype of AAA T cells was determined by flow cytometry and verified by immunohistochemistry. Tissue mononuclear cells (MNCs) were cultured in the presence of T-cell mitogens, and cell cycle analysis and cytokine production assessed. Typical cell yield was 4·5 × 106 cells per gram of AAA tissue. The majority (58·1 ± 5·3%) of haematopoietic (CD45+) cells recovered were CD3+ T cells, B cells comprised 41·1 ± 5·7%, natural killer cells 7·3 ± 2·5%, and macrophages 2%. Freshly isolated T cells were in resting (G1) state, with 25% expressing the activation-associated cell surface antigens major histocompatibility complex II and CD25. When stimulated in vitro, a significant proportion entered S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, up-regulated CD25, and secreted tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6. Despite patient differences, the composition of the AAA inflammatory infiltrate was remarkably consistent, and when re-stimulated ex-vivo T cells produced a stereotypical cytokine response, consistent with the hypothesis that AAA T cells can promote tissue inflammation by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and in addition provide signals for B-cell help. PMID:15885133

  7. Functional characterization of T cells in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Forester, Nerys D; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2005-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) exhibit features of a chronic inflammatory disorder. The functional attributes of the T cells in AAA tissue are unclear, with little quantitative or functional data. Using a novel, non-enzymatic method to isolate viable cells from AAA tissue, functional properties of AAA T cells were investigated for the first time. Composition and phenotype of AAA T cells was determined by flow cytometry and verified by immunohistochemistry. Tissue mononuclear cells (MNCs) were cultured in the presence of T-cell mitogens, and cell cycle analysis and cytokine production assessed. Typical cell yield was 4.5 x 10(6) cells per gram of AAA tissue. The majority (58.1+/-5.3%) of haematopoietic (CD45+) cells recovered were CD3+ T cells, B cells comprised 41.1+/-5.7%, natural killer cells 7.3+/-2.5%, and macrophages 2%. Freshly isolated T cells were in resting (G1) state, with 25% expressing the activation-associated cell surface antigens major histocompatibility complex II and CD25. When stimulated in vitro, a significant proportion entered S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, up-regulated CD25, and secreted tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6. Despite patient differences, the composition of the AAA inflammatory infiltrate was remarkably consistent, and when re-stimulated ex-vivo T cells produced a stereotypical cytokine response, consistent with the hypothesis that AAA T cells can promote tissue inflammation by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and in addition provide signals for B-cell help.

  8. An Animal Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Created with Peritoneal Patch: Technique and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Maynar, Manuel Hernandez, Javier; Sun Fei; Miguel, Carmen de; Crisostomo, Veronica; Uson, Jesus; Pineda, Luis-Fernando

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop an abdominal aortic aneurysm model that more closely resembles themorphology of human aneurysms with potential for further growth of the sac. An infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) model was created with a double-layered peritoneal patch in 27 domestic swine. The patch,measuring in average from 6 to 12 cm in length and from 2 to 3 cm in width, was sutured to the edge of an aortotomy. Pre- and postsurgical digital subtraction aortograms (DSA) were obtained to document the appearance and dimensions of the aneurysm. All animals were followed with DSA for up to 5 months. Laparoscopic examination enhanced by the use of laparoscopic ultrasound was also carried out in 2 animals to assess the aneurysm at 30 and 60 days following surgery. Histological examination was performed on 4 animals. All the animals that underwent the surgical creation of the AAA survived the surgical procedure.Postsurgical DSA demonstrated the presence of the AAA in all animals,defined as more than 50% increase in diameter. The aneurysmal mean diameter increased from the baseline of 10.27 {+-} 1.24 to 16.69{+-} 2.29 mm immediately after surgery, to 27.6 {+-} 6.59 mm at 14 days, 32.45 {+-} 8.76 mm at 30 days (p <0.01), and subsequently decreased to 25.98 {+-} 3.75 mm at 60 days. A total of 15 animals died of aneurysmal rupture that occurred more frequently in the long aneurysms ({>=}6 cm in length) than the short aneurysms (<6 cm in length) during the first 2 weeks after surgery(p < 0.05). No rupture occurred beyond 16 days after surgery. Four animals survived and underwent 60-day angiographic follow-up. Laparoscopic follow-up showed strong pulses, a reddish external appearance and undetectable suture lines on the aneurysmal wall. On pathology, the patches were well incorporated into the aortic wall, the luminal wall appeared almost completely endothelialized, and cellular and matrix proliferation were noted in the aneurysmal wall. A reproducible

  9. Simulation of bifurcated stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, J.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper a method is introduced, to visualize bifurcated stent grafts in CT-Data. The aim is to improve therapy planning for minimal invasive treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Due to precise measurement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm and exact simulation of the bifurcated stent graft, physicians are supported in choosing a suitable stent prior to an intervention. The presented method can be used to measure the dimensions of the abdominal aortic aneurysm as well as simulate a bifurcated stent graft. Both of these procedures are based on a preceding segmentation and skeletonization of the aortic, right and left iliac. Using these centerlines (aortic, right and left iliac) a bifurcated initial stent is constructed. Through the implementation of an ACM method the initial stent is fit iteratively to the vessel walls - due to the influence of external forces (distance- as well as balloonforce). Following the fitting process, the crucial values for choosing a bifurcated stent graft are measured, e.g. aortic diameter, right and left common iliac diameter, minimum diameter of distal neck. The selected stent is then simulated to the CT-Data - starting with the initial stent. It hereby becomes apparent if the dimensions of the bifurcated stent graft are exact, i.e. the fitting to the arteries was done properly and no ostium was covered.

  10. Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Three Patient Populations, Two Disease Phenotypes, and One Shared Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) are two discrete cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by latent progressive disease states. There is a clear association between BAV and TAA; however the nature and extent of this relationship is unclear. There are both distinct and overlapping developmental pathways that have been established to contribute to the formation of the aortic valve and the aortic root, and the mature anatomy of these different tissue types is intimately intertwined. Likewise, human genetics studies have established apparently separate and common contributions to these clinical phenotypes, suggesting complex inheritance and a shared genetic basis and translating 3 patient populations, namely, BAV, TAA, or both, into a common but diverse etiology. A better understanding of the BAV-TAA association will provide an opportunity to leverage molecular information to modify clinical care through more sophisticated diagnostic testing, improved counseling, and ultimately new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:22970404

  11. Superior outcomes for rural patients after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair supports a systematic regional approach to abdominal aortic aneurysm care.

    PubMed

    Mell, Matthew W; Bartels, Christie; Kind, Amy; Leverson, Glen; Smith, Maureen

    2012-09-01

    The impact of geographic isolation on abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) care in the United States is unknown. It has been postulated but not proven that rural patients have less access to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), vascular surgeons, and high-volume treatment centers than their urban counterparts, resulting in inferior AAA care. The purpose of this study was to compare the national experience for treatment of intact AAA for patients living in rural areas or towns with those living in urban areas. Patients who underwent intact AAA repair in 2005 to 2006 were identified from a standard 5% random sample of all Medicare beneficiaries. Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, type of repair, and specialty of operating surgeon were collected. Hospitals were stratified into quintiles by yearly AAA volume. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality and rehospitalization. A total of 2616 patients had repair for intact AAA (40% open, 60% EVAR). Patients from rural and urban areas were equally likely to receive EVAR (rural 60% vs urban 61%; P = .99) and be treated by a vascular surgeon (rural 48% vs urban 50%; P = .82). Most rural patients (86%) received care in urban centers. Primary outcomes occurred in 11.6% of rural patients (1.3% 30-day mortality; 10.3% rehospitalization) vs 16.0% of urban patients (3% 30-day mortality, 13% rehospitalization; P = .04). In multivariate analyses, rural residence was independently associated with treatment at high-volume centers (odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.01; P < .0001) and decreased death or rehospitalization (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.97; P = .03). Despite geographic isolation, patients in rural areas needing treatment for intact AAAs have equivalent access to EVAR and vascular surgeons, increased referral to high-volume hospitals, and improved outcomes after repair. This suggests that urban patients may be disadvantaged even with nearby access to high-quality centers. This study

  12. Initial clinical experience with a sac-anchoring endoprosthesis for aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Donayre, Carlos E; Zarins, Christopher K; Krievins, Dainis K; Holden, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Calderas, Carlos; Velez, Jaime; White, Rodney A

    2011-03-01

    All current aortic endografts depend on proximal and distal fixation to prevent migration. However, migration and rupture can occur, particularly in patients with aortic necks that are short or angulated, or both. We present our initial clinical experience with a new sac-anchoring endoprosthesis designed to anchor and seal the device within the aneurysm sac. The initial worldwide experience using a new endoprosthesis for the treatment of aortic aneurysms (Nellix Endovascular, Palo Alto, Calif) was reviewed. The endoprosthesis consists of dual balloon-expandable endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags designed to obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. Clinical results and follow-up contrast computed tomography (CT) scans at 30 days and 6 and 12 months were reviewed. The endograft was successfully deployed in 21 patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms measuring 5.7 ± 0.7 cm (range, 4.3-7.4 cm). Two patients with common iliac aneurysms were treated with sac-anchoring extenders that maintained patency of the internal iliac artery. Infusion of 71 ± 37 mL of polymer (range, 19-158 mL) into the aortic endobags resulted in complete aneurysm exclusion in all patients. Mean implant time was 76 ± 35 minutes, with 33 ± 17 minutes of fluoroscopy time and 180 ± 81 mL of contrast; estimated blood loss was 174 ± 116 mL. One patient died during the postoperative period (30-day mortality, 4.8%), and one died at 10 months from non-device-related causes. During a mean follow-up of 8.7 ± 3.1 months and a median of 6.3 months, there were no late aneurysm- or device-related adverse events and no secondary procedures. CT imaging studies at 6 months and 1 year revealed no increase in aneurysm size, no device migration, and no new endoleaks. One patient had a limited proximal type I endoleak at 30 days that resolved at 60 days and remained sealed. One patient has an ongoing distal type I endoleak near the iliac bifurcation, with no change in aneurysm

  13. Blood flow dynamic improvement with aneurysm repair detected by a patient-specific model of multiple aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Mogi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Ken'ichi; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Aortic aneurysms may cause the turbulence of blood flow and result in the energy loss of the blood flow, while grafting of the dilated aorta may ameliorate these hemodynamic disturbances, contributing to the alleviation of the energy efficiency of blood flow delivery. However, evaluating of the energy efficiency of blood flow in an aortic aneurysm has been technically difficult to estimate and not comprehensively understood yet. We devised a multiscale computational biomechanical model, introducing novel flow indices, to investigate a single male patient with multiple aortic aneurysms. Preoperative levels of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were elevated but declined after staged grafting procedures: OSI decreased from 0.280 to 0.257 (first operation) and 0.221 (second operation). Graftings may strategically counter the loss of efficient blood delivery to improve hemodynamics of the aorta. The energy efficiency of blood flow also improved postoperatively. Novel indices of pulsatile pressure index (PPI) and pulsatile energy loss index (PELI) were evaluated to characterize and quantify energy loss of pulsatile blood flow. Mean PPI decreased from 0.445 to 0.423 (first operation) and 0.359 (second operation), respectively; while the preoperative PELI of 0.986 dropped to 0.820 and 0.831. Graftings contributed not only to ameliorate wall shear stress or oscillatory shear index but also to improve efficient blood flow. This patient-specific modeling will help in analyzing the mechanism of aortic aneurysm formation and may play an important role in quantifying the energy efficiency or loss in blood delivery.

  14. Robotic-assisted aortic surgery with and without minilaparotomy for complicated occlusive disease and aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lin, Judith C; Kaul, Sanjeev A; Bhandari, Akshay; Peterson, Edward L; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani

    2012-01-01

    Published reports of robotic-assisted aortic surgery involve a combination of laparoscopy for aortic dissection and a robotic system for vascular reconstruction. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility and advantage of a total robotic-assisted aortic dissection and vascular reconstruction vs robotic-assisted aortic procedures for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From February 2006 to August 2010, 21 patients were selected for robotic-assisted aortic procedures: aortobifemoral bypass in 12, AAA repair in 6, iliac aneurysm repair in 1, and ligation of type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair in 2. Inclusion criteria included AAA >5 cm, iliac aneurysm >3 cm, and AIOD TransAtlantic InterSociety Classification (TASC) C or D lesions. The da Vinci S Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) was used for the abdominal aortic dissection in all cases and for the aortic anastomosis in three cases. The 21 patients (6 women, 15 men) were an average age of 65.7 years (range, 44-86 years), had a body mass index (BMI) of 27.23 kg/m(2), and 90.4% were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 or 4. Robotic dissection of the abdominal aorta was successful in 20 patients (95.2%). One patient required full conversion to open AAA repair due to trocar injury. Of the remaining 20 patients, the average robotic dissection time of the infrarenal aorta was 113.1 minutes, and the average aortic clamp time was 86 minutes. The procedure in 15 patients was performed with a minilaparotomy using an average abdominal incision of 13 cm to implant the Dacron or polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Five patients underwent a total robotic-assisted procedure with robotic aortic reconstruction or ligation of a type II endoleak. The 30-day survival rate was 100%. Median length of stay was 7.5 days. All grafts were patent at a median follow-up of 32.0 months. For aortic procedures completed total robotically without

  15. Hybrid repair of penetrating aortic ulcer associated with right aortic arch and aberrant left innominate artery arising from aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum with simultaneous repair of bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bin; Cai, Hongbo; Jin, Hui

    2014-02-01

    We present the first case of a hybrid endovascular approach to a penetrating aortic ulcer on the left descending aorta with a right aortic arch and aberrant left innominate artery arising from an aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum. The patient also had bilateral common iliac artery aneurysms. The three-step procedure consisted of a carotid-carotid bypass, followed by endovascular exclusion of the ulcer and the aneurysmal Kommerell's diverticulum, and then completion by covering the iliac aneurysms. The patient had no complications at 18 months after surgery. In such rare configurations, endovascular repair is a safe therapeutic option.

  16. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection Repair (EVAR) in Iran: Descriptive Midterm Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Haji Zeinali, Ali Mohammad; Marzban, Mehrab; Zafarghandi, Mohammadreza; Shirzad, Mahmood; Shirani, Shapour; Mahmoodian, Roshanak; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Lotfi-Tokaldany, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endovascular repair of aorta in comparison to open surgery has a low early operative mortality rate, but its long-term results are uncertain. Objectives: The current study describes for the first time our initial four-year experience of elective endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) at Tehran heart center, the first and a major referral heart center in Iran, as a pioneer of EVAR in Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 51 patients (46 men) who had the diagnosis of either an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 36), thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) (n = 7), or thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) (n = 8) who had undergone EVAR by Medtronic stent grafts by our team between December 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed. Results: The rate of in-hospital aneurysm-related deaths in the group with AAA stood at 2.8% (one case), while there was no in-hospital mortality in the other groups. All patients were followed up for 13-18 months. The cumulative death rate in follow-up was nine cases from the total 51 cases (18%), out of which six cases were in the AAA group (four patients due to non-cardiac causes and two patients due to aneurysm-related causes), one case in the TAA group (following a severe hemoptysis), and two cases in the TAD group (following an expansion of dissection from re-entrance). The major event-free survival rate was 80.7% for endovascular repair of AAA, 85.7% for endovascular repair of TAA, and 65.6% for endovascular repair of TAD. Conclusion: The endovascular stent-graft repair of the abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection had high technical success rates in tandem with low-rate early mortality and morbidity, short hospital stay, and acceptable mid-term free symptom survival among Iranian patients. PMID:27110330

  17. [Use of an iliac branched endoprostheis in endovascular treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with aneurysms of both common iliac arteries].

    PubMed

    Imaev, T E; Kuchin, I V; Lepilin, P M; Kolegaev, A S; Medvedeva, I S; Komlev, A E; Akchurin, R S

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm appears to be combined with aneurysmatic lesions of the common iliac arteries in 30-40% of cases. Like abdominal aortic aneurysms, aneurysms of the common iliac arteries rarely manifest themselves clinically. The lethality rate in case of rupture is comparable to that for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. During endoprosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms combined with aneurysms of the common iliac arteries, in order to prevent endoleaks and to improve the distal zone of fixation of endografts surgeons often resort to embolization of internal iliac arteries, which may lead to ischaemic postoperative complications. One of the methods of preserving pelvic blood flow is the use of an iliac branched endograft. A series of studies evaluating long-term outcomes demonstrated that this method proved to be both safe and effective, and with the suitable anatomy is a method of choice in high surgical risk patients. The present article deals with a clinical case report concerning bilateral endoprosthetic repair of the common iliac arteries, combined with endoprosthetic repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, with the description of technical peculiarities of implanting an iliac branched graft.

  18. Neoaortic Xenoprosthetic Grafts for Treatment of Mycotic Aneurysms and Infected Aortic Grafts.

    PubMed

    Anibueze, Chukwudubem; Sankaran, Visesh; Sadat, Umar; Tan, Kelvin; Wilson, Yvonne G; Brightwell, Robert E; Delbridge, Michael S; Stather, Philip W

    2017-10-01

    There is no international consensus regarding the optimum management of infected aortae (mycotic aneurysms, infected aortic grafts). Neoaortoiliac reconstruction has advantages over extra-anatomical bypass grafting; however, the use of autologous vein is associated with venous hypertension and compartment syndrome, alternatively cadaveric homografts are associated with high rates of perianastomotic hemorrhage, limb occlusion, and pseudoaneurysm. Arterial repair using xenoprosthetic patches is associated with lower infection rates compared to the use of prosthetic material. The aim of this case series and literature review is to report the use of xenoprosthetic bovine biomaterial for neoaortic repair of mycotic aneurysmal disease and infected aortic grafts. Patients with evidence of infected aortic grafts or mycotic aneurysms who were suitable for open aortic surgery were included. Following removal of the graft/excision of the aneurysmal sac, a 10 × 16 cm XenoSure Biologic Surgical Patch (LeMaitre, Germany) was rolled into a tube, or bifurcated tube graft, and secured with prolene sutures. Proximal and distal anastomoses were conducted as per standard aortic anastomoses. Patients were continued on long-term antibiotics and surveyed with computerized tomography at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Six patients underwent bovine aortic repair between 2013 and 2015: an infected Dacron aortobi-iliac graft causing iliac pseudoaneurysm, an infected Dacron aortic graft from open repair later relined with endovascular stent graft, a mycotic iliac aneurysm, and 3 mycotic aortic aneurysms. All were treated with bovine reconstructed aortic grafts or patches. Patients had a median age of 69.5 years (range 67-75), with perioperative and 30-day mortality of 0%. Median follow-up was 13 months (range 2-23). Postoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed no evidence of infection at the operative site in all patients. Freedom from reinfection and reintervention was 100

  19. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Waeckel, Ludovic; Badier-Commander, Cécile; Damery, Thibaut; Köhler, Ralf; Sansilvestri-Morel, Patricia; Simonet, Serge; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine; Wulff, Heike; Félétou, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing the h-angiotensinogen and h-renin genes (AR) subjected to either a control, or a high-salt diet plus a treatment with a NO-synthase inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME; BLSL and ARSL). BLSL showed a moderate increase in blood pressure, while ARSL became severely hypertensive. Seventy-five percent of ARSL developed aortic aneurysms, characterized by major histo-morphological changes and associated with an increase in NADP(H) oxidase-2 (NOX2) expression. Contractile responses (KCl, norepinephrine, U-46619) were similar in the four groups of mice, and relaxations were not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers, cyclooxygenase inhibition, or TP-receptor blockade and could not be attributed to sGC oxidation. Thus, ARSL is a severe hypertension model developing aortic aneurysm. A vascular dysfunction, involving both endothelial (reduced role of NO) and smooth muscle cells, precedes aneurysms formation and, paradoxically, does not appear to involve oxidative stress.

  20. Is there an association between chronic lung disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Carole; Jamrozik, Konrad; Kelly, Shane; Bremner, Peter; Norman, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Although there is evidence demonstrating an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), it is not clear whether COPD predicts greater rates of expansion of established aneurysms. We sought such an association in a cohort of men with aneurysms detected in a population-based study of screening for aneurysms. In addition to regular aortic ultrasound scans, 179 men with AAA underwent full lung function testing in order to identify the presence of COPD and its subgroups, emphysema and other obstructive ventilatory defects (OVD). The rate of expansion of each aneurysm was calculated and the men were divided into 'rapid expanders' (3 mm or more per year) and 'slow expanders' (less than 3 mm per year). Any association with the presence of COPD or smoking was tested using a multivariate model. Over a median follow-up period of 36 months the mean rate of aortic expansion for the cohort of 179 men was 2.1 mm/year. There was no significant difference in prevalence of COPD (68% overall) or having ever been a smoker (87% overall) between the rapid expanders and the slow expanders. Although there was a high prevalence of COPD among men with an AAA, there was no association between the rate of expansion of AAA and the presence of any form of this disease.

  1. Human thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues: Damage experiments, statistical analysis and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Maier, Franz; Weisbecker, Hannah; Viertler, Christian; Verbrugghe, Peter; Famaey, Nele; Fourneau, Inge; Herijgers, Paul; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-01-01

    Development of aortic aneurysms includes significant morphological changes within the tissue: collagen content increases, elastin content reduces and smooth muscle cells degenerate. We seek to quantify the impact of these changes on the passive mechanical response of aneurysms in the supra-physiological loading range via mechanical testing and constitutive modeling. We perform uniaxial extension tests on circumferentially and axially oriented strips from five thoracic (65.6 years ± 13.4, mean ± SD) and eight abdominal (63.9 years ± 11.4) aortic fusiform aneurysms to investigate both continuous and discontinuous softening during supra-physiological loading. We determine the significance of the differences between the fitted model parameters: diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, and healthy (Weisbecker et al., J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 12, 93-106, 2012) versus diseased tissues. We also test correlations among these parameters and age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and preoperative aneurysm diameter, and investigate histological cuts. Tissue response is anisotropic for all tests and the anisotropic pseudo-elastic damage model fits the data well for both primary loading and discontinuous softening which we interpret as damage. We found statistically relevant differences between model parameters fitted to diseased thoracic versus abdominal tissues, as well as between those fitted to healthy versus diseased tissues. Only BMI correlated with fitted model parameters in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissues.

  2. Nanoparticles Effectively Target Rapamycin Delivery to Sites of Experimental Aortic Aneurysm in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shirasu, Takuro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yutaka; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs targeting the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm have shown efficacy in model systems but not in clinical trials, potentially owing to the lack of targeted drug delivery. Here, we designed a novel drug delivery system using nanoparticles to target the disrupted aortic aneurysm micro-structure. We generated poly(ethylene glycol)-shelled nanoparticles incorporating rapamycin that exhibited uniform diameter and long-term stability. When injected intravenously into a rat model in which abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) had been induced by infusing elastase, labeled rapamycin nanoparticles specifically accumulated in the AAA. Microscopic analysis revealed that rapamycin nanoparticles were mainly distributed in the media and adventitia where the wall structures were damaged. Co-localization of rapamycin nanoparticles with macrophages was also noted. Rapamycin nanoparticles injected during the process of AAA formation evinced significant suppression of AAA formation and mural inflammation at 7 days after elastase infusion, as compared with rapamycin treatment alone. Correspondingly, the activities of matrix metalloproteinases and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were significantly suppressed by rapamycin nanoparticle treatment. Our findings suggest that the nanoparticle-based delivery system achieves specific delivery of rapamycin to the rat AAA and might contribute to establishing a drug therapy approach targeting aortic aneurysm.

  3. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Proximal Bilateral Iliac Limb Dislocation and Kinking following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Alerci, Mario; Wyttenbach, Rolf Bogen, Marcel; Segesser, Ludwig K. von; Gallino, Augusto; Inglese, Luigi

    2005-05-15

    We report the case of a 69-year-old man with a late type 1b endoleak due to proximal migration of both iliac limbs 5 years after endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The endovascular method used to correct bilaterally this condition is described. Final angiographic control shows patency of the stent-graft without signs of endoleak.

  5. Impending aortic aneurysm rupture – a case report and review of the warning signs

    PubMed Central

    Gish, David S.; Baer, J. Austin; Crabtree, Gordon S.; Shaikh, Bilal; Fareedy, Shoaib B.

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) may present with subtle clinical findings. Recognition of the imaging features of an impending rupture is key for timely diagnosis. This report reviews the classic computed tomography findings of impending AAA rupture and presents a recent case which illustrates the key features. PMID:27802850

  6. Association of ficolin-3 with abdominal aortic aneurysm presence and progression.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-García, C-E; Burillo, E; Lindholt, J S; Martinez-Lopez, D; Pilely, K; Mazzeo, C; Michel, J-B; Egido, J; Garred, P; Blanco-Colio, L M; Martin-Ventura, J L

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is asymptomatic and its evolution unpredictable. To find novel potential biomarkers of AAA, microvesicles are an excellent source of biomarkers. Ficolin-3 is increased in microvesicles obtained from activated platelets and AAA tissue. Increased ficolin-3 plasma levels are associated with AAA presence and progression.

  7. The influence of computational assumptions on analysing abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ene, Florentina; Delassus, Patrick; Morris, Liam

    2014-08-01

    The variation in computational assumptions for analysing abdominal aortic aneurysm haemodynamics can influence the desired output results and computational cost. Such assumptions for abdominal aortic aneurysm modelling include static/transient pressures, steady/transient flows and rigid/compliant walls. Six computational methods and these various assumptions were simulated and compared within a realistic abdominal aortic aneurysm model with and without intraluminal thrombus. A full transient fluid-structure interaction was required to analyse the flow patterns within the compliant abdominal aortic aneurysms models. Rigid wall computational fluid dynamics overestimates the velocity magnitude by as much as 40%-65% and the wall shear stress by 30%-50%. These differences were attributed to the deforming walls which reduced the outlet volumetric flow rate for the transient fluid-structure interaction during the majority of the systolic phase. Static finite element analysis accurately approximates the deformations and von Mises stresses when compared with transient fluid-structure interaction. Simplifying the modelling complexity reduces the computational cost significantly. In conclusion, the deformation and von Mises stress can be approximately found by static finite element analysis, while for compliant models a full transient fluid-structure interaction analysis is required for acquiring the fluid flow phenomenon.

  8. Nanoparticles Effectively Target Rapamycin Delivery to Sites of Experimental Aortic Aneurysm in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shirasu, Takuro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yutaka; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kataoka, Kazunori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Several drugs targeting the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm have shown efficacy in model systems but not in clinical trials, potentially owing to the lack of targeted drug delivery. Here, we designed a novel drug delivery system using nanoparticles to target the disrupted aortic aneurysm micro-structure. We generated poly(ethylene glycol)-shelled nanoparticles incorporating rapamycin that exhibited uniform diameter and long-term stability. When injected intravenously into a rat model in which abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) had been induced by infusing elastase, labeled rapamycin nanoparticles specifically accumulated in the AAA. Microscopic analysis revealed that rapamycin nanoparticles were mainly distributed in the media and adventitia where the wall structures were damaged. Co-localization of rapamycin nanoparticles with macrophages was also noted. Rapamycin nanoparticles injected during the process of AAA formation evinced significant suppression of AAA formation and mural inflammation at 7 days after elastase infusion, as compared with rapamycin treatment alone. Correspondingly, the activities of matrix metalloproteinases and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were significantly suppressed by rapamycin nanoparticle treatment. Our findings suggest that the nanoparticle-based delivery system achieves specific delivery of rapamycin to the rat AAA and might contribute to establishing a drug therapy approach targeting aortic aneurysm. PMID:27336852

  9. Family history of atherosclerotic vascular disease is associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zi; Bailey, Kent R; Austin, Erin; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether family history (FHx) of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was associated with presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The study cohort comprised of 696 patients with AAA (70±8 years, 84% men) and 2686 controls (68±10 years, 61% men) recruited from noninvasive vascular and stress electrocardiogram (ECG) laboratories at Mayo Clinic. AAA was defined as a transverse diameter of abdominal aorta ⩾ 3 cm or history of AAA repair. Controls were not known to have AAA. FHx was defined as having at least one first-degree relative with aortic aneurysm or with onset of ASCVD (coronary, cerebral or peripheral artery disease) before age 65 years. FHx of aortic aneurysm or ASCVD were each associated with presence of AAA after adjustment for age, sex, conventional risk factors and ASCVD: adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval): 2.17 (1.66-2.83, p < 0.01) and 1.31 (1.08-1.59, p < 0.01), respectively. FHx of ASCVD remained associated with AAA after additional adjustment for FHx of aortic aneurysm: adjusted OR: 1.27 (1.05-1.55, p = 0.01). FHx of ASCVD in multiple arterial locations was associated with higher odds of having AAA: the adjusted odds were 1.23 times higher for each additionally affected arterial location reported in the FHx (1.08-1.40, p = 0.01). Our results suggest both unique and shared environmental and genetic factors mediating susceptibility to AAA and ASCVD.

  10. Aortocaval fistula in ruptured inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. A report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Farid, A; Sullivan, T M

    1996-12-01

    Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) occur infrequently in clinical practice. The reported incidence varies from 2.5-15% of all abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Four percent of all AAA rupture into the vena cava. IAAA rupturing into the vena cava is exceedingly rare. To date, four such cases have been reported. IAAA are associated with a thick, rigid aortic wall which may be thin posteriorly and posterolaterally, where they are likely to rupture. A dense, fibrotic, desmoplastic reaction is found in the periaortic tissues often involving the duodenum, the inferior vena cava, the left renal vein, and ureters. IAAA may present with abdominal, back, or flank pain even in the absence of rupture. The diagnosis of IAAA can be made preoperatively by CT scan and at the time of laparotomy. Aortocaval fistula (ACF) can occur as a complication of AAA. The triad of low back pain, a palpable AAA, and a machinery murmur is diagnostic. ACF in association with IAAA is even more rare. It is amenable to surgical correction using a standard technique of fistula repair from within the aneurysm and prosthetic aortic graft replacement. Two cases of AAA with aortocaval fistula (ACF) are presented. In both, the diagnosis of ACF was made preoperatively. Repair of ACF was performed from within the aneurysm, with subsequent graft replacement. Despite complicated postoperative courses, both patients survived.

  11. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Associated With Myasthenia Gravis, With Contained Rupture.

    PubMed

    Jun, Heungman; Jung, Cheol Woong

    2016-11-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease is reportedly among the various causes of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Many IgG4-related diseases are closely related to allergic constitution and autoimmune disease. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with IgG4-related IAAA associated with myasthenia gravis, with contained rupture.

  12. Late Rupture of a Totally Thrombosed Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Christiana; Giannakakis, Sotirios; Papapetrou, Anastasios; Galyfos, George; Papacharalampous, Gerasimos; Maltezos, Chrisostomos

    2017-09-06

    Chronic totally thrombosed abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise a rare medical situation, with only a few cases reported in literature. Optimal management has been controversial, although an early risk for rupture is present. Therefore, we present a rare case of late rupture in a patient with a totally thrombosed AAA, and we discuss proper treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Cariati, Maurizio; Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello; Rossi, Umberto G.; Settembrini, Alberto; Santuari, Davide

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  14. Endovascular repair of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: a valuable alternative?--Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Volker; Verrel, Frauke; Kellner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Thomas; Reininger, Cornelia B; Steckmeier, Bernd

    2004-05-01

    While endovascular repair (ER) has become a routine procedure in the treatment of arteriosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms with a suitable configuration, only rare reports of interventional treatment of inflammatory aortic abdominal aneurysms (IAAA) exist. We present a case study of a male patient with IAAA, who presented with inflammatory thickening involving the entire circumference of the aortic vessel wall. The MRI performed 8 months after successful ER demonstrated complete regression of vessel wall induration. A patient with the appropriate anatomical configuration of IAAA should benefit from the lower morbidity and mortality of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In our view, EVAR is preferable to open surgical repair in the specific situation of IAAA.

  15. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ≤70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n = 24, dilated n = 11; bicuspid undilated n = 6, dilated n = 15; unicuspid dilated n = 4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen